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DIALOG(1)                                                            DIALOG(1)



NAME
       dialog - display dialog boxes from shell scripts

SYNOPSIS
       dialog --clear
       dialog --create-rc file
       dialog --print-maxsize
       dialog common-options box-options

DESCRIPTION
       Dialog  is a program that will let you to present a variety of questions or display messages using dialog boxes
       from a shell script.  These types of dialog boxes are implemented (though not all are necessarily compiled into
       dialog):

              calendar, checklist, dselect, editbox, form, fselect, gauge, infobox, inputbox, inputmenu, menu,
              mixedform, mixedgauge, msgbox (message), passwordbox, passwordform, pause, progressbox, radiolist,
              tailbox, tailboxbg, textbox, timebox, and yesno (yes/no).

       You can put more than one dialog box into a script:

       -    Use  the "--and-widget" token to force Dialog to proceed to the next dialog unless you have pressed ESC to
            cancel, or

       -    Simply add the tokens for the next dialog box, making a chain.  Dialog stops chaining when the return code
            from a dialog is nonzero, e.g., Cancel or No (see DIAGNOSTICS).

       Some  widgets,  e.g.,  checklist, will write text to dialog's output.  Normally that is the standard error, but
       there are options for changing this: "--output-fd", "--stderr" and "--stdout".  No text is written if the  Can-
       cel button (or ESC) is pressed; dialog exits immediately in that case.

OPTIONS
       All  options  begin  with  "--" (two ASCII hyphens, for the benefit of those using systems with deranged locale
       support).

       A "--" by itself is used as an escape, i.e., the next token on the command-line is not treated as an option.
              dialog --title -- --Not an option

       The "--args" option tells dialog to list the command-line parameters to the standard  error.   This  is  useful
       when  debugging  complex  scripts using the "--" and "--file", since the command-line may be rewritten as these
       are expanded.

       The "--file" option tells dialog to read parameters from the file named as its value.
              dialog --file parameterfile
       Blanks not within double-quotes are discarded (use backslashes to quote single characters).  The result is  in-
       serted  into the command-line, replacing "--file" and its option value.  Interpretation of the command-line re-
       sumes from that point.  If parameterfile begins with "&", dialog interprets the following text as  a  file  de-
       scriptor number rather than a filename.

   Common Options
       --ascii-lines
              Rather than draw graphics lines around boxes, draw ASCII "+" and "-" in the same place.  See also "--no-
              lines".

       --aspect ratio
              This gives you some control over the box dimensions when using auto sizing (specifying 0 for height  and
              width).   It represents width / height.  The default is 9, which means 9 characters wide to every 1 line
              high.

       --backtitle backtitle
              Specifies a backtitle string to be displayed on the backdrop, at the top of the screen.

       --begin y x
              Specify the position of the upper left corner of a dialog box on the screen.

       --cancel-label string
              Override the label used for "Cancel" buttons.

       --clear
              Clears the widget screen, keeping only the screen_color background.  Use this when you  combine  widgets
              with  "--and-widget" to erase the contents of a previous widget on the screen, so it won't be seen under
              the contents of a following widget.  Understand this as the complement of "--keep-window".   To  compare
              the effects, use these:

              All three widgets visible, staircase effect, ordered 1,2,3:
                 dialog                         --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                     --and-widget               --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                     --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              Only the last widget is left visible:
                 dialog           --clear       --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                     --and-widget --clear       --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                     --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              All three widgets visible, staircase effect, ordered 3,2,1:
                 dialog           --keep-window --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                     --and-widget --keep-window --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                     --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              First and third widget visible, staircase effect, ordered 3,1:
                 dialog           --keep-window --begin 2 2 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                     --and-widget --clear       --begin 4 4 --yesno "" 0 0 \
                     --and-widget               --begin 6 6 --yesno "" 0 0

              Note,  if you want to restore original console colors and send your cursor home after the dialog program
              has exited, use the clear (1) command.

       --colors
              Interpret embedded "\Z" sequences in the dialog text by the following character, which tells  dialog  to
              set  colors  or  video  attributes:  0 through 7 are the ANSI used in curses: black, red, green, yellow,
              blue, magenta, cyan and white respectively.  Bold is set by 'b', reset by 'B'.  Reverse is set  by  'r',
              reset by 'R'.  Underline is set by 'u', reset by 'U'.  The settings are cumulative, e.g., "\Zb\Z1" makes
              the following text bold (perhaps bright) red.  Restore normal settings with "\Zn".

       --column-separator string
              Tell dialog to split data for radio/checkboxes and menus on the occurrences of the given string, and  to
              align the split data into columns.

       --cr-wrap
              Interpret  embedded newlines in the dialog text as a newline on the screen.  Otherwise, dialog will only
              wrap lines where needed to fit inside the text box.  Even though you can control line breaks with  this,
              dialog  will still wrap any lines that are too long for the width of the box.  Without cr-wrap, the lay-
              out of your text may be formatted to look nice in the source code of your script without  affecting  the
              way it will look in the dialog.

              See also the "--no-collapse" and "--trim" options.

       --create-rc file
              When dialog supports run-time configuration, this can be used to dump a sample configuration file to the
              file specified by file.

       --defaultno
              Make the default value of the yes/no box a No.  Likewise, make the default button of widgets  that  pro-
              vide  "OK"  and "Cancel" a Cancel.  If "--nocancel" or "--visit-items" are given those options overrides
              this, making the default button always "Yes" (internally the same as "OK").

       --default-item string
              Set the default item in a checklist, form or menu box.  Normally the first item in the box  is  the  de-
              fault.

       --exit-label string
              Override the label used for "EXIT" buttons.

       --extra-button
              Show an extra button, between "OK" and "Cancel" buttons.

       --extra-label string
              Override the label used for "Extra" buttons.  Note: for inputmenu widgets, this defaults to "Rename".

       --help Prints the help message to dialog's output.  The help message is printed if no options are given.

       --help-button
              Show  a  help-button  after "OK" and "Cancel" buttons, i.e., in checklist, radiolist and menu boxes.  If
              "--item-help" is also given, on exit the return status will be the same as for the "OK" button, and  the
              item-help  text will be written to dialog's output after the token "HELP".  Otherwise, the return status
              will indicate that the Help button was pressed, and no message printed.

       --help-label string
              Override the label used for "Help" buttons.

       --help-status
              If the help-button is selected, writes the checklist, radiolist or form information after the  item-help
              "HELP"  information.  This can be used to reconstruct the state of a checklist after processing the help
              request.

       --ignore
              Ignore options that dialog does not recognize.  Some well-known ones such as "--icon" are  ignored  any-
              way, but this is a better choice for compatibility with other implementations.

       --input-fd fd
              Read  keyboard  input from the given file descriptor.  Most dialog scripts read from the standard input,
              but the gauge widget reads a pipe (which is always standard input).  Some  configurations  do  not  work
              properly  when dialog tries to reopen the terminal.  Use this option (with appropriate juggling of file-
              descriptors) if your script must work in that type of environment.

       --insecure
              Makes the password widget friendlier but less secure, by echoing asterisks for each character.

       --item-help
              Interpret the tags data for checklist, radiolist and menu boxes adding a column which  is  displayed  in
              the bottom line of the screen, for the currently selected item.

       --keep-tite
              Normally  dialog checks to see if it is running in an xterm, and in that case tries to suppress the ini-
              tialization strings that would make it switch to the alternate screen.  Switching between the normal and
              alternate  screens is visually distracting in a script which runs dialog several times.  Use this option
              to allow dialog to use those initialization strings.

       --keep-window
              Normally when dialog performs several tailboxbg widgets connected by "--and-widget", it clears  the  old
              widget from the screen by painting over it.  Use this option to suppress that repainting.

              At  exit,  dialog  repaints all of the widgets which have been marked with "--keep-window", even if they
              are not tailboxbg widgets.  That causes them to be repainted in reverse order.  See  the  discussion  of
              the "--clear" option for examples.

       --max-input size
              Limit input strings to the given size.  If not specified, the limit is 2048.

       --no-cancel

       --nocancel
              Suppress  the "Cancel" button in checklist, inputbox and menu box modes.  A script can still test if the
              user pressed the ESC key to cancel to quit.

       --no-collapse
              Normally dialog converts tabs to spaces and reduces multiple spaces to a single space for text which  is
              displayed  in  a  message  boxes,  etc.  Use this option to disable that feature.  Note that dialog will
              still wrap text, subject to the "--cr-wrap" and "--trim" options.

       --no-kill
              Tells dialog to put the tailboxbg box in the background, printing its process  id  to  dialog's  output.
              SIGHUP is disabled for the background process.

       --no-label string
              Override the label used for "No" buttons.

       --no-lines
              Rather than draw lines around boxes, draw spaces in the same place.  See also "--ascii-lines".

       --no-ok

       --nook Suppress the "OK" button in checklist, inputbox and menu box modes.  A script can still test if the user
              pressed the "Enter" key to accept the data.

       --no-shadow
              Suppress shadows that would be drawn to the right and bottom of each dialog box.

       --ok-label string
              Override the label used for "OK" buttons.

       --output-fd fd
              Direct output to the given file descriptor.  Most dialog scripts write to the standard error, but  error
              messages may also be written there, depending on your script.

       --separator string

       --output-separatorstring
              Specify a string that will separate the output on dialog's output from checklists, rather than a newline
              (for --separate-output) or a space.  This applies to other widgets such as  forms  and  editboxes  which
              normally use a newline.

       --print-maxsize
              Print  the  maximum  size  of dialog boxes, i.e., the screen size, to dialog's output.  This may be used
              alone, without other options.

       --print-size
              Prints the size of each dialog box to dialog's output.

       --print-version
              Prints dialog's version to dialog's output.  This may be used alone, without other options.

       --separate-output
              For checklist widgets, output result one line at a time, with no quoting.  This facilitates  parsing  by
              another program.

       --separate-widget string
              Specify  a  string  that  will separate the output on dialog's output from each widget.  This is used to
              simplify parsing the result of a dialog with several widgets.  If this option is not given, the  default
              separator string is a tab character.

       --shadow
              Draw a shadow to the right and bottom of each dialog box.

       --single-quoted
              Use  single-quoting  as  needed (and no quotes if unneeded) for the output of checklist's as well as the
              item-help text.  If this option is not set, dialog uses double quotes around each item.   That  requires
              occasional use of backslashes to make the output useful in shell scripts.

       --size-err
              Check  the  resulting size of a dialog box before trying to use it, printing the resulting size if it is
              larger than the screen.  (This option is obsolete, since all new-window calls are checked).

       --sleep secs
              Sleep (delay) for the given number of seconds after processing a dialog box.

       --stderr
              Direct output to the standard error.  This is the default, since curses normally writes  screen  updates
              to the standard output.

       --stdout
              Direct  output  to the standard output.  This option is provided for compatibility with Xdialog, however
              using it in portable scripts is not recommended, since curses normally writes its screen updates to  the
              standard  output.  If you use this option, dialog attempts to reopen the terminal so it can write to the
              display.  Depending on the platform and your environment, that may fail.

       --tab-correct
              Convert each tab character to one or more spaces (for the textbox widget; otherwise to a single  space).
              Otherwise, tabs are rendered according to the curses library's interpretation.

       --tab-len n
              Specify  the number of spaces that a tab character occupies if the "--tab-correct" option is given.  The
              default is 8.  This option is only effective for the textbox widget.

       --timeout secs
              Timeout (exit with error code) if no user response within the given number of seconds.  This is overrid-
              den if the background "--tailboxbg is used.  A timeout of zero seconds is ignored.

       --title title
              Specifies a title string to be displayed at the top of the dialog box.

       --trace filename
              logs keystrokes to the given file.  Use control/T to log a picture of the current dialog window.

       --trim eliminate leading blanks, trim literal newlines and repeated blanks from message text.

              See also the "--cr-wrap" and "--no-collapse" options.

       --version
              Same as "--print-version".

       --visit-items
              Modify  the  tab-traversal of checklist, radiobox, menubox and inputmenu to include the list of items as
              one of the states.  This is useful as a visual aid, i.e., the cursor position helps some users.

              When this option is given, the cursor is initially placed on the list.  Abbreviations (the first  letter
              of  the tag) apply to the list items.  If you tab to the button row, abbreviations apply to the buttons.

       --yes-label string
              Override the label used for "Yes" buttons.

   Box Options
       All dialog boxes have at least three parameters:

       text the caption or contents of the box.

       height
            the height of the dialog box.

       width
            the width of the dialog box.

       Other parameters depend on the box type.

       --calendar text height width day month year
              A calendar box displays month, day and year in separately adjustable windows.  If the  values  for  day,
              month or year are missing or negative, the current date's corresponding values are used.  You can incre-
              ment or decrement any of those using the left-, up-, right- and down-arrows.  Use vi-style h, j, k and l
              for  moving  around  the  array of days in a month.  Use tab or backtab to move between windows.  If the
              year is given as zero, the current date is used as an initial value.

              On exit, the date is printed in the form day/month/year.

       --checklist text height width list-height [ tag item status ] ...
              A checklist box is similar to a menu box; there are multiple entries presented in the form  of  a  menu.
              Instead  of  choosing  one entry among the entries, each entry can be turned on or off by the user.  The
              initial on/off state of each entry is specified by status.

              On exit, a list of the tag strings of those entries that are turned on will be printed on dialog's  out-
              put.   If  the "--separate-output" option is not given, the strings will be quoted to make it simple for
              scripts to separate them.  See the "--single-quoted" option, which modifies the quoting behavior.

       --dselect filepath height width
              The directory-selection dialog displays a text-entry window in which you can type a directory, and above
              that a windows with directory names.

              Here filepath can be a filepath in which case the directory window will display the contents of the path
              and the text-entry window will contain the preselected directory.

              Use tab or arrow keys to move between the windows.  Within the directory window, use the  up/down  arrow
              keys to scroll the current selection.  Use the space-bar to copy the current selection into the text-en-
              try window.

              Typing any printable characters switches focus to the text-entry window, entering that character as well
              as scrolling the directory window to the closest match.

              Use  a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current value in the text-entry window and exit.

              On exit, the contents of the text-entry window are written to dialog's output.

       --editbox filepath height width
              The edit-box dialog displays a copy of the file.  You may edit it using the backspace, delete and cursor
              keys to correct typing errors.  It also recognizes pageup/pagedown.  Unlike the --inputbox, you must tab
              to the "OK" or "Cancel" buttons to close the dialog.  Pressing the "Enter" key within the box will split
              the corresponding line.

              On exit, the contents of the edit window are written to dialog's output.

       --form text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen ] ...
              The  form  dialog  displays a form consisting of labels and fields, which are positioned on a scrollable
              window by coordinates given in the script.  The field length flen and input-length ilen  tell  how  long
              the  field  can  be.  The former defines the length shown for a selected field, while the latter defines
              the permissible length of the data entered in the field.

              -  If flen is zero, the corresponding field cannot be altered.  and the contents of the field  determine
                 the displayed-length.

              -  If flen is negative, the corresponding field cannot be altered, and the negated value of flen is used
                 as the displayed-length.

              -  If ilen is zero, it is set to flen.

              Use up/down arrows (or control/N, control/P) to move between fields.  Use tab to move between windows.

              On exit, the contents of the form-fields are written to dialog's output, each field separated by a  new-
              line.  The text used to fill non-editable fields (flen is zero or negative) is not written out.

       --fselect filepath height width
              The  fselect  (file-selection)  dialog displays a text-entry window in which you can type a filename (or
              directory), and above that two windows with directory names and filenames.

              Here filepath can be a filepath in which case the file and directory windows will display  the  contents
              of the path and the text-entry window will contain the preselected filename.

              Use  tab  or  arrow keys to move between the windows.  Within the directory or filename windows, use the
              up/down arrow keys to scroll the current selection.  Use the space-bar to copy the current selection in-
              to the text-entry window.

              Typing any printable characters switches focus to the text-entry window, entering that character as well
              as scrolling the directory and filename windows to the closest match.

              Typing the space character forces dialog to complete the current name (up to the point where  there  may
              be a match against more than one entry).

              Use  a carriage return or the "OK" button to accept the current value in the text-entry window and exit.

              On exit, the contents of the text-entry window are written to dialog's output.

       --gauge text height width [percent]
              A gauge box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.  The meter indicates the percentage.  New per-
              centages  are  read from standard input, one integer per line.  The meter is updated to reflect each new
              percentage.  If the standard input reads the string "XXX", then the first line following is taken as  an
              integer  percentage, then subsequent lines up to another "XXX" are used for a new prompt.  The gauge ex-
              its when EOF is reached on the standard input.

              The percent value denotes the initial percentage shown in the meter.  If not specified, it is zero.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  The widget accepts no input, so the exit status is  al-
              ways OK.

       --infobox text height width
              An  info box is basically a message box.  However, in this case, dialog will exit immediately after dis-
              playing the message to the user.  The screen is not cleared when dialog exits, so that the message  will
              remain  on  the  screen until the calling shell script clears it later.  This is useful when you want to
              inform the user that some operations are carrying on that may require some time to finish.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK" button is provided for input, but  an  ESC
              exit status may be returned.

       --inputbox text height width [init]
              An input box is useful when you want to ask questions that require the user to input a string as the an-
              swer.  If init is supplied it is used to initialize the input string.  When  entering  the  string,  the
              backspace,  delete  and cursor keys can be used to correct typing errors.  If the input string is longer
              than can fit in the dialog box, the input field will be scrolled.

              On exit, the input string will be printed on dialog's output.

       --inputmenu text height width menu-height [ tag item ] ...
              An inputmenu box is very similar to an ordinary menu box.  There are  only  a  few  differences  between
              them:

              1.  The entries are not automatically centered but left adjusted.

              2.  An extra button (called Rename) is implied to rename the current item when it is pressed.

              3.  It  is  possible  to rename the current entry by pressing the Rename button.  Then dialog will write
                  the following on dialog's output.

                  RENAMED <tag> <item>

       --menu text height width menu-height [ tag item ] ...
              As its name suggests, a menu box is a dialog box that can be used to present a list of  choices  in  the
              form  of a menu for the user to choose.  Choices are displayed in the order given.  Each menu entry con-
              sists of a tag string and an item string.  The tag gives the entry a name to  distinguish  it  from  the
              other  entries  in  the  menu.  The item is a short description of the option that the entry represents.
              The user can move between the menu entries by pressing the cursor keys, the first letter of the tag as a
              hot-key,  or  the  number keys 1-9. There are menu-height entries displayed in the menu at one time, but
              the menu will be scrolled if there are more entries than that.

              On exit the tag of the chosen menu entry will be printed on dialog's output.  If the "--help-button" op-
              tion is given, the corresponding help text will be printed if the user selects the help button.

       --mixedform text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen itype ] ...
              The  mixedform  dialog displays a form consisting of labels and fields, much like the --form dialog.  It
              differs by adding a field-type parameter to each field's description.  Each bit in the type  denotes  an
              attribute of the field:

              1    hidden, e.g., a password field.

              2    readonly, e.g., a label.

       --mixedgauge text height width percent [ tag1 item1 ] ...
              A mixedgauge box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.  The meter indicates the percentage.

              It  also  displays  a list of the tag- and item-values at the top of the box.  See dialog(3) for the tag
              values.

              The text is shown as a caption between the list and meter.  The percent value denotes the  initial  per-
              centage shown in the meter.

              No provision is made for reading data from the standard input as --gauge does.

              On  exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  The widget accepts no input, so the exit status is al-
              ways OK.

       --msgbox text height width
              A message box is very similar to a yes/no box.  The only difference between a message box and  a  yes/no
              box  is that a message box has only a single OK button.  You can use this dialog box to display any mes-
              sage you like.  After reading the message, the user can press the ENTER key so that dialog will exit and
              the calling shell script can continue its operation.

              If the message is too large for the space, dialog may allow you to scroll it, provided that the underly-
              ing curses implementation is capable enough.  In this case, a percentage is shown in  the  base  of  the
              widget.

              On  exit,  no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK" button is provided for input, but an ESC
              exit status may be returned.

       --pause text height width seconds
              A pause box displays a meter along the bottom of the box.  The meter indicates how many  seconds  remain
              until  the  end of the pause.  The pause exits when timeout is reached or the user presses the OK button
              (status OK) or the user presses the CANCEL button or Esc key.

       --passwordbox text height width [init]
              A password box is similar to an input box, except that the text the user enters is not displayed.   This
              is  useful  when  prompting  for passwords or other sensitive information.  Be aware that if anything is
              passed in "init", it will be visible in the system's process table to casual snoopers.  Also, it is very
              confusing to the user to provide them with a default password they cannot see.  For these reasons, using
              "init" is highly discouraged.  See "--insecure" if you do not care about your password.

              On exit, the input string will be printed on dialog's output.

       --passwordform text height width formheight [ label y x item y x flen ilen ] ...
              This is identical to --form except that all text fields are treated as password widgets rather than  in-
              putbox widgets.

       --progressbox text height width

       --progressbox height width
              A  progressbox  is  similar to an tailbox, except that it will exit when it reaches the end of the file.
              If three parameters are given, it displays the text under  the  title,  delineated  from  the  scrolling
              file's contents.  If only two parameters are given, this text is omitted.

       --radiolist text height width list-height  [ tag item status ] ...
              A  radiolist  box is similar to a menu box.  The only difference is that you can indicate which entry is
              currently selected, by setting its status to on.

              On exit, the name of the selected item is written to dialog's output.

       --tailbox file height width
              Display text from a file in a dialog box, as in a "tail -f" command.  Scroll left/right  using  vi-style
              'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.  A '0' resets the scrolling.

              On  exit,  no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "OK" button is provided for input, but an ESC
              exit status may be returned.

       --tailboxbg file height width
              Display text from a file in a dialog box as a background task, as in a  "tail  -f  &"  command.   Scroll
              left/right using vi-style 'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.  A '0' resets the scrolling.

              Dialog treats the background task specially if there are other widgets (--and-widget) on the screen con-
              currently.  Until those widgets are closed (e.g., an "OK"), dialog will perform  all  of  the  tailboxbg
              widgets  in the same process, polling for updates.  You may use a tab to traverse between the widgets on
              the screen, and close them individually, e.g., by pressing ENTER.  Once the  non-tailboxbg  widgets  are
              closed,  dialog forks a copy of itself into the background, and prints its process id if the "--no-kill"
              option is given.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "EXIT" button is provided for input, but an ESC
              exit status may be returned.

              NOTE:  Older versions of dialog forked immediately and attempted to update the screen individually.  Be-
              sides being bad for performance, it was unworkable.  Some older scripts may not work properly  with  the
              polled scheme.

       --textbox file height width
              A  text box lets you display the contents of a text file in a dialog box.  It is like a simple text file
              viewer.  The user can move through the file by using the cursor, page-up, page-down  and  HOME/END  keys
              available  on most keyboards.  If the lines are too long to be displayed in the box, the LEFT/RIGHT keys
              can be used to scroll the text region horizontally.  You may also use vi-style keys h, j, k, l in  place
              of  the  cursor  keys,  and B or N in place of the page-up and page-down keys.  Scroll up/down using vi-
              style 'k' and 'j', or arrow-keys.  Scroll left/right using vi-style 'h' and 'l', or arrow-keys.   A  '0'
              resets  the  left/right  scrolling.  For more convenience, vi-style forward and backward searching func-
              tions are also provided.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  Only an "EXIT" button is provided for input, but an ESC
              exit status may be returned.

       --timebox text height [width hour minute second]
              A  dialog  is  displayed  which  allows  you to select hour, minute and second.  If the values for hour,
              minute or second are missing or negative, the current date's corresponding values are used.  You can in-
              crement  or  decrement any of those using the left-, up-, right- and down-arrows.  Use tab or backtab to
              move between windows.

              On exit, the result is printed in the form hour:minute:second.

       --yesno text height width
              A yes/no dialog box of size height rows by width columns will be displayed.   The  string  specified  by
              text  is displayed inside the dialog box.  If this string is too long to fit in one line, it will be au-
              tomatically divided into multiple lines at appropriate places.  The text string  can  also  contain  the
              sub-string "\n" or newline characters '\n' to control line breaking explicitly.  This dialog box is use-
              ful for asking questions that require the user to answer either yes or no.  The dialog  box  has  a  Yes
              button and a No button, in which the user can switch between by pressing the TAB key.

              On exit, no text is written to dialog's output.  In addition to the "Yes" and "No" exit codes (see DIAG-
              NOSTICS) an ESC exit status may be returned.

              The codes used for "Yes" and "No" match those used for "OK" and "Cancel", internally no  distinction  is
              made.

   Obsolete Options
       --beep This was used to tell the original cdialog that it should make a beep when the separate processes of the
              tailboxbg widget would repaint the screen.

       --beep-after
              Beep after a user has completed a widget by pressing one of the buttons.

RUN-TIME CONFIGURATION
       1.  Create a sample configuration file by typing:

                 "dialog --create-rc <file>"

       2.  At start, dialog determines the settings to use as follows:

           a)  if environment variable DIALOGRC is set, its value determines the name of the configuration file.

           b)  if the file in (a) is not found, use the file $HOME/.dialogrc as the configuration file.

           c)  if the file in (b) is not found, try using the GLOBALRC file determined at compile-time, i.e., /etc/di-
               alogrc.

           d)  if the file in (c) is not found, use compiled in defaults.

       3.  Edit  the  sample  configuration  file  and copy it to some place that dialog can find, as stated in step 2
           above.

KEY BINDINGS
       You can override or add to key bindings in dialog by adding to the configuration file.  Dialog's  bindkey  com-
       mand maps single keys to its internal coding.
                 bindkey widget curses_key dialog_key
       The  widget name can be "*" (all widgets), or specific widgets such as textbox.  Specific widget bindings over-
       ride the "*" bindings.  User-defined bindings override the built-in bindings.

       The curses_key can be any of the names derived from curses.h, e.g., "HELP" from "KEY_HELP".  Dialog also recog-
       nizes  ANSI  control  characters such as "^A", "^?", as well as C1-controls such as "~A" and "~?".  Finally, it
       allows any single character to be escaped with a backslash.

       Dialog's internal keycode names correspond to the DLG_KEYS_ENUM type in  dlg_keys.h,  e.g.,  "HELP"  from  "DL-
       GK_HELP".

ENVIRONMENT
       DIALOGOPTS     Define  this variable to apply any of the common options to each widget.  Most of the common op-
                      tions are reset before processing each widget.  If you set the options in this environment vari-
                      able,  they  are  applied to dialog's state after the reset.  As in the "--file" option, double-
                      quotes and backslashes are interpreted.

                      The "--file" option is not considered a common option (so you cannot embed it within this  envi-
                      ronment variable).

       DIALOGRC       Define this variable if you want to specify the name of the configuration file to use.

       DIALOG_CANCEL

       DIALOG_ERROR

       DIALOG_ESC

       DIALOG_EXTRA

       DIALOG_HELP

       DIALOG_ITEM_HELP

       DIALOG_OK      Define  any of these variables to change the exit code on Cancel (1), error (-1), ESC (255), Ex-
                      tra (3), Help (2), Help with --item-help (2), or OK (0).  Normally shell scripts cannot  distin-
                      guish between -1 and 255.

       DIALOG_TTY     Set  this  variable  to "1" to provide compatibility with older versions of dialog which assumed
                      that if the script redirects the standard output, that the "--stdout" option was given.

FILES
       $HOME/.dialogrc     default configuration file

EXAMPLES
       The dialog sources contain several samples of how to use the different box options and  how  they  look.   Just
       take a look into the directory samples/ of the source.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Exit status is subject to being overridden by environment variables.  Normally they are:

       0    if dialog is exited by pressing the Yes or OK button.

       1    if the No or Cancel button is pressed.

       2    if the Help button is pressed.

       3    if the Extra button is pressed.

       -1   if errors occur inside dialog or dialog is exited by pressing the ESC key.

COMPATIBILITY
       You may want to write scripts which run with other dialog "clones".

   ORIGINAL DIALOG
       First,  there  is  the "original" dialog program to consider (versions 0.3 to 0.9).  It had some misspelled (or
       inconsistent) options.  The dialog program maps those deprecated options to the preferred ones.  They include:

              Option         Treatment
              ---------------------------------
              --beep-after   ignored
              --guage        mapped to --gauge

   XDIALOG
       Technically, "Xdialog", this is an X application.  With some care, it is possible to write useful scripts  that
       work with both Xdialog and dialog.

       The dialog program ignores these options which are recognized by Xdialog:

              Option             Treatment
              -----------------------------------------------
              --allow-close      ignored
              --auto-placement   ignored
              --fixed-font       ignored
              --icon             ignored
              --keep-colors      ignored

              --no-close         ignored
              --no-cr-wrap       ignored
              --screen-center    ignored
              --separator        mapped to --separate-output
              --smooth           ignored
              --under-mouse      ignored
              --wmclass          ignored

       Xdialog's manpage has a section discussing its compatibility with dialog.

   WHIPTAIL
       Then there is whiptail.  For practical purposes, it is maintained by Debian.  Its documentation claims

              whiptail(1) is a lightweight replacement for dialog(1),
              to provide dialog boxes for shell scripts. It is built on the
              newt windowing library rather than the ncurses library, allowing
              it to be smaller in embedded enviroments such as installers,
              rescue disks, etc.

              whiptail is designed to be drop-in compatible with dialog, but
              has less features: some dialog boxes are not implemented, such
              as tailbox, timebox, calendarbox, etc.

       Comparing  actual  sizes (Debian testing, 2007/1/10): The total of sizes for whiptail, the newt, popt and slang
       libraries is 757kb.  The comparable number for dialog (counting ncurses) is 520kb.  Disregard the  first  para-
       graph.

       The second paragraph is misleading, since whiptail also does not work for common options of dialog, such as the
       gauge box.  whiptail is less compatible with dialog than the decade-old original dialog 0.4 program.

       whiptail's manpage borrows features from dialog, e.g., --default-item, --output-fd, but oddly cites only dialog
       versions  up  to 0.4 as a source.  That is, its manpage refers to features which were borrowed from more recent
       versions of dialog, e.g., the --gauge and --password boxes, as well as options such as -separate-output.  Some-
       what  humorously, one may note that the popt feature (undocumented in its manpage) of using a "--" as an escape
       was documented in dialog's manpage about a year before it was mentioned in whiptail's manpage.  whiptail's man-
       page incorrectly attributes that to getopt (and is inaccurate anyway).

       Debian uses whiptail for the official dialog variation.

       The dialog program ignores or maps these options which are recognized by whiptail:

              Option         Treatment
              -------------------------------------
              --fb           ignored
              --fullbutton   ignored
              --nocancel     mapped to --no-cancel
              --noitem       ignored

BUGS
       Perhaps.

AUTHOR
       Thomas E. Dickey (updates for 0.9b and beyond)

CONTRIBUTORS
       Kiran Cherupally - the mixed form and mixed gauge widgets.

       Tobias C. Rittweiler

       Valery Reznic - the form and progressbox widgets.

       Yura Kalinichenko adapted the gauge widget as "pause".

       This  is  a  rewrite  (except  as needed to provide compatibility) of the earlier version of dialog 0.9a, which
       lists as authors:

              Savio Lam - version 0.3, "dialog"

              Stuart Herbert - patch for version 0.4

              Marc Ewing - the gauge widget.

              Pasquale De Marco "Pako" - version 0.9a, "cdialog"



$Date: 2008/07/27 22:49:40 $                                         DIALOG(1)