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ld86(1)                                                                ld86(1)



NAME
       ld86 - Linker for as86(1)

SYNOPSIS
       ld86   [-03MNdimrstyz[-]]   [-llib_extension]  [-o outfile]  [-Ccrtfile]  [-Llibdir]  [-Olibfile]  [-Ttextaddr]
       [-Hheapsize] [-Ddataaddr] infile...


DESCRIPTION
       This linker understands only the object files produced by the as86 assembler, it can link them into  either  an
       impure or a separate I&D executable.

       The  linking  defaults  are  everything off or none except for -0 and the output file is a.out.  There is not a
       standard library location defined in the linker.


OPTIONS
       -0     produce header with 16-bit magic

       -3     produce header with 32-bit magic

       -d     delete the header from the output file, used for MSDOS COM files. As a side effect this also includes -s
              as there's nowhere to put a symbol table.

       -Cx    add file libdir-from-search/crtx.o to list of files linked

       -D     data base address follows (in format suitable for strtoul)

       -H     the top of heap (initial stack) address (in format suitable for strtoul)

       -Lx    add dir name x to the head of the list of library dirs searched

       -M     print symbols linked on stdout

       -N     Create  a native Linux OMAGIC output file. If the contents are i386 code the binary can be either linked
              by GCC or executed by linux. If the -z option  is  also  included  the  linker  can  generate  a  QMAGIC
              executable.

       -Ox    add library or object file libdir-from-search/x to list of files linked

       -T     text base address follows (in format suitable for strtoul)

       -i     separate I&D output

       -lx    add library libdir-from-search/libx.a to list of files linked

       -m     print modules linked on stdout

       -o     output file name follows

       -s     strip symbols

       -r     Generate  a  relocatable  object  from  one source object, if the linker is given the -N option also the
              output format will be the hosts native format if possible.

       -t     trace modules being looked at on stdout

       -y     Alter the symbol tables to add label 'extensions' so that labels with more  than  8  characters  can  be
              stored in elks executables.

       -z     produce "unmapped zero page" or "QMAGIC" executables

       All the options not taking an argument may be turned off by following the option letter by a '-', as for cc1.

PREDEFINED LABELS
       The linker predefines several labels that can be imported into user programs.

       __etext
              Standard C variable for the end of the text segment.

       __edata
              Standard C variable for the end of the initilised data.

       __end  Standard C variable for the end of the bss area.

       __segoff
              The  offset  within  the executable file between the start of the text segment and the start of the data
              segment in 16 byte 'paragraphs'. Note this is zero for impure (tiny model) executables and  is  adjusted
              for executables that don't start at offset 0 within the segment.

       __segXDL
              The  lowest  address  with  data  in  segment 'X'. (eg __seg0DL is for segment zero or the text segment,
              __seg3DL is for the data segment) The value 'X' is a hex digit.

       __segXDH
              The top of segment 'X's data area.

       __segXCL
              The bottom of segment 'X's 'common data' or unitilised data area. Each segment has  both  an  initilised
              and unitilised data area.

       __segXCH
              The top of segment 'X's common area.

       __segXSO
              This is the adjusted offset from segment 0 of the start of segment 'X' in 'paragraphs'.


HISTORY
       The 6809 version does not support -i.

       The  previous  versions  of  the linker could produce an 8086 executable with segments of a size >64k, now only
       i386 executables may have segments this large.


BUGS
       The linker cannot deal with reverse seeks caused by org  instructions  in  the  object  file.  Unlike  previous
       versions the current one traps the error rather than trying to fill up the hard disk.

       The linker produces a broken a.out object file if given one input and the -r option this is so it is compatible
       with pre-dev86 versions.



                                   Apr, 1997                           ld86(1)