Man Pages

expand(1p) - phpMan expand(1p) - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  


EXPAND(1P)                 POSIX Programmer's Manual                EXPAND(1P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       expand - convert tabs to spaces

SYNOPSIS
       expand [-t tablist][file ...]

DESCRIPTION
       The expand utility shall write files or the standard input to the standard output with <tab>s replaced with one
       or more <space>s needed to pad to the next tab stop. Any <backspace>s shall be copied to the output  and  cause
       the  column  position count for tab stop calculations to be decremented; the column position count shall not be
       decremented below zero.

OPTIONS
       The expand utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 12.2,  Utility
       Syntax Guidelines.

       The following option shall be supported:

       -t  tablist
              Specify  the tab stops. The application shall ensure that the argument tablist consists of either a sin-
              gle positive decimal integer or a list of tabstops. If a single number is given, tabs shall be set  that
              number of column positions apart instead of the default 8.

       If a list of tabstops is given, the application shall ensure that it consists of a list of two or more positive
       decimal integers, separated by <blank>s or commas, in ascending order. The tabs shall be set at those  specific
       column  positions.  Each  tab  stop  N shall be an integer value greater than zero, and the list is in strictly
       ascending order. This is taken to mean that, from the start of a line of output, tabbing to  position  N  shall
       cause the next character output to be in the ( N+1)th column position on that line.

       In the event of expand having to process a <tab> at a position beyond the last of those specified in a multiple
       tab-stop list, the <tab> shall be replaced by a single <space> in the output.


OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       file   The pathname of a text file to be used as input.


STDIN
       See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES
       Input files shall be text files.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of expand:

       LANG   Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or  null.  (See  the  Base
              Definitions  volume  of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for the prece-
              dence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
              Determine  the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for exam-
              ple, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input files),  the  processing  of
              <tab>s  and  <space>s,  and  for the determination of the width in column positions each character would
              occupy on an output device.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages  writ-
              ten to standard error.

       NLSPATH
              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .


ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       The standard output shall be equivalent to the input files with <tab>s converted into the appropriate number of
       <space>s.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion

       >0     An error occurred.


CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       The expand utility shall terminate with an error message and non-zero exit status upon  encountering  difficul-
       ties accessing one of the file operands.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
       None.

RATIONALE
       The  expand utility is useful for preprocessing text files (before sorting, looking at specific columns, and so
       on) that contain <tab>s.

       See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 3.103, Column Position.

       The tablist option-argument consists of integers in ascending order. Utility Syntax Guideline 8  mandates  that
       expand shall accept the integers (within the single argument) separated using either commas or <blank>s.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       tabs, unexpand

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base  Specifica-
       tions  Issue  6,  Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard,  the  original  IEEE  and  The  Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                           EXPAND(1P)