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DVIPS(1)                                                              DVIPS(1)

       dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript

       dvips [ options ] file[.dvi]

       THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You can read it either in Emacs or with the
       standalone info  program  which  comes  with  the  GNU  texinfo  distribution  as

       The  program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by TeX (or by some other processor such as GFtoDVI) and
       converts it to PostScript, normally sending the result directly to the (laser)printer.  The  DVI  file  may  be
       specified  without  the .dvi extension.  Fonts used may either be resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps
       in PK files, or a 'virtual' combination of both.  If the mktexpk program is installed, dvips will automatically
       invoke METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already exist.

       For  more  information,  see the Texinfo manual dvips.texi, which should be installed somewhere on your system,
       hopefully accessible through the standard Info tree.

       -a     Conserve memory by making three passes over the .dvi file instead of two and only loading those  charac-
              ters  actually  used.  Generally only useful on machines with a very limited amount of memory, like some

       -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -b num Generate num copies of each page, but duplicating the page body rather than using the #numcopies option.
              This  can be useful in conjunction with a header file setting \bop-hook to do color separations or other
              neat tricks.

       -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.  (For collated copies, see the -C option below.)

       -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the PostScript file).  Slower  than  the  -c
              option, but easier on the hands, and faster than resubmitting the same PostScript file multiple times.

       -d num Set  the debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or for unusual fact-finding expeditions; it
              will work only if dvips has been compiled with the DEBUG option.  If nonzero, prints additional informa-
              tion on standard error.  The number is taken as a set of independent bits.  The meaning of each bit fol-
              lows.  1=specials; 2=paths; 4=fonts; 8=pages; 16=headers;  32=font  compression;  64=files;  128=memory;
              256=Kpathsea  stat(2)  calls;  512=Kpathsea  hash  table  lookups; 1024=Kpathsea path element expansion;
              2048=Kpathsea searches.  To trace everything having to do with file  searching  and  opening,  use  3650
              (2048 + 1024 + 512 + 64 + 2). To track all classes, you can use '-1' (output is extremely voluminous).

       -D num Set  the  resolution  in  dpi  (dots per inch) to num.  This affects the choice of bitmap fonts that are
              loaded and also the positioning of letters in resident PostScript fonts. Must be between 10  and  10000.
              This  affects both the horizontal and vertical resolution.  If a high resolution (something greater than
              400 dpi, say) is selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

       -e num Make sure that each character is placed at most this many pixels from its 'true'  resolution-independent
              position  on the page. The default value of this parameter is resolution dependent.  Allowing individual
              characters to 'drift' from their correctly rounded positions by a few pixels, while regaining  the  true
              position at the beginning of each new word, improves the spacing of letters in words.

       -E     makes  dvips  attempt  to  generate an EPSF file with a tight bounding box.  This only works on one-page
              files, and it only looks at marks made by characters and rules, not by any included graphics.  In  addi-
              tion,  it  gets  the glyph metrics from the tfm file, so characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm
              box may confuse it.  In addition, the bounding box might be a bit too loose if the character  glyph  has
              significant  left  or  right side bearings.  Nonetheless, this option works well for creating small EPSF
              files for equations or tables or the like.  (Note, of course, that dvips output is resolution  dependent
              and  thus  does not make very good EPSF files, especially if the images are to be scaled; use these EPSF
              files with a great deal of care.)

       -f     Run as a filter.  Read the .dvi file from standard input and write the PostScript  to  standard  output.
              The  standard  input  must  be  seekable, so it cannot be a pipe.  If you must use a pipe, write a shell
              script that copies the pipe output to a temporary file and then points dvips at this file.  This  option
              also  disables  the  automatic  reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the automatic
              sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration file; use  -F  after
              this option if you want both.

       -F     Causes  Control-D (ASCII code 4) to be appended as the very last character of the PostScript file.  This
              is useful when dvips is driving the printer directly instead of working through a spooler, as is  common
              on extremely small systems.  NOTE! DO NOT USE THIS OPTION!

       -G     Causes  dvips  to  shift non-printing characters to higher-numbered positions.  This may be useful some-

       -h name
              Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the name is simply '-' suppress all  header
              files from the output.)  This header file gets added to the PostScript userdict.

       -i     Make  each  section  be  a separate file.  Under certain circumstances, dvips will split the document up
              into 'sections' to be processed independently; this is most often done for memory reasons.   Using  this
              option  tells dvips to place each section into a separate file; the new file names are created replacing
              the suffix of the supplied output file name by a three-digit sequence number.  This option is most often
              used  in  conjunction  with the -S option which sets the maximum section length in pages.  For instance,
              some phototypesetters cannot print more than ten or so consecutive pages before running  out  of  steam;
              these options can be used to automatically split a book into ten-page sections, each to its own file.

       -j     Download  only  needed  characters  from Type 1 fonts. This is the default in the current release.  Some
              debugging flags trace this operation.  You can also control partial downloading on a per-font basis, via
              the file.

       -k     Print  crop marks.  This option increases the paper size (which should be specified, either with a paper
              size special or with the -T option) by a half inch in each dimension.  It  translates  each  page  by  a
              quarter  inch  and  draws cross-style crop marks.  It is mostly useful with typesetters that can set the
              page size automatically.

       -K     This option causes comments in included PostScript graphics, font files,  and  headers  to  be  removed.
              This  is  sometimes  necessary  to  get  around bugs in spoolers or PostScript post-processing programs.
              Specifically, the %%Page comments, when left in, often cause difficulties.  Use of this flag  can  cause
              some included graphics to fail, since the PostScript header macros from some software packages read por-
              tions of the input stream line by line, searching for a particular comment.  This option has been turned
              off by default because PostScript previewers and spoolers have been getting better.

       -l num The  last  page printed will be the first one numbered num Default is the last page in the document.  If
              the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any argument to the  -p  option)  is  treated  as  a
              sequence  number,  rather  than a value to compare with \count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with
              the ninth page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -m     Specify manual feed for printer.

       -mode mode
              Use mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font generation.  This overrides  any  value
              from configuration files.  With the default paths, explicitly specifying the mode also makes the program
              assume the fonts are in a subdirectory named mode.

       -M     Turns off the automatic font generation facility.  If any fonts are missing, commands  to  generate  the
              fonts are appended to the file missfont.log in the current directory; this file can then be executed and
              deleted to create the missing fonts.

       -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.

       -N     Turns off structured comments; this might be necessary on some systems that try to interpret  PostScript
              comments in weird ways, or on some PostScript printers.  Old versions of TranScript in particular cannot
              handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.

              This will disable the use of Omega extensions when interpreting DVI files.  By default,  the  additional
              opcodes  129  and  134  are  recognized  by dvips as Omega extensions and interpreted as requests to set
              2-byte characters. The only drawback is that the virtual font array will (at least temporarily)  require
              65536  positions  instead  of  the  default 256 positions, i.e. the memory requirements of dvips will be
              slightly larger. If you find this unacceptable or encounter another problem with the  Omega  extensions,
              you  can  switch  this extension off by using -noomega (but please do send a bug report if you find such
              problems - see the bug address in the AUTHORS section below).

       -o name
              The output will be sent to file name If no file name is given (i.e., -o is last on  the  command  line),
              the  default  name  is where the .dvi file was called file.dvi; if this option isn't given, any
              default in the configuration file is used.  If the first character of the supplied output file  name  is
              an  exclamation  mark, then the remainder will be used as an argument to popen; thus, specifying !lpr as
              the output file will automatically queue the file for printing.  This option also disables the automatic
              reading  of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was
              turned on with the -F option or in the configuration file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -O offset
              Move the origin by a certain amount.  The offset is  a  comma-separated  pair  of  dimensions,  such  as
              .1in,-.3cm  (in  the same syntax used in the papersize special).  The origin of the page is shifted from
              the default position (of one inch down, one inch to the right from the upper left corner of  the  paper)
              by this amount.

       -p num The  first  page printed will be the first one numbered num.  Default is the first page in the document.
              If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any argument to the -l option) is  treated  as  a
              sequence  number, rather than a value to compare with \count0 values.  Thus, using -p =3 will start with
              the third page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -pp pagelist
              A comma-separated list of pages and ranges (a-b) may be given, which will be interpreted as \count0 val-
              ues.   Pages  not specified will not be printed.  Multiple -pp options may be specified or all pages and
              page ranges can be specified with one -pp option.

       -P printername
              Sets up the output for the appropriate printer.  This is implemented by reading in config.printername  ,
              which  can  then  set the output pipe (as in, !lpr -Pprintername as well as the font paths and any other
     defaults for that printer only.  Note that  is  read  before  config.printername  In
              addition,  another  file  called  ~/.dvipsrc  is  searched for immediately after; this file is
              intended for user defaults.  If no -P command is given, the environment variable PRINTER is checked.  If
              that variable exists, and a corresponding configuration file exists, that configuration file is read in.

       -q     Run in quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages converted, etc.; report nothing  but  errors  to  standard

       -r     Stack pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be printed first.

              Run  securely.   -R2  disables both shell command execution in \special'{} (via backticks ' ) and config
              files (via the E option), and opening of any absolute filenames.   -R1  ,  the  default,  forbids  shell
              escapes but allows absolute filenames.  -R0 allows both.  The config file option is z

       -s     Causes  the  entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore pair.  This causes the file to not be
              truly conformant, and is thus not recommended, but is useful if you are driving the printer directly and
              don't care too much about the portability of the output.

       -S num Set  the  maximum  number  of  pages  in  each 'section'.  This option is most commonly used with the -i
              option; see that documentation above for more information.

       -t papertype
              This sets the paper type to papertype.  The papertype should be defined  in  one  of  the  configuration
              files,  along  with  the  appropriate  code to select it.  (Currently known types include letter, legal,
              ledger, a4, a3).  You can also specify -t landscape, which rotates a document by 90 degrees.  To  rotate
              a  document  whose size is not letter, you can use the -t option twice, once for the page size, and once
              for landscape.  You should not use any -t option when the DVI file already contains a papersize special,
              as is done by some LaTeX packages, notably hyperref.sty.

              The  upper  left corner of each page in the .dvi file is placed one inch from the left and one inch from
              the top.  Use of this option is highly dependent on the configuration file.   Note  that  executing  the
              letter  or  a4 or other PostScript operators cause the document to be nonconforming and can cause it not
              to print on certain printers, so the paper size should not execute such an operator if at all  possible.

       -T papersize
              Set  the  paper size to the given pair of dimensions.  This option takes its arguments in the same style
              as -O.  It overrides any paper size special in the dvi file.

       -u psmapfile
              Set psmapfile to be the file that dvips uses for looking  up  PostScript  font  aliases.   If  psmapfile
              begins  with  a  + character, then the rest of the name is used as the name of the map file, and the map
              file is appended to the list of map files (instead of replacing the list).  In either case, if psmapfile
              has no extension, then .map is added at the end.

       -U     Disable  a PostScript virtual memory saving optimization that stores the character metric information in
              the same string that is used to store the bitmap information.  This is only necessary when  driving  the
              Xerox  4045 PostScript interpreter.  It is caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in 'garbage'
              on the bottom of each character.  Not recommended unless you must drive this printer.

       -v     Print the dvips version number and exit.

       -V     Download non-resident PostScript fonts as bitmaps.  This requires use of 'gsftopk' or 'pstopk'  or  some
              other  such  program(s) in order to generate the required bitmap fonts; these programs are supplied with

       -x num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000.  Overrides the magnification specified in the .dvi file.   Must
              be between 10 and 100000.  Instead of an integer, num may be a real number for increased precision.

       -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -y num Set  the  magnification  ratio  to  num/1000 times the magnification specified in the .dvi file.  See -x

       -Y num Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -z     Pass html hyperdvi specials through to the output for eventual  distillation  into  PDF.   This  is  not
              enabled by default to avoid including the header files unnecessarily, and use of temporary files in cre-
              ating the output.

       -Z     Causes bitmapped fonts to be compressed before they are downloaded, thereby reducing  the  size  of  the
              PostScript font-downloading information.  Especially useful at high resolutions or when very large fonts
              are used.  Will slow down printing somewhat, especially on early 68000-based PostScript printers.

       mf(1), afm2tfm(1), tex(1), latex(1), lpr(1), dvips.texi.

       Dvipsk uses the same environment variables and algorithms for finding font files as TeX  and  its  friends  do.
       See the documentation for the Kpathsea library for details.  (Repeating it here is too cumbersome.)

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

       PRINTER: see above.

       PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

       Tomas Rokicki <>; extended to virtual fonts by Don Knuth.  Path searching and configura-
       tion modifications by

                                  27 May 2004                         DVIPS(1)