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BREAK(1P)                  POSIX Programmer's Manual                 BREAK(1P)



PROLOG
       This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of this interface may dif-
       fer (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface  may  not  be
       implemented on Linux.

NAME
       break - exit from for, while, or until loop

SYNOPSIS
       break [n]

DESCRIPTION
       The  break  utility  shall  exit from the smallest enclosing for, while, or until loop, if any; or from the nth
       enclosing loop if n is specified. The value of n is an unsigned decimal integer greater than or equal to 1. The
       default shall be equivalent to n=1. If n is greater than the number of enclosing loops, the outermost enclosing
       loop shall be exited. Execution shall continue with the command immediately following the loop.

OPTIONS
       None.

OPERANDS
       See the DESCRIPTION.

STDIN
       Not used.

INPUT FILES
       None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       None.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       Not used.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
        0     Successful completion.

       >0     The n value was not an unsigned decimal integer greater than or equal to 1.


CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
              for i in * do
                  if test -d "$i" then break fi done

RATIONALE
       In early proposals, consideration was given to expanding the syntax of break and continue to refer to  a  label
       associated  with  the  appropriate  loop  as  a preferable alternative to the n method. However, this volume of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 does reserve the name space of command names ending with a colon. It is anticipated that a
       future implementation could take advantage of this and provide something like:


              outofloop: for i in a b c d e
              do
                  for j in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
                  do
                      if test -r "${i}${j}"
                      then break outofloop
                      fi
                  done
              done

       and that this might be standardized after implementation experience is achieved.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       Special Built-In Utilities

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Stan-
       dard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base  Specifica-
       tions  Issue  6,  Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The
       Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Stan-
       dard,  the  original  IEEE  and  The  Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be
       obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .



IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                            BREAK(1P)