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INDENT(1L)                                                          INDENT(1L)



NAME
       indent - changes the appearance of a C program by inserting or deleting whitespace.

SYNOPSIS
       indent [options] [input-files]

       indent [options] [single-input-file] [-o output-file]

       indent --version

DESCRIPTION
       This  man  page is generated from the file indent.texinfo.  This is Edition  of "The indent Manual", for Indent
       Version , last updated .

       The indent program can be used to make code easier to read.  It can also convert from one style of writing C to
       another.

       indent understands a substantial amount about the syntax of C, but it also attempts to cope with incomplete and
       misformed syntax.

       In version 1.2 and more recent versions, the GNU style of indenting is the default.

OPTIONS
       -bad, --blank-lines-after-declarations
           Force blank lines after the declarations.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bap, --blank-lines-after-procedures
           Force blank lines after procedure bodies.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bbb, --blank-lines-before-block-comments
           Force blank lines before block comments.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -bbo, --break-before-boolean-operator
           Prefer to break long lines before boolean operators.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -bc, --blank-lines-after-commas
           Force newline after comma in declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bl, --braces-after-if-line
           Put braces on line after if, etc.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -blf, --braces-after-func-def-line
           Put braces on line following function definition line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -blin, --brace-indentn
           Indent braces n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -bls, --braces-after-struct-decl-line
           Put braces on the line after struct declaration lines.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -br, --braces-on-if-line
           Put braces on line with if, etc.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -brf, --braces-on-func-def-line
           Put braces on function definition line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -brs, --braces-on-struct-decl-line
           Put braces on struct declaration line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bs, --Bill-Shannon, --blank-before-sizeof
           Put a space between sizeof and its argument.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cn, --comment-indentationn
           Put comments to the right of code in column n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cbin, --case-brace-indentationn
           Indent braces after a case label N spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cdn, --declaration-comment-columnn
           Put comments to the right of the declarations in column n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cdb, --comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines
           Put comment delimiters on blank lines.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cdw, --cuddle-do-while
           Cuddle while of do {} while; and preceding `}?.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -ce, --cuddle-else
           Cuddle else and preceding `}?.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cin, --continuation-indentationn
           Continuation indent of n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -clin, --case-indentationn
           Case label indent of n spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -cpn, --else-endif-columnn
           Put comments to the right of #else and #endif statements in column n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -cs, --space-after-cast
           Put a space after a cast operator.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -dn, --line-comments-indentationn
           Set indentation of comments not to the right of code to n spaces.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -bfda, --break-function-decl-args
           Break the line before all arguments in a declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -bfde, --break-function-decl-args
           Break the line after the last argument in a declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -djn, --left-justify-declarations
           If -cd 0 is used then comments after declarations are left justified behind the declaration.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -din, --declaration-indentationn
           Put variables in column n.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -fc1, --format-first-column-comments
           Format comments in the first column.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -fca, --format-all-comments
           Do not disable all formatting of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -gnu, --gnu-style
           Use GNU coding style.  This is the default.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -hnl, --honour-newlines
           Prefer to break long lines at the position of newlines in the input.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -in, --indent-leveln
           Set indentation level to n spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -iln, --indent-labeln
           Set offset for labels to column n.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -ipn, --parameter-indentationn
           Indent parameter types in old-style function definitions by n spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -kr, --k-and-r-style
           Use Kernighan & Ritchie coding style.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -ln, --line-lengthn
           Set maximum line length for non-comment lines to n.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -lcn, --comment-line-lengthn
           Set maximum line length for comment formatting to n.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -linux, --linux-style
           Use Linux coding style.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -lp, --continue-at-parentheses
           Line up continued lines at parentheses.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -lps, --leave-preprocessor-space
           Leave space between `#? and preprocessor directive.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nlps, --remove-preprocessor-space
           Remove space between `#? and preprocessor directive.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nbad, --no-blank-lines-after-declarations
           Do not force blank lines after declarations.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nbap, --no-blank-lines-after-procedures
           Do not force blank lines after procedure bodies.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nbbo, --break-after-boolean-operator
           Do not prefer to break long lines before boolean operators.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -nbc, --no-blank-lines-after-commas
           Do not force newlines after commas in declarations.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -nbfda, --dont-break-function-decl-args
           Don?t put each argument in a function declaration on a separate line.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -ncdb, --no-comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines
           Do not put comment delimiters on blank lines.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -ncdw, --dont-cuddle-do-while
           Do not cuddle } and the while of a do {} while;.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nce, --dont-cuddle-else
           Do not cuddle } and else.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -ncs, --no-space-after-casts
           Do not put a space after cast operators.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -ndjn, --dont-left-justify-declarations
           Comments after declarations are treated the same as comments after other statements.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -nfc1, --dont-format-first-column-comments
           Do not format comments in the first column as normal.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nfca, --dont-format-comments
           Do not format any comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nhnl, --ignore-newlines
           Do not prefer to break long lines at the position of newlines in the input.
           See  BREAKING LONG LINES.

       -nip, --no-parameter-indentation
           Zero width indentation for parameters.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nlp, --dont-line-up-parentheses
           Do not line up parentheses.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -npcs, --no-space-after-function-call-names
           Do not put space after the function in function calls.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nprs, --no-space-after-parentheses
           Do not put a space after every ?(? and before every ?)?.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -npsl, --dont-break-procedure-type
           Put the type of a procedure on the same line as its name.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -nsaf, --no-space-after-for
           Do not put a space after every for.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsai, --no-space-after-if
           Do not put a space after every if.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsaw, --no-space-after-while
           Do not put a space after every while.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nsc, --dont-star-comments
           Do not put the `*? character at the left of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -nsob, --leave-optional-blank-lines
           Do not swallow optional blank lines.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -nss, --dont-space-special-semicolon
           Do not force a space before the semicolon after certain statements.  Disables `-ss?.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -nut, --no-tabs
           Use spaces instead of tabs.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -nv, --no-verbosity
           Disable verbose mode.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -orig, --original
           Use the original Berkeley coding style.
           See  COMMON STYLES.

       -npro, --ignore-profile
           Do not read `.indent.pro? files.
           See  INVOKING INDENT.

       -pcs, --space-after-procedure-calls
           Insert a space between the name of the procedure being called and the `(?.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -pin, --paren-indentationn
           Specify the extra indentation per open parentheses ?(? when a statement is broken.See  STATEMENTS.

       -pmt, --preserve-mtime
           Preserve access and modification times on output files.See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -ppin, --preprocessor-indentationn
           Specify the indentation for preprocessor conditional statements.See  INDENTATION.

       -prs, --space-after-parentheses
           Put a space after every ?(? and before every ?)?.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -psl, --procnames-start-lines
           Put the type of a procedure on the line before its name.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -saf, --space-after-for
           Put a space after each for.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sai, --space-after-if
           Put a space after each if.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -saw, --space-after-while
           Put a space after each while.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sbin, --struct-brace-indentationn
           Indent braces of a struct, union or enum N spaces.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -sc, --start-left-side-of-comments
           Put the `*? character at the left of comments.
           See  COMMENTS.

       -sob, --swallow-optional-blank-lines
           Swallow optional blank lines.
           See  BLANK LINES.

       -ss, --space-special-semicolon
           On one-line for and while statements, force a blank before the semicolon.
           See  STATEMENTS.

       -st, --standard-output
           Write to standard output.
           See  INVOKING INDENT.

       -T  Tell indent the name of typenames.
           See  DECLARATIONS.

       -tsn, --tab-sizen
           Set tab size to n spaces.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -ut, --use-tabs
           Use tabs. This is the default.
           See  INDENTATION.

       -v, --verbose
           Enable verbose mode.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.

       -version
           Output the version number of indent.
           See  MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS.


INVOKING INDENT
       As of version 1.3, the format of the indent command is:


            indent [options] [input-files]

            indent [options] [single-input-file] [-o output-file]


       This format is different from earlier versions and other versions of indent.

       In the first form, one or more input files are specified.  indent makes a backup copy of  each  file,  and  the
       original  file  is replaced with its indented version.  See BACKUP FILES, for an explanation of how backups are
       made.

       In the second form, only one input file is specified.  In this case, or when the standard input  is  used,  you
       may specify an output file after the `-o? option.

       To cause indent to write to standard output, use the `-st? option.  This is only allowed when there is only one
       input file, or when the standard input is used.

       If no input files are named, the standard input is read for input.  Also, if a filename named `-? is specified,
       then the standard input is read.

       As  an  example,  each of the following commands will input the program `slithy_toves.c? and write its indented
       text to `slithy_toves.out?:


            indent slithy_toves.c -o slithy_toves.out

            indent -st slithy_toves.c > slithy_toves.out

            cat slithy_toves.c | indent -o slithy_toves.out


       Most other options to indent control how programs are formatted.  As of version 1.2, indent also  recognizes  a
       long name for each option name.  Long options are prefixed by either `--? or `+?.  [ `+? is being superseded by
       `--? to maintain consistency with the POSIX standard.]
        In most of this document, the traditional, short names are used for the sake of brevity.  See  OPTION SUMMARY,
       for a list of options, including both long and short names.

       Here is another example:

            indent -br test/metabolism.c -l85

       This  will  indent the program `test/metabolism.c? using the `-br? and `-l85? options, write the output back to
       `test/metabolism.c?, and write the original contents of `test/metabolism.c? to a backup file in  the  directory
       `test?.

       Equivalent invocations using long option names for this example would be:


            indent --braces-on-if-line --line-length185 test/metabolism.c

            indent +braces-on-if-line +line-length185 test/metabolism.c


       If  you  find  that  you  often  use  indent with the same options, you may put those options into a file named
       `.indent.pro?.  indent will look for a profile file in three places. First it will check the environment  vari-
       able  INDENT_PROFILE. If that exists its value is expected to name the file that is to be used. If the environ-
       ment variable does not exist, indent looks for `.indent.pro? in the current directory
        and use that if found.  Finally indent will search your home directory for `.indent.pro? and use that file  if
       it  is found.  This behaviour is different from that of other versions of indent, which load both files if they
       both exist.

       The format of `.indent.pro? is simply a list of options, just as they would appear on the command  line,  sepa-
       rated by white space (tabs, spaces, and newlines).  Options in `.indent.pro? may be surrounded by C or C++ com-
       ments, in which case they are ignored.

       Command line switches are handled after processing `.indent.pro?.  Options specified later  override  arguments
       specified  earlier,  with  one  exception: Explicitly specified options always override background options (See
       COMMON STYLES).  You can prevent indent from reading an `.indent.pro? file by specifying the `-npro? option.


BACKUP FILES
       As of version 1.3, GNU indent makes GNU-style backup files, the same way  GNU  Emacs  does.   This  means  that
       either simple or numbered backup filenames may be made.

       Simple  backup  file names are generated by appending a suffix to the original file name.  The default for this
       suffix is the one-character string `~? (tilde).  Thus, the backup file for `python.c? would be `python.c~?.

       Instead of the default, you may specify any string as  a  suffix  by  setting  the  environment  variable  SIM-
       PLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX to your preferred suffix.

       Numbered  backup versions of a file `momeraths.c? look like `momeraths.c.~23~?, where 23 is the version of this
       particular backup.  When making a numbered backup of the file `src/momeraths.c?, the backup file will be  named
       `src/momeraths.c.~V~?,  where  V  is  one  greater than the highest version currently existing in the directory
       `src?.  The environment variable VERSION_WIDTH controls the number of digits, using left zero padding when nec-
       essary.    For   instance,   setting   this  variable  to  "2"  will  lead  to  the  backup  file  being  named
       `momeraths.c.~04~?.

       The type of backup file made is controlled by the value of the environment variable VERSION_CONTROL.  If it  is
       the  string  `simple?, then only simple backups will be made.  If its value is the string `numbered?, then num-
       bered backups will be made.  If its value is `numbered-existing?, then numbered backups will be made  if  there
       already  exist  numbered  backups  for  the  file  being indented; otherwise, a simple backup is made.  If VER-
       SION_CONTROL is not set, then indent assumes the behaviour of `numbered-existing?.

       Other versions of indent use the suffix `.BAK? in naming backup files.  This behaviour can be emulated by  set-
       ting SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX to `.BAK?.

       Note  also that other versions of indent make backups in the current directory, rather than in the directory of
       the source file as GNU indent now does.


COMMON STYLES
       There are several common styles of C code, including the GNU style, the Kernighan  &  Ritchie  style,  and  the
       original  Berkeley  style.   A  style may be selected with a single background option, which specifies a set of
       values for all other options.  However, explicitly specified options always override options implied by a back-
       ground option.

       As  of version 1.2, the default style of GNU indent is the GNU style.  Thus, it is no longer necessary to spec-
       ify the option `-gnu? to obtain this format, although doing so will not cause an error.  Option settings  which
       correspond to the GNU style are:

            -nbad -bap -nbc -bbo -bl -bli2 -bls -ncdb -nce -cp1 -cs -di2
            -ndj -nfc1 -nfca -hnl -i2 -ip5 -lp -pcs -nprs -psl -saf -sai
            -saw -nsc -nsob

       The  GNU  coding style is that preferred by the GNU project.  It is the style that the GNU Emacs C mode encour-
       ages and which is used in the C portions of GNU Emacs.  (People interested in writing programs for Project  GNU
       should get a copy of "The GNU Coding Standards", which also covers semantic and portability issues such as mem-
       ory usage, the size of integers, etc.)

       The Kernighan & Ritchie style is used throughout their well-known book "The C  Programming  Language".   It  is
       enabled with the `-kr? option.  The Kernighan & Ritchie style corresponds to the following set of options:

            -nbad -bap -bbo -nbc -br -brs -c33 -cd33 -ncdb -ce -ci4 -cli0
            -cp33 -cs -d0 -di1 -nfc1 -nfca -hnl -i4 -ip0 -l75 -lp -npcs
            -nprs -npsl -saf -sai -saw -nsc -nsob -nss

       Kernighan  & Ritchie style does not put comments to the right of code in the same column at all times (nor does
       it use only one space to the right of the code), so for this style indent has arbitrarily chosen column 33.

       The style of the original Berkeley indent may be obtained by specifying `-orig? (or by specifying `--original?,
       using the long option name).  This style is equivalent to the following settings:

            -nbad -nbap -bbo -bc -br -brs -c33 -cd33 -cdb -ce -ci4 -cli0
            -cp33 -di16 -fc1 -fca -hnl -i4 -ip4 -l75 -lp -npcs -nprs -psl
            -saf -sai -saw -sc -nsob -nss -ts8

       The  Linux  style  is  used in the linux kernel code and drivers. Code generally has to follow the Linux coding
       style to be accepted.  This style is equivalent to the following settings:

            -nbad -bap -nbc -bbo -hnl -br -brs -c33 -cd33 -ncdb -ce -ci4
            -cli0 -d0 -di1 -nfc1 -i8 -ip0 -l80 -lp -npcs -nprs -npsl -sai
            -saf -saw -ncs -nsc -sob -nfca -cp33 -ss -ts8 -il1


BLANK LINES
       Various programming styles use blank lines in different places.  indent has a number of options  to  insert  or
       delete blank lines in specific places.

       The  `-bad?  option  causes indent to force a blank line after every block of declarations.  The `-nbad? option
       causes indent not to force such blank lines.

       The `-bap? option forces a blank line after every procedure body.  The `-nbap?  option  forces  no  such  blank
       line.

       The  `-bbb?  option forces a blank line before every boxed comment (See COMMENTS.)  The `-nbbb? option does not
       force such blank lines.

       The `-sob? option causes indent to swallow optional blank lines (that is, any optional blank lines  present  in
       the  input will be removed from the output).  If the `-nsob? is specified, any blank lines present in the input
       file will be copied to the output file.



--blank-lines-after-declarations
       The `-bad? option forces a blank line after every block of declarations.  The `-nbad? option does not  add  any
       such blank lines.

       For example, given the input
            char *foo;
            char *bar;
            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;

       indent -bad produces

            char *foo;
            char *bar;

            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;

       and indent -nbad produces

            char *foo;
            char *bar;
            /* This separates blocks of declarations.  */
            int baz;


--blank-lines-after-procedures
       The `-bap? option forces a blank line after every procedure body.

       For example, given the input

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts("Hi");
            }
            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts("Hello");
            }

       indent -bap produces

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts ("Hi");
            }

            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts ("Hello");
            }

       and indent -nbap produces

            int
            foo ()
            {
              puts ("Hi");
            }
            /* The procedure bar is even less interesting.  */
            char *
            bar ()
            {
              puts ("Hello");
            }

       No blank line will be added after the procedure foo.


COMMENTS
       indent  formats  both  C and C++ comments. C comments are begun with `/*?, terminated with `*/? and may contain
       newline characters.  C++ comments begin with the delimiter `//? and end at the newline.

       indent handles comments differently depending upon their context.  indent attempts to distinguish between  com-
       ments  which follow statements, comments which follow declarations, comments following preprocessor directives,
       and comments which are not preceded by code of any sort, i.e., they begin the text of the  line  (although  not
       necessarily in column 1).

       indent  further  distinguishes  between  comments  found  outside of procedures and aggregates, and those found
       within them.  In particular, comments beginning a line found within a procedure will be indented to the  column
       at  which  code  is  currently  indented.  The exception to this is a comment beginning in the leftmost column;
       such a comment is output at that column.

       indent attempts to leave boxed comments unmodified. The general idea of such a comment is that it  is  enclosed
       in  a  rectangle  or  ``box??  of stars or dashes to visually set it apart.  More precisely, boxed comments are
       defined as those in which the initial `/*? is followed immediately by the character `*?, `=?, `_?, or  `-?,  or
       those  in  which  the  beginning comment delimiter (`/*?) is on a line by itself, and the following line begins
       with a `*? in the same column as the star of the opening delimiter.

       Examples of boxed comments are:

            /**********************
             * Comment in a box!! *
             **********************/

                   /*
                    * A different kind of scent,
                    * for a different kind of comment.
                    */

       indent attempts to leave boxed comments exactly as they are found in the source file.  Thus the indentation  of
       the comment is unchanged, and its length is not checked in any way.  The only alteration made is that an embed-
       ded tab character may be converted into the appropriate number of spaces.

       If the `-bbb? option is specified, all such boxed comments will be preceded by a blank line, unless such a com-
       ment is preceded by code.

       Comments  which  are  not  boxed comments may be formatted, which means that the line is broken to fit within a
       right margin and left-filled with whitespace.  Single newlines are equivalent to a space, but blank lines  (two
       or  more  newlines in a row) are taken to mean a paragraph break.  Formatting of comments which begin after the
       first column is enabled with the `-fca? option.  To format those beginning in column one, specify `-fc1?.  Such
       formatting is disabled by default.

       The right margin for formatting defaults to 78, but may be changed with the `-lc? option.  If the margin speci-
       fied does not allow the comment to be printed, the margin will be automatically extended for  the  duration  of
       that comment.  The margin is not respected if the comment is not being formatted.

       If the comment begins a line (i.e., there is no program text to its left), it will be indented to the column it
       was found in unless the comment is within a block of code.  In that case, such a comment will be  aligned  with
       the indented code of that block (unless the comment began in the first column).  This alignment may be affected
       by the `-d? option, which specifies an amount by which such comments are moved to the left, or unindented.  For
       example,  `-d2?  places  comments  two spaces to the left of code.  By default, comments are aligned with code,
       unless they begin in the first column, in which case they are left there by default ---  to  get  them  aligned
       with the code, specify `-fc1?.

       Comments  to  the  right  of  code  will appear by default in column 33.  This may be changed with one of three
       options.  `-c? will specify the column for comments following code, `-cd? specifies  the  column  for  comments
       following declarations, and `-cp? specifies the column for comments following preprocessor directives #else and
       #endif. `-dj? together with `-cd0? can be used to suppress alignment of comments to the right of  declarations,
       causing  the  comment  to  follow  one  tabstop from the end of the declaration. Normally `-cd0? causes `-c? to
       become effective.

       If the code to the left of the comment exceeds the beginning column, the comment column will be extended to the
       next  tabstop column past the end of the code, or in the case of preprocessor directives, to one space past the
       end of the directive.  This extension lasts only for the output of that particular comment.

       The `-cdb? option places the comment delimiters on blank lines.  Thus, a single line comment like /* Loving hug
       */ can be transformed into:

            /*
               Loving hug
             */

       Stars  can be placed at the beginning of multi-line comments with the `-sc? option.  Thus, the single-line com-
       ment above can be transformed (with `-cdb -sc?) into:

            /*
             * Loving hug
             */


STATEMENTS
       The `-br? or `-bl? option specifies how to format braces.

       The `-br? option formats statement braces like this:

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            }

       The `-bl? option formats them like this:

            if (x > 0)
              {
                x--;
              }

       If you use the `-bl? option, you may also want to specify the `-bli? option.  This option specifies the  number
       of  spaces  by which braces are indented.  `-bli2?, the default, gives the result shown above.  `-bli0? results
       in the following:

            if (x > 0)
            {
              x--;
            }

       If you are using the `-br? option, you probably want to also use the `-ce? option.  This causes the else in  an
       if-then-else  construct to cuddle up to the immediately preceding `}?.  For example, with `-br -ce? you get the
       following:

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            } else {
              fprintf (stderr, "...something wrong?\n");
            }

       With `-br -nce? that code would appear as

            if (x > 0) {
              x--;
            }
            else {
              fprintf (stderr, "...something wrong?\n");
            }

       This causes the while in a do-while loop to cuddle up to the immediately  preceding  `}?.   For  example,  with
       `-cdw? you get the following:

            do {
              x--;
            } while (x);

       With `-ncdw? that code would appear as

            do {
              x--;
            }
            while (x);

       The  `-cli?  option specifies the number of spaces that case labels should be indented to the right of the con-
       taining switch statement.

       The default gives code like:

            switch (i)
              {
              case 0:
                break;
              case 1:
                {
                  ++i;
                }
              default:
                break;
              }

       Using the `-cli2? that would become:

            switch (i)
              {
                case 0:
                  break;
                case 1:
                  {
                    ++i;
                  }
                default:
                  break;
              }

       The indentation of the braces below a case statement can be controlled with the `-cbin? option.   For  example,
       using `-cli2 -cbi0? results in:

            switch (i)
              {
                case 0:
                  break;
                case 1:
                {
                  ++i;
                }
                default:
                  break;
              }

       If  a  semicolon  is  on  the  same line as a for or while statement, the `-ss? option will cause a space to be
       placed before the semicolon.  This emphasizes the semicolon, making it clear that the body of the for or  while
       statement is an empty statement.  `-nss? disables this feature.

       The  `-pcs?  option causes a space to be placed between the name of the procedure being called and the `(? (for
       example, puts ("Hi");.  The `-npcs? option would give puts("Hi");).


       If the `-cs? option is specified, indent puts a space after a cast operator.

       The `-bs? option ensures that there is a space between the keyword sizeof and its argument.  In some  versions,
       this is known as the `Bill_Shannon? option.

       The `-saf? option forces a space between a for and the following parenthesis.  This is the default.

       The `-sai? option forces a space between a if and the following parenthesis.  This is the default.

       The `-saw? option forces a space between a while and the following parenthesis.  This is the default.

       The `-prs? option causes all parentheses to be separated with a space from whatever is between them.  For exam-
       ple, using `-prs? results in code like:

              while ( ( e_code - s_code ) < ( dec_ind - 1 ) )
                {
                  set_buf_break ( bb_dec_ind );
                  *e_code++ = ? ?;
                }


DECLARATIONS
       By default indent will line up identifiers, in the column specified by the `-di? option.  For example,  `-di16?
       makes things look like:

            int             foo;
            char           *bar;

       Using a small value (such as one or two) for the `-di? option can be used to cause the identifiers to be placed
       in the first available position; for example:

            int foo;
            char *bar;

       The value given to the `-di? option will still affect variables which are put  on  separate  lines  from  their
       types, for example `-di2? will lead to:

            int
              foo;

       If the `-bc? option is specified, a newline is forced after each comma in a declaration.  For example,

            int a,
              b,
              c;

       With the `-nbc? option this would look like

            int a, b, c;

       The  `-bfda? option causes a newline to be forced after the comma separating the arguments of a function decla-
       ration.  The arguments will appear at one indention level deeper than the function declaration.  This  is  par-
       ticularly  helpful  for  functions  with long argument lists.  The option `-bfde? causes a newline to be forced
       before the closing bracket of the function declaration. For both options the ?n? setting is the default: -nbdfa
       and -nbdfe.


       For example,

            void foo (int arg1, char arg2, int *arg3, long arg4, char arg5);
       With the `-bfda? option this would look like

            void foo (
                int arg1,
                char arg2,
                int *arg3,
                long arg4,
                char arg5);

       With, in addition, the `-bfde? option this would look like

            void foo (
                int arg1,
                char arg2,
                int *arg3,
                long arg4,
                char arg5
                );

       The  `-psl? option causes the type of a procedure being defined to be placed on the line before the name of the
       procedure.  This style is required for the etags program to work correctly, as well as some of the c-mode func-
       tions of Emacs.

       You  must  use the `-T? option to tell indent the name of all the typenames in your program that are defined by
       typedef.  `-T? can be specified more than once, and all names specified are used.  For example, if your program
       contains

            typedef unsigned long CODE_ADDR;
            typedef enum {red, blue, green} COLOR;

       you would use the options `-T CODE_ADDR -T COLOR?.


       The  `-brs?  or `-bls? option specifies how to format braces in struct declarations.  The `-brs? option formats
       braces like this:

            struct foo {
              int x;
            };

       The `-bls? option formats them like this:

            struct foo
            {
              int x;
            };


       Similarly to the structure brace `-brs? and `-bls? options,
        the function brace options `-brf? or `-blf? specify how to format the braces  in  function  definitions.   The
       `-brf? option formats braces like this:

            int one(void) {
              return 1;
            };

       The `-blf? option formats them like this:

            int one(void)
            {
              return 1;
            };


INDENTATION
       One  issue  in  the  formatting of code is how far each line should be indented from the left margin.  When the
       beginning of a statement such as if or for is encountered, the indentation level  is  increased  by  the  value
       specified by the `-i? option.  For example, use `-i8? to specify an eight character indentation for each level.
       When a statement is broken across two lines, the second line is indented by a number of additional spaces spec-
       ified  by  the `-ci? option.  `-ci? defaults to 0.  However, if the `-lp? option is specified, and a line has a
       left parenthesis which is not closed on that line, then continuation lines will be lined up  to  start  at  the
       character  position  just  after  the left parenthesis.  This processing also applies to `[? and applies to `{?
       when it occurs in initialization lists.  For example, a piece of continued code might look like this with `-nlp
       -ci3? in effect:

              p1 = first_procedure (second_procedure (p2, p3),
                 third_procedure (p4, p5));

       With `-lp? in effect the code looks somewhat clearer:

              p1 = first_procedure (second_procedure (p2, p3),
                                    third_procedure (p4, p5));

       When  a  statement  is  broken in between two or more paren pairs (...), each extra pair causes the indentation
       level extra indentation:

            if ((((i < 2 &&
                    k > 0) || p == 0) &&
                q == 1) ||
              n = 0)

       The option `-ipN? can be used to set the extra offset per paren.  For instance, `-ip0? would format  the  above
       as:

            if ((((i < 2 &&
              k > 0) || p == 0) &&
              q == 1) ||
              n = 0)

       indent  assumes  that  tabs  are placed at regular intervals of both input and output character streams.  These
       intervals are by default 8 columns wide, but (as of version 1.2) may be changed by the `-ts? option.  Tabs  are
       treated as the equivalent number of spaces.

       The  indentation  of  type declarations in old-style function definitions is controlled by the `-ip? parameter.
       This is a numeric parameter specifying how many spaces to indent type declarations.  For example,  the  default
       `-ip5? makes definitions look like this:

            char *
            create_world (x, y, scale)
                 int x;
                 int y;
                 float scale;
            {
              . . .
            }

       For  compatibility with other versions of indent, the option `-nip? is provided, which is equivalent to `-ip0?.

       ANSI C allows white space to be placed on preprocessor command lines between the character `#? and the  command
       name.   By  default,  indent  removes this space, but specifying the `-lps? option directs indent to leave this
       space unmodified. The option `-ppi? overrides  `-nlps? and  `-lps?.

       This option can be used to request that preprocessor conditional statements can be indented by to given  number
       of spaces, for example with the option `-ppi 3?

            #if X
            #if Y
            #define Z 1
            #else
            #define Z 0
            #endif
            #endif
       becomes
            #if X
            #   if Y
            #      define Z 1
            #   else
            #      define Z 0
            #   endif
            #endif

       This option sets the offset at which a label (except case labels) will be positioned. If it is set to zero or a
       positive number, this indicates how far from the left margin to indent a label.  If it is  set  to  a  negative
       number,  this  indicates how far back from the current indent level to place the label.  The default setting is
       -2 which matches the behaviour of earlier versions of indent.  Note that this parameter  does  not  affect  the
       placing of case labels; see the `-cli? parameter for that. For example with the option `-il 1?

            group
            function()
            {
                if (do_stuff1() == ERROR)
                    goto cleanup1;

                if (do_stuff2() == ERROR)
                    goto cleanup2;

                return SUCCESS;

              cleanup2:
                do_cleanup2();

              cleanup1:
                do_cleanup1();

                return ERROR;
            }
       becomes
            group
            function()
            {
                if (do_stuff1() == ERROR)
                    goto cleanup1;

                if (do_stuff2() == ERROR)
                    goto cleanup2;

                return SUCCESS;

             cleanup2:
                do_cleanup2();

             cleanup1:
                do_cleanup1();

                return ERROR;
            }


BREAKING LONG LINES
       With  the  option `-ln?, or `--line-lengthn?, it is possible to specify the maximum length of a line of C code,
       not including possible comments that follow it.

       When lines become longer than the specified line length, GNU indent tries to break the line at a logical place.
       This is new as of version 2.1 however and not very intelligent or flexible yet.

       Currently there are two options that allow one to interfere with the algorithm that determines where to break a
       line.

       The `-bbo? option causes GNU indent to prefer to break long lines before the boolean operators && and ||.   The
       `-nbbo?  option  causes  GNU indent not have that preference.  For example, the default option `-bbo? (together
       with `--line-length60? and `--ignore-newlines?) makes code look like this:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ?\0?)
                      || (mask[1] == ?\0?
                          && ((mask[0] == ?0?) || (mask[0] == ?*?)))))

       Using the option `-nbbo? will make it look like this:

              if (mask &&
                  ((mask[0] == ?\0?) ||
                   (mask[1] == ?\0? &&
                    ((mask[0] == ?0?) || (mask[0] == ?*?)))))

       The default `-hnl?, however, honours newlines in the input file by giving them the highest possible priority to
       break lines at.  For example, when the input file looks like this:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ?\0?)
                  || (mask[1] == ?\0? && ((mask[0] == ?0?) || (mask[0] == ?*?)))))

       then  using  the  option  `-hnl?,  or  `--honour-newlines?,  together with the previously mentioned `-nbbo? and
       `--line-length60?, will cause the output not to be what is given in the last example but instead will prefer to
       break at the positions where the code was broken in the input file:

              if (mask
                  && ((mask[0] == ?\0?)
                      || (mask[1] == ?\0? &&
                          ((mask[0] == ?0?) || (mask[0] == ?*?)))))

       The idea behind this option is that lines which are too long, but are already broken up, will not be touched by
       GNU indent.  Really messy code should be run through indent at least once using the `--ignore-newlines?  option
       though.


DISABLING FORMATTING
       Formatting  of  C  code  may be disabled for portions of a program by embedding special control comments in the
       program.  To turn off formatting for a section of a program, place the disabling control  comment  /*  *INDENT-
       OFF*  */ on a line by itself just before that section.  Program text scanned after this control comment is out-
       put precisely as input with no modifications until the corresponding enabling comment is scanned on a  line  by
       itself.   The disabling control comment is /* *INDENT-ON* */, and any text following the comment on the line is
       also output unformatted.  Formatting begins again with the input line following the enabling control comment.

       More precisely, indent does not attempt to verify the closing delimiter (*/) for  these  C  comments,  and  any
       whitespace on the line is totally transparent.

       These control comments also function in their C++ formats, namely // *INDENT-OFF* and // *INDENT-ON*.

       It  should be noted that the internal state of indent remains unchanged over the course of the unformatted sec-
       tion.  Thus, for example, turning off formatting in the middle of a function and continuing it after the end of
       the  function may lead to bizarre results.  It is therefore wise to be somewhat modular in selecting code to be
       left unformatted.

       As a historical note, some earlier versions of indent produced error messages beginning with *INDENT**.   These
       versions  of  indent  were written to ignore any input text lines which began with such error messages.  I have
       removed this incestuous feature from GNU indent.


MISCELLANEOUS OPTIONS
       To find out what version of indent you have, use the command indent -version. This will report the version num-
       ber of indent, without doing any of the normal processing.

       The  `-v?  option can be used to turn on verbose mode.  When in verbose mode, indent reports when it splits one
       line of input into two more more lines of output, and gives some size statistics at completion.

       The `-pmt? option causes indent to preserve the access and modification times on the output files.  Using  this
       option  has  the  advantage that running indent on all source and header files in a project won?t cause make to
       rebuild all targets.  This option is only available on Operating Systems that have the POSIX utime(2) function.


BUGS
       Please report any bugs to bug-indentATgnu.org.

       When  indent  is  run twice on a file, with the same profile, it should never change that file the second time.
       With the current design of indent, this can not be guaranteed, and it has not been extensively tested.

       indent does not understand C. In some cases this leads to the inability to join lines.  The result is that run-
       ning a file through indent is irreversible, even if the used input file was the result of running indent with a
       given profile (`.indent.pro?).

       While an attempt was made to get indent working for C++, it will not do a good job on any C++ source except the
       very simplest.

       indent  does  not  look  at  the  given  `--line-length? option when writing comments to the output file.  This
       results often in comments being put far to the right.  In order to prohibit indent from joining a  broken  line
       that has a comment at the end, make sure that the comments start on the first line of the break.

       indent  does  not count lines and comments (see the `-v? option) when indent is turned off with /* *INDENT-OFF*
       */.

       Comments of the form /*UPPERCASE*/ are not treated as comment but as an identifier, causing them to  be  joined
       with  the  next line. This renders comments of this type useless, unless they are embedded in the code to begin
       with.


COPYRIGHT
       The following copyright notice applies to the indent program.  The copyright and copying permissions  for  this
       manual appear near the beginning of `indent.texinfo? and `indent.info?, and near the end of `indent.1?.

       Copyright (c) 2001 David Ingamells.
       Copyright (c) 1999 Carlo Wood.
       Copyright (c) 1995, 1996 Joseph Arceneaux.
       Copyright (c) 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996 Free Software Foundation
       Copyright (c) 1985 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
       Copyright (c) 1980 The Regents of the University of California.
       Copyright (c) 1976 Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.
       All rights reserved.

       Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted
       provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
       duplicated in all such forms and that any documentation,
       advertising materials, and other materials related to such
       distribution and use acknowledge that the software was developed
       by the University of California, Berkeley, the University of Illinois,
       Urbana, and Sun Microsystems, Inc.  The name of either University
       or Sun Microsystems may not be used to endorse or promote products
       derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
       THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS?? AND WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR
       IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE IMPLIED
       WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.


Options? Cross Key
       Here is a list of options alphabetized by long option, to help you find the corresponding short option.


            --blank-lines-after-commas                      -bc
            --blank-lines-after-declarations                -bad
            --blank-lines-after-procedures                  -bap
            --blank-lines-before-block-comments             -bbb
            --braces-after-if-line                          -bl
            --braces-after-func-def-line                    -blf
            --brace-indent                                  -bli
            --braces-after-struct-decl-line                 -bls
            --braces-on-if-line                             -br
            --braces-on-func-def-line                       -brf
            --braces-on-struct-decl-line                    -brs
            --break-after-boolean-operator                  -nbbo
            --break-before-boolean-operator                 -bbo
            --break-function-decl-args                      -bfda
            --break-function-decl-args-end                  -bfde
            --case-indentation                              -clin
            --case-brace-indentation                        -cbin
            --comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines             -cdb
            --comment-indentation                           -cn
            --continuation-indentation                      -cin
            --continue-at-parentheses                       -lp
            --cuddle-do-while                               -cdw
            --cuddle-else                                   -ce
            --declaration-comment-column                    -cdn
            --declaration-indentation                       -din
            --dont-break-function-decl-args                 -nbfda
            --dont-break-function-decl-args-end             -nbfde
            --dont-break-procedure-type                     -npsl
            --dont-cuddle-do-while                          -ncdw
            --dont-cuddle-else                              -nce
            --dont-format-comments                          -nfca
            --dont-format-first-column-comments             -nfc1
            --dont-line-up-parentheses                      -nlp
            --dont-left-justify-declarations                -ndj
            --dont-space-special-semicolon                  -nss
            --dont-star-comments                            -nsc
            --else-endif-column                             -cpn
            --format-all-comments                           -fca
            --format-first-column-comments                  -fc1
            --gnu-style                                     -gnu
            --honour-newlines                               -hnl
            --ignore-newlines                               -nhnl
            --ignore-profile                                -npro
            --indent-label                                  -iln
            --indent-level                                  -in
            --k-and-r-style                                 -kr
            --leave-optional-blank-lines                    -nsob
            --leave-preprocessor-space                      -lps
            --left-justify-declarations                     -dj
            --line-comments-indentation                     -dn
            --line-length                                   -ln
            --linux-style                                   -linux
            --no-blank-lines-after-commas                   -nbc
            --no-blank-lines-after-declarations             -nbad
            --no-blank-lines-after-procedures               -nbap
            --no-blank-lines-before-block-comments          -nbbb
            --no-comment-delimiters-on-blank-lines          -ncdb
            --no-space-after-casts                          -ncs
            --no-parameter-indentation                      -nip
            --no-space-after-for                    -nsaf
            --no-space-after-function-call-names            -npcs
            --no-space-after-if                -nsai
            --no-space-after-parentheses                    -nprs
            --no-space-after-while                  -nsaw
            --no-tabs                                       -nut
            --no-verbosity                                  -nv
            --original                                      -orig
            --parameter-indentation                         -ipn
            --paren-indentation                             -pin
            --preserve-mtime                   -pmt
            --preprocessor-indentation                      -ppin
            --procnames-start-lines                         -psl
            --remove-preprocessor-space                     -nlps
            --space-after-cast                              -cs
            --space-after-for                  -saf
            --space-after-if                   -sai
            --space-after-parentheses                       -prs
            --space-after-procedure-calls                   -pcs
            --space-after-while                -saw
            --space-special-semicolon                       -ss
            --standard-output                               -st
            --start-left-side-of-comments                   -sc
            --struct-brace-indentation                      -sbin
            --swallow-optional-blank-lines                  -sob
            --tab-size                                      -tsn
            --use-tabs                                      -ut
            --verbose                                       -v


RETURN VALUE
       Unknown

FILES
       $HOME/.indent.pro   holds default options for indent.

AUTHORS
       Carlo Wood
       Joseph Arceneaux
       Jim Kingdon
       David Ingamells

HISTORY
       Derived from the UCB program "indent".

COPYING
       Copyright  (C)  1989,  1992,  1993,  1994,  1995, 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  Copyright (C) 1995, 1996
       Joseph Arceneaux.  Copyright (C) 1999 Carlo Wood.  Copyright (C) 2001 David Ingamells.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright  notice  and
       this permission notice are preserved on all copies.





                                                                    INDENT(1L)