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KILL(1)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   KILL(1)



NAME
       kill - terminate a process

SYNOPSIS
       kill [-s signal|-p] [--] pid...
       kill -l [signal]

DESCRIPTION
       The  command kill sends the specified signal to the specified process or process group.  If no signal is speci-
       fied, the TERM signal is sent.  The TERM signal will kill processes which do not catch this signal.  For  other
       processes, it may be necessary to use the KILL (9) signal, since this signal cannot be caught.

       Most  modern  shells have a builtin kill function, with a usage rather similar to that of the command described
       here. The '-a' and '-p' options, and the possibility to specify pids by command name is a local extension.

       If sig is 0, then no signal is sent, but error checking is still performed.

OPTIONS
       pid... Specify the list of processes that kill should signal.  Each pid can be one of five things:


              n      where n is larger than 0.  The process with pid n will be signaled.

              0      All processes in the current process group are signaled.

              -1     All processes with pid larger than 1 will be signaled.

              -n     where n is larger than 1.  All processes in process group n are signaled.  When  an  argument  of
                     the  form  '-n'  is  given,  and it is meant to denote a process group, either the signal must be
                     specified first, or the argument must be preceded by a '--' option, otherwise it will be taken as
                     the signal to send.

              commandname
                     All processes invoked using that name will be signaled.

       -s signal
              Specify the signal to send.  The signal may be given as a signal name or number.

       -l     Print a list of signal names.  These are found in /usr/include/linux/signal.h

       -a     Do not restrict the commandname-to-pid conversion to processes with the same uid as the present process.

       -p     Specify that kill should only print the process id (pid) of the named processes, and not send  any  sig-
              nals.

NOTES
       It  is  not  possible  to  send  a  signal  to explicitly selected thread in a multithreaded process by kill(2)
       syscall.  If kill(2) is used to send a signal to a thread group, then kernel selects arbitrary  member  of  the
       thread group that has not blocked the signal.  For more details see clone(2) CLONE_THREAD description.

       The  command  kill(1)  as  well as syscall kill(2) accepts TID (thread ID, see gettid(2)) as argument.  In this
       case the kill behavior is not changed and the signal is also delivered to the thread group rather than  to  the
       specified thread.

SEE ALSO
       bash(1), tcsh(1), kill(2), sigvec(2), signal(7)

AUTHOR
       Taken from BSD 4.4.  The ability to translate process names to process ids was added by Salvatore Valente <sva-
       lenteATmit.edu>.

AVAILABILITY
       The  kill  command  is  part  of   the   util-linux-ng   package   and   is   available   from   ftp://ftp.ker-
       nel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux-ng/.



Linux Utilities                 14 October 1994                        KILL(1)