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FIND(1)                                                                FIND(1)



NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches the directory tree rooted at each given
       file name by evaluating the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence (see sec-
       tion  OPERATORS),  until the outcome is known (the left hand side is false for and operations, true for or), at
       which point find moves on to the next file name.

       If you are using find in an environment where security is important (for example if you are using it to  search
       directories  that  are  writable  by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations" chapter of the
       findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files and comes with findutils.   That document also  includes
       a lot more detail and discussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.  Command-line arguments following these  are
       taken to be names of files or directories to be examined, up to the first argument that begins with '-', or the
       argument '(' or '!'.  That argument and any following arguments are taken to be the expression describing  what
       is  to  be searched for.  If no paths are given, the current directory is used.  If no expression is given, the
       expression -print is used (but you should probably consider using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This manual page talks about 'options' within the expression list.  These options control the behaviour of find
       but  are  specified  immediately  after the last path name.  The five 'real' options -H, -L, -P, -D and -O must
       appear before the first path name, if at all.  A double dash -- can also be used to signal that  any  remaining
       arguments  are  not  options  (though ensuring that all start points begin with either './' or '/' is generally
       safer if you use wildcards in the list of start points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When find examines or prints information a
              file,  and  the  file is a symbolic link, the information used shall be taken from the properties of the
              symbolic link itself.


       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information about files, the information used shall
              be  taken  from the properties of the file to which the link points, not from the link itself (unless it
              is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to examine the file to which the link points).  Use of  this
              option  implies  -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option, -noleaf will still be in effect.  If -L is in
              effect and find discovers a symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirectory  pointed
              to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always match against the type of the file that
              a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is  broken).   Using  -L
              causes the -lname and -ilname predicates always to return false.


       -H     Do not follow symbolic links, except while processing the command line arguments.  When find examines or
              prints information about files, the information used shall be taken from the properties of the  symbolic
              link  itself.    The  only exception to this behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a
              symbolic link, and the link can be resolved.  For that situation, the information  used  is  taken  from
              whatever  the  link points to (that is, the link is followed).  The information about the link itself is
              used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is  in  effect
              and  one  of  the paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a directory, the contents of
              that directory will be examined (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the others; the last one appearing on  the  com-
       mand  line  takes  effect.   Since it is the default, the -P option should be considered to be in effect unless
       either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing of the command line  itself,  before  any  searching  has
       begun.  These options also affect how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of tests
       that compare files listed on the command line against a file we are currently considering.  In each  case,  the
       file specified on the command line will have been examined and some of its properties will have been saved.  If
       the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option is in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were  speci-
       fied),  the information used for the comparison will be taken from the properties of the symbolic link.  Other-
       wise, it will be taken from the properties of the file the link points to.  If find cannot follow the link (for
       example  because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a nonexistent file) the properties of the
       link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links listed as the argument of -newer will  be  derefer-
       enced, and the timestamp will be taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The same consideration
       applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The -follow option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at the point where it appears  (that  is,
       if -L is not used but -follow is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will be deref-
       erenced, and those before it will not).


       -D debugoptions
              Print diagnostic information; this can be helpful to diagnose problems with why find is not  doing  what
              you  want.   The list of debug options should be comma separated.  Compatibility of the debug options is
              not guaranteed between releases of findutils.  For a complete list of valid debug options, see the  out-
              put of find -D help.  Valid debug options include

              help   Explain the debugging options

              tree   Show the expression tree in its original and optimised form.

              stat   Print  messages  as  files  are  examined with the stat and lstat system calls.  The find program
                     tries to minimise such calls.

              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to the optimisation of the expression  tree;  see  the  -O
                     option.

              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate succeeded or failed.

       -Olevel
              Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to speed up execution while preserving the
              overall effect; that is, predicates with side effects are not reordered relative  to  each  other.   The
              optimisations performed at each optimisation level are as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This is the default optimisation level and corresponds to the traditional behaviour.  Expressions
                     are reordered so that tests based only on the names of files (for example -name and  -regex)  are
                     performed first.

              2      Any  -type  or  -xtype  tests are performed after any tests based only on the names of files, but
                     before any tests that require information from the inode.  On many modern versions of Unix,  file
                     types  are  returned  by readdir() and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than predicates
                     which need to stat the file first.

              3      At this optimisation level, the full cost-based query optimiser is enabled.  The order  of  tests
                     is  modified so that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed first and more expensive ones are per-
                     formed later, if necessary.  Within each cost band, predicates are  evaluated  earlier  or  later
                     according  to  whether they are likely to succeed or not.  For -o, predicates which are likely to
                     succeed are evaluated earlier, and for -a, predicates which are likely to fail are evaluated ear-
                     lier.

              The cost-based optimiser has a fixed idea of how likely any given test is to succeed.  In some cases the
              probability takes account of the specific nature of the test (for example, -type f is assumed to be more
              likely  to  succeed  than -type c).  The cost-based optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If it does
              not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed again.  Conversely, optimisations  that
              prove  to be reliable, robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation levels over time.  How-
              ever, the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation level 1) will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.
              The  findutils  test  suite  runs  all the tests on find at each optimisation level and ensures that the
              result is the same.


EXPRESSIONS
       The expression is made up of options (which affect overall operation rather than the processing of  a  specific
       file, and always return true), tests (which return a true or false value), and actions (which have side effects
       and return a true or false value), all separated by operators.  -and is assumed where the operator is  omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is performed on all files for which the expres-
       sion is true.


   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.  Except for -daystart, -follow and -regextype, the options  affect  all  tests,
       including  tests  specified before the option.  This is because the options are processed when the command line
       is parsed, while the tests don't do anything until files are examined.  The -daystart, -follow  and  -regextype
       options are different in this respect, and have an effect only on tests which appear later in the command line.
       Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place them at the beginning of the expression.  A warning  is  issued  if
       you don't do this.


       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X and OpenBSD.


       -daystart
              Measure  times  (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the beginning of today rather
              than from 24 hours ago.  This option only affects tests which appear later on the command line.


       -depth Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.  The -delete action also implies  -depth.


       -follow
              Deprecated;  use  the  -L  option  instead.   Dereference symbolic links.  Implies -noleaf.  The -follow
              option affects only those tests which appear after it on the command line.  Unless the -H or  -L  option
              has  been  specified,  the position of the -follow option changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate;
              any files listed as the argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic  links.   The  same
              consideration  applies  to  -newerXY,  -anewer  and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will always
              match against the type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than the  link  itself.   Using
              -follow causes the -lname and -ilname predicates always to return false.


       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.


       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally,  find  will emit an error message when it fails to stat a file.  If you give this option and a
              file is deleted between the time find reads the name of the file from the  directory  and  the  time  it
              tries  to  stat  the file, no error message will be issued.    This also applies to files or directories
              whose names are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at the time  the  command  line  is
              read,  which  means that you cannot search one part of the filesystem with this option on and part of it
              with this option off (if you need to do that, you will need to issue two find commands instead, one with
              the option and one without it).


       -maxdepth levels
              Descend  at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of directories below the command line arguments.
              -maxdepth 0
               means only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.


       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels  (a  non-negative  integer).   -mindepth  1
              means process all files except the command line arguments.


       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on  other filesystems.  An alternate name for -xdev, for compatibility with
              some other versions of find.


       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.


       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2 fewer subdirectories than their hard link  count.
              This  option is needed when searching filesystems that do not follow the Unix directory-link convention,
              such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems or AFS volume mount  points.   Each  directory  on  a  normal  Unix
              filesystem has at least 2 hard links: its name and its '.'  entry.  Additionally, its subdirectories (if
              any) each have a '..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a directory, after it has
              statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
              the directory are non-directories ('leaf' files in the directory tree).  If only the files'  names  need
              to be examined, there is no need to stat them; this gives a significant increase in search speed.


       -regextype type
              Changes  the  regular  expression syntax understood by -regex and -iregex tests which occur later on the
              command line.  Currently-implemented types are emacs (this  is  the  default),  posix-awk,  posix-basic,
              posix-egrep and posix-extended.


       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.


       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn warning messages on or off.  These warnings apply only to the command line usage, not to any condi-
              tions that find might encounter when it searches directories.   The  default  behaviour  corresponds  to
              -warn if standard input is a tty, and to -nowarn otherwise.


       -xautofs
              Don't descend directories on autofs filesystems.


       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.


   TESTS
       Some  tests, for example -newerXY and -samefile, allow comparison between the file currently being examined and
       some reference file specified on the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpretation of the refer-
       ence  file  is determined by the options -H, -L and -P and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only
       examined once, at the time the command line is parsed.  If the reference file cannot be examined (for  example,
       the stat(2) system call fails for it), an error message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.



       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.


       -anewer file
              File  was  last  accessed  more  recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H
              option or the -L option is in effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.


       -atime n
              File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When find figures out how many 24-hour periods ago the file  was
              last  accessed,  any fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to have been accessed
              at least two days ago.


       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.


       -cnewer file
              File's status was last changed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic link and the
              -H option or the -L option is in effect, the status-change time of the file it points to is always used.


       -ctime n
              File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to understand  how  rounding
              affects the interpretation of file status change times.


       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.


       -executable
              Matches  files  which  are  executable  and  directories which are searchable (in a file name resolution
              sense).  This takes into account access control lists and other permissions artefacts  which  the  -perm
              test  ignores.   This  test  makes use of the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers
              which do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's  kernel
              and  so  cannot  make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.  Because this test is based
              only on the result of the access(2) system call, there is no guarantee that a file for which  this  test
              succeeds can actually be executed.


       -false Always false.


       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem types vary among different versions of Unix;
              an incomplete list of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix  or  another  is:  ufs,
              4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can use -printf with the %F directive to see the types of your
              filesystems.


       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.


       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).


       -ilname pattern
              Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option or the -follow option  is  in  effect,
              this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.


       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the patterns 'fo*' and 'F??' match the file
              names 'Foo', 'FOO', 'foo', 'fOo', etc.   In these patterns, unlike filename expansion by the  shell,  an
              initial  '.'  can  be  matched by '*'.  That is, find -name *bar will match the file '.foobar'.   Please
              note that you should quote patterns as a matter of course, otherwise the shell will expand any  wildcard
              characters in them.


       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It is normally easier to use the -samefile test instead.


       -ipath pattern
              Behaves in the same way as -iwholename.  This option is deprecated, so please do not use it.


       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.


       -iwholename pattern
              Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.


       -links n
              File has n links.


       -lname pattern
              File is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do not treat '/'
              or '.' specially.  If the -L option or the -follow option is in effect, this test returns  false  unless
              the symbolic link is broken.


       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.


       -mtime n
              File's  data  was  last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to understand how rounding
              affects the interpretation of file modification times.


       -name pattern
              Base of file name (the path with the leading directories removed) matches shell  pattern  pattern.   The
              metacharacters ('*', '?', and '[]') match a '.' at the start of the base name (this is a change in find-
              utils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CONFORMANCE below).  To ignore a directory and the  files  under  it,
              use  -prune;  see  an  example in the description of -path.  Braces are not recognised as being special,
              despite the fact that some shells including Bash imbue braces with a special meaning in shell  patterns.
              The  filename  matching  is performed with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.   Don't forget to
              enclose the pattern in quotes in order to protect it from expansion by the shell.


       -newer file
              File was modified more recently than file.  If file is a symbolic link and  the  -H  option  or  the  -L
              option is in effect, the modification time of the file it points to is always used.


       -newerXY reference
              Compares  the timestamp of the current file with reference.  The reference argument is normally the name
              of a file (and one of its timestamps is used for the comparison) but it may also be a string  describing
              an  absolute  time.   X  and  Y  are placeholders for other letters, and these letters select which time
              belonging to how reference is used for the comparison.

              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X to be  t.   Some  combinations  are  not
              implemented on all systems; for example B is not supported on all systems.  If an invalid or unsupported
              combination of XY is specified, a fatal error results.  Time specifications are interpreted as  for  the
              argument  to  the  -d option of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth time of a reference file, and the
              birth time cannot be determined, a fatal error message results.  If you specify a test which  refers  to
              the  birth  time  of  files  being  examined,  this test will fail for any files where the birth time is
              unknown.


       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.


       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.


       -path pattern
              File name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do not treat '/' or '.' specially; so,  for
              example,
                        find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will  print  an  entry for a directory called './src/misc' (if one exists).  To ignore a whole directory
              tree, use -prune rather than checking every file in the  tree.   For  example,  to  skip  the  directory
              'src/emacs'  and  all  files  and directories under it, and print the names of the other files found, do
              something like this:
                        find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
              Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name, starting from one of the  start  points
              named  on  the command line.  It would only make sense to use an absolute path name here if the relevant
              start point is also an absolute path.  This means that this command will never match anything:
                        find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX find and will be in a forthcoming version  of  the  POSIX
              standard.


       -perm mode
              File's  permission  bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).  Since an exact match is required, if you
              want to use this form for symbolic modes, you may have to specify a rather  complex  mode  string.   For
              example '-perm g=w' will only match files which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write per-
              mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you will want to use the '/' or '-'  forms,
              for  example '-perm -g=w', which matches any file with group write permission.  See the EXAMPLES section
              for some illustrative examples.


       -perm -mode
              All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted  in  this  form,  and
              this  is usually the way in which would want to use them.  You must specify 'u', 'g' or 'o' if you use a
              symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.


       -perm /mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted in  this  form.   You
              must specify 'u', 'g' or 'o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative
              examples.  If no permission bits in mode are set, this test matches any file (the idea  here  is  to  be
              consistent with the behaviour of -perm -000).


       -perm +mode
              Deprecated,  old way of searching for files with any of the permission bits in mode set.  You should use
              -perm /mode instead. Trying to use the '+' syntax with symbolic modes  will  yield  surprising  results.
              For  example, '+u+x' is a valid symbolic mode (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be
              evaluated as -perm +mode but instead as the exact mode specifier -perm mode and so it matches files with
              exact  permissions  0111 instead of files with any execute bit set.  If you found this paragraph confus-
              ing, you're not alone - just use -perm /mode.  This form of the -perm test  is  deprecated  because  the
              POSIX  specification  requires the interpretation of a leading '+' as being part of a symbolic mode, and
              so we switched to using '/' instead.


       -readable
              Matches files which are readable.  This takes into account access control lists  and  other  permissions
              artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system call, and so can be
              fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems  implement  access(2)
              in the client's kernel and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.


       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches  regular  expression pattern.  This is a match on the whole path, not a search.  For
              example, to match a file named './fubar3', you can use the regular expression '.*bar.' or '.*b.*3',  but
              not  'f.*r3'.   The regular expressions understood by find are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but
              this can be changed with the -regextype option.


       -samefile name
              File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is in effect, this can include symbolic links.


       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

              'b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is used)

              'c'    for bytes

              'w'    for two-byte words

              'k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

              'M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

              'G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

              The size does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks in sparse files that are not  actually
              allocated.  Bear in mind that the '%k' and '%b' format specifiers of -printf handle sparse files differ-
              ently.  The 'b' suffix always denotes 512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different to
              the behaviour of -ls.


       -true  Always true.


       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option is in effect, unless the
                     symbolic link is broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when  -L  is  in  effect,  use
                     -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.


       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.


       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).


       -wholename pattern
              See -path.    This alternative is less portable than -path.


       -writable
              Matches  files  which  are writable.  This takes into account access control lists and other permissions
              artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system call, and so can be
              fooled  by  NFS servers which do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2)
              in the client's kernel and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.


       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For symbolic links: if the -H or  -P  option  was
              specified, true if the file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L option has been given, true if c is
              'l'.  In other words, for symbolic links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not  check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux only) Security context of the file matches glob pattern.


   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed, an error message is issued.  If -delete
              fails, find's exit status will be nonzero (when it eventually  exits).   Use  of  -delete  automatically
              turns on the '-depth' option.

              Warnings:  Don't  forget  that  the  find command line is evaluated as an expression, so putting -delete
              first will make find try to delete everything below the starting points you specified.  When  testing  a
              find  command  line  that  you later intend to use with -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in
              order to avoid later surprises.  Because -delete implies -depth, you  cannot  usefully  use  -prune  and
              -delete together.


       -exec command ;
              Execute  command;  true  if 0 status is returned.  All following arguments to find are taken to be argu-
              ments to the command until an argument consisting of ';' is encountered.  The string '{}' is replaced by
              the  current file name being processed everywhere it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in
              arguments where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these constructions might need to  be
              escaped  (with  a  '\') or quoted to protect them from expansion by the shell.  See the EXAMPLES section
              for examples of the use of the -exec option.  The specified command is run once for each  matched  file.
              The command is executed in the starting directory.   There are unavoidable security problems surrounding
              use of the -exec action; you should use the -execdir option instead.


       -exec command {} +
              This variant of the -exec action runs the specified command on the selected files, but the command  line
              is built by appending each selected file name at the end; the total number of invocations of the command
              will be much less than the number of matched files.  The command line is built in much the same way that
              xargs  builds  its command lines.  Only one instance of '{}' is allowed within the command.  The command
              is executed in the starting directory.


       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the subdirectory containing the matched file, which is
              not  normally the directory in which you started find.  This a much more secure method for invoking com-
              mands, as it avoids race conditions during resolution of the paths to the matched files.   As  with  the
              -exec  action, the '+' form of -execdir will build a command line to process more than one matched file,
              but any given invocation of command will only list files that exist in the same  subdirectory.   If  you
              use this option, you must ensure that your $PATH environment variable does not reference '.'; otherwise,
              an attacker can run any commands they like by leaving an appropriately-named  file  in  a  directory  in
              which  you  will run -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty or which are
              not absolute directory names.


       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always created, even if the predicate
              is  never  matched.   See  the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in
              filenames are handled.


       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not exist when find is run, it is  created;
              if  it  does  exist,  it  is truncated.  The file names '/dev/stdout' and '/dev/stderr' are handled spe-
              cially; they refer to the standard output and standard error output, respectively.  The output  file  is
              always  created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for informa-
              tion about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always created, even if the pred-
              icate  is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters
              in filenames are handled.


       -fprintf file format
              True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always created, even if the pred-
              icate  is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters
              in filenames are handled.


       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on standard output.  The  block  counts  are  of  1K  blocks,
              unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are used.  See the
              UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the command.  Otherwise just  return  false.
              If the command is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.


              The  response  to  the  prompt is matched against a pair of regular expressions to determine if it is an
              affirmative or negative  response.   This  regular  expression  is  obtained  from  the  system  if  the
              'POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment  variable  is set, or otherwise from find's message translations.  If the
              system has no suitable definition, find's own definition will be used.   In either case, the interpreta-
              tion  of the regular expression itself will be affected by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE' (charac-
              ter classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equivalence classes).




       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.  If  the  user  does  not  agree,  just
              return false.  If the command is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.


       -print True;  print  the  full file name on the standard output, followed by a newline.   If you are piping the
              output of find into another program and there is the faintest possibility that the files which  you  are
              searching  for  might  contain  a  newline,  then you should seriously consider using the -print0 option
              instead of -print.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual  characters  in
              filenames are handled.


       -print0
              True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character (instead of the new-
              line character that -print uses).  This allows file names that contain newlines or other types of  white
              space  to be correctly interpreted by programs that process the find output.  This option corresponds to
              the -0 option of xargs.


       -printf format
              True; print format on the standard output, interpreting '\' escapes and '%'  directives.   Field  widths
              and  precisions  can  be specified as with the 'printf' C function.  Please note that many of the fields
              are printed as %s rather than %d, and this may mean that flags don't work as  you  might  expect.   This
              also  means  that  the '-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-aligned).  Unlike -print, -printf
              does not add a newline at the end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash ('\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A '\' character followed by any other character is treated as an ordinary character, so  they  both  are
              printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C 'ctime' function.

              %Ak    File's  last access time in the format specified by k, which is either '@' or a directive for the
                     C 'strftime' function.  The possible values for k are listed below; some of  them  might  not  be
                     available on all systems, due to differences in 'strftime' between systems.

                      @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with fractional part.

                     Time fields:

                      H      hour (00..23)

                      I      hour (01..12)

                      k      hour ( 0..23)

                      l      hour ( 1..12)

                      M      minute (00..59)

                      p      locale's AM or PM

                      r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                      S      Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There is a fractional part.

                      T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

                      +      Date  and  time,  separated  by  '+', for example '2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a GNU
                             extension.  The time is given in the current timezone (which may be affected  by  setting
                             the TZ environment variable).  The seconds field includes a fractional part.

                      X      locale's time representation (H:M:S)

                      Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

                     Date fields:

                      a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                      A      locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

                      b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                      B      locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

                      c      locale's  date  and  time  (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).  The format is the same as for
                             ctime(3) and so to preserve compatibility with that format, there is no  fractional  part
                             in the seconds field.

                      d      day of month (01..31)

                      D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                      h      same as b

                      j      day of year (001..366)

                      m      month (01..12)

                      U      week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

                      w      day of week (0..6)

                      W      week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

                      x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                      y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                      Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The  amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks. Since disk space is allocated in
                     multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually greater than %s/512, but it  can  also  be
                     smaller if the file is a sparse file.

              %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by the C 'ctime' function.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a command line argument.

              %D     The device number on which the file exists (the st_dev field of struct stat), in decimal.

              %f     File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

              %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading  directories  of  file's  name  (all but the last element).  If the file name contains no
                     slashes (since it is in the current directory) the %h specifier expands to ".".

              %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks. Since disk space is allocated in multi-
                     ples  of  the  filesystem  block  size  this  is usually greater than %s/1024, but it can also be
                     smaller if the file is a sparse file.

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

              %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the 'traditional' numbers  which  most  Unix
                     implementations use, but if your particular implementation uses an unusual ordering of octal per-
                     missions bits, you will see a difference between the actual value of the file's mode and the out-
                     put  of  %m.    Normally you will want to have a leading zero on this number, and to do this, you
                     should use the # flag (as in, for example, '%#m').

              %M     File's permissions (in symbolic form, as for ls).  This directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5
                     and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's name with the name of the command line argument under which it was found removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's  sparseness.   This is calculated as (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks / st_size).  The exact value you
                     will get for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-dependent.  However, normally  sparse
                     files  will have values less than 1.0, and files which use indirect blocks may have a value which
                     is greater than 1.0.   The value used for BLOCKSIZE  is  system-dependent,  but  is  usually  512
                     bytes.   If the file size is zero, the value printed is undefined.  On systems which lack support
                     for st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

              %t     File's last modification time in the format returned by the C 'ctime' function.

              %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified by k, which is the same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't happen)

              %Y     File's type (like %y), plus follow symlinks: L=loop, N=nonexistent

              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

              A '%' character followed by any other character is discarded, but the other character is printed  (don't
              rely  on this, as further format characters may be introduced).  A '%' at the end of the format argument
              causes undefined behaviour since there is no following character.  In some locales,  it  may  hide  your
              door keys, while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you are reading.

              The  %m  and  %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the other directives do not, even if they
              print numbers.  Numeric directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k and n.  The '-'
              format  flag  is  supported  and  changes  the  alignment  of a field from right-justified (which is the
              default) to left-justified.

              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.



       -prune True; if the file is a directory, do not descend into it. If -depth is given, false; no effect.  Because
              -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.


       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but no more paths specified on  the  command
              line will be processed.  For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only /tmp/foo.  Any
              command lines which have been built up with -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find  exits.    The
              exit status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has already occurred.


   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of  the  actions  of find result in the printing of data which is under the control of other users.  This
       includes file names, sizes, modification times and so forth.  File names are a potential problem since they can
       contain  any character except '\0' and '/'.  Unusual characters in file names can do unexpected and often unde-
       sirable things to your terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function keys on  some  terminals).
       Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as described below.


       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output is going to a terminal.


       -ls, -fls
              Unusual  characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash, and double quote characters are printed
              using C-style escaping (for example '\f', '\"').  Other unusual characters are printed  using  an  octal
              escape.   Other  printable  characters  (for -ls and -fls these are the characters between octal 041 and
              0176) are printed as-is.


       -printf, -fprintf
              If the output is not going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.  Otherwise, the result depends  on  which
              directive is in use.  The directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which are not under
              control of files' owners, and so are printed as-is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M,  %n,
              %s,  %t,  %u and %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but which cannot be used to
              send arbitrary data to the terminal, and so these are printed as-is.  The directives %f, %h, %l, %p  and
              %P  are  quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting
              mechanism as the one used for -ls and -fls.  If you are able to decide what format to use for the output
              of  find  then  it is normally better to use '\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as file names can
              contain white space and newline characters.  The setting of the 'LC_CTYPE' environment variable is  used
              to determine which characters need to be quoted.


       -print, -fprint
              Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.  If you are using find in a script or in
              a situation where the matched files might have  arbitrary  names,  you  should  consider  using  -print0
              instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may change in a future release.


   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:


       ( expr )
              Force  precedence.   Since  parentheses  are special to the shell, you will normally need to quote them.
              Many of the examples in this manual page use backslashes for this purpose: '\(...\)' instead of '(...)'.


       ! expr True  if  expr  is  false.   This character will also usually need protection from interpretation by the
              shell.


       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied "and"; expr2 is not evaluated  if  expr1
              is false.


       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.


       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.


       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 , expr2
              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of expr1 is discarded; the value of the list
              is the value of expr2. The comma operator can be useful for searching for  several  different  types  of
              thing,  but  traversing the filesystem hierarchy only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the
              various matched items into several different output files.



STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For closest compliance to the POSIX standard, you should set the  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment  variable.   The
       following options are specified in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):


       -H     This option is supported.


       -L     This option is supported.


       -name  This  option  is  supported,  but  POSIX  conformance  depends  on the POSIX conformance of the system's
              fnmatch(3) library function.  As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters ('*', '?' or '[]' for example)
              will  match  a  leading '.', because IEEE PASC interpretation 126 requires this.   This is a change from
              previous versions of findutils.


       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies 'b', 'c', 'd', 'l', 'p', 'f' and 's'.  GNU find also supports  'D',  repre-
              senting a Door, where the OS provides these.


       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation of the response is according to the "yes" and "no" patterns selected by set-
              ting the 'LC_MESSAGES' environment variable.  When the 'POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment  variable  is  set,
              these patterns are taken system's definition of a positive (yes) or negative (no) response. See the sys-
              tem's documentation for nl_langinfo(3), in particular YESEXPR and NOEXPR.    When  'POSIXLY_CORRECT'  is
              not set, the patterns are instead taken from find's own message catalogue.


       -newer Supported.   If the file specified is a symbolic link, it is always dereferenced.  This is a change from
              previous behaviour, which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see the HISTORY section
              below.


       -perm  Supported.   If  the  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment variable is not set, some mode arguments (for example
              +a+x) which are not valid in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.


       Other predicates
              The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group, -links, -mtime, -nogroup, -nouser, -print, -prune, -size,
              -user  and  -xdev  '-atime',  '-ctime',  '-depth',  '-group', '-links', '-mtime', '-nogroup', '-nouser',
              '-perm', '-print', '-prune', '-size', '-user' and '-xdev', are all supported.


       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses '(', ')', negation '!' and the 'and' and 'or' operators ( -a, -o).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions beyond  the  POSIX  standard.   Many  of
       these extensions are not unique to GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The  find  utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering a previously visited directory that is
              an ancestor of the last file encountered. When it detects an infinite loop, find shall write a  diagnos-
              tic message to standard error and shall either recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU  find complies with these requirements.  The link count of directories which contain entries which are hard
       links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should be.  This can mean that GNU find will some-
       times  optimise  away  the visiting of a subdirectory which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does
       not actually enter such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic  message.   Although  this
       behaviour  may  be  somewhat confusing, it is unlikely that anybody actually depends on this behaviour.  If the
       leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will always be examined and  the  diag-
       nostic  message  will  be  issued  where it is appropriate.  Symbolic links cannot be used to create filesystem
       cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when  find
       encounters  a  loop  of  symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will often
       mean that find knows that it doesn't need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic is
       frequently not necessary.

       The  -d  option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems, but you should use the POSIX-compliant
       option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the behaviour of the -regex or -iregex  tests  because
       those tests aren't specified in the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null.


       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.


       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern matching to be used  for  the  -name
              option.    GNU find uses the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for 'LC_COLLATE' depends on the
              system library.    This variable also affects the interpretation of  the  response  to  -ok;  while  the
              'LC_MESSAGES' variable selects the actual pattern used to interpret the response to -ok, the interpreta-
              tion of any bracket expressions in the pattern will be affected by 'LC_COLLATE'.


       LC_CTYPE
              This variable affects the treatment of character classes used in regular expressions and also  with  the
              -name  test,  if the system's fnmatch(3) library function supports this.  This variable also affects the
              interpretation of any character classes in the regular expressions used to interpret the response to the
              prompt issued by -ok.  The 'LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also affect which characters are consid-
              ered to be unprintable when filenames are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.


       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.  If the  'POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment
              variable  is  set, this also determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made by the -ok
              action.


       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message catalogues.


       PATH   Affects the directories which are searched to find the executables invoked by -exec, -execdir,  -ok  and
              -okdir.


       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines  the  block  size  used  by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, blocks are units of 512
              bytes.  Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that is, implies  -nowarn)  by  default,  because
              POSIX  requires  that  apart from the output for -ok, all messages printed on stderr are diagnostics and
              must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like -perm /zzz if +zzz is not a valid  sym-
              bolic mode.  When POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an error.

              When  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made by the -ok action is interpreted according
              to the system's message catalogue, as opposed to according to find's own message translations.


       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the time-related format directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.  Note that this will work incorrectly  if
       there are any filenames containing newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them, processing filenames in such a way that
       file or directory names containing single or double quotes, spaces or  newlines  are  correctly  handled.   The
       -name test comes before the -type test in order to avoid having to call stat(2) on every file.


       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  'file'  on  every  file in or below the current directory.  Notice that the braces are enclosed in single
       quote marks to protect them from interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The semicolon is  similarly  pro-
       tected by the use of a backslash, though single quotes could have been used in that case also.


       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse  the  filesystem  just  once, listing setuid files and directories into /root/suid.txt and large files
       into /root/big.txt.


       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the last twenty-four hours.   This  command
       works  this  way because the time since each file was last modified is divided by 24 hours and any remainder is
       discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will have to have a modification in  the  past  which  is
       less than 24 hours ago.


       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.


       find . -perm 664

       Search  for  files  which  have read and write permission for their owner, and group, but which other users can
       read but not write to.  Files which meet these criteria but have other permissions bits  set  (for  example  if
       someone can execute the file) will not be matched.


       find . -perm -664

       Search  for  files  which  have  read and write permission for their owner and group, and which other users can
       read, without regard to the presence of any extra permission bits (for example the executable bit).  This  will
       match a file which has mode 0777, for example.


       find . -perm /222

       Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their group, or anybody else).


       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All  three  of  these  commands  do the same thing, but the first one uses the octal representation of the file
       mode, and the other two use the symbolic form.  These commands all search  for  files  which  are  writable  by
       either  their  owner  or  their  group.   The files don't have to be writable by both the owner and group to be
       matched; either will do.


       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same thing; search for files which are writable by both their owner and their group.


       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search for files that are readable for everybody ( -perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at
       least one write bit set ( -perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( !  -perm  /111  and  !
       -perm /a+x respectively).


       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This  command  copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits files and directories named .snapshot
       (and anything in them).  It also omits files or directories whose name ends in ~, but not their contents.   The
       construct  -prune  -o  \(  ...  -print0 \) is quite common.  The idea here is that the expression before -prune
       matches things which are to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true,  so  the  following  -o
       ensures  that the right hand side is evaluated only for those directories which didn't get pruned (the contents
       of the pruned directories are not even visited, so their contents are irrelevant).  The expression on the right
       hand side of the -o is in parentheses only for clarity.  It emphasises that the -print0 action takes place only
       for things that didn't have -prune applied to them.  Because the default 'and' condition  between  tests  binds
       more tightly than -o, this is the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is going on.


       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn -o -d {}/.git -o -d {}/CVS ; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of projects and their associated SCM administrative directories, perform an effi-
       cient search for the projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In this example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories that have already  been  discovered  (for
       example  we do not search project3/src because we already found project3/.svn), but ensures sibling directories
       (project2 and project3) are found.


EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater than 0 if  errors  occur.    This  is
       deliberately a very broad description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should not rely on the correct-
       ness of the results of find.


SEE ALSO
       locate(1), locatedb(5), updatedb(1),  xargs(1),  chmod(1),  fnmatch(3),  regex(7),  stat(2),  lstat(2),  ls(1),
       printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3), Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters ('*', '?' or '[]' for example) used in filename patterns will match
       a leading '.', because IEEE POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

       The syntax -perm +MODE was deprecated in findutils-4.2.21, in favour of -perm /MODE.   As  of  findutils-4.3.3,
       -perm /000 now matches all files instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As  of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a nonzero value when it fails.  However,
       find will not exit immediately.  Previously, find's exit status was unaffected by the failure of -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD

       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3
       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

NON-BUGS
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...] [expression]

       This happens because *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in find actually  receiving  a  command  line
       like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That  command is of course not going to work.  Instead of doing things this way, you should enclose the pattern
       in quotes or escape the wildcard:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print


BUGS
       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX standard specifies for find, which  there-
       fore  cannot  be  fixed.   For  example,  the  -exec action is inherently insecure, and -execdir should be used
       instead.  Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The best way to report a bug is to use the form at http://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The  reason
       for  this is that you will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other comments about find(1)
       and about the findutils package in general can be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To  join  the  list,
       send email to bug-findutils-requestATgnu.org.



                                                                       FIND(1)