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MAKE(1)                       LOCAL USER COMMANDS                      MAKE(1)

       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs

       make [ -f makefile ] [ options ] ... [ targets ] ...

       This man page is an extract of the documentation of GNU make.  It is updated only occasionally, because the GNU
       project does not use nroff.  For complete, current documentation, refer to the Info  file  which  is
       made from the Texinfo source file make.texi.

       The purpose of the make utility is to determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recom-
       piled, and issue the commands to recompile them.  The manual describes the GNU implementation  of  make,  which
       was  written  by  Richard Stallman and Roland McGrath, and is currently maintained by Paul Smith.  Our examples
       show C programs, since they are most common, but you can use make with any programming language whose  compiler
       can  be  run  with  a shell command.  In fact, make is not limited to programs.  You can use it to describe any
       task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change.

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the relationships among  files
       in  your  program,  and the states the commands for updating each file.  In a program, typically the executable
       file is updated from object files, which are in turn made by compiling source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command:


       suffices to perform all necessary recompilations.  The make program uses the makefile data base and  the  last-
       modification  times  of the files to decide which of the files need to be updated.  For each of those files, it
       issues the commands recorded in the data base.

       make executes commands in the makefile to update one or more target names, where name is typically  a  program.
       If  no  -f  option  is  present,  make will look for the makefiles GNUmakefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that

       Normally you should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile.  (We recommend Makefile because it  appears
       prominently  near  the beginning of a directory listing, right near other important files such as README.)  The
       first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not recommended for most makefiles.  You should use this name if you have a
       makefile  that  is  specific to GNU make, and will not be understood by other versions of make.  If makefile is
       '-', the standard input is read.

       make updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have been modified since  the  target  was  last
       modified, or if the target does not exist.

       -b, -m
            These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of make.

       -B, --always-make
            Unconditionally make all targets.

       -C dir, --directory=dir
            Change  to  directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.  If multiple -C options are
            specified, each is interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C  /etc.   This
            is typically used with recursive invocations of make.

       -d   Print  debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The debugging information says which files
            are being considered for remaking, which file-times are being compared and with what results, which  files
            actually  need to be remade, which implicit rules are considered and which are applied---everything inter-
            esting about how make decides what to do.

            Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  If the FLAGS are omitted, then the behavior
            is  the  same  as  if -d was specified.  FLAGS may be a for all debugging output (same as using -d), b for
            basic debugging, v for more verbose basic debugging, i for showing implicit rules, j for details on  invo-
            cation of commands, and m for debugging while remaking makefiles.

       -e, --environment-overrides
            Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.

       +-f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
            Use file as a makefile.

       -i, --ignore-errors
            Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
            Specifies  a  directory  dir  to search for included makefiles.  If several -I options are used to specify
            several directories, the directories are searched in the order specified.  Unlike the arguments  to  other
            flags of make, directories given with -I flags may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well
            as -I dir.  This syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
            Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If there is more than one -j  option,  the
            last  one  is effective.  If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of
            jobs that can run simultaneously.

       -k, --keep-going
            Continue as much as possible after an error.  While the target that failed, and those that depend  on  it,
            cannot be remade, the other dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.

       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
            Specifies  that  no  new  jobs  (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and the load
            average is at least load (a floating-point number).  With no argument, removes a previous load limit.

       -L, --check-symlink-times
            Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.

       -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
            Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them.

       -o file, --old-file=file, --assume-old=file
            Do not remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies,  and  do  not  remake  anything  on
            account of changes in file.  Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.

       -p, --print-data-base
            Print  the  data base (rules and variable values) that results from reading the makefiles; then execute as
            usual or as otherwise specified.  This also prints the version information given by  the  -v  switch  (see
            below).  To print the data base without trying to remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q, --question
            ''Question mode''.  Do not run any commands, or print anything; just return an exit status that is zero if
            the specified targets are already up to date, nonzero otherwise.

       -r, --no-builtin-rules
            Eliminate use of the built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the default  list  of  suffixes  for  suffix

       -R, --no-builtin-variables
            Don't define any built-in variables.

       -s, --silent, --quiet
            Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.

       -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
            Cancel  the effect of the -k option.  This is never necessary except in a recursive make where -k might be
            inherited from the top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.

       -t, --touch
            Touch files (mark them up to date without really changing them) instead of running their  commands.   This
            is used to pretend that the commands were done, in order to fool future invocations of make.

       -v, --version
            Print  the  version  of the make program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no

       -w, --print-directory
            Print a message containing the working directory before and after other processing.  This  may  be  useful
            for tracking down errors from complicated nests of recursive make commands.

            Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.

       -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
            Pretend  that  the  target  file  has just been modified.  When used with the -n flag, this shows you what
            would happen if you were to modify that file.  Without -n, it is almost the same as running a  touch  com-
            mand on the given file before running make, except that the modification time is changed only in the imag-
            ination of make.

            Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.

       GNU make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully parsed and no targets that  were  built
       failed.  A status of one will be returned if the -q flag was used and make determines that a target needs to be
       rebuilt.  A status of two will be returned if any errors were encountered.

       The GNU Make Manual

       See the chapter 'Problems and Bugs' in The GNU Make Manual.

       This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.  It has been reworked by  Roland  McGrath.
       Further updates contributed by Mike Frysinger.

       Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This file is part of GNU make.

       GNU  make  is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
       License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later  version.

       GNU  make is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
       warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License  for  more

       You  should  have  received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with GNU make; see the file COPYING.
       If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

GNU                             22 August 1989                         MAKE(1)