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CHGRP(1P)                  POSIX Programmer's Manual                 CHGRP(1P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       chgrp - change the file group ownership

SYNOPSIS
       chgrp [-hR] group file ...

       chgrp -R [-H | -L | -P ] group file ...


DESCRIPTION
       The  chgrp  utility  shall set the group ID of the file named by each file operand to the group ID specified by
       the group operand.

       For each file operand, or, if the -R option is used, each file encountered while walking  the  directory  trees
       specified  by  the  file  operands,  the chgrp utility shall perform actions equivalent to the chown() function
       defined in the System Interfaces volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, called with the following arguments:

        * The file operand shall be used as the path argument.


        * The user ID of the file shall be used as the owner argument.


        * The specified group ID shall be used as the group argument.


       Unless chgrp is invoked by a process with appropriate privileges, the set-user-ID and set-group-ID  bits  of  a
       regular  file  shall be cleared upon successful completion; the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits of other file
       types may be cleared.

OPTIONS
       The chgrp utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section  12.2,  Utility
       Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported by the implementation:

       -h     If  the  system  supports  group IDs for symbolic links, for each file operand that names a file of type
              symbolic link, chgrp shall attempt to set the group ID of the symbolic link instead of the  file  refer-
              enced  by  the symbolic link. If the system does not support group IDs for symbolic links, for each file
              operand that names a file of type symbolic link, chgrp shall do nothing more with the current  file  and
              shall go on to any remaining files.

       -H     If  the  -R option is specified and a symbolic link referencing a file of type directory is specified on
              the command line, chgrp shall change the group of the directory referenced by the symbolic link and  all
              files in the file hierarchy below it.

       -L     If  the  -R option is specified and a symbolic link referencing a file of type directory is specified on
              the command line or encountered during the traversal of a file hierarchy, chgrp shall change  the  group
              of the directory referenced by the symbolic link and all files in the file hierarchy below it.

       -P     If the -R option is specified and a symbolic link is specified on the command line or encountered during
              the traversal of a file hierarchy, chgrp shall change the group ID of the symbolic link  if  the  system
              supports  this  operation. The chgrp utility shall not follow the symbolic link to any other part of the
              file hierarchy.

       -R     Recursively change file group IDs. For each file operand that names a directory, chgrp shall change  the
              group  of  the  directory and all files in the file hierarchy below it. Unless a -H, -L, or -P option is
              specified, it is unspecified which of these options will be used as the default.


       Specifying more than one of the mutually-exclusive options -H, -L, and -P shall not  be  considered  an  error.
       The last option specified shall determine the behavior of the utility.

OPERANDS
       The following operands shall be supported:

       group  A  group  name from the group database or a numeric group ID. Either specifies a group ID to be given to
              each file named by one of the file operands. If a numeric group operand exists in the group database  as
              a group name, the group ID number associated with that group name is used as the group ID.

       file   A pathname of a file whose group ID is to be modified.


STDIN
       Not used.

INPUT FILES
       None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of chgrp:

       LANG   Provide  a  default  value  for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base
              Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for  the  prece-
              dence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
              Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for  exam-
              ple, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments).

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determine  the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages writ-
              ten to standard error.

       NLSPATH
              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .


ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       Not used.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     The utility executed successfully and all requested changes were made.

       >0     An error occurred.


CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       Only the owner of a file or the user with appropriate privileges may change the owner or group of a file.

       Some implementations restrict the use of chgrp to a user with appropriate privileges when the  group  specified
       is not the effective group ID or one of the supplementary group IDs of the calling process.

EXAMPLES
       None.

RATIONALE
       The  System  V and BSD versions use different exit status codes. Some implementations used the exit status as a
       count of the number of errors that occurred; this practice is unworkable since it can  overflow  the  range  of
       valid  exit status values. The standard developers chose to mask these by specifying only 0 and >0 as exit val-
       ues.

       The functionality of chgrp is described substantially through references to chown(). In this way, there  is  no
       duplication of effort required for describing the interactions of permissions, multiple groups, and so on.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       chmod(), chown(), the System Interfaces volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, chown()

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base  Specifica-
       tions  Issue  6,  Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard,  the  original  IEEE  and  The  Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                            CHGRP(1P)