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DOSFSCK(8)                   MAINTENANCE COMMANDS                   DOSFSCK(8)

       dosfsck - check and repair MS-DOS file systems

       dosfsck|fsck.msdos|fsck.vfat [-aAflnrtvVwy] [-d path -d ...]  [-u path -u ...]  device

       dosfsck verifies the consistency of MS-DOS file systems and optionally tries to repair them. The following file
       system problems can be corrected (in this order):

       -      FAT contains invalid cluster numbers. Cluster is changed to EOF.
       -      File's cluster chain contains a loop. The loop is broken.
       -      Bad clusters (read errors). The clusters are marked bad and they are removed  from  files  owning  them.
              This check is optional.
       -      Directories with a large number of bad entries (probably corrupt). The directory can be deleted.
       -      Files . and .. are non-directories. They can be deleted or renamed.
       -      Directories . and .. in root directory. They are deleted.
       -      Bad file names. They can be renamed.
       -      Duplicate directory entries. They can be deleted or renamed.
       -      Directories with non-zero size field. Size is set to zero.
       -      Directory . does not point to parent directory. The start pointer is adjusted.
       -      Directory .. does not point to parent of parent directory. The start pointer is adjusted.
       -      Start cluster number of a file is invalid. The file is truncated.
       -      File contains bad or free clusters. The file is truncated.
       -      File's cluster chain is longer than indicated by the size fields. The file is truncated.
       -      Two  or  more files share the same cluster(s). All but one of the files are truncated. If the file being
              truncated is a directory file that has already been read, the file system check is restarted after trun-
       -      File's cluster chain is shorter than indicated by the size fields. The file is truncated.
       -      Clusters are marked as used but are not owned by a file. They are marked as free.

       Additionally, the following problems are detected, but not repaired:

       -      Invalid parameters in boot sector.
       -      Absence of . and .. entries in non-root directories

       When dosfsck checks a file system, it accumulates all changes in memory and performs them only after all checks
       are complete. This can be disabled with the -w option.

       -a     Automatically repair the file system. No user intervention is necessary.  Whenever there  is  more  than
              one method to solve a problem, the least destructive approach is used.

       -A     Use  Atari  variation of the MS-DOS filesystem. This is default if dosfsck is run on an Atari, then this
              option turns off Atari format. There are some minor differences in Atari format: Some boot sector fields
              are  interpreted  slightly different, and the special FAT entries for end-of-file and bad cluster can be
              different. Under MS-DOS 0xfff8 is used for EOF and Atari employs 0xffff by  default,  but  both  systems
              recognize  all  values  from  0xfff8...0xffff as end-of-file.  MS-DOS uses only 0xfff7 for bad clusters,
              where on Atari values 0xfff0...0xfff7 are for this purpose (but the standard value is still 0xfff7).

       -d     Delete the specified file. If more that one file with that name exists, the first one is deleted.

       -f     Salvage unused cluster chains to files. By default, unused clusters are added to  the  free  disk  space
              except in auto mode (-a).

       -l     List path names of files being processed.

       -n     No-operation mode: non-interactively check for errors, but don't write anything to the filesystem.

       -r     Interactively  repair  the  file  system.  The  user is asked for advice whenever there is more than one
              approach to fix an inconsistency.

       -t     Mark unreadable clusters as bad.

       -u     Try to undelete the specified file. dosfsck tries to allocate a chain of contiguous unallocated clusters
              beginning with the start cluster of the undeleted file.

       -v     Verbose mode. Generates slightly more output.

       -V     Perform  a  verification  pass.  The  file system check is repeated after the first run. The second pass
              should never report any fixable errors. It may take considerably longer than the first pass, because the
              first pass may have generated long list of modifications that have to be scanned for each disk read.

       -w     Write changes to disk immediately.

       -y     Same as -a (automatically repair filesystem) for compatibility with other fsck tools.

       If -a and -r are absent, the file system is only checked, but not repaired.

       0      No recoverable errors have been detected.

       1      Recoverable errors have been detected or dosfsck has discovered an internal inconsistency.

       2      Usage error. dosfsck did not access the file system.

       fsck0000.rec, fsck0001.rec, ...
              When  recovering  from  a  corrupted  file  system,  dosfsck  dumps  recovered  data  into  files  named
              'fsckNNNN.rec' in the top level directory of the file system.

       Does not create . and .. files where necessary. Does not remove entirely empty directories.  Should  give  more
       diagnostic messages. Undeleting files should use a more sophisticated algorithm.

       Werner  Almesberger  <>  Extensions  (FAT32,  VFAT) by and current maintainer:
       Roman Hodek <>

Linux                          December 31 1997                     DOSFSCK(8)