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FTOK(3P)                   POSIX Programmer's Manual                  FTOK(3P)

       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

       ftok - generate an IPC key

       #include <sys/ipc.h>

       key_t ftok(const char *path, int id);

       The  ftok()  function  shall  return a key based on path and id that is usable in subsequent calls to msgget(),
       semget(), and shmget(). The application shall ensure that the path argument is the pathname of an existing file
       that the process is able to stat().

       The ftok() function shall return the same key value for all paths that name the same file, when called with the
       same id value, and return different key values when called with different id values or  with  paths  that  name
       different  files  existing  on  the  same  file system at the same time. It is unspecified whether ftok() shall
       return the same key value when called again after the file named by path is removed and recreated with the same

       Only the low-order 8-bits of id are significant. The behavior of ftok() is unspecified if these bits are 0.

       Upon  successful  completion, ftok() shall return a key. Otherwise, ftok() shall return (key_t)-1 and set errno
       to indicate the error.

       The ftok() function shall fail if:

       EACCES Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix.

       ELOOP  A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during resolution of the path argument.

              The length of the path argument exceeds {PATH_MAX} or a pathname component is longer than {NAME_MAX}.

       ENOENT A component of path does not name an existing file or path is an empty string.

              A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

       The ftok() function may fail if:

       ELOOP  More than {SYMLOOP_MAX} symbolic links were encountered during resolution of the path argument.

              Pathname resolution of a symbolic link produced an intermediate result whose length exceeds  {PATH_MAX}.

       The following sections are informative.

   Getting an IPC Key
       The following example gets a unique key that can be used by the IPC functions semget(), msgget(), and shmget().
       The key returned by ftok() for this example is based on the ID value S and the pathname /tmp.

              #include <sys/ipc.h>
              key_t key;
              char *path = "/tmp";
              int id = 'S';

              key = ftok(path, id);

   Saving an IPC Key
       The following example gets a unique key based on the pathname /tmp and the ID value  a.  It  also  assigns  the
       value  of  the  resulting  key to the semkey variable so that it will be available to a later call to semget(),
       msgget(), or shmget().

              #include <sys/ipc.h>
              key_t semkey;

              if ((semkey = ftok("/tmp", 'a')) == (key_t) -1) {
                  perror("IPC error: ftok"); exit(1);

       For maximum portability, id should be a single-byte character.



       msgget(), semget(), shmget(), the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, <sys/ipc.h>

       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifica-
       tions Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,  Inc  and  The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee  document.  The  original  Standard  can  be
       obtained online at .

IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                             FTOK(3P)