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CPIO(1L)                                                              CPIO(1L)



NAME
       cpio - copy files to and from archives

SYNOPSIS
       Copy-out mode

       In  copy-out mode, cpio copies files into an archive.  It reads a list of filenames, one per line, on the stan-
       dard input, and writes the archive onto the standard output.  A typical way to generate the list  of  filenames
       is  with  the  find  command;  you  should give find the -depth option to minimize problems with permissions on
       directories that are unreadable.  see "Options".

       cpio  {-o|--create}  [-0acvABLV]  [-C  bytes]  [-H  format]  [-M  message]   [-O   [[user@]host:]archive]   [-F
       [[user@]host:]archive]     [--file=[[user@]host:]archive]     [--format=format]     [--message=message][--null]
       [--reset-access-time] [--verbose] [--dot] [--append]  [--block-size=blocks]  [--dereference]  [--io-size=bytes]
       [--rsh-command=command] [--help] [--version] < name-list [> archive]

       Copy-in mode

       In  copy-in mode, cpio copies files out of an archive or lists the archive contents.  It reads the archive from
       the standard input.  Any non-option command line arguments are shell  globbing  patterns;  only  files  in  the
       archive  whose  names match one or more of those patterns are copied from the archive.  Unlike in the shell, an
       initial '.' in a filename does match a wildcard at the start of a pattern, and a '/' in a  filename  can  match
       wildcards.  If no patterns are given, all files are extracted.  see "Options".

       cpio  {-i|--extract} [-bcdfmnrtsuvBSV] [-C bytes] [-E file] [-H format] [-M message] [-R [user][:.][group]] [-I
       [[user@]host:]archive] [-F [[user@]host:]archive] [--file=[[user@]host:]archive]  [--make-directories]  [--non-
       matching]  [--preserve-modification-time]  [--numeric-uid-gid]  [--rename]  [-t|--list] [--swap-bytes] [--swap]
       [--dot] [--unconditional] [--verbose] [--block-size=blocks]  [--swap-halfwords]  [--io-size=bytes]  [--pattern-
       file=file]     [--format=format]    [--owner=[user][:.][group]]    [--no-preserve-owner]    [--message=message]
       [--force-local] [--no-absolute-filenames] [--absolute-filenames] [--sparse]  [--only-verify-crc]  [--to-stdout]
       [--quiet] [--rsh-command=command] [--help] [--version] [pattern...] [< archive]

       Copy-pass mode

       In  copy-pass  mode,  cpio  copies files from one directory tree to another, combining the copy-out and copy-in
       steps without actually using an archive.  It reads the list of files to  copy  from  the  standard  input;  the
       directory into which it will copy them is given as a non-option argument.  see "Options".

       cpio  {-p|--pass-through}  [-0adlmuvLV]  [-R [user][:.][group]] [--null] [--reset-access-time] [--make-directo-
       ries] [--link] [--quiet] [--preserve-modification-time] [--unconditional] [--verbose]  [--dot]  [--dereference]
       [--owner=[user][:.][group]] [--no-preserve-owner] [--sparse] [--help] [--version] destination-directory < name-
       list


DESCRIPTION
       GNU cpio is a tool for creating and extracting archives, or copying files from one place to another.   It  han-
       dles a number of cpio formats as well as reading and writing tar files.

       Following  archive  formats  are supported: binary, old ASCII, new ASCII, crc, HPUX binary, HPUX old ASCII, old
       tar, and POSIX.1 tar.  The tar format is provided for compatibility with the tar program. By default, cpio cre-
       ates  binary  format archives, for compatibility with older cpio programs.  When extracting from archives, cpio
       automatically recognizes which kind of archive it is reading and can read archives created on machines  with  a
       different byte-order.


OPTIONS
       '-0, --null'
              Read a list of filenames terminated by a null character, instead of a newline, so that files whose names
              contain newlines can be archived.  GNU find is one way to produce a list of  null-terminated  filenames.
              This option may be used in copy-out and copy-pass modes.

       '-a, --reset-access-time'
              Reset  the  access  times of files after reading them, so that it does not look like they have just been
              read.

       '-A, --append'
              Append to an existing archive.  Only works in copy-out mode.  The archive must be a disk file  specified
              with the -O or -F (-file) option.

       '-b, --swap'
              Swap both halfwords of words and bytes of halfwords in the data.  Equivalent to -sS.  This option may be
              used in copy-in mode.  Use this option to convert 32-bit integers between big-endian  and  little-endian
              machines.

       '-B'   Set the I/O block size to 5120 bytes.  Initially the block size is 512 bytes.

       '--block-size=BLOCK-SIZE'
              Set the I/O block size to BLOCK-SIZE * 512 bytes.

       '-c'   Identical  to  "-H  newc",  use  the  new  (SVR4) portable format.  If you wish the old portable (ASCII)
              archive format, use "-H odc" instead.

       '-C IO-SIZE, --io-size=IO-SIZE'
              Set the I/O block size to IO-SIZE bytes.

       '-d, --make-directories'
              Create leading directories where needed.

       '-E FILE, --pattern-file=FILE'
              Read additional patterns specifying filenames to extract or list from  FILE.   The  lines  of  FILE  are
              treated as if they had been non-option arguments to cpio.  This option is used in copy-in mode,

       '-f, --nonmatching'
              Only copy files that do not match any of the given patterns.

       '-F, --file=archive'
              Archive  filename to use instead of standard input or output.  To use a tape drive on another machine as
              the archive, use a filename that starts with 'HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded  by  a  username
              and  an  '@' to access the remote tape drive as that user, if you have permission to do so (typically an
              entry in that user's '~/.rhosts' file).

       '--force-local'
              With -F, -I, or -O, take the archive file name to be a local file even if it  contains  a  colon,  which
              would ordinarily indicate a remote host name.

       '-H FORMAT, --format=FORMAT'
              Use  archive  format  FORMAT.  The valid formats are listed below; the same names are also recognized in
              all-caps.  The default in copy-in mode is to automatically detect the archive format,  and  in  copy-out
              mode is 'bin'.

       'bin'  The obsolete binary format.

       'odc'  The old (POSIX.1) portable format.

       'newc' The new (SVR4) portable format, which supports file systems having more than 65536 i-nodes.

       'crc'  The new (SVR4) portable format with a checksum added.

       'tar'  The old tar format.

       'ustar'
              The POSIX.1 tar format.  Also recognizes GNU tar archives, which are similar but not identical.

       'hpbin'
              The obsolete binary format used by HPUX's cpio (which stores device files differently).

       'hpodc'
              The portable format used by HPUX's cpio (which stores device files differently).

       '-i, --extract'
              Run in copy-in mode.  see "Copy-in mode".

       '-I archive'
              Archive  filename  to  use  instead  of  standard  input.  To use a tape drive on another machine as the
              archive, use a filename that starts with 'HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a username and an
              '@' to access the remote tape drive as that user, if you have permission to do so (typically an entry in
              that user's '~/.rhosts' file).

       '-k'   Ignored; for compatibility with other versions of cpio.

       '-l, --link'
              Link files instead of copying them, when possible.

       '-L, --dereference'
              Copy the file that a symbolic link points to, rather than the symbolic link itself.

       '-m, --preserve-modification-time'
              Retain previous file modification times when creating files.

       '-M MESSAGE, --message=MESSAGE'
              Print MESSAGE when the end of a volume of the backup media (such as a tape or a floppy disk) is reached,
              to  prompt  the user to insert a new volume.  If MESSAGE contains the string "%d", it is replaced by the
              current volume number (starting at 1).

       '-n, --numeric-uid-gid'
              Show numeric UID and GID instead of translating them into names when using the '--verbose option'.

       '--no-absolute-filenames'
              Create all files relative to the current directory in copy-in mode, even if they have an  absolute  file
              name in the archive.

       '--absolute-filenames' (default)
              Do  not  strip  leading  file  name components that contain ".."  and leading slashes from file names in
              copy-in mode

       '--no-preserve-owner'
              Do not change the ownership of the files; leave them owned by the user extracting  them.   This  is  the
              default  for non-root users, so that users on System V don't inadvertently give away files.  This option
              can be used in copy-in mode and copy-pass mode

       '-o, --create'
              Run in copy-out mode.  see "Copy-out mode".

       '-O archive'
              Archive filename to use instead of standard output.  To use a tape  drive  on  another  machine  as  the
              archive, use a filename that starts with 'HOSTNAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a username and an
              '@' to access the remote tape drive as that user, if you have permission to do so (typically an entry in
              that user's '~/.rhosts' file).

       '--only-verify-crc'
              Verify  the CRC's of each file in the archive, when reading a CRC format archive. Don't actually extract
              the files.

       '-p, --pass-through'
              Run in copy-pass mode.  see "Copy-pass mode".

       '--quiet'
              Do not print the number of blocks copied.

       '-r, --rename'
              Interactively rename files.

       '-R [user][:.][group], --owner [user][:.][group]'
              Set the ownership of all files created to the specified user and/or  group  in  copy-out  and  copy-pass
              modes.   Either  the  user, the group, or both, must be present.  If the group is omitted but the ":" or
              "." separator is given, use the given user's login group.  Only the super-user can change files'  owner-
              ship.

       '--rsh-command=COMMAND'
              Notifies cpio that is should use COMMAND to communicate with remote devices.

       '-s, --swap-bytes'
              Swap the bytes of each halfword (pair of bytes) in the files.This option can be used in copy-in mode.

       '-S, --swap-halfwords'
              Swap the halfwords of each word (4 bytes) in the files.  This option may be used in copy-in mode.

       '--sparse'
              Write  files  with  large blocks of zeros as sparse files.  This option is used in copy-in and copy-pass
              modes.

       '-t, --list'
              Print a table of contents of the input.

       '--to-stdout'
              Extract files to standard output.  This option may be used in copy-in mode.

       '-u, --unconditional'
              Replace all files, without asking whether to replace existing newer files with older files.

       '-v, --verbose'
              List the files processed, or with '-t', give an 'ls -l' style table of contents listing.  In  a  verbose
              table of contents of a ustar archive, user and group names in the archive that do not exist on the local
              system are replaced by the names that correspond locally to the  numeric  UID  and  GID  stored  in  the
              archive.

       '-V, --dot'
              Print a '.' for each file processed.

       '--version'
              Print the cpio program version number and exit.


EXAMPLES
       When  creating an archive, cpio takes the list of files to be processed from the standard input, and then sends
       the archive to the standard output, or to the device defined by the '-F' option.  Usually find or ls is used to
       provide  this list to the standard input.  In the following example you can see the possibilities for archiving
       the contents of a single directory.

       % ls | cpio -ov > directory.cpio

       The '-o' option creates the archive, and the '-v' option prints the names of the files  archived  as  they  are
       added.   Notice that the options can be put together after a single '-' or can be placed separately on the com-
       mand line.  The '>' redirects the cpio output to the file 'directory.cpio'.

       If you wanted to archive an entire directory tree, the find command can provide the file list to cpio:

       % find . -print -depth | cpio -ov > tree.cpio

       This will take all the files in the current directory, the directories below and  place  them  in  the  archive
       tree.cpio.   Again the '-o' creates an archive, and the '-v' option shows you the name of the files as they are
       archived.  see "Copy-out mode".  Using the '.' in the find statement will give you more flexibility when  doing
       restores,  as  it  will  save  file  names with a relative path vice a hard wired, absolute path.  The '-depth'
       option forces 'find' to print of the entries in a directory before printing the directory itself.  This  limits
       the  effects  of  restrictive directory permissions by printing the directory entries in a directory before the
       directory name itself.

       Extracting an archive requires a bit more thought because cpio will not create directories by default.  Another
       characteristic, is it will not overwrite existing files unless you tell it to.

       % cpio -iv < directory.cpio

       This  will retrieve the files archived in the file directory.cpio and place them in the present directory.  The
       '-i' option extracts the archive and the '-v' shows the file names as they are extracted.  If you  are  dealing
       with  an archived directory tree, you need to use the '-d' option to create directories as necessary, something
       like:

       % cpio -idv < tree.cpio

       This will take the contents of the archive tree.cpio and extract it to the current directory.  If  you  try  to
       extract  the files on top of files of the same name that already exist (and have the same or later modification
       time) cpio will not extract the file unless told to do so by the -u option.  see "Copy-in mode".

       In copy-pass mode, cpio copies files from one directory tree to another, combining  the  copy-out  and  copy-in
       steps  without  actually  using  an  archive.   It reads the list of files to copy from the standard input; the
       directory into which it will copy them is given as a non-option argument.  see "Copy-pass mode".

       % find . -depth -print0 | cpio --null -pvd new-dir

       The example shows copying the files of the present directory, and sub-directories to  a  new  directory  called
       new-dir.   Some  new  options  are  the '-print0' available with GNU find, combined with the '--null' option of
       cpio.  These two options act together to send file names between find and cpio, even if special characters  are
       embedded  in  the  file  names.   Another is '-p', which tells cpio to pass the files it finds to the directory
       'new-dir'.


BUGS
       The GNU folks, in general, abhor man pages, and create info documents instead.  The maintainer  of  cpio  falls
       into  this  category.  Thus this man page may not be complete, nor current, and was included in the Red Hat CVS
       tree because man is a great tool :).


REPORTING BUGS
       Please report bugs via https://bugzilla.redhat.com.


SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for cpio is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and cpio programs are  properly
       installed at your site, the command

              info cpio

       should give you access to the complete manual. The online copy of the documentation is available at the follow-
       ing address:

       http://www.gnu.org/software/cpio/manual




                                                                      CPIO(1L)