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DRACUT(8)                                                            DRACUT(8)



NAME
       dracut - create initial ramdisk images for preloading modules

SYNOPSIS
       dracut [OPTION]... <image>  <kernel-version>


DESCRIPTION
       dracut  creates  an initial image used by the kernel for preloading the block device modules (such as IDE, SCSI
       or RAID) which are needed to access the root filesystem.


   Options
       -f, --force
              overwrite existing initramfs file.

       -m, --modules LIST
              specify a space-separated list of dracut modules to call  when  building  the  initramfs.   Modules  are
              located in /usr/share/dracut/modules.d.

       -o, --omit LIST
              omit a space-separated list of dracut modules.

       -a, --add LIST
              add a space-separated list of dracut modules.

       -d, --drivers LIST
              specify  a  space-separated  list of kernel modules to exclusively include in the initramfs.  The kernel
              modules have to be specified without the ".ko" suffix.

       --add-drivers LIST
              specify a space-separated list of kernel modules to add to the initramfs.  The kernel modules have to be
              specified without the ".ko" suffix.

       --omit-drivers LIST
              specify a space-separated list of kernel modules to omit from the initramfs.  The kernel modules have to
              be specified without the ".ko" suffix.  Regular expressions are also allowed like ".*/fs/ocfs/.*".

              If [LIST] has multiple arguments, then you have to put these in quotes.

              example: # dracut --omit "module1 module2"  ...

       --filesystems LIST
              specify a space-separated list of kernel filesystem  modules  to  exclusively  include  in  the  generic
              initramfs.

       -k, --kmoddir {DIR}
              specify the directory, where to look for kernel modules

        --fwdir {DIR}
              specify additional directory, where to look for firmwares

       --kernel-only
              only install kernel drivers and firmware files

       --no-kernel
              do not install kernel drivers and firmware files

       --mdadmconf
              include local /etc/mdadm.conf

       --nomdadmconf
              do not include local /etc/mdadm.conf

       --strip
              strip binaries in the initramfs (default)

       --nostrip
              do not strip binaries in the initramfs

       -h, --help
              display help text and exit.

       --debug
              output debug information of the build process

       -v, --verbose
              verbose output during the build process

       -c, --conf FILE
              specify configuration file to use.  Default: /etc/dracut.conf

       --confdir DIR
              specify configuration directory to use.  Default: /etc/dracut.conf.d

       -l, --local
              local  mode.  Use  modules  from  the  current working directory instead of the system-wide installed in
              /usr/share/dracut/modules.d.  Useful when running dracut from a git checkout.

       -H, --hostonly
              Host-Only mode: Install only what is needed for booting the local host instead of a generic host.

       -i, --include SOURCE TARGET
              include the files in the SOURCE directory into the target directory in the final initramfs.

       -I, --install LIST
              install the space separated list of files into the initramfs.


KERNEL COMMAND LINE
       The root filesystem used by the kernel is specified in the boot configuration file, as always. The  traditional
       root=/dev/hda1  style device specification is allowed. If a label is used, as in root=LABEL=rootPart the initrd
       will search all available devices for an ext2 or ext3 filesystem with the appropriate  label,  and  mount  that
       device  as  the  root  filesystem.   root=UUID=uuidnumber  will  mount the partition with that UUID as the root
       filesystem.


   Standard
       init=<path to real init>

       root=<path to blockdevice>
              specify blockdevice to use as root filesystem.
               e.g.
                root=/dev/sda1
                root=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:1f.1-scsi-0:0:1:0-part1

       rootfstype=<filesystem type>
              "auto" if not specified, e.g. rootfstype=ext3

       rootflags=<mount options>
              specify additional mount options for the root filesystem. If not set, /etc/fstab of the real  root  will
              be parsed for special mount options and mounted accordingly.

       rootfallback=<path to blockdevice>
              specify  the  block  device  to use as the root filesystem, if the normal root cannot be found. This can
              only be a simple block device with a simple file system, for which the filesystem driver is either  com-
              piled in, or added manually to the initramfs. This parameter can be specified multiple times.

       rd_NO_FSTAB
              do not honor special mount options for the root filesystem found in /etc/fstab of the real root.


   Misc
       hostname=<hostname>
              set the initial hostname

       rdblacklist=<drivername>
              do not load kernel module <drivername> This parameter can be specified multiple times.

       rdloaddriver=<drivername>
              force loading kernel module <drivername> This parameter can be specified multiple times.

       rd_retry=<seconds>
              wait <seconds> until dracut tries to force assemble LVM or RAID volumes. If the root device is not found
              within <seconds>*2 then dracut fails and either drops to a shell, if rdshell is on  the  kernel  command
              line, or exits with 1, which normally causes a kernel panic.

              Default: rd_retry=40


   Debug
       rdinfo print informational output though "quiet" is set

       rdshell
              allow dropping to a shell, if root mounting fails

       rdinitdebug
              set -x for the dracut shell and logs to dmesg, console and /init.log

       rdbreak
              drop to a shell at the end

       rdbreak={cmdline|pre-udev|pre-trigger|initqueue|pre-mount|mount|pre-pivot}
              drop to a shell on defined breakpoint

       rdudevinfo
              set udev to loglevel info

       rdudevdebug
              set udev to loglevel debug


   I18N
        e.g.
         LANG=en_US.UTF-8
         SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16
         KEYTABLE=de-latin1-nodeadkeys

       KEYBOARDTYPE=sun|pc
              will be written to /etc/sysconfig/keyboard in the initramfs

       KEYTABLE=<keytable filename>
              will be written to /etc/sysconfig/keyboard in the initramfs

       SYSFONT=Console font
              will be written to /etc/sysconfig/i18n in the initramfs

       SYSFONTACM=Unicode font map
              will be written to /etc/sysconfig/i18n in the initramfs

       UNIMAP=Unicode font map
              will be written to /etc/sysconfig/i18n in the initramfs

       LANG=<locale>
              will be written to /etc/sysconfig/i18n in the initramfs


   LVM
       rd_NO_LVM
              disable LVM detection

       rd_LVM_VG=<volume group name>
              only  activate  the  volume  groups with the given name rd_LVM_VG can be specified multiple times on the
              kernel command line.

       rd_LVM_LV=<logical volume name>
              only activate the logical volumes with the given name rd_LVM_LV can be specified multiple times  on  the
              kernel command line.

       rd_NO_LVMCONF
              remove any /etc/lvm/lvm.conf, which may exist in the initramfs


   crypto LUKS
       rd_NO_LUKS
              disable crypto LUKS detection

       rd_LUKS_UUID=<luks uuid>
              only  activate  the  LUKS  partitions with the given UUID Any "luks-" of the LUKS UUID is removed before
              comparing to <luks uuid>.  The comparisons also matches, if <luks uuid> is only  the  beginning  of  the
              LUKS  UUID, so you don't have to specify the full UUID.  This parameter can be specified multiple times.

       rd_NO_CRYPTTAB
              do not check, if LUKS partition is in /etc/crypttab


   MD
       rd_NO_MD
              disable MD RAID detection

       rd_NO_MDIMSM
              no MD RAID for imsm/isw raids, use dmraid instead

       rd_NO_MDADMCONF
              ignore mdadm.conf included in initramfs

       rd_MD_UUID=<md uuid>
              only activate the raid sets with the given UUID.  This parameter can be specified multiple times.


   DMRAID
       rd_NO_DM
              disable DM RAID detection

       rd_DM_UUID=<dmraid uuid>
              only activate the raid sets with the given UUID.  This parameter can be specified multiple times.


   MULTIPATH
       rd_NO_MULTIPATH
              disable multipath in the initramfs


   FIPS
       fips=1 enable FIPS

       boot=<bootdevice>
              specify the device, where /boot is located
               e.g.
                boot=/dev/sda1
                boot=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:1f.1-scsi-0:0:1:0-part1
                boot=UUID=<uuid>
                boot=LABEL=<label>

              If the root device is encrypted, the /boot partition must reside on a seperate partition and has  to  be
              specified.


   Network
       ip={dhcp|on|any|dhcp6|auto6|ibft}
              dhcp|on|any:  get  ip  from dhcp server from all interfaces. If root=dhcp, loop sequentially through all
              interfaces (eth0, eth1, ...) and use the first with a valid DHCP root-path.

              auto6: IPv6 autoconfiguration

              dhcp6: IPv6 DHCP

              ibft: iBFT autoconfiguration


       ip=<interface>:{dhcp|on|any|dhcp6|auto6}
              dhcp|on|any|dhcp6: get ip from dhcp server on a specific interface auto6: do IPv6 autoconfiguration This
              parameter can be specified multiple times.


       ip=<client-IP>:[<server-id>]:<gateway-IP>:<netmask>:<clienthostname>:<interface>:{none|off}
              explicit  network  configuration.  If  you  want  do  define  a  IPv6  address, put it in brackets (e.g.
              [2001:DB8::1]).  This parameter can be specified multiple times.

       ifname=<interface>:<MAC>
              Assign network device name <interface> (ie eth0) to the NIC with MAC <MAC>.  Note that if you  use  this
              option  you  must  specify  an  ifname=  argument for all interfaces used in ip= or fcoe= arguments This
              parameter can be specified multiple times.

       bootdev=<interface>
              specify network interface to use routing and netroot information from.  Required if multiple  ip=  lines
              are used.

       nameserver=<IP> [nameserver=<IP> ...]
              specify nameserver(s) to use

       vlan=<vlanname>:<phydevice>
              Setup vlan device named <vlanname> on <phydeivce>.
               We  support  the  four  styles  of  vlan names: VLAN_PLUS_VID (vlan0005), VLAN_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD (vlan5),
              DEV_PLUS_VID (eth0.0005), DEV_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD (eth0.5) This parameter can be specified multiple times.

       bridge=<bridgename>:<ethnames>
              Setup bridge <bridgename> with <ethnames>. <ethnames> is a comma-separated list of  physical  (ethernet)
              interfaces. Bridge without parameters assumes bridge=br0:eth0

       bond=<bondname>[:<bondslaves>:[:<options>]]
              Setup bonding device <bondname> on top of <bondslaves>. <bondslaves> is a comma-separated list of physi-
              cal (ethernet) interfaces. <options> is a comma-separated list on bonding options (modinfo  bonding  for
              details) in format compatible with initscripts. If <options> includes multi-valued arp_ip_target option,
              then   its   values   should   be   separated   by   semicolon.   Bond   without   parameters    assumes
              bond=bond0:eth0,eth1:mode=balance-rr

       biosdevname={0|1]}
              turn off/on biosdevname network interface renaming

   NFS
       root=[<server-ip>:]<root-dir>[:<nfs-options>]
              mount nfs share from <server-ip>:/<root-dir>, if no server-ip is given, use dhcp next_server. if server-
              ip is an IPv6 address it has to be put in brackets, e.g. [2001:DB8::1].  NFS  options  can  be  appended
              with the prefix ":" or "," and are seperated by ",".

       root=nfs:[<server-ip>:]<root-dir>[:<nfs-options>]

       root=nfs4:[<server-ip>:]<root-dir>[:<nfs-options>]

       root=dhcp|dhcp6
              root=dhcp alone directs initrd to look at the DHCP root-path where NFS options can be specified.
                  root-path=<server-ip>:<root-dir>[,<nfs-options>]
                  root-path=nfs:<server-ip>:<root-dir>[,<nfs-options>]
                  root-path=nfs4:<server-ip>:<root-dir>[,<nfs-options>]

       root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=[<server-ip>:]<root-dir>[,<nfs-options>]
              Deprecated! kernel Documentation/filesystems/nfsroot.txt defines this method.  This is supported by dra-
              cut but not recommended.

       rd_NFS_DOMAIN=<NFSv4 domain name>
              Set the NFSv4 domain name. Will overwrite the settings in /etc/idmap.conf.


   iSCSI
       root=iscsi:[username:password[:reverse:password]@][<servername>]:[<protocol>]:[<port>]
       [:[<iscsi_iface_name>]:[<netdev_name>]]:[<LUN>]:<targetname>
              protocol defaults to "6", LUN defaults to "0".

              If the "servername" field is provided by BOOTP or DHCP, then that field  is  used  in  conjunction  with
              other  associated  fields  to  contact  the  boot server in the Boot stage (Section 7).  However, if the
              "servername" field is not provided, then the "targetname" field is then used in  the  Discovery  Service
              stage in conjunction with other associated fields.

              http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4173


       root=iscsi:[username:password[:reverse:password]@][<servername>]:[<protocol>]:[<port>]
       [:[<iscsi_iface_name>]:[<netdev_name>]]:[<LUN>]:<targetname>
              e.g. root=iscsi:192.168.50.1::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target0

              If servername is an IPv6 address, it has to be put in brackets.
               e.g.
                root=iscsi:[2001:DB8::1]::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target0

       root=??? netroot=iscsi:[username:password[:reverse:password]@][<servername>]:[<protocol>]:[<port>]
       [:[<iscsi_iface_name>]:[<netdev_name>]]:[<LUN>]:<targetname> ...
              multiple netroot options allow setting up multiple iscsi disks
               e.g.
                root=UUID=12424547
                netroot=iscsi:192.168.50.1::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target0
                netroot=iscsi:192.168.50.1::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target1

              If servername is an IPv6 address, it has to be put in brackets.
               e.g.
                netroot=iscsi:[2001:DB8::1]::::iqn.2009-06.dracut:target0

       root=??? iscsi_initiator=<initiator> iscsi_target_name=<target name> iscsi_target_ip=<target ip>
       iscsi_target_port=<target port> iscsi_target_group=<target group> iscsi_username=<username>
       iscsi_password=<password> iscsi_in_username=<in username> iscsi_in_password=<in password>
              manually specify all iscsistart parameter (see iscsistart --help)


       root=??? netroot=iscsi iscsi_firmware
              will read the iscsi parameter from the BIOS firmware


       iscsi_param=<param>
              <param>  will  be  passed  as "--param <param>" to iscsistart.  This parameter can be specified multiple
              times.
               e.g.:
                 "netroot=iscsi iscsi_firmware iscsi_param=node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout=30"
                 will result in
                 iscsistart -b --param node.session.timeo.replacement_timeout=30


   FCoE
       fcoe=<edd|interface|MAC>:<dcb|nodcb>
              Try to connect to a FCoE SAN through the NIC specified by <interface> or <MAC> or  EDD  settings.   This
              parameter can be specified multiple times.


   NBD
       root=nbd:<server>:<port>[:<fstype>][:<mountopts>]
              mount nbd share from <server>

       root=dhcp
              with  dhcp root-path=nbd:<server>:<port>[:<fstype>][:<mountopts>] root=dhcp alone directs initrd to look
              at the DHCP root-path where NBD options can be specified.  This syntax is only usable in cases where you
              are directly mounting the volume as the rootfs.



   DASD
       rd_DASD_MOD=....
              same syntax as the kernel module parameter (s390 only)


       rd_DASD=<dasd adaptor device bus ID>[,readonly=X][,use_diag=X][,erplog=X][,failfast=X]
              activate DASD device with the given adaptor device bus ID and setting the sysfs attributes to the speci-
              fied values This parameter can be specified multiple times.


   ZFCP
       rd_ZFCP=<zfcp adaptor device bus ID>,<WWPN>,<FCPLUN>
              rd_ZFCP can be specified multiple times on the kernel command line.

              example: rd_ZFCP=0.0.4000,0x5005076300C213e9,0x5022000000000000

       rd_NO_ZFCPCONF
              ignore zfcp.conf included in the initramfs


   ZNET
       rd_ZNET=<nettype>,<subchannels>,<options>
              rd_ZNET can be specified multiple times on the kernel command line. Examples:
                  rd_ZNET=qeth,0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602,layer2=1,portname=foo
                  rd_ZNET=ctc,0.0.0600,0.0.0601,0.0.0602,protocol=bar


   Plymouth Boot Splash
       rd_NO_PLYMOUTH
              do not start plymouth. This will not work with encrypted partitions.


FILES
       /var/log/dracut.log

       /etc/dracut.conf
              see dracut.conf(5)

   Configuration in the Initramfs
       /etc/conf.d/
              Any files found in /etc/conf.d/ will be sourced in the initramfs to set  initial  values.  Command  line
              options will override these values set in the configuration files.

       /etc/cmdline
              Can contain additional command line options.


AUTHORS
       Harald Hoyer <haraldATredhat.com>
       Victor Lowther <victor.lowtherATgmail.com>
       Warren Togami <wtogamiATredhat.com>
       Jeremy Katz <katzjATredhat.com>
       Philippe Seewer <philippe.seewerATbfh.ch>
       David Dillow <daveATthedillows.org>

AVAILABILITY
       The  dracut  command  is part of the dracut package and is available from http://sourceforge.net/apps/trac/dra-
       cut/wiki


SEE ALSO
       dracut.conf(5)



Linux                              June 2009                         DRACUT(8)