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AB(8)                                 ab                                 AB(8)



NAME
       ab - Apache HTTP server benchmarking tool


SYNOPSIS
       ab [ -A auth-username:password ] [ -b windowsize ] [ -c concurrency ] [ -C cookie-name=value ] [ -d ] [ -e csv-
       file ] [ -f protocol ] [ -g gnuplot-file ] [ -h ] [ -H custom-header ] [ -i ] [ -k ] [ -n requests ] [ -p POST-
       file  ]  [ -P proxy-auth-username:password ] [ -q ] [ -r ] [ -s ] [ -S ] [ -t timelimit ] [ -T content-type ] [
       -u PUT-file ] [ -v verbosity] [ -V ] [ -w ] [ -x <table>-attributes ] [ -X proxy[:port] ] [ -y  <tr>-attributes
       ] [ -z <td>-attributes ] [ -Z ciphersuite ] [http[s]://]hostname[:port]/path



SUMMARY
       ab is a tool for benchmarking your Apache Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server. It is designed to give you
       an impression of how your current Apache installation performs. This especially shows you how many requests per
       second your Apache installation is capable of serving.



OPTIONS
       -A auth-username:password
              Supply BASIC Authentication credentials to the server. The username and password are separated by a sin-
              gle : and sent on the wire base64 encoded. The string is sent regardless of whether the server needs  it
              (i.e., has sent an 401 authentication needed).

       -b windowsize
              Size of TCP send/receive buffer, in bytes.

       -c concurrency
              Number of multiple requests to perform at a time. Default is one request at a time.

       -C cookie-name=value
              Add  a  Cookie:  line  to  the request. The argument is typically in the form of a name=value pair. This
              field is repeatable.

       -d     Do not display the "percentage served within XX [ms] table". (legacy support).

       -e csv-file
              Write a Comma separated value (CSV) file which contains for each percentage (from 1% to 100%)  the  time
              (in milliseconds) it took to serve that percentage of the requests. This is usually more useful than the
              'gnuplot' file; as the results are already 'binned'.

       -f protocol
              Specify SSL/TLS protocol (SSL2, SSL3, TLS1, or ALL).

       -g gnuplot-file
              Write all measured values out as a 'gnuplot' or TSV (Tab separate values) file. This file can easily  be
              imported  into  packages like Gnuplot, IDL, Mathematica, Igor or even Excel. The labels are on the first
              line of the file.

       -h     Display usage information.

       -H custom-header
              Append extra headers to the request. The argument is typically in the form of a valid header line,  con-
              taining a colon-separated field-value pair (i.e., "Accept-Encoding: zip/zop;8bit").

       -i     Do HEAD requests instead of GET.

       -k     Enable  the  HTTP KeepAlive feature, i.e., perform multiple requests within one HTTP session. Default is
              no KeepAlive.

       -n requests
              Number of requests to perform for the benchmarking session. The default is  to  just  perform  a  single
              request which usually leads to non-representative benchmarking results.

       -p POST-file
              File containing data to POST. Remember to also set -T.

       -P proxy-auth-username:password
              Supply  BASIC Authentication credentials to a proxy en-route. The username and password are separated by
              a single : and sent on the wire base64 encoded. The string is sent regardless of whether the proxy needs
              it (i.e., has sent an 407 proxy authentication needed).

       -q     When  processing more than 150 requests, ab outputs a progress count on stderr every 10% or 100 requests
              or so. The -q flag will suppress these messages.

       -r     Don't exit on socket receive errors.

       -s     When compiled in (ab -h will show you) use the SSL protected https rather than the http  protocol.  This
              feature is experimental and very rudimentary. You probably do not want to use it.

       -S     Do not display the median and standard deviation values, nor display the warning/error messages when the
              average and median are more than one or two times the standard  deviation  apart.  And  default  to  the
              min/avg/max values. (legacy support).

       -t timelimit
              Maximum  number  of  seconds  to spend for benchmarking. This implies a -n 50000 internally. Use this to
              benchmark the server within a fixed total amount of time. Per default there is no timelimit.

       -T content-type
              Content-type  header  to  use  for  POST/PUT  data,  eg.   application/x-www-form-urlencoded.   Default:
              text/plain.

       -u PUT-file
              File containing data to PUT. Remember to also set -T.

       -v verbosity
              Set verbosity level - 4 and above prints information on headers, 3 and above prints response codes (404,
              200, etc.), 2 and above prints warnings and info.

       -V     Display version number and exit.

       -w     Print out results in HTML tables. Default table is two columns wide, with a white background.

       -x <table>-attributes
              String to use as attributes for <table>. Attributes are inserted <table here >.

       -X proxy[:port]
              Use a proxy server for the requests.

       -y <tr>-attributes
              String to use as attributes for <tr>.

       -z <td>-attributes
              String to use as attributes for <td>.

       -Z ciphersuite
              Specify SSL/TLS cipher suite (See openssl ciphers).


DESCRIPTION OF OUTPUT
       The following list describes the values returned by ab:



       Server Software
              The value, if any, returned in the server HTTP header of the first successful  response.  This  includes
              all  characters  in  the  header  from beginning to the point a character with decimal value of 32 (most
              notably: a space or CR/LF) is detected.

       Server Hostname
              The DNS or IP address given on the command line

       Server Port
              The port to which ab is connecting. If no port is given on the command line, this will default to 80 for
              http and 443 for https.

       SSL/TLS Protocol
              The  protocol  parameters  negotiated between the client and server. This will only be printed if SSL is
              used.

       Document Path
              The request URI parsed from the command line string.

       Document Length
              This is size in bytes of the first succesfully returning document. If the document length changes during
              testing, the response is considered an error.

       Concurrency Level
              The number of concurrent clients used during the test

       Time taken for tests
              This  is  the  time  taken from the moment the first socket connection is created to the moment the last
              response is recieved

       Complete requests
              The number of successful responses recieved

       Failed requests
              The number of requests that were considered a failure. If the number is greater than zero, another  line
              will  be printed showing the numer of requests that failed due to connecting, reading, incorrect content
              length, or exceptions.

       Write errors
              The number of errors that failed during write (broken pipe).

       Non-2xx responses
              The number of responses that were not in the 200 series of response codes. If all  responses  were  200,
              this field is not printed.

       Keep-Alive requests
              The number of connections that resulted in Keep-Alive requests

       Total body sent
              If configured to send data as part of the test, this is the total number of bytes sent during the tests.
              This field is omitted if the test did not include a body to send.

       Total transferred
              The total number of bytes received from the server. This number is essentially the number of bytes  sent
              over the wire.

       HTML transferred
              The total number of document bytes received from the server. This number excludes bytes received in HTTP
              headers

       Requests per second
              This is the number of requests per second. This value is the result of dividing the number  of  requests
              by the total time taken

       Time per request
              The  average  time  spent  per  request.  The  first  value is calculated with the formula concurrency *
              timetaken * 1000 / done while the second value is calculated with the formula timetaken * 1000 / done

       Transfer rate
              The rate of transfer as calculated by the formula totalread / 1024 / timetaken


BUGS
       There are various statically declared buffers of fixed length. Combined with the lazy parsing  of  the  command
       line arguments, the response headers from the server and other external inputs, this might bite you.


       It  does not implement HTTP/1.x fully; only accepts some 'expected' forms of responses. The rather heavy use of
       strstr(3) shows up top in profile, which might indicate a performance problem; i.e., you would measure  the  ab
       performance rather than the server's.




Apache HTTP Server                2012-04-09                             AB(8)