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CSCOPE(1)                                                            CSCOPE(1)

       cscope - interactively examine a C program

       cscope [-bCcdehkLlqRTUuVv] [-Fsymfile] [-freffile] [-Iincdir] [-inamefile] [-[0123456789]pattern] [-pn] [-sdir]

       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user to browse through C source files for speci-
       fied elements of code.

       By  default,  cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y) source files in the current directory.
       cscope may also be invoked for source files named on the command line. In  either  case,  cscope  searches  the
       standard  directories  for #include files that it does not find in the current directory.  cscope uses a symbol
       cross-reference, called cscope.out by default, to locate functions, function calls, macros, variables, and pre-
       processor symbols in the files.

       cscope  builds  the  symbol cross-reference the first time it is used on the source files for the program being
       browsed. On a subsequent invocation, cscope rebuilds the cross-reference only if a source file has  changed  or
       the  list  of  source files is different. When the cross-reference is rebuilt, the data for the unchanged files
       are copied from the old cross-reference, which makes rebuilding faster than the initial build.

       Some command line arguments can only occur as the the ony argument in the execution of cscope.  They cause  the
       program to just print out some output and exit immediately:

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -V     Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       --help Same as -h

              Same as -V

       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is, do not compress the data.

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

              Read symbol reference lines from symfile.  (A symbol reference file is created by > and >>, and can also
              be read using the < command, described under ''Issuing Subsequent Requests,'' below.)

              Use reffile as the cross-reference file name instead of the default "cscope.out".

              Look in incdir (before looking in $INCDIR, the standard place for header files,  normally  /usr/include)
              for  any  #include  files  whose names do not begin with ''/'' and that are not specified on the command
              line or in namefile below. (The #include files may be specified  with  either  double  quotes  or  angle
              brackets.)   The  incdir  directory  is searched in addition to the current directory (which is searched
              first) and the standard list (which is searched last). If more than one occurrence of  -I  appears,  the
              directories are searched in the order they appear on the command line.

              Browse  through  all  source  files  whose names are listed in namefile (file names separated by spaces,
              tabs, or new-lines) instead of the default name list file, which is called cscope.files. If this  option
              is  specified, cscope ignores any file names appearing on the command line. The argument namefile can be
              set to ''-'' to accept a list of files from the standard input.  Filenames in the namefile that  contain
              whitespace  have  to be enclosed in "double quotes".  Inside such quoted filenames, any double-quote and
              backslash characters have to be escaped by backslashes.

       -k     ''Kernel Mode'', turns off the use of the default include dir (usually /usr/include) when  building  the
              database, since kernel source trees generally do not use it.

       -L     Do a single search with line-oriented output when used with the -num pattern option.

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ''Line-Oriented Interface'' below).

              Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -Ppath Prepend  path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-reference file so you do not have to change to
              the directory where the cross-reference file was built. This option is only valid with the -d option.

       -pn    Display the last n file path components instead of the default (1). Use 0 to not display the  file  name
              at all.

       -q     Enable  fast  symbol  lookup  via  an  inverted  index. This option causes cscope to create 2 more files
              (default names '''' and ''cscope.po.out'') in addition to the normal database. This  allows
              a  faster symbol search algorithm that provides noticeably faster lookup performance for large projects.

       -R     Recurse subdirectories during search for source files.

       -sdir  Look in dir for additional source files. This option is ignored if source files are given on the command

       -T     Use only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.  A regular expression containing special
              characters other than a period (.) will not match any symbol if its minimum length is greater than eight

       -U     Check  file  time  stamps.  This option will update the time stamp on the database even if no files have

       -u     Unconditionally build the cross-reference file (assume that all files have changed).

       -v     Be more verbose in line-oriented mode.  Output progress updates during database building and searches.

       files  A list of file names to operate on.

       The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files file.

       Requesting the initial search

       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:

       Press the <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the desired input field, type the text to search  for,  and
       then press the <Return> key.

Issuing subsequent requests
       If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands can be used:

              Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

              Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move  to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the previous matching line (if
              the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       <Down> Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the next matching line (if the cur-
              sor is in the matching line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read lines from a file that is in symbol reference format (created by > or >>), just like the -F option.

       ^      Filter all lines through a shell command and display the resulting lines, replacing the lines that  were
              already there.

       |      Pipe all lines to a shell command and display them without changing them.

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

              Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle ignore/use letter case when searching. (When ignoring letter case, search for ''FILE'' will match
              ''File'' and ''file''.)

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.

       NOTE: If the first character of the text to be searched for matches one of the above  commands,  escape  it  by
       typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After  the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the new text, and then it will display the
       lines containing the old text. Select the lines to be changed with these single-character commands:

              Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

              Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys

       If your terminal has arrow keys that work in vi, you can use them to move around the input fields. The up-arrow
       key  is  useful  to  move  to  the  previous input field instead of using the <Tab> key repeatedly. If you have
       <CLEAR>, <NEXT>, or <PREV> keys they will act as the ^l, +, and - commands, respectively.

       Line-Oriented interface

       The -l option lets you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface would not  be  useful,  for  example,  from
       another screen-oriented program.

       cscope  will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line starting with the field number (counting from 0)
       immediately followed by the search pattern, for example, ''lmain'' finds the definition of the main function.

       If you just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L and -num pattern options, and  you  won't
       get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For  each  reference  found, cscope outputs a line consisting of the file name, function name, line number, and
       line text, separated by spaces, for example, main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

       Note that the editor is not called to display a single reference, unlike the screen-oriented interface.

       You can use the c command to toggle ignore/use letter case when searching. (When ignoring letter  case,  search
       for ''FILE'' will match ''File'' and ''file''.)

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope  will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first character of an input line is ''^d'' or ''q''.

              Overrides the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you wish to use a different  editor  with  cscope
              than that specified by your EDITOR/VIEWER variables.

              Format  of  the line number flag for your editor. By default, cscope invokes your editor via the equiva-
              lent of ''editor +N file'', where ''N'' is the line number that the editor should jump to.  This  format
              is  used  by  both  emacs and vi. If your editor needs something different, specify it in this variable,
              with ''%s'' as a placeholder for the line number.  Ex: if your editor needs to be  invoked  as  ''editor
              -#103 file'' to go to line 103, set this variable to ''-#%s''.

              Set  this  variable  to ''yes'' if your editor needs to be invoked with the line number option after the
              filename to be edited. To continue the example from CSCOPE_LINEFLAG, above: if your editor needs to  see
              ''editor  file  -#number'', set this environment variable. Users of most standard editors (vi, emacs) do
              not need to set this variable.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

              Colon-separated list of directories to search for #include files.

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

              Colon-separated list of directories to search for additional source files.

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

              Terminal information directory full path name. If your terminal is not in the standard  terminfo  direc-
              tory, see curses and terminfo for how to make your own terminal description.

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less), which overrides EDITOR (see above).

       VPATH  A colon-separated list of directories, each of which has the same directory structure below it. If VPATH
              is set, cscope searches for source files in the directories specified; if it is not set, cscope searches
              only in the current directory.

              Default  files  containing -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list of source files (overridden by the -i

              Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which is put in the home directory if it can-
              not be created in the current directory.
              Default  files containing the inverted index used for quick symbol searching (-q option). If you use the
              -f option to rename the cross-reference file (so it's not cscope.out),  the  names  for  these  inverted
              index files will be created by adding
               .in  and  .po  to  the  name you supply with -f. For example, if you indicated -f xyz, then these files
              would be named and xyz.po.

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).

       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces, tabs, vtabs, form feeds or carriage returns, not including newlines

       args   is any string that does not contain a ''"'' or a newline

       white  is zero or more spaces, tabs, vtabs, form feeds, carriage returns or newlines

              are zero or more argument declarations (arg_decs may include comments and white space)

       It is not necessary for a function declaration to start at the beginning of a line. The return type may precede
       the  function  name;  cscope  will still recognize the declaration. Function definitions that deviate from this
       form will not be recognized by cscope.

       The ''Function'' column of the search output for the menu option Find functions called by this function:  input
       field will only display the first function called in the line, that is, for this function

                return (f() + g());

       the display would be

          Functions called by this function: e
          File Function Line
          a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally, a function definition or call may not be recognized because of braces inside #if statements. Sim-
       ilarly, the use of a variable may be incorrectly recognized as a definition.

       A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will be incorrectly recognized as a  global  definition,  for

        LDFILE  *
        #if AR16WR

       Preprocessor statements can also prevent the recognition of a global definition, for example,

        char flag
        #ifdef ALLOCATE_STORAGE
             = -1

       A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a function call, for example,

                void g();

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope  recognizes  C++ classes by looking for the class keyword, but doesn't recognize that a struct is also a
       class, so it doesn't recognize inline member function definitions in a structure. It also  doesn't  expect  the
       class keyword in a typedef , so it incorrectly recognizes X as a definition in

        typedef class X  *  Y;

       It also doesn't recognize operator function definitions

        Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)

       Nor does it recognize function definitions with a function pointer argument

        ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
          int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))

The Santa Cruz Operation          August 2003                        CSCOPE(1)