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GIT-COMMIT(1)                     Git Manual                     GIT-COMMIT(1)

       git-commit - Record changes to the repository

       git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
                  [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
                  [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
                  [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
                  [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
                  [-i | -o] [--] [<file>...]

       Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along with a log message from the user describing the

       The content to be added can be specified in several ways:

        1. by using git add to incrementally "add" changes to the index before using the commit command (Note: even
           modified files must be "added");

        2. by using git rm to remove files from the working tree and the index, again before using the commit command;

        3. by listing files as arguments to the commit command, in which case the commit will ignore changes staged in
           the index, and instead record the current content of the listed files (which must already be known to git);

        4. by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically "add" changes from all known files (i.e.
           all files that are already listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index that have been
           removed from the working tree, and then perform the actual commit;

        5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the commit command to decide one by one which files or
           hunks should be part of the commit, before finalizing the operation. See the "Interactive Mode" section of
           git-add(1) to learn how to operate these modes.

       The --dry-run option can be used to obtain a summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
       commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).

       If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after that, you can recover from it with git reset.

       -a, --all
           Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been modified and deleted, but new files you have
           not told git about are not affected.

       -p, --patch
           Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose which changes to commit. See git-add(1) for details.

       -C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
           Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the authorship information (including the
           timestamp) when creating the commit.

       -c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
           Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can further edit the commit message.

           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message will be the subject line
           from the specified commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See git-rebase(1) for details.

           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message subject line is taken from
           the specified commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional commit message options
           (-m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for details.

           When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that
           the authorship of the resulting commit now belongs of the committer. This also renews the author timestamp.

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies

           When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies

           When showing short or porcelain status output, terminate entries in the status output with NUL, instead of
           LF. If no format is given, implies the --porcelain output format.

       -F <file>, --file=<file>
           Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the message from the standard input.

           Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the standard A U Thor <>
           format. Otherwise <author> is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing commit by that
           author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>); the commit author is then copied from the first such
           commit found.

           Override the author date used in the commit.

       -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
           Use the given <msg> as the commit message.

       -t <file>, --template=<file>
           When editing the commit message, start the editor with the contents in the given file. The commit.template
           configuration variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the command. This mechanism can be
           used by projects that want to guide participants with some hints on what to write in the message in what
           order. If the user exits the editor without editing the message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect
           when a message is given by other means, e.g. with the -m or -F options.

       -s, --signoff
           Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit log message.

       -n, --no-verify
           This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks. See also githooks(5).

           Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole parent commit is a mistake, and the
           command prevents you from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is primarily for use
           by foreign SCM interface scripts.

           Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts. It allows you to
           create a commit with an empty commit message without using plumbing commands like git-commit-tree(1).

           This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up. The <mode> can be one of verbatim, whitespace,
           strip, and default. The default mode will strip leading and trailing empty lines and #commentary from the
           commit message only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace removed. The verbatim mode
           does not change message at all, whitespace removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines and strip removes
           both whitespace and commentary.

       -e, --edit
           The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from file with -C are usually used as the
           commit log message unmodified. This option lets you further edit the message taken from these sources.

           Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree object you would want to replace the latest
           commit as usual (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the commit log editor is seeded
           with the commit message from the tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the current tip
           -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is

           It is a rough equivalent for:

                       $ git reset --soft HEAD^
                       $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
                       $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

           but can be used to amend a merge commit.

           You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you amend a commit that has already been
           published. (See the "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)

       -i, --include
           Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the contents of paths given on the command line
           as well. This is usually not what you want unless you are concluding a conflicted merge.

       -o, --only
           Make a commit only from the paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents that have been
           staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of git commit if any paths are given on the command
           line, in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is specified together with --amend, then no
           paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend the last commit without committing changes that have
           already been staged.

       -u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
           Show untracked files.

           The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to specify the handling of untracked files;
           when -u is not used, the default is normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.

           The possible options are:

           ?    no - Show no untracked files

           ?    normal - Shows untracked files and directories

           ?    all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.

               The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles configuration variable documented in

       -v, --verbose
           Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
           template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its lines prefixed with #.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress commit summary message.

           Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are to be committed, paths with local changes that
           will be left uncommitted and paths that are untracked.

           Include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
           commit message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override configuration variable commit.status.

           Do not include the output of git-status(1) in the commit message template when using an editor to prepare
           the default commit message.

           Do not interpret any more arguments as options.

           When files are given on the command line, the command commits the contents of the named files, without
           recording the changes already staged. The contents of these files are also staged for the next commit on
           top of what have been staged before.

       The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables and the --date option support the following date

       Git internal format
           It is <unix timestamp> <timezone offset>, where <unix timestamp> is the number of seconds since the UNIX
           epoch.  <timezone offset> is a positive or negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which is 2 hours
           ahead UTC) is +0200.

       RFC 2822
           The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.

       ISO 8601
           Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example 2005-04-07T22:13:13. The parser accepts a
           space instead of the T character as well.

               In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats: YYYY.MM.DD, MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM.YYYY.

       When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in your working tree are temporarily stored to a
       staging area called the "index" with git add. A file can be reverted back, only in the index but not in the
       working tree, to that of the last commit with git reset HEAD -- <file>, which effectively reverts git add and
       prevents the changes to this file from participating in the next commit. After building the state to be
       committed incrementally with these commands, git commit (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
       has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the command. An example:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ git rm goodbye.c
           $ git add hello.c
           $ git commit

       Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can tell git commit to notice the changes to the
       files whose contents are tracked in your working tree and do corresponding git add and git rm for you. That is,
       this example does the same as the earlier example if there is no other change in your working tree:

           $ edit hello.c
           $ rm goodbye.c
           $ git commit -a

       The command git commit -a first looks at your working tree, notices that you have modified hello.c and removed
       goodbye.c, and performs necessary git add and git rm for you.

       After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames
       to git commit. When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that only records the changes made to the
       named paths:

           $ edit hello.c hello.h
           $ git add hello.c hello.h
           $ edit Makefile
           $ git commit Makefile

       This makes a commit that records the modification to Makefile. The changes staged for hello.c and hello.h are
       not included in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost -- they are still staged and merely
       held back. After the above sequence, if you do:

           $ git commit

       this second commit would record the changes to hello.c and hello.h as expected.

       After a merge (initiated by git merge or git pull) stops because of conflicts, cleanly merged paths are already
       staged to be committed for you, and paths that conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
       check which paths are conflicting with git status and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you
       would stage the result as usual with git add:

           $ git status | grep unmerged
           unmerged: hello.c
           $ edit hello.c
           $ git add hello.c

       After resolving conflicts and staging the result, git ls-files -u would stop mentioning the conflicted path.
       When you are done, run git commit to finally record the merge:

           $ git commit

       As with the case to record your own changes, you can use -a option to save typing. One difference is that
       during a merge resolution, you cannot use git commit with pathnames to alter the order the changes are
       committed, because the merge should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command refuses to run when
       given pathnames (but see -i option).

       Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message with a single short (less than 50 character)
       line summarizing the change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description. Tools that turn
       commits into email, for example, use the first line on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in the

       At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.

       ?   The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects are treated as uninterpreted sequences of
           non-NUL bytes. What readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared with the data git keeps track of,
           which in turn are expected to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such thing as pathname
           encoding translation.

       ?   The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no encoding translation at
           the core level.

       ?   The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.

       Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are
       designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular project find it more convenient to
       use legacy encodings, git does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in mind.

        1.  git commit and git commit-tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a
           valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is
           to have i18n.commitencoding in .git/config file, like this:

                       commitencoding = ISO-8859-1

           Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitencoding in its encoding
           header. This is to help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the commit
           log message is encoded in UTF-8.

        2.  git log, git show, git blame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit object, and try to
           re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can specify the desired output encoding
           with i18n.logoutputencoding in .git/config file, like this:

                       logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1

           If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitencoding is used instead.

       Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at
       the commit object level, because re-coding to UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.

       The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the
       core.editor configuration variable, the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in
       that order). See git-var(1) for details.

       This command can run commit-msg, prepare-commit-msg, pre-commit, and post-commit hooks. See githooks(5) for
       more information.

       git-add(1), git-rm(1), git-mv(1), git-merge(1), git-commit-tree(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git                      08/29/2012                     GIT-COMMIT(1)