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HTPASSWD(1)                        htpasswd                        HTPASSWD(1)



NAME
       htpasswd - Manage user files for basic authentication


SYNOPSIS
       htpasswd [ -c ] [ -m ] [ -D ] passwdfile username


       htpasswd -b [ -c ] [ -m | -d | -p | -s ] [ -D ] passwdfile username password


       htpasswd -n [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username


       htpasswd -nb [ -m | -d | -s | -p ] username password



SUMMARY
       htpasswd is used to create and update the flat-files used to store usernames and password for basic authentica-
       tion of HTTP users. If htpasswd cannot access a file, such as not being able to write to the output file or not
       being able to read the file in order to update it, it returns an error status and makes no changes.


       Resources available from the Apache HTTP server can be restricted to just the users listed in the files created
       by htpasswd. This program can only manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file.  It  can  encrypt  and
       display  password  information for use in other types of data stores, though. To use a DBM database see dbmman-
       age.


       htpasswd encrypts passwords using either a version of MD5 modified for Apache, or the system's crypt() routine.
       Files  managed  by htpasswd may contain both types of passwords; some user records may have MD5-encrypted pass-
       words while others in the same file may have passwords encrypted with crypt().


       This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details of the directives  necessary  to  configure
       user authentication in httpd see the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or can be found at
       http://httpd.apache.org/.



OPTIONS
       -b     Use batch mode; i.e., get the password from the command line rather than prompting for it.  This  option
              should be used with extreme care, since the password is clearly visible on the command line.

       -c     Create  the  passwdfile. If passwdfile already exists, it is rewritten and truncated. This option cannot
              be combined with the -n option.

       -n     Display the results on standard output rather than updating a file. This is useful for generating  pass-
              word  records acceptable to Apache for inclusion in non-text data stores. This option changes the syntax
              of the command line, since the passwdfile argument (usually the first one) is omitted. It cannot be com-
              bined with the -c option.

       -m     Use MD5 encryption for passwords. This is the default (since version 2.2.18).

       -d     Use  crypt()  encryption for passwords. This is not supported by the httpd server on Windows and Netware
              and TPF. This algorithm limits the password length to  8  characters.  This  algorithm  is  insecure  by
              today's standards. It used to be the default algorithm until version 2.2.17.

       -s     Use  SHA  encryption for passwords. Facilitates migration from/to Netscape servers using the LDAP Direc-
              tory Interchange Format (ldif).

       -p     Use plaintext passwords. Though htpasswd will support creation on all platforms, the httpd  daemon  will
              only accept plain text passwords on Windows, Netware and TPF.

       -D     Delete user. If the username exists in the specified htpasswd file, it will be deleted.

       passwdfile
              Name  of the file to contain the user name and password. If -c is given, this file is created if it does
              not already exist, or rewritten and truncated if it does exist.

       username
              The username to create or update in passwdfile. If username does not exist in this  file,  an  entry  is
              added. If it does exist, the password is changed.

       password
              The plaintext password to be encrypted and stored in the file. Only used with the -b flag.


EXIT STATUS
       htpasswd returns a zero status ("true") if the username and password have been successfully added or updated in
       the passwdfile. htpasswd returns 1 if it encounters some problem accessing files, 2 if there was a syntax prob-
       lem with the command line, 3 if the password was entered interactively and the verification entry didn't match,
       4 if its operation was interrupted, 5 if a value is too long (username, filename, password, or  final  computed
       record), 6 if the username contains illegal characters (see the Restrictions section), and 7 if the file is not
       a valid password file.


EXAMPLES
             htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith



       Adds or modifies the password for user jsmith. The user is prompted for the  password.  The  password  will  be
       encrypted  using the modified Apache MD5 algorithm. If the file does not exist, htpasswd will do nothing except
       return an error.


             htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane



       Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user jane. The user is prompted for the password. If the  file
       exists  and  cannot  be  read,  or cannot be written, it is not altered and htpasswd will display a message and
       return an error status.


             htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve



       Encrypts the password from the command line (Pwd4Steve) using the crypt() algorithm, and stores it in the spec-
       ified file.


SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
       Web  password  files  such as those managed by htpasswd should not be within the Web server's URI space -- that
       is, they should not be fetchable with a browser.


       This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not make it setuid.


       The use of the -b option is discouraged, since when it is used the unencrypted password appears on the  command
       line.


       When  using  the  crypt() algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters of the password are used to form the
       password. If the supplied password is longer, the extra characters will be silently discarded.


       The SHA encryption format does not use salting: for a given password, there is only one  encrypted  representa-
       tion.  The  crypt() and MD5 formats permute the representation by prepending a random salt string, to make dic-
       tionary attacks against the passwords more difficult.


RESTRICTIONS
       On the Windows and MPE platforms, passwords encrypted with htpasswd are limited to no more than 255  characters
       in length. Longer passwords will be truncated to 255 characters.


       The MD5 algorithm used by htpasswd is specific to the Apache software; passwords encrypted using it will not be
       usable with other Web servers.


       Usernames are limited to 255 bytes and may not include the character :.




Apache HTTP Server                2013-07-06                       HTPASSWD(1)