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INSERT(7)                        SQL Commands                        INSERT(7)



NAME
       INSERT - create new rows in a table


SYNOPSIS
       INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
           { DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) [, ...] | query }
           [ RETURNING * | output_expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]


DESCRIPTION
       INSERT  inserts new rows into a table.  One can insert one or more rows specified by value expressions, or zero
       or more rows resulting from a query.

       The target column names can be listed in any order. If no list of column names is given at all, the default  is
       all  the columns of the table in their declared order; or the first N column names, if there are only N columns
       supplied by the VALUES clause or query. The values supplied by the VALUES clause or query are  associated  with
       the explicit or implicit column list left-to-right.

       Each column not present in the explicit or implicit column list will be filled with a default value, either its
       declared default value or null if there is none.

       If the expression for any column is not of the correct data type, automatic type conversion will be  attempted.

       The optional RETURNING clause causes INSERT to compute and return value(s) based on each row actually inserted.
       This is primarily useful for obtaining values that were supplied by defaults, such as a serial sequence number.
       However,  any expression using the table's columns is allowed. The syntax of the RETURNING list is identical to
       that of the output list of SELECT.

       You must have INSERT privilege on a table in order to insert into it. If a column list is specified,  you  only
       need  INSERT  privilege  on  the  listed columns.  Use of the RETURNING clause requires SELECT privilege on all
       columns mentioned in RETURNING.  If you use the query clause to insert rows from a query, you of course need to
       have SELECT privilege on any table or column used in the query.

PARAMETERS
       table  The name (optionally schema-qualified) of an existing table.

       column The  name  of  a  column  in table.  The column name can be qualified with a subfield name or array sub-
              script, if needed. (Inserting into only some fields of a composite column leaves the other fields null.)

       DEFAULT VALUES
              All columns will be filled with their default values.

       expression
              An expression or value to assign to the corresponding column.

       DEFAULT
              The corresponding column will be filled with its default value.

       query  A query (SELECT statement) that supplies the rows to be inserted. Refer to the SELECT [select(7)] state-
              ment for a description of the syntax.

       output_expression
              An expression to be computed and returned by the INSERT command after each row is inserted. The  expres-
              sion can use any column names of the table.  Write * to return all columns of the inserted row(s).

       output_name
              A name to use for a returned column.

OUTPUTS
       On successful completion, an INSERT command returns a command tag of the form

       INSERT oid count

       The  count  is the number of rows inserted. If count is exactly one, and the target table has OIDs, then oid is
       the OID assigned to the inserted row. Otherwise oid is zero.

       If the INSERT command contains a RETURNING clause, the result will be similar to that  of  a  SELECT  statement
       containing  the columns and values defined in the RETURNING list, computed over the row(s) inserted by the com-
       mand.

EXAMPLES
       Insert a single row into table films:

       INSERT INTO films VALUES
           ('UA502', 'Bananas', 105, '1971-07-13', 'Comedy', '82 minutes');


       In this example, the len column is omitted and therefore it will have the default value:

       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
           VALUES ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, '1961-06-16', 'Drama');


       This example uses the DEFAULT clause for the date columns rather than specifying a value:

       INSERT INTO films VALUES
           ('UA502', 'Bananas', 105, DEFAULT, 'Comedy', '82 minutes');
       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
           VALUES ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, DEFAULT, 'Drama');


       To insert a row consisting entirely of default values:

       INSERT INTO films DEFAULT VALUES;


       To insert multiple rows using the multirow VALUES syntax:

       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind) VALUES
           ('B6717', 'Tampopo', 110, '1985-02-10', 'Comedy'),
           ('HG120', 'The Dinner Game', 140, DEFAULT, 'Comedy');


       This example inserts some rows into table films from a table tmp_films with the same column layout as films:

       INSERT INTO films SELECT * FROM tmp_films WHERE date_prod < '2004-05-07';


       This example inserts into array columns:

       -- Create an empty 3x3 gameboard for noughts-and-crosses
       INSERT INTO tictactoe (game, board[1:3][1:3])
           VALUES (1, '{{" "," "," "},{" "," "," "},{" "," "," "}}');
       -- The subscripts in the above example aren't really needed
       INSERT INTO tictactoe (game, board)
           VALUES (2, '{{X," "," "},{" ",O," "},{" ",X," "}}');


       Insert a single row into table distributors, returning the sequence number generated by the DEFAULT clause:

       INSERT INTO distributors (did, dname) VALUES (DEFAULT, 'XYZ Widgets')
          RETURNING did;


COMPATIBILITY
       INSERT conforms to the SQL standard, except that the RETURNING clause is a PostgreSQL extension. Also, the case
       in  which a column name list is omitted, but not all the columns are filled from the VALUES clause or query, is
       disallowed by the standard.

       Possible limitations of the query clause are documented under SELECT [select(7)].



SQL - Language Statements         2014-02-17                         INSERT(7)