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GIT-REV-PARSE(1)                  Git Manual                  GIT-REV-PARSE(1)

       git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters

       git rev-parse [ --option ] <args>...

       Many git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags (i.e. parameters that begin with a dash -) and parameters
       meant for the underlying git rev-list command they use internally and flags and parameters for the other
       commands they use downstream of git rev-list. This command is used to distinguish between them.

           Use git rev-parse in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).

           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Tells the option parser to echo out the first -- met instead of
           skipping it.

           Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Lets the option parser stop at the first non-option argument. This can
           be used to parse sub-commands that take options themselves.

           Use git rev-parse in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE section below). In contrast to the --sq option below,
           this mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.

           Do not output flags and parameters not meant for git rev-list command.

           Do not output flags and parameters meant for git rev-list command.

           Do not output non-flag parameters.

           Do not output flag parameters.

       --default <arg>
           If there is no parameter given by the user, use <arg> instead.

           The parameter given must be usable as a single, valid object name. Otherwise barf and abort.

       -q, --quiet
           Only meaningful in --verify mode. Do not output an error message if the first argument is not a valid
           object name; instead exit with non-zero status silently.

           Usually the output is made one line per flag and parameter. This option makes output a single line,
           properly quoted for consumption by shell. Useful when you expect your parameter to contain whitespaces and
           newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe -S with git diff-*). In contrast to the --sq-quote option, the command
           input is still interpreted as usual.

           When showing object names, prefix them with ^ and strip ^ prefix from the object names that already have

           Usually the object names are output in SHA1 form (with possible ^ prefix); this option makes them output in
           a form as close to the original input as possible.

           This is similar to --symbolic, but it omits input that are not refs (i.e. branch or tag names; or more
           explicitly disambiguating "heads/master" form, when you want to name the "master" branch when there is an
           unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as full refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").

           A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name. The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the
           strict abbreviation mode.

           Show all refs found in refs/.

       --branches[=pattern], --tags[=pattern], --remotes[=pattern]
           Show all branches, tags, or remote-tracking branches, respectively (i.e., refs found in refs/heads,
           refs/tags, or refs/remotes, respectively).

           If a pattern is given, only refs matching the given shell glob are shown. If the pattern does not contain a
           globbing character (?, *, or [), it is turned into a prefix match by appending /*.

           Show all refs matching the shell glob pattern pattern. If the pattern does not start with refs/, this is
           automatically prepended. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *, or [), it is turned
           into a prefix match by appending /*.

           Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.

           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of the current directory relative to the
           top-level directory.

           When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of the top-level directory relative to the
           current directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).

           Show $GIT_DIR if defined. Otherwise show the path to the .git directory. The path shown, when relative, is
           relative to the current working directory.

           If $GIT_DIR is not defined and the current directory is not detected to lie in a git repository or work
           tree print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.

           When the current working directory is below the repository directory print "true", otherwise "false".

           When the current working directory is inside the work tree of the repository print "true", otherwise

           When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".

           List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but
           not GIT_EDITOR). Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value, even if they are set.

       --short, --short=number
           Instead of outputting the full SHA1 values of object names try to abbreviate them to a shorter unique name.
           When no length is specified 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.

       --since=datestring, --after=datestring
           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --max-age= parameter for git rev-list.

       --until=datestring, --before=datestring
           Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --min-age= parameter for git rev-list.

           Flags and parameters to be parsed.

       --resolve-git-dir <path>
           Check if <path> is a valid git-dir or a git-file pointing to a valid git-dir. If <path> is a valid git-dir
           the resolved path to git-dir will be printed.

       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a commit object. It uses what is called an
       extended SHA1 syntax. Here are various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end of this list
       name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
           The full SHA1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a leading substring that is unique within the
           repository. E.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the same commit object if
           there is no other object in your repository whose object name starts with dae86e.

       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
           Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed by a dash and a number of commits,
           followed by a dash, a g, and an abbreviated object name.

       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
           A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object referenced by refs/heads/master. If you
           happen to have both heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say heads/master to tell git which one
           you mean. When ambiguous, a <name> is disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:

            1. If $GIT_DIR/<name> exists, that is what you mean (this is usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD,

            2. otherwise, refs/<name> if it exists;

            3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;

            4. otherwise, refs/heads/<name> if it exists;

            5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<name> if it exists;

            6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD if it exists.

               HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records the
               branch which you fetched from a remote repository with your last git fetch invocation.  ORIG_HEAD is
               created by commands that move your HEAD in a drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before
               their operation, so that you can easily change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran
               them.  MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) which you are merging into your branch when you run git merge.
               CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.

               Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the
               $GIT_DIR/packed-refs file.

       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1
           month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour 1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) specifies the value of the ref at a
           prior point in time. This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an
           existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of your local ref at a given time;
           e.g., what was in your local master branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during certain
           times, see --since and --until.

       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
           A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15})
           specifies the n-th prior value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate prior value of master
           while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master. This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref
           name and the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).

       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
           You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a reflog entry of the current branch. For
           example, if you are on branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.

       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
           The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch checked out before the current one.

       <refname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
           The suffix @{upstream} to a ref (short form <refname>@{u}) refers to the branch the ref is set to build on
           top of. A missing ref defaults to the current branch.

       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th
           parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^0 means the commit itself and is
           used when <rev> is the object name of a tag object that refers to a commit object.

       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
           A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that is the <n>th generation ancestor of the
           named commit object, following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is equivalent to <rev>^^^ which is
           equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an illustration of the usage of this form.

       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
           A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair means the object could be a tag, and
           dereference the tag recursively until an object of that type is found or the object cannot be dereferenced
           anymore (in which case, barf).  <rev>^0 is a short-hand for <rev>^{commit}.

       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
           A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could be a tag, and dereference the tag
           recursively until a non-tag object is found.

       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
           A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that contains a text led by a slash, is the
           same as the :/fix nasty bug syntax below except that it returns the youngest matching commit which is
           reachable from the <rev> before ^.

       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
           A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit whose commit message matches the specified
           regular expression. This name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from any ref. If the
           commit message starts with a !  you have to repeat that; the special sequence :/!, followed by something
           else than !, is reserved for now. The regular expression can match any part of the commit message. To match
           messages starting with a string, one can use e.g.  :/^foo.

       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
           A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given path in the tree-ish object named by the
           part before the colon.  :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special case of the syntax
           described next: content recorded in the index at the given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative
           to the current working directory. The given path will be converted to be relative to the working tree's
           root directory. This is most useful to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has the same tree
           structure as the working tree.

       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
           A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a colon, followed by a path, names a blob
           object in the index at the given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows it) names a stage
           0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch's version (typically
           the current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which is being merged.

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are parents of commit node A. Parent
       commits are ordered left-to-right.

           G   H   I   J
            \ /     \ /
             D   E   F
              \  |  / \
               \ | /   |
                \|/    |
                 B     C
                  \   /
                   \ /

           A =      = A^0
           B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
           C = A^2  = A^2
           D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
           E = B^2  = A^^2
           F = B^3  = A^^3
           G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
           H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
           I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
           J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2

       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of commits, not just a single commit. To these
       commands, specifying a single revision with the notation described in the previous section means the set of
       commits reachable from that commit, following the commit ancestry chain.

       To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is used. E.g. ^r1 r2 means commits reachable
       from r2 but exclude the ones reachable from r1.

       This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it. When you have two commits r1 and r2
       (named according to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for commits that are
       reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable from r1 by ^r1 r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.

       A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2 and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git
       merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1 or r2 but not from

       Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits exist. The r1^@
       notation means all parents of r1. r1^! includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.

       Here are a handful of examples:

           D                G H D
           D F              G H I J D F
           ^G D             H D
           ^D B             E I J F B
           B...C            G H D E B C
           ^D B C           E I J F B C
           C^@              I J F
           F^! D            G H D F

       In --parseopt mode, git rev-parse helps massaging options to bring to shell scripts the same facilities C
       builtins have. It works as an option normalizer (e.g. splits single switches aggregate values), a bit like
       getopt(1) does.

       It takes on the standard input the specification of the options to parse and understand, and echoes on the
       standard output a string suitable for sh(1) eval to replace the arguments with normalized ones. In case of
       error, it outputs usage on the standard error stream, and exits with code 129.

       Note: Make sure you quote the result when passing it to eval. See below for an example.

   Input Format
       git rev-parse --parseopt input format is fully text based. It has two parts, separated by a line that contains
       only --. The lines before the separator (should be more than one) are used for the usage. The lines after the
       separator describe the options.

       Each line of options has this format:

           <opt_spec><flags>* SP+ help LF

           its format is the short option character, then the long option name separated by a comma. Both parts are
           not required, though at least one is necessary.  h,help, dry-run and f are all three correct <opt_spec>.


           <flags> are of *, =, ?  or !.

           ?   Use = if the option takes an argument.

           ?   Use ?  to mean that the option is optional (though its use is discouraged).

           ?   Use * to mean that this option should not be listed in the usage generated for the -h argument. It's
               shown for --help-all as documented in gitcli(7).

           ?   Use !  to not make the corresponding negated long option available.

       The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used as the help associated to the option.

       Blank lines are ignored, and lines that don't match this specification are used as option group headers (start
       the line with a space to create such lines on purpose).

           some-command [options] <args>...

           some-command does foo and bar!
           h,help    show the help

           foo       some nifty option --foo
           bar=      some cool option --bar with an argument

             An option group Header
           C?        option C with an optional argument"

           eval "$(echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?)"

       In --sq-quote mode, git rev-parse echoes on the standard output a single line suitable for sh(1) eval. This
       line is made by normalizing the arguments following --sq-quote. Nothing other than quoting the arguments is

       If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by git rev-parse before the output is shell quoted,
       see the --sq option.

           $ cat > <<\EOF
           args=$(git rev-parse --sq-quote "$@")   # quote user-supplied arguments
           command="git frotz -n24 $args"          # and use it inside a handcrafted
                                                   # command line
           eval "$command"

           $ sh "a b?c"

       ?   Print the object name of the current commit:

               $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD

       ?   Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell variable:

               $ git rev-parse --verify $REV

           This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.

       ?   Same as above:

               $ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV

           but if $REV is empty, the commit object name from master will be printed.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git                      08/29/2012                  GIT-REV-PARSE(1)