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FUSER(1P)                  POSIX Programmer's Manual                 FUSER(1P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       fuser - list process IDs of all processes that have one or more files open

SYNOPSIS
       fuser [ -cfu ] file ...

DESCRIPTION
       The  fuser utility shall write to standard output the process IDs of processes running on the local system that
       have one or more named files open. For block special devices, all processes using any file on that  device  are
       listed.

       The fuser utility shall write to standard error additional information about the named files indicating how the
       file is being used.

       Any output for processes running on remote systems that have a named file open is unspecified.

       A user may need appropriate privilege to invoke the fuser utility.

OPTIONS
       The fuser utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section  12.2,  Utility
       Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -c     The  file is treated as a mount point and the utility shall report on any files open in the file system.

       -f     The report shall be only for the named files.

       -u     The user name, in parentheses, associated with each process ID written to standard output shall be writ-
              ten to standard error.


OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   A pathname on which the file or file system is to be reported.


STDIN
       Not used.

INPUT FILES
       The user database.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of fuser:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value  for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base
              Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for  the  prece-
              dence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
              Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for  exam-
              ple, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments).

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determine  the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages writ-
              ten to standard error.

       NLSPATH
              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .


ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       The fuser utility shall write the process ID for each process using each file given as an operand  to  standard
       output in the following format:


              "%d", <process_id>

STDERR
       The fuser utility shall write diagnostic messages to standard error.

       The fuser utility also shall write the following to standard error:

        * The pathname of each named file is written followed immediately by a colon.


        * For  each process ID written to standard output, the character 'c' shall be written to standard error if the
          process is using the file as its current directory and the character 'r' shall be written to standard  error
          if  the  process is using the file as its root directory. Implementations may write other alphabetic charac-
          ters to indicate other uses of files.


        * When the -u option is specified, characters indicating the use of the file shall be followed immediately  by
          the  user  name,  in  parentheses,  corresponding  to the process' real user ID.  If the user name cannot be
          resolved from the process' real user ID, the process' real user ID shall be  written  instead  of  the  user
          name.


       When  standard output and standard error are directed to the same file, the output shall be interleaved so that
       the filename appears at the start of each line, followed by the process ID and characters indicating the use of
       the  file. Then, if the -u option is specified, the user name or user ID for each process using that file shall
       be written.

       A <newline> shall be written to standard error after the last output described above for each file operand.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.


CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
       The command:


              fuser -fu .

       writes to standard output the process IDs of processes that are using the current directory and writes to stan-
       dard  error an indication of how those processes are using the directory and the user names associated with the
       processes that are using the current directory.

RATIONALE
       The definition of the fuser utility follows existing practice.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       None.

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifica-
       tions Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,  Inc  and  The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee  document.  The  original  Standard  can  be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                            FUSER(1P)