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GETPRIORITY(2)             Linux Programmer's Manual            GETPRIORITY(2)

       getpriority, setpriority - get/set program scheduling priority

       #include <sys/time.h>
       #include <sys/resource.h>

       int getpriority(int which, int who);
       int setpriority(int which, int who, int prio);

       The  scheduling priority of the process, process group, or user, as indicated by which and who is obtained with
       the getpriority() call and set with the setpriority() call.

       The value which is one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER, and who is interpreted relative  to  which  (a
       process  identifier  for PRIO_PROCESS, process group identifier for PRIO_PGRP, and a user ID for PRIO_USER).  A
       zero value for who denotes (respectively) the calling process, the process group of the calling process, or the
       real  user  ID  of the calling process.  Prio is a value in the range -20 to 19 (but see the Notes below).  The
       default priority is 0; lower priorities cause more favorable scheduling.

       The getpriority() call returns the highest priority (lowest numerical value) enjoyed by any  of  the  specified
       processes.   The  setpriority()  call  sets  the  priorities of all of the specified processes to the specified
       value.  Only the superuser may lower priorities.

       Since getpriority() can legitimately return the value -1, it is necessary to clear the external variable  errno
       prior  to the call, then check it afterwards to determine if -1 is an error or a legitimate value.  The setpri-
       ority() call returns 0 if there is no error, or -1 if there is.

       EINVAL which was not one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER.

       ESRCH  No process was located using the which and who values specified.

       In addition to the errors indicated above, setpriority() may fail if:

       EACCES The caller attempted to lower a process priority, but did not have the required privilege (on Linux: did
              not  have  the  CAP_SYS_NICE  capability).   Since  Linux  2.6.12,  this error only occurs if the caller
              attempts to set a process priority outside the range of the RLIMIT_NICE soft resource limit of the  tar-
              get process; see getrlimit(2) for details.

       EPERM  A  process was located, but its effective user ID did not match either the effective or the real user ID
              of the caller, and was not privileged (on Linux: did not have the  CAP_SYS_NICE  capability).   But  see
              NOTES below.

       SVr4, 4.4BSD (these function calls first appeared in 4.2BSD), POSIX.1-2001.

       A child created by fork(2) inherits its parent's nice value.  The nice value is preserved across execve(2).

       The  degree  to which their relative nice value affects the scheduling of processes varies across Unix systems,
       and, on Linux, across kernel versions.  Starting with kernel 2.6.23, Linux adopted  an  algorithm  that  causes
       relative  differences in nice values to have a much stronger effect.  This causes very low nice values (+19) to
       truly provide little CPU to a process whenever there is any other higher priority load on the system, and makes
       high nice values (-20) deliver most of the CPU to applications that require it (e.g., some audio applications).

       The details on the condition for EPERM depend on the system.  The above description is what POSIX.1-2001  says,
       and seems to be followed on all System V-like systems.  Linux kernels before 2.6.12 required the real or effec-
       tive user ID of the caller to match the real user of the process who (instead of its effective user ID).  Linux
       2.6.12 and later require the effective user ID of the caller to match the real or effective user ID of the pro-
       cess who.  All BSD-like systems (SunOS 4.1.3, Ultrix 4.2, 4.3BSD, FreeBSD 4.3, OpenBSD-2.5, ...) behave in  the
       same manner as Linux 2.6.12 and later.

       The actual priority range varies between kernel versions.  Linux before 1.3.36 had -infinity..15.  Since kernel
       1.3.43 Linux has the range -20..19.  Within the kernel, nice values are actually represented using  the  corre-
       sponding  range 40..1 (since negative numbers are error codes) and these are the values employed by the setpri-
       ority() and getpriority() system calls.  The glibc wrapper functions for these system calls handle the transla-
       tions  between  the  user-land  and  kernel  representations  of  the  nice  value  according  to  the  formula
       unice = 20 - knice.

       On some systems, the range of nice values is -20..20.

       Including <sys/time.h> is not required  these  days,  but  increases  portability.   (Indeed,  <sys/resource.h>
       defines the rusage structure with fields of type struct timeval defined in <sys/time.h>.)

       nice(1), fork(2), capabilities(7), renice(8)

       Documentation/scheduler/sched-nice-design.txt in the kernel source tree (since Linux 2.6.23).

       This  page  is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the project, and informa-
       tion about reporting bugs, can be found at

Linux                             2008-05-29                    GETPRIORITY(2)