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GIT-REMOTE-HELPERS(1)             Git Manual             GIT-REMOTE-HELPERS(1)



NAME
       git-remote-helpers - Helper programs to interact with remote repositories

SYNOPSIS
       git remote-<transport> <repository> [<URL>]


DESCRIPTION
       Remote helper programs are normally not used directly by end users, but they are invoked by git when it needs
       to interact with remote repositories git does not support natively. A given helper will implement a subset of
       the capabilities documented here. When git needs to interact with a repository using a remote helper, it spawns
       the helper as an independent process, sends commands to the helper's standard input, and expects results from
       the helper's standard output. Because a remote helper runs as an independent process from git, there is no need
       to re-link git to add a new helper, nor any need to link the helper with the implementation of git.

       Every helper must support the "capabilities" command, which git uses to determine what other commands the
       helper will accept. Those other commands can be used to discover and update remote refs, transport objects
       between the object database and the remote repository, and update the local object store.

       Git comes with a "curl" family of remote helpers, that handle various transport protocols, such as
       git-remote-http, git-remote-https, git-remote-ftp and git-remote-ftps. They implement the capabilities fetch,
       option, and push.

INPUT FORMAT
       Git sends the remote helper a list of commands on standard input, one per line. The first command is always the
       capabilities command, in response to which the remote helper must print a list of the capabilities it supports
       (see below) followed by a blank line. The response to the capabilities command determines what commands Git
       uses in the remainder of the command stream.

       The command stream is terminated by a blank line. In some cases (indicated in the documentation of the relevant
       commands), this blank line is followed by a payload in some other protocol (e.g., the pack protocol), while in
       others it indicates the end of input.

   Capabilities
       Each remote helper is expected to support only a subset of commands. The operations a helper supports are
       declared to git in the response to the capabilities command (see COMMANDS, below).

       option
           For specifying settings like verbosity (how much output to write to stderr) and depth (how much history is
           wanted in the case of a shallow clone) that affect how other commands are carried out.

       connect
           For fetching and pushing using git's native packfile protocol that requires a bidirectional, full-duplex
           connection.

       push
           For listing remote refs and pushing specified objects from the local object store to remote refs.

       fetch
           For listing remote refs and fetching the associated history to the local object store.

       import
           For listing remote refs and fetching the associated history as a fast-import stream.

       refspec <refspec>
           This modifies the import capability, allowing the produced fast-import stream to modify refs in a private
           namespace instead of writing to refs/heads or refs/remotes directly. It is recommended that all importers
           providing the import capability use this.

           A helper advertising the capability refspec refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/* is saying that, when it
           is asked to import refs/heads/topic, the stream it outputs will update the refs/svn/origin/branches/topic
           ref.

           This capability can be advertised multiple times. The first applicable refspec takes precedence. The
           left-hand of refspecs advertised with this capability must cover all refs reported by the list command. If
           no refspec capability is advertised, there is an implied refspec *:*.

   Capabilities for Pushing
       connect
           Can attempt to connect to git receive-pack (for pushing), git upload-pack, etc for communication using the
           packfile protocol.

           Supported commands: connect.

       push
           Can discover remote refs and push local commits and the history leading up to them to new or existing
           remote refs.

           Supported commands: list for-push, push.

       If a helper advertises both connect and push, git will use connect if possible and fall back to push if the
       helper requests so when connecting (see the connect command under COMMANDS).

   Capabilities for Fetching
       connect
           Can try to connect to git upload-pack (for fetching), git receive-pack, etc for communication using the
           packfile protocol.

           Supported commands: connect.

       fetch
           Can discover remote refs and transfer objects reachable from them to the local object store.

           Supported commands: list, fetch.

       import
           Can discover remote refs and output objects reachable from them as a stream in fast-import format.

           Supported commands: list, import.

       If a helper advertises connect, git will use it if possible and fall back to another capability if the helper
       requests so when connecting (see the connect command under COMMANDS). When choosing between fetch and import,
       git prefers fetch. Other frontends may have some other order of preference.

       refspec <refspec>
           This modifies the import capability.

           A helper advertising refspec refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/* in its capabilities is saying that,
           when it handles import refs/heads/topic, the stream it outputs will update the
           refs/svn/origin/branches/topic ref.

           This capability can be advertised multiple times. The first applicable refspec takes precedence. The
           left-hand of refspecs advertised with this capability must cover all refs reported by the list command. If
           no refspec capability is advertised, there is an implied refspec *:*.

INVOCATION
       Remote helper programs are invoked with one or (optionally) two arguments. The first argument specifies a
       remote repository as in git; it is either the name of a configured remote or a URL. The second argument
       specifies a URL; it is usually of the form <transport>://<address>, but any arbitrary string is possible. The
       GIT_DIR environment variable is set up for the remote helper and can be used to determine where to store
       additional data or from which directory to invoke auxiliary git commands.

       When git encounters a URL of the form <transport>://<address>, where <transport> is a protocol that it cannot
       handle natively, it automatically invokes git remote-<transport> with the full URL as the second argument. If
       such a URL is encountered directly on the command line, the first argument is the same as the second, and if it
       is encountered in a configured remote, the first argument is the name of that remote.

       A URL of the form <transport>::<address> explicitly instructs git to invoke git remote-<transport> with
       <address> as the second argument. If such a URL is encountered directly on the command line, the first argument
       is <address>, and if it is encountered in a configured remote, the first argument is the name of that remote.

       Additionally, when a configured remote has remote.<name>.vcs set to <transport>, git explicitly invokes git
       remote-<transport> with <name> as the first argument. If set, the second argument is remote.<name>.url;
       otherwise, the second argument is omitted.

COMMANDS
       Commands are given by the caller on the helper's standard input, one per line.

       capabilities
           Lists the capabilities of the helper, one per line, ending with a blank line. Each capability may be
           preceded with *, which marks them mandatory for git version using the remote helper to understand (unknown
           mandatory capability is fatal error).

       list
           Lists the refs, one per line, in the format "<value> <name> [<attr> ...]". The value may be a hex sha1
           hash, "@<dest>" for a symref, or "?" to indicate that the helper could not get the value of the ref. A
           space-separated list of attributes follows the name; unrecognized attributes are ignored. The list ends
           with a blank line.

           If push is supported this may be called as list for-push to obtain the current refs prior to sending one or
           more push commands to the helper.

       option <name> <value>
           Sets the transport helper option <name> to <value>. Outputs a single line containing one of ok (option
           successfully set), unsupported (option not recognized) or error <msg> (option <name> is supported but
           <value> is not valid for it). Options should be set before other commands, and may influence the behavior
           of those commands.

           Supported if the helper has the "option" capability.

       fetch <sha1> <name>
           Fetches the given object, writing the necessary objects to the database. Fetch commands are sent in a
           batch, one per line, terminated with a blank line. Outputs a single blank line when all fetch commands in
           the same batch are complete. Only objects which were reported in the ref list with a sha1 may be fetched
           this way.

           Optionally may output a lock <file> line indicating a file under GIT_DIR/objects/pack which is keeping a
           pack until refs can be suitably updated.

           Supported if the helper has the "fetch" capability.

       push +<src>:<dst>
           Pushes the given local <src> commit or branch to the remote branch described by <dst>. A batch sequence of
           one or more push commands is terminated with a blank line (if there is only one reference to push, a single
           push command is followed by a blank line). For example, the following would be two batches of push, the
           first asking the remote-helper to push the local ref master to the remote ref master and the local HEAD to
           the remote branch, and the second asking to push ref foo to ref bar (forced update requested by the +).

               push refs/heads/master:refs/heads/master
               push HEAD:refs/heads/branch
               \n
               push +refs/heads/foo:refs/heads/bar
               \n

           Zero or more protocol options may be entered after the last push command, before the batch's terminating
           blank line.

           When the push is complete, outputs one or more ok <dst> or error <dst> <why>?  lines to indicate success or
           failure of each pushed ref. The status report output is terminated by a blank line. The option field <why>
           may be quoted in a C style string if it contains an LF.

           Supported if the helper has the "push" capability.

       import <name>
           Produces a fast-import stream which imports the current value of the named ref. It may additionally import
           other refs as needed to construct the history efficiently. The script writes to a helper-specific private
           namespace. The value of the named ref should be written to a location in this namespace derived by applying
           the refspecs from the "refspec" capability to the name of the ref.

           Especially useful for interoperability with a foreign versioning system.

           Just like push, a batch sequence of one or more import is terminated with a blank line. For each batch of
           import, the remote helper should produce a fast-import stream terminated by a done command.

           Supported if the helper has the "import" capability.

       connect <service>
           Connects to given service. Standard input and standard output of helper are connected to specified service
           (git prefix is included in service name so e.g. fetching uses git-upload-pack as service) on remote side.
           Valid replies to this command are empty line (connection established), fallback (no smart transport
           support, fall back to dumb transports) and just exiting with error message printed (can't connect, don't
           bother trying to fall back). After line feed terminating the positive (empty) response, the output of
           service starts. After the connection ends, the remote helper exits.

           Supported if the helper has the "connect" capability.

       If a fatal error occurs, the program writes the error message to stderr and exits. The caller should expect
       that a suitable error message has been printed if the child closes the connection without completing a valid
       response for the current command.

       Additional commands may be supported, as may be determined from capabilities reported by the helper.

REF LIST ATTRIBUTES
       for-push
           The caller wants to use the ref list to prepare push commands. A helper might chose to acquire the ref list
           by opening a different type of connection to the destination.

       unchanged
           This ref is unchanged since the last import or fetch, although the helper cannot necessarily determine what
           value that produced.

OPTIONS
       option verbosity <n>
           Changes the verbosity of messages displayed by the helper. A value of 0 for <n> means that processes
           operate quietly, and the helper produces only error output. 1 is the default level of verbosity, and higher
           values of <n> correspond to the number of -v flags passed on the command line.

       option progress {true|false}
           Enables (or disables) progress messages displayed by the transport helper during a command.

       option depth <depth>
           Deepens the history of a shallow repository.

       option followtags {true|false}
           If enabled the helper should automatically fetch annotated tag objects if the object the tag points at was
           transferred during the fetch command. If the tag is not fetched by the helper a second fetch command will
           usually be sent to ask for the tag specifically. Some helpers may be able to use this option to avoid a
           second network connection.

       option dry-run {true|false}: If true, pretend the operation completed successfully, but don't actually change
       any repository data. For most helpers this only applies to the push, if supported.

       option servpath <c-style-quoted-path>
           Sets service path (--upload-pack, --receive-pack etc.) for next connect. Remote helper may support this
           option, but must not rely on this option being set before connect request occurs.

SEE ALSO
       git-remote(1)

       git-remote-testgit(1)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite



Git 1.7.11.3                      08/29/2012             GIT-REMOTE-HELPERS(1)