Man Pages

groff_ms(7) - phpMan groff_ms(7) - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  

GROFF_MS(7)                                                        GROFF_MS(7)

       groff_ms - groff ms macros

       groff -ms [ options... ] [ files... ]
       groff -m ms [ options... ] [ files... ]

       This  manual  page  describes  the  GNU version of the ms macros, part of the groff typesetting system.  The ms
       macros are mostly compatible with the documented behavior of the 4.3 BSD Unix ms macros (see  Differences  from
       troff  ms below for details).  The ms macros are suitable for reports, letters, books, and technical documenta-

       The ms macro package expects files to have a certain amount of structure.  The  simplest  documents  can  begin
       with a paragraph macro and consist of text separated by paragraph macros or even blank lines.  Longer documents
       have a structure as follows:

       Document type
              If you use the RP (report) macro at the beginning of the document, groff prints the cover page  informa-
              tion  on  its  own  page;  otherwise it prints the information on the first page with your document text
              immediately following.  Other document formats found in AT&T troff are specific to AT&T or Berkeley, and
              are not supported in groff ms.

       Format and layout
              By  setting  number  registers,  you  can change your document's type (font and size), margins, spacing,
              headers and footers, and footnotes.  See Document control registers below for more details.

       Cover page
              A cover page consists of a title, and optionally the author's name and institution, an abstract, and the
              date.  See Cover page macros below for more details.

       Body   Following the cover page is your document.  It consists of paragraphs, headings, and lists.

       Table of contents
              Longer  documents  usually include a table of contents, which you can add by placing the TC macro at the
              end of your document.

   Document control registers
       The following table lists the document control number registers.  For the sake of  consistency,  set  registers
       related to margins at the beginning of your document, or just after the RP macro.

       Margin settings

              Reg.           Definition           Effective    Default
               PO     Page offset (left margin)   next page    1i
               LL     Line length                 next para.   6i
               LT     Header/footer length        next para.   6i
               HM     Top (header) margin         next page    1i
               FM     Bottom (footer) margin      next page    1i

       Text settings

              Reg.          Definition         Effective    Default
               PS     Point size               next para.   10p
               VS     Line spacing (leading)   next para.   12p

       Paragraph settings

              Reg.          Definition          Effective    Default
               PI    Initial indent             next para.   5n
               PD    Space between paragraphs   next para.   0.3v
               QI    Quoted paragraph indent    next para.   5n

       Footnote settings

              Reg.     Definition        Effective     Default
               FL    Footnote length   next footnote   LL*5/6
               FI    Footnote indent   next footnote   2n
               FF    Footnote format   next footnote   0

       Other settings

               Reg.              Definition             Effective   Default
               MINGW    Minimum width between columns   next page   2n

   Cover page macros
       Use the following macros to create a cover page for your document in the order shown.

       .RP [no]
              Specifies  the  report format for your document.  The report format creates a separate cover page.  With
              no RP macro, groff prints a subset of the cover page on page 1 of your document.

              If you use the optional no argument, groff prints a title page but does not repeat any of the title page
              information (title, author, abstract, etc.) on page 1 of the document.

       .P1    (P-one) Prints the header on page 1.  The default is to suppress the header.

       .DA [xxx]
              (optional)  Print  the  current date, or the arguments to the macro if any, on the title page (if speci-
              fied) and in the footers.  This is the default for nroff.

       .ND [xxx]
              (optional) Print the current date, or the arguments to the macro if any, on the title  page  (if  speci-
              fied) but not in the footers.  This is the default for troff.

       .TL    Specifies the document title.  Groff collects text following the TL macro into the title, until reaching
              the author name or abstract.

       .AU    Specifies the author's name.  You can specify multiple authors by using an AU macro for each author.

       .AI    Specifies the author's institution.  You can specify multiple institutions.

       .AB [no]
              Begins the abstract.  The default is to print the word ABSTRACT, centered and in italics, above the text
              of the abstract.  The option no suppresses this heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

       Use the PP macro to create indented paragraphs, and the LP macro to create paragraphs with no initial indent.

       The QP macro indents all text at both left and right margins.  The effect is identical to the HTML <BLOCKQUOTE>
       element.  The next paragraph or heading returns margins to normal.

       The XP macro produces an exdented paragraph.  The first line of the paragraph begins at the  left  margin,  and
       subsequent lines are indented (the opposite of PP).

       Use  headings to create a hierarchical structure for your document.  The ms macros print headings in bold using
       the same font family and point size as the body text.

       The following heading macros are available:

       .NH xx Numbered heading.  The argument xx is either a numeric argument to indicate the level of the heading, or
              S xx xx "..."   to  set  the  section number explicitly.  If you specify heading levels out of sequence,
              such as invoking .NH 3 after .NH 1, groff prints a warning on standard error.

       .SH    Unnumbered subheading.

       The ms macros provide a variety of methods to highlight or emphasize text:

       .B [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets its first argument in bold type.  If you specify a second argument, groff prints it in the previous
              font  after the bold text, with no intervening space (this allows you to set punctuation after the high-
              lighted text without highlighting the punctuation).  Similarly, it prints the third argument (if any) in
              the previous font before the first argument.  For example,

                     .B foo ) (

              prints (foo).

              If  you  give this macro no arguments, groff prints all text following in bold until the next highlight-
              ing, paragraph, or heading macro.

       .R [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets its first argument in roman (or regular) type.  It operates similarly to the B macro otherwise.

       .I [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets its first argument in italic type.  It operates similarly to the B macro otherwise.

       .CW [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets its first argument in a constant width face.  It operates similarly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BI [txt [post [pre]]]
              Sets its first argument in bold italic type.  It operates similarly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BX [txt]
              Prints its argument and draws a box around it.  If you want to box a string that contains spaces, use  a
              digit-width space (\0).

       .UL [txt [post]]
              Prints  its  first argument with an underline.  If you specify a second argument, groff prints it in the
              previous font after the underlined text, with no intervening space.

       .LG    Prints all text following in larger type (2 points larger than the current point size)  until  the  next
              font  size,  highlighting,  paragraph,  or  heading macro.  You can specify this macro multiple times to
              enlarge the point size as needed.

       .SM    Prints all text following in smaller type (2 points smaller than the current point size) until the  next
              type  size,  highlighting,  paragraph,  or  heading macro.  You can specify this macro multiple times to
              reduce the point size as needed.

       .NL    Prints all text following in the normal point size (that is, the value of the PS register).

              Print the enclosed text as a superscript.

       You may need to indent sections of text.  A typical use for indents is to create nested lists and sublists.

       Use the RS and RE macros to start and end a section of indented text, respectively.  The PI  register  controls
       the amount of indent.

       You can nest indented sections as deeply as needed by using multiple, nested pairs of RS and RE.

       The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:

       .IP [marker [width]]

              The marker is usually a bullet character \(bu for unordered lists, a number (or auto-incrementing number
              register) for numbered lists, or a word or phrase for indented (glossary-style) lists.

              The width specifies the indent for the body of each list item.  Once specified, the indent  remains  the
              same for all list items in the document until specified again.

   Tab stops
       Use  the ta request to set tab stops as needed.  Use the TA macro to reset tabs to the default (every 5n).  You
       can redefine the TA macro to create a different set of default tab stops.

   Displays and keeps
       Use displays to show text-based examples or figures (such as code listings).  Displays  turn  off  filling,  so
       lines  of code can be displayed as-is without inserting br requests in between each line.  Displays can be kept
       on a single page, or allowed to break across pages.  The following table shows the display types available.

                   Display macro                       Type of display
                With keep      No keep
              .DS L            .LD       Left-justified.
              .DS I [indent]   .ID       Indented (default indent in the DI regis-
              .DS B            .BD       Block-centered (left-justified, longest line
              .DS C            .CD       Centered.
              .DS R            .RD       Right-justified.

       Use the DE macro to end any display type.

       To keep text together on a page, such as a paragraph that refers to a table (or list, or  other  item)  immedi-
       ately  following,  use  the KS and KE macros.  The KS macro begins a block of text to be kept on a single page,
       and the KE macro ends the block.

       You can specify a floating keep using the KF and KE macros.  If the keep cannot fit on the current page,  groff
       holds the contents of the keep and allows text following the keep (in the source file) to fill in the remainder
       of the current page.  When the page breaks, whether by an explicit bp request or by reaching  the  end  of  the
       page, groff prints the floating keep at the top of the new page.  This is useful for printing large graphics or
       tables that do not need to appear exactly where specified.

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The -ms macros support the standard groff preprocessors: tbl, pic, eqn, and refer.  Mark text meant for prepro-
       cessors by enclosing it in pairs of tags as follows:

       .TS [H] and .TE
              Denotes  a  table,  to be processed by the tbl preprocessor.  The optional H argument instructs groff to
              create a running header with the information up to the TH macro.  Groff prints the header at the  begin-
              ning  of  the  table;  if  the table runs onto another page, groff prints the header on the next page as

       .PS and .PE
              Denotes a graphic, to be processed by the pic preprocessor.  You can create a pic file  by  hand,  using
              the AT&T pic manual available on the Web as a reference, or by using a graphics program such as xfig.

       .EQ [align] and .EN
              Denotes  an equation, to be processed by the eqn preprocessor.  The optional align argument can be C, L,
              or I to center (the default), left-justify, or indent the equation.

       .[ and .]
              Denotes a reference, to be processed by the refer preprocessor.  The GNU refer(1) manual page provides a
              comprehensive reference to the preprocessor and the format of the bibliographic database.

       The ms macros provide a flexible footnote system.  You can specify a numbered footnote by using the \** escape,
       followed by the text of the footnote enclosed by FS and FE macros.

       You can specify symbolic footnotes by placing the mark character (such as \(dg for the dagger character) in the
       body text, followed by the text of the footnote enclosed by FS \(dg and FE macros.

       You can control how groff prints footnote numbers by changing the value of the FF register as follows:

              0      Prints the footnote number as a superscript; indents the footnote (default).

              1      Prints the number followed by a period (like 1.) and indents the footnote.

              2      Like 1, without an indent.

              3      Like 1, but prints the footnote number as a hanging paragraph.

       You  can  use  footnotes  safely  within keeps and displays, but avoid using numbered footnotes within floating
       keeps.  You can set a second \** between a \** and its corresponding .FS; as long as each .FS occurs after  the
       corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS are in the same order as the corresponding occurrences of \**.

   Headers and footers
       There are two ways to define headers and footers:

       ?  Use  the  strings  LH,  CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right headers; use LF, CF, and RF to set the
          left, center, and right footers.  This works best for documents that do not distinguish between odd and even

       ?  Use  the OH and EH macros to define headers for the odd and even pages; and OF and EF macros to define foot-
          ers for the odd and even pages.  This is more flexible than defining the individual strings.  The syntax for
          these macros is as follows:

                 .OH 'left'center'right'

          You can replace the quote (') marks with any character not appearing in the header or footer text.

       You  control  margins  using  a  set  of  number  registers.   The following table lists the register names and

              Reg.           Definition           Effective    Default
               PO     Page offset (left margin)   next page    1i
               LL     Line length                 next para.   6i
               LT     Header/footer length        next para.   6i
               HM     Top (header) margin         next page    1i
               FM     Bottom (footer) margin      next page    1i

       Note that there is no right margin setting.  The combination of page offset and line length provide the  infor-
       mation necessary to derive the right margin.

   Multiple columns
       The  ms  macros  can  set text in as many columns as will reasonably fit on the page.  The following macros are
       available.  All of them force a page break if a multi-column mode is already set.  However, if the current mode
       is single-column, starting a multi-column mode does not force a page break.

       .1C    Single-column mode.

       .2C    Two-column mode.

       .MC [width [gutter]]
              Multi-column  mode.  If you specify no arguments, it is equivalent to the 2C macro.  Otherwise, width is
              the width of each column and gutter is the space between columns.  The  MINGW  number  register  is  the
              default gutter width.

   Creating a table of contents
       Wrap  text that you want to appear in the table of contents in XS and XE macros.  Use the TC macro to print the
       table of contents at the end of the document, resetting the page number to i (Roman numeral 1).

       You can manually create a table of contents by specifying a page number as the first argument to XS.  Add  sub-
       sequent entries using the XA macro.  For example:

              .XS 1
              .XA 2
              A Brief History of the Universe
              .XA 729
              Details of Galactic Formation

       Use the PX macro to print a manually-generated table of contents without resetting the page number.

       If  you  give  the argument no to either PX or TC, groff suppresses printing the title specified by the \*[TOC]

       The groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original AT&T code.  Since they  take  advantage
       of the extended features in groff, they cannot be used with AT&T troff.  Other differences include:

       ?  The  internals  of groff ms differ from the internals of Unix ms.  Documents that depend upon implementation
          details of Unix ms may not format properly with groff ms.

       ?  The error-handling policy of groff ms is to detect and report errors, rather than silently to ignore them.

       ?  Bell Labs localisms are not implemented.

       ?  Berkeley localisms, in particular the TM and CT macros, are not implemented.

       ?  Groff ms does not work in compatibility mode (e.g. with the -C option).

       ?  There is no support for typewriter-like devices.

       ?  Groff ms does not provide cut marks.

       ?  Multiple line spacing is not supported (use a larger vertical spacing instead).

       ?  Some Unix ms documentation says that the CW and GW number registers can be used to control the column  width
          and gutter width respectively.  These number registers are not used in groff ms.

       ?  Macros  that  cause  a  reset  (paragraphs,  headings, etc.)  may change the indent.  Macros that change the
          indent do not increment or decrement the indent, but rather set it absolutely.  This can cause problems  for
          documents that define additional macros of their own.  The solution is to use not the in request but instead
          the RS and RE macros.

       ?  The number register GS is set to 1 by the groff ms macros, but is not used by the Unix ms macros.  Documents
          that need to determine whether they are being formatted with Unix ms or groff ms should use this number reg-

       You can redefine the following strings to adapt the groff ms macros to languages other than English:

                                                 String        Default Value
                                               REFERENCES    References
                                               ABSTRACT      ABSTRACT
                                               TOC           Table of Contents
                                               MONTH1        January
                                               MONTH2        February
                                               MONTH3        March
                                               MONTH4        April
                                               MONTH5        May
                                               MONTH6        June
                                               MONTH7        July
                                               MONTH8        August
                                               MONTH9        September
                                               MONTH10       October

                                               MONTH11       November
                                               MONTH12       December

       The \*- string produces an em dash -- like this.

   Text Settings
       The FAM string sets the default font family.  If this string is undefined  at  initialization,  it  is  set  to

       The point size, vertical spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for footnotes are controlled by the number regis-
       ters FPS, FVS, and FPD; at initialization these are set to \n(PS-2, \n[FPS]+2, and  \n(PD/2  respectively.   If
       any of these registers are defined before initialization, the initialization macro does not change them.

       The hyphenation flags (as set by the hy request) are set from the HY register; the default is 14.

       Improved accent marks (as originally defined in Berkeley's ms version) are available by specifying the AM macro
       at the beginning of your document.  You can place an accent over  most  characters  by  specifying  the  string
       defining the accent directly after the character.  For example, n\*~ produces an n with a tilde over it.

       The following conventions are used for names of macros, strings and number registers.  External names available
       to documents that use the groff ms macros contain only uppercase letters and digits.

       Internally the macros are divided into modules; naming conventions are as follows:

       ?  Names used only within one module are of the form module*name.

       ?  Names used outside the module in which they are defined are of the form module@name.

       ?  Names associated with a particular environment are of the form environment:name; these are used only  within
          the par module.

       ?  name does not have a module prefix.

       ?  Constructed names used to implement arrays are of the form array!index.

       Thus the groff ms macros reserve the following names:

       ?  Names containing the characters *, @, and :.

       ?  Names containing only uppercase letters and digits.

       /usr/share/groff/ (a wrapper file for s.tmac)

       groff(1),  troff(1),  tbl(1),  pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1), Groff: The GNU Implementation of troff by Trent Fisher
       and Werner Lemberg.

       Original manual page by James Clark et al; rewritten by Larry Kollar (

Groff Version           09 March 2002                     GROFF_MS(7)