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POSIX(3)               Perl Programmers Reference Guide               POSIX(3)



NAME
       POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

SYNOPSIS
           use POSIX;
           use POSIX qw(setsid);
           use POSIX qw(:errno_h :fcntl_h);

           printf "EINTR is %d\n", EINTR;

           $sess_id = POSIX::setsid();

           $fd = POSIX::open($path, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_WRONLY, 0644);
               # note: that's a filedescriptor, *NOT* a filehandle

DESCRIPTION
       The POSIX module permits you to access all (or nearly all) the standard POSIX 1003.1 identifiers.  Many of
       these identifiers have been given Perl-ish interfaces.

       Everything is exported by default with the exception of any POSIX functions with the same name as a built-in
       Perl function, such as "abs", "alarm", "rmdir", "write", etc.., which will be exported only if you ask for them
       explicitly.  This is an unfortunate backwards compatibility feature.  You can stop the exporting by saying "use
       POSIX ()" and then use the fully qualified names (ie. "POSIX::SEEK_END").

       This document gives a condensed list of the features available in the POSIX module.  Consult your operating
       system's manpages for general information on most features.  Consult perlfunc for functions which are noted as
       being identical to Perl's builtin functions.

       The first section describes POSIX functions from the 1003.1 specification.  The second section describes some
       classes for signal objects, TTY objects, and other miscellaneous objects.  The remaining sections list various
       constants and macros in an organization which roughly follows IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993.

NOTE
       The POSIX module is probably the most complex Perl module supplied with the standard distribution.  It incorpo-
       rates autoloading, namespace games, and dynamic loading of code that's in Perl, C, or both.  It's a great
       source of wisdom.

CAVEATS
       A few functions are not implemented because they are C specific.  If you attempt to call these, they will print
       a message telling you that they aren't implemented, and suggest using the Perl equivalent should one exist.
       For example, trying to access the setjmp() call will elicit the message "setjmp() is C-specific: use eval {}
       instead".

       Furthermore, some evil vendors will claim 1003.1 compliance, but in fact are not so: they will not pass the
       PCTS (POSIX Compliance Test Suites).  For example, one vendor may not define EDEADLK, or the semantics of the
       errno values set by open(2) might not be quite right.  Perl does not attempt to verify POSIX compliance.  That
       means you can currently successfully say "use POSIX",  and then later in your program you find that your vendor
       has been lax and there's no usable ICANON macro after all.  This could be construed to be a bug.

FUNCTIONS
       _exit   This is identical to the C function "_exit()".  It exits the program immediately which means among
               other things buffered I/O is not flushed.

               Note that when using threads and in Linux this is not a good way to exit a thread because in Linux pro-
               cesses and threads are kind of the same thing (Note: while this is the situation in early 2003 there
               are projects under way to have threads with more POSIXly semantics in Linux).  If you want not to
               return from a thread, detach the thread.

       abort   This is identical to the C function "abort()".  It terminates the process with a "SIGABRT" signal
               unless caught by a signal handler or if the handler does not return normally (it e.g.  does a
               "longjmp").

       abs     This is identical to Perl's builtin "abs()" function, returning the absolute value of its numerical
               argument.

       access  Determines the accessibility of a file.

                       if( POSIX::access( "/", &POSIX::R_OK ) ){
                               print "have read permission\n";
                       }

               Returns "undef" on failure.  Note: do not use "access()" for security purposes.  Between the "access()"
               call and the operation you are preparing for the permissions might change: a classic race condition.

       acos    This is identical to the C function "acos()", returning the arcus cosine of its numerical argument.
               See also Math::Trig.

       alarm   This is identical to Perl's builtin "alarm()" function, either for arming or disarming the "SIGARLM"
               timer.

       asctime This is identical to the C function "asctime()".  It returns a string of the form

                       "Fri Jun  2 18:22:13 2000\n\0"

               and it is called thusly

                       $asctime = asctime($sec, $min, $hour, $mday, $mon, $year,
                                          $wday, $yday, $isdst);

               The $mon is zero-based: January equals 0.  The $year is 1900-based: 2001 equals 101.  The $wday, $yday,
               and $isdst default to zero (and the first two are usually ignored anyway).

       asin    This is identical to the C function "asin()", returning the arcus sine of its numerical argument.  See
               also Math::Trig.

       assert  Unimplemented, but you can use "die" in perlfunc and the Carp module to achieve similar things.

       atan    This is identical to the C function "atan()", returning the arcus tangent of its numerical argument.
               See also Math::Trig.

       atan2   This is identical to Perl's builtin "atan2()" function, returning the arcus tangent defined by its two
               numerical arguments, the y coordinate and the x coordinate.  See also Math::Trig.

       atexit  atexit() is C-specific: use "END {}" instead, see perlsub.

       atof    atof() is C-specific.  Perl converts strings to numbers transparently.  If you need to force a scalar
               to a number, add a zero to it.

       atoi    atoi() is C-specific.  Perl converts strings to numbers transparently.  If you need to force a scalar
               to a number, add a zero to it.  If you need to have just the integer part, see "int" in perlfunc.

       atol    atol() is C-specific.  Perl converts strings to numbers transparently.  If you need to force a scalar
               to a number, add a zero to it.  If you need to have just the integer part, see "int" in perlfunc.

       bsearch bsearch() not supplied.  For doing binary search on wordlists, see Search::Dict.

       calloc  calloc() is C-specific.  Perl does memory management transparently.

       ceil    This is identical to the C function "ceil()", returning the smallest integer value greater than or
               equal to the given numerical argument.

       chdir   This is identical to Perl's builtin "chdir()" function, allowing one to change the working (default)
               directory, see "chdir" in perlfunc.

       chmod   This is identical to Perl's builtin "chmod()" function, allowing one to change file and directory per-
               missions, see "chmod" in perlfunc.

       chown   This is identical to Perl's builtin "chown()" function, allowing one to change file and directory own-
               ers and groups, see "chown" in perlfunc.

       clearerr
               Use the method "IO::Handle::clearerr()" instead, to reset the error state (if any) and EOF state (if
               any) of the given stream.

       clock   This is identical to the C function "clock()", returning the amount of spent processor time in
               microseconds.

       close   Close the file.  This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                       POSIX::close( $fd );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

               See also "close" in perlfunc.

       closedir
               This is identical to Perl's builtin "closedir()" function for closing a directory handle, see
               "closedir" in perlfunc.

       cos     This is identical to Perl's builtin "cos()" function, for returning the cosine of its numerical argu-
               ment, see "cos" in perlfunc.  See also Math::Trig.

       cosh    This is identical to the C function "cosh()", for returning the hyperbolic cosine of its numeric argu-
               ment.  See also Math::Trig.

       creat   Create a new file.  This returns a file descriptor like the ones returned by "POSIX::open".  Use
               "POSIX::close" to close the file.

                       $fd = POSIX::creat( "foo", 0611 );
                       POSIX::close( $fd );

               See also "sysopen" in perlfunc and its "O_CREAT" flag.

       ctermid Generates the path name for the controlling terminal.

                       $path = POSIX::ctermid();

       ctime   This is identical to the C function "ctime()" and equivalent to "asctime(localtime(...))", see "asc-
               time" and "localtime".

       cuserid Get the login name of the owner of the current process.

                       $name = POSIX::cuserid();

       difftime
               This is identical to the C function "difftime()", for returning the time difference (in seconds)
               between two times (as returned by "time()"), see "time".

       div     div() is C-specific, use "int" in perlfunc on the usual "/" division and the modulus "%".

       dup     This is similar to the C function "dup()", for duplicating a file descriptor.

               This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       dup2    This is similar to the C function "dup2()", for duplicating a file descriptor to an another known file
               descriptor.

               This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       errno   Returns the value of errno.

                       $errno = POSIX::errno();

               This identical to the numerical values of the $!, see "$ERRNO" in perlvar.

       execl   execl() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

       execle  execle() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

       execlp  execlp() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

       execv   execv() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

       execve  execve() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

       execvp  execvp() is C-specific, see "exec" in perlfunc.

       exit    This is identical to Perl's builtin "exit()" function for exiting the program, see "exit" in perlfunc.

       exp     This is identical to Perl's builtin "exp()" function for returning the exponent (e-based) of the numer-
               ical argument, see "exp" in perlfunc.

       fabs    This is identical to Perl's builtin "abs()" function for returning the absolute value of the numerical
               argument, see "abs" in perlfunc.

       fclose  Use method "IO::Handle::close()" instead, or see "close" in perlfunc.

       fcntl   This is identical to Perl's builtin "fcntl()" function, see "fcntl" in perlfunc.

       fdopen  Use method "IO::Handle::new_from_fd()" instead, or see "open" in perlfunc.

       feof    Use method "IO::Handle::eof()" instead, or see "eof" in perlfunc.

       ferror  Use method "IO::Handle::error()" instead.

       fflush  Use method "IO::Handle::flush()" instead.  See also "$OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH" in perlvar.

       fgetc   Use method "IO::Handle::getc()" instead, or see "read" in perlfunc.

       fgetpos Use method "IO::Seekable::getpos()" instead, or see "seek" in L.

       fgets   Use method "IO::Handle::gets()" instead.  Similar to <>, also known as "readline" in perlfunc.

       fileno  Use method "IO::Handle::fileno()" instead, or see "fileno" in perlfunc.

       floor   This is identical to the C function "floor()", returning the largest integer value less than or equal
               to the numerical argument.

       fmod    This is identical to the C function "fmod()".

                       $r = fmod($x, $y);

               It returns the remainder "$r = $x - $n*$y", where "$n = trunc($x/$y)".  The $r has the same sign as $x
               and magnitude (absolute value) less than the magnitude of $y.

       fopen   Use method "IO::File::open()" instead, or see "open" in perlfunc.

       fork    This is identical to Perl's builtin "fork()" function for duplicating the current process, see "fork"
               in perlfunc and perlfork if you are in Windows.

       fpathconf
               Retrieves the value of a configurable limit on a file or directory.  This uses file descriptors such as
               those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

               The following will determine the maximum length of the longest allowable pathname on the filesystem
               which holds "/var/foo".

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "/var/foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                       $path_max = POSIX::fpathconf( $fd, &POSIX::_PC_PATH_MAX );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       fprintf fprintf() is C-specific, see "printf" in perlfunc instead.

       fputc   fputc() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

       fputs   fputs() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

       fread   fread() is C-specific, see "read" in perlfunc instead.

       free    free() is C-specific.  Perl does memory management transparently.

       freopen freopen() is C-specific, see "open" in perlfunc instead.

       frexp   Return the mantissa and exponent of a floating-point number.

                       ($mantissa, $exponent) = POSIX::frexp( 1.234e56 );

       fscanf  fscanf() is C-specific, use <> and regular expressions instead.

       fseek   Use method "IO::Seekable::seek()" instead, or see "seek" in perlfunc.

       fsetpos Use method "IO::Seekable::setpos()" instead, or seek "seek" in perlfunc.

       fstat   Get file status.  This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".  The data
               returned is identical to the data from Perl's builtin "stat" function.

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                       @stats = POSIX::fstat( $fd );

       fsync   Use method "IO::Handle::sync()" instead.

       ftell   Use method "IO::Seekable::tell()" instead, or see "tell" in perlfunc.

       fwrite  fwrite() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

       getc    This is identical to Perl's builtin "getc()" function, see "getc" in perlfunc.

       getchar Returns one character from STDIN.  Identical to Perl's "getc()", see "getc" in perlfunc.

       getcwd  Returns the name of the current working directory.  See also Cwd.

       getegid Returns the effective group identifier.  Similar to Perl' s builtin variable $(, see "$EGID" in perl-
               var.

       getenv  Returns the value of the specified environment variable.  The same information is available through the
               %ENV array.

       geteuid Returns the effective user identifier.  Identical to Perl's builtin $> variable, see "$EUID" in perl-
               var.

       getgid  Returns the user's real group identifier.  Similar to Perl's builtin variable $), see "$GID" in perl-
               var.

       getgrgid
               This is identical to Perl's builtin "getgrgid()" function for returning group entries by group identi-
               fiers, see "getgrgid" in perlfunc.

       getgrnam
               This is identical to Perl's builtin "getgrnam()" function for returning group entries by group names,
               see "getgrnam" in perlfunc.

       getgroups
               Returns the ids of the user's supplementary groups.  Similar to Perl's builtin variable $), see "$GID"
               in perlvar.

       getlogin
               This is identical to Perl's builtin "getlogin()" function for returning the user name associated with
               the current session, see "getlogin" in perlfunc.

       getpgrp This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpgrp()" function for returning the process group identifier of
               the current process, see "getpgrp" in perlfunc.

       getpid  Returns the process identifier.  Identical to Perl's builtin variable $$, see "$PID" in perlvar.

       getppid This is identical to Perl's builtin "getppid()" function for returning the process identifier of the
               parent process of the current process , see "getppid" in perlfunc.

       getpwnam
               This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpwnam()" function for returning user entries by user names, see
               "getpwnam" in perlfunc.

       getpwuid
               This is identical to Perl's builtin "getpwuid()" function for returning user entries by user identi-
               fiers, see "getpwuid" in perlfunc.

       gets    Returns one line from "STDIN", similar to <>, also known as the "readline()" function, see "readline"
               in perlfunc.

               NOTE: if you have C programs that still use "gets()", be very afraid.  The "gets()" function is a
               source of endless grief because it has no buffer overrun checks.  It should never be used.  The
               "fgets()" function should be preferred instead.

       getuid  Returns the user's identifier.  Identical to Perl's builtin $< variable, see "$UID" in perlvar.

       gmtime  This is identical to Perl's builtin "gmtime()" function for converting seconds since the epoch to a
               date in Greenwich Mean Time, see "gmtime" in perlfunc.

       isalnum This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isalnum".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:alnum:]]/" construct instead, or possibly the "/\w/" construct.

       isalpha This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isalpha".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:alpha:]]/" construct instead.

       isatty  Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified filehandle is connected to a tty.  Similar to the
               "-t" operator, see "-X" in perlfunc.

       iscntrl This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "iscntrl".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:cntrl:]]/" construct instead.

       isdigit This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isdigit" (unlikely, but
               still possible). Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular
               expressions and the "/[[:digit:]]/" construct instead, or the "/\d/" construct.

       isgraph This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isgraph".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:graph:]]/" construct instead.

       islower This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "islower".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:lower:]]/" construct instead.  Do not use "/[a-z]/".

       isprint This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isprint".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:print:]]/" construct instead.

       ispunct This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "ispunct".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:punct:]]/" construct instead.

       isspace This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isspace".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:space:]]/" construct instead, or the "/\s/" construct.  (Note that "/\s/" and "/[[:space:]]/" are
               slightly different in that "/[[:space:]]/" can normally match a vertical tab, while "/\s/" does not.)

       isupper This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isupper".  Does not work
               on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular expressions and the
               "/[[:upper:]]/" construct instead.  Do not use "/[A-Z]/".

       isxdigit
               This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Note that locale settings may affect what characters are considered "isxdigit" (unlikely, but
               still possible).  Does not work on Unicode characters code point 256 or higher.  Consider using regular
               expressions and the "/[[:xdigit:]]/" construct instead, or simply "/[0-9a-f]/i".

       kill    This is identical to Perl's builtin "kill()" function for sending signals to processes (often to termi-
               nate them), see "kill" in perlfunc.

       labs    (For returning absolute values of long integers.)  labs() is C-specific, see "abs" in perlfunc instead.

       ldexp   This is identical to the C function "ldexp()" for multiplying floating point numbers with powers of
               two.

                       $x_quadrupled = POSIX::ldexp($x, 2);

       ldiv    (For computing dividends of long integers.)  ldiv() is C-specific, use "/" and "int()" instead.

       link    This is identical to Perl's builtin "link()" function for creating hard links into files, see "link" in
               perlfunc.

       localeconv
               Get numeric formatting information.  Returns a reference to a hash containing the current locale for-
               matting values.

               Here is how to query the database for the de (Deutsch or German) locale.

                       $loc = POSIX::setlocale( &POSIX::LC_ALL, "de" );
                       print "Locale = $loc\n";
                       $lconv = POSIX::localeconv();
                       print "decimal_point    = ", $lconv->{decimal_point},   "\n";
                       print "thousands_sep    = ", $lconv->{thousands_sep},   "\n";
                       print "grouping = ", $lconv->{grouping},        "\n";
                       print "int_curr_symbol  = ", $lconv->{int_curr_symbol}, "\n";
                       print "currency_symbol  = ", $lconv->{currency_symbol}, "\n";
                       print "mon_decimal_point = ", $lconv->{mon_decimal_point}, "\n";
                       print "mon_thousands_sep = ", $lconv->{mon_thousands_sep}, "\n";
                       print "mon_grouping     = ", $lconv->{mon_grouping},    "\n";
                       print "positive_sign    = ", $lconv->{positive_sign},   "\n";
                       print "negative_sign    = ", $lconv->{negative_sign},   "\n";
                       print "int_frac_digits  = ", $lconv->{int_frac_digits}, "\n";
                       print "frac_digits      = ", $lconv->{frac_digits},     "\n";
                       print "p_cs_precedes    = ", $lconv->{p_cs_precedes},   "\n";
                       print "p_sep_by_space   = ", $lconv->{p_sep_by_space},  "\n";
                       print "n_cs_precedes    = ", $lconv->{n_cs_precedes},   "\n";
                       print "n_sep_by_space   = ", $lconv->{n_sep_by_space},  "\n";
                       print "p_sign_posn      = ", $lconv->{p_sign_posn},     "\n";
                       print "n_sign_posn      = ", $lconv->{n_sign_posn},     "\n";

       localtime
               This is identical to Perl's builtin "localtime()" function for converting seconds since the epoch to a
               date see "localtime" in perlfunc.

       log     This is identical to Perl's builtin "log()" function, returning the natural (e-based) logarithm of the
               numerical argument, see "log" in perlfunc.

       log10   This is identical to the C function "log10()", returning the 10-base logarithm of the numerical argu-
               ment.  You can also use

                   sub log10 { log($_[0]) / log(10) }

               or

                   sub log10 { log($_[0]) / 2.30258509299405 }

               or

                   sub log10 { log($_[0]) * 0.434294481903252 }

       longjmp longjmp() is C-specific: use "die" in perlfunc instead.

       lseek   Move the file's read/write position.  This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling
               "POSIX::open".

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                       $off_t = POSIX::lseek( $fd, 0, &POSIX::SEEK_SET );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       malloc  malloc() is C-specific.  Perl does memory management transparently.

       mblen   This is identical to the C function "mblen()".  Perl does not have any support for the wide and multi-
               byte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

       mbstowcs
               This is identical to the C function "mbstowcs()".  Perl does not have any support for the wide and
               multibyte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

       mbtowc  This is identical to the C function "mbtowc()".  Perl does not have any support for the wide and multi-
               byte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

       memchr  memchr() is C-specific, see "index" in perlfunc instead.

       memcmp  memcmp() is C-specific, use "eq" instead, see perlop.

       memcpy  memcpy() is C-specific, use "=", see perlop, or see "substr" in perlfunc.

       memmove memmove() is C-specific, use "=", see perlop, or see "substr" in perlfunc.

       memset  memset() is C-specific, use "x" instead, see perlop.

       mkdir   This is identical to Perl's builtin "mkdir()" function for creating directories, see "mkdir" in perl-
               func.

       mkfifo  This is similar to the C function "mkfifo()" for creating FIFO special files.

                       if (mkfifo($path, $mode)) { ....

               Returns "undef" on failure.  The $mode is similar to the mode of "mkdir()", see "mkdir" in perlfunc.

       mktime  Convert date/time info to a calendar time.

               Synopsis:

                       mktime(sec, min, hour, mday, mon, year, wday = 0, yday = 0, isdst = 0)

               The month ("mon"), weekday ("wday"), and yearday ("yday") begin at zero.  I.e. January is 0, not 1;
               Sunday is 0, not 1; January 1st is 0, not 1.  The year ("year") is given in years since 1900.  I.e. The
               year 1995 is 95; the year 2001 is 101.  Consult your system's "mktime()" manpage for details about
               these and the other arguments.

               Calendar time for December 12, 1995, at 10:30 am.

                       $time_t = POSIX::mktime( 0, 30, 10, 12, 11, 95 );
                       print "Date = ", POSIX::ctime($time_t);

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       modf    Return the integral and fractional parts of a floating-point number.

                       ($fractional, $integral) = POSIX::modf( 3.14 );

       nice    This is similar to the C function "nice()", for changing the scheduling preference of the current pro-
               cess.  Positive arguments mean more polite process, negative values more needy process.  Normal user
               processes can only be more polite.

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       offsetof
               offsetof() is C-specific, you probably want to see "pack" in perlfunc instead.

       open    Open a file for reading for writing.  This returns file descriptors, not Perl filehandles.  Use
               "POSIX::close" to close the file.

               Open a file read-only with mode 0666.

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo" );

               Open a file for read and write.

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDWR );

               Open a file for write, with truncation.

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_WRONLY | &POSIX::O_TRUNC );

               Create a new file with mode 0640.  Set up the file for writing.

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_CREAT | &POSIX::O_WRONLY, 0640 );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

               See also "sysopen" in perlfunc.

       opendir Open a directory for reading.

                       $dir = POSIX::opendir( "/var" );
                       @files = POSIX::readdir( $dir );
                       POSIX::closedir( $dir );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       pathconf
               Retrieves the value of a configurable limit on a file or directory.

               The following will determine the maximum length of the longest allowable pathname on the filesystem
               which holds "/var".

                       $path_max = POSIX::pathconf( "/var", &POSIX::_PC_PATH_MAX );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       pause   This is similar to the C function "pause()", which suspends the execution of the current process until
               a signal is received.

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       perror  This is identical to the C function "perror()", which outputs to the standard error stream the speci-
               fied message followed by ": " and the current error string.  Use the "warn()" function and the $!
               variable instead, see "warn" in perlfunc and "$ERRNO" in perlvar.

       pipe    Create an interprocess channel.  This returns file descriptors like those returned by "POSIX::open".

                       my ($read, $write) = POSIX::pipe();
                       POSIX::write( $write, "hello", 5 );
                       POSIX::read( $read, $buf, 5 );

               See also "pipe" in perlfunc.

       pow     Computes $x raised to the power $exponent.

                       $ret = POSIX::pow( $x, $exponent );

               You can also use the "**" operator, see perlop.

       printf  Formats and prints the specified arguments to STDOUT.  See also "printf" in perlfunc.

       putc    putc() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

       putchar putchar() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

       puts    puts() is C-specific, see "print" in perlfunc instead.

       qsort   qsort() is C-specific, see "sort" in perlfunc instead.

       raise   Sends the specified signal to the current process.  See also "kill" in perlfunc and the $$ in "$PID" in
               perlvar.

       rand    "rand()" is non-portable, see "rand" in perlfunc instead.

       read    Read from a file.  This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".  If the
               buffer $buf is not large enough for the read then Perl will extend it to make room for the request.

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_RDONLY );
                       $bytes = POSIX::read( $fd, $buf, 3 );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

               See also "sysread" in perlfunc.

       readdir This is identical to Perl's builtin "readdir()" function for reading directory entries, see "readdir"
               in perlfunc.

       realloc realloc() is C-specific.  Perl does memory management transparently.

       remove  This is identical to Perl's builtin "unlink()" function for removing files, see "unlink" in perlfunc.

       rename  This is identical to Perl's builtin "rename()" function for renaming files, see "rename" in perlfunc.

       rewind  Seeks to the beginning of the file.

       rewinddir
               This is identical to Perl's builtin "rewinddir()" function for rewinding directory entry streams, see
               "rewinddir" in perlfunc.

       rmdir   This is identical to Perl's builtin "rmdir()" function for removing (empty) directories, see "rmdir" in
               perlfunc.

       scanf   scanf() is C-specific, use <> and regular expressions instead, see perlre.

       setgid  Sets the real group identifier and the effective group identifier for this process.  Similar to assign-
               ing a value to the Perl's builtin $) variable, see "$GID" in perlvar, except that the latter will
               change only the real user identifier, and that the setgid() uses only a single numeric argument, as
               opposed to a space-separated list of numbers.

       setjmp  "setjmp()" is C-specific: use "eval {}" instead, see "eval" in perlfunc.

       setlocale
               Modifies and queries program's locale.  The following examples assume

                       use POSIX qw(setlocale LC_ALL LC_CTYPE);

               has been issued.

               The following will set the traditional UNIX system locale behavior (the second argument "C").

                       $loc = setlocale( LC_ALL, "C" );

               The following will query the current LC_CTYPE category.  (No second argument means 'query'.)

                       $loc = setlocale( LC_CTYPE );

               The following will set the LC_CTYPE behaviour according to the locale environment variables (the second
               argument "").  Please see your systems setlocale(3) documentation for the locale environment variables'
               meaning or consult perllocale.

                       $loc = setlocale( LC_CTYPE, "" );

               The following will set the LC_COLLATE behaviour to Argentinian Spanish. NOTE: The naming and availabil-
               ity of locales depends on your operating system. Please consult perllocale for how to find out which
               locales are available in your system.

                       $loc = setlocale( LC_ALL, "es_AR.ISO8859-1" );

       setpgid This is similar to the C function "setpgid()" for setting the process group identifier of the current
               process.

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       setsid  This is identical to the C function "setsid()" for setting the session identifier of the current pro-
               cess.

       setuid  Sets the real user identifier and the effective user identifier for this process.  Similar to assigning
               a value to the Perl's builtin $< variable, see "$UID" in perlvar, except that the latter will change
               only the real user identifier.

       sigaction
               Detailed signal management.  This uses "POSIX::SigAction" objects for the "action" and "oldaction"
               arguments.  Consult your system's "sigaction" manpage for details.

               Synopsis:

                       sigaction(signal, action, oldaction = 0)

               Returns "undef" on failure.  The "signal" must be a number (like SIGHUP), not a string (like "SIGHUP"),
               though Perl does try hard to understand you.

       siglongjmp
               siglongjmp() is C-specific: use "die" in perlfunc instead.

       sigpending
               Examine signals that are blocked and pending.  This uses "POSIX::SigSet" objects for the "sigset" argu-
               ment.  Consult your system's "sigpending" manpage for details.

               Synopsis:

                       sigpending(sigset)

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       sigprocmask
               Change and/or examine calling process's signal mask.  This uses "POSIX::SigSet" objects for the
               "sigset" and "oldsigset" arguments.  Consult your system's "sigprocmask" manpage for details.

               Synopsis:

                       sigprocmask(how, sigset, oldsigset = 0)

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       sigsetjmp
               "sigsetjmp()" is C-specific: use "eval {}" instead, see "eval" in perlfunc.

       sigsuspend
               Install a signal mask and suspend process until signal arrives.  This uses "POSIX::SigSet" objects for
               the "signal_mask" argument.  Consult your system's "sigsuspend" manpage for details.

               Synopsis:

                       sigsuspend(signal_mask)

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       sin     This is identical to Perl's builtin "sin()" function for returning the sine of the numerical argument,
               see "sin" in perlfunc.  See also Math::Trig.

       sinh    This is identical to the C function "sinh()" for returning the hyperbolic sine of the numerical argu-
               ment.  See also Math::Trig.

       sleep   This is functionally identical to Perl's builtin "sleep()" function for suspending the execution of the
               current for process for certain number of seconds, see "sleep" in perlfunc.  There is one significant
               difference, however: "POSIX::sleep()" returns the number of unslept seconds, while the "CORE::sleep()"
               returns the number of slept seconds.

       sprintf This is similar to Perl's builtin "sprintf()" function for returning a string that has the arguments
               formatted as requested, see "sprintf" in perlfunc.

       sqrt    This is identical to Perl's builtin "sqrt()" function.  for returning the square root of the numerical
               argument, see "sqrt" in perlfunc.

       srand   Give a seed the pseudorandom number generator, see "srand" in perlfunc.

       sscanf  sscanf() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre.

       stat    This is identical to Perl's builtin "stat()" function for returning information about files and direc-
               tories.

       strcat  strcat() is C-specific, use ".=" instead, see perlop.

       strchr  strchr() is C-specific, see "index" in perlfunc instead.

       strcmp  strcmp() is C-specific, use "eq" or "cmp" instead, see perlop.

       strcoll This is identical to the C function "strcoll()" for collating (comparing) strings transformed using the
               "strxfrm()" function.  Not really needed since Perl can do this transparently, see perllocale.

       strcpy  strcpy() is C-specific, use "=" instead, see perlop.

       strcspn strcspn() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre.

       strerror
               Returns the error string for the specified errno.  Identical to the string form of the $!, see "$ERRNO"
               in perlvar.

       strftime
               Convert date and time information to string.  Returns the string.

               Synopsis:

                       strftime(fmt, sec, min, hour, mday, mon, year, wday = -1, yday = -1, isdst = -1)

               The month ("mon"), weekday ("wday"), and yearday ("yday") begin at zero.  I.e. January is 0, not 1;
               Sunday is 0, not 1; January 1st is 0, not 1.  The year ("year") is given in years since 1900.  I.e.,
               the year 1995 is 95; the year 2001 is 101.  Consult your system's "strftime()" manpage for details
               about these and the other arguments.

               If you want your code to be portable, your format ("fmt") argument should use only the conversion spec-
               ifiers defined by the ANSI C standard (C89, to play safe).  These are "aAbBcdHIjmMpSUwWxXyYZ%".  But
               even then, the results of some of the conversion specifiers are non-portable.  For example, the speci-
               fiers "aAbBcpZ" change according to the locale settings of the user, and both how to set locales (the
               locale names) and what output to expect are non-standard.  The specifier "c" changes according to the
               timezone settings of the user and the timezone computation rules of the operating system.  The "Z"
               specifier is notoriously unportable since the names of timezones are non-standard. Sticking to the
               numeric specifiers is the safest route.

               The given arguments are made consistent as though by calling "mktime()" before calling your system's
               "strftime()" function, except that the "isdst" value is not affected.

               The string for Tuesday, December 12, 1995.

                       $str = POSIX::strftime( "%A, %B %d, %Y", 0, 0, 0, 12, 11, 95, 2 );
                       print "$str\n";

       strlen  strlen() is C-specific, use "length()" instead, see "length" in perlfunc.

       strncat strncat() is C-specific, use ".=" instead, see perlop.

       strncmp strncmp() is C-specific, use "eq" instead, see perlop.

       strncpy strncpy() is C-specific, use "=" instead, see perlop.

       strpbrk strpbrk() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre.

       strrchr strrchr() is C-specific, see "rindex" in perlfunc instead.

       strspn  strspn() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre.

       strstr  This is identical to Perl's builtin "index()" function, see "index" in perlfunc.

       strtod  String to double translation. Returns the parsed number and the number of characters in the unparsed
               portion of the string.  Truly POSIX-compliant systems set $! ($ERRNO) to indicate a translation error,
               so clear $! before calling strtod.  However, non-POSIX systems may not check for overflow, and there-
               fore will never set $!.

               strtod should respect any POSIX setlocale() settings.

               To parse a string $str as a floating point number use

                   $! = 0;
                   ($num, $n_unparsed) = POSIX::strtod($str);

               The second returned item and $! can be used to check for valid input:

                   if (($str eq '') || ($n_unparsed != 0) || $!) {
                       die "Non-numeric input $str" . ($! ? ": $!\n" : "\n");
                   }

               When called in a scalar context strtod returns the parsed number.

       strtok  strtok() is C-specific, use regular expressions instead, see perlre, or "split" in perlfunc.

       strtol  String to (long) integer translation.  Returns the parsed number and the number of characters in the
               unparsed portion of the string.  Truly POSIX-compliant systems set $! ($ERRNO) to indicate a transla-
               tion error, so clear $! before calling strtol.  However, non-POSIX systems may not check for overflow,
               and therefore will never set $!.

               strtol should respect any POSIX setlocale() settings.

               To parse a string $str as a number in some base $base use

                   $! = 0;
                   ($num, $n_unparsed) = POSIX::strtol($str, $base);

               The base should be zero or between 2 and 36, inclusive.  When the base is zero or omitted strtol will
               use the string itself to determine the base: a leading "0x" or "0X" means hexadecimal; a leading "0"
               means octal; any other leading characters mean decimal.  Thus, "1234" is parsed as a decimal number,
               "01234" as an octal number, and "0x1234" as a hexadecimal number.

               The second returned item and $! can be used to check for valid input:

                   if (($str eq '') || ($n_unparsed != 0) || !$!) {
                       die "Non-numeric input $str" . $! ? ": $!\n" : "\n";
                   }

               When called in a scalar context strtol returns the parsed number.

       strtoul String to unsigned (long) integer translation.  strtoul() is identical to strtol() except that str-
               toul() only parses unsigned integers.  See "strtol" for details.

               Note: Some vendors supply strtod() and strtol() but not strtoul().  Other vendors that do supply str-
               toul() parse "-1" as a valid value.

       strxfrm String transformation.  Returns the transformed string.

                       $dst = POSIX::strxfrm( $src );

               Used in conjunction with the "strcoll()" function, see "strcoll".

               Not really needed since Perl can do this transparently, see perllocale.

       sysconf Retrieves values of system configurable variables.

               The following will get the machine's clock speed.

                       $clock_ticks = POSIX::sysconf( &POSIX::_SC_CLK_TCK );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       system  This is identical to Perl's builtin "system()" function, see "system" in perlfunc.

       tan     This is identical to the C function "tan()", returning the tangent of the numerical argument.  See also
               Math::Trig.

       tanh    This is identical to the C function "tanh()", returning the hyperbolic tangent of the numerical argu-
               ment.   See also Math::Trig.

       tcdrain This is similar to the C function "tcdrain()" for draining the output queue of its argument stream.

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       tcflow  This is similar to the C function "tcflow()" for controlling the flow of its argument stream.

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       tcflush This is similar to the C function "tcflush()" for flushing the I/O buffers of its argument stream.

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       tcgetpgrp
               This is identical to the C function "tcgetpgrp()" for returning the process group identifier of the
               foreground process group of the controlling terminal.

       tcsendbreak
               This is similar to the C function "tcsendbreak()" for sending a break on its argument stream.

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       tcsetpgrp
               This is similar to the C function "tcsetpgrp()" for setting the process group identifier of the fore-
               ground process group of the controlling terminal.

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       time    This is identical to Perl's builtin "time()" function for returning the number of seconds since the
               epoch (whatever it is for the system), see "time" in perlfunc.

       times   The times() function returns elapsed realtime since some point in the past (such as system startup),
               user and system times for this process, and user and system times used by child processes.  All times
               are returned in clock ticks.

                   ($realtime, $user, $system, $cuser, $csystem) = POSIX::times();

               Note: Perl's builtin "times()" function returns four values, measured in seconds.

       tmpfile Use method "IO::File::new_tmpfile()" instead, or see File::Temp.

       tmpnam  Returns a name for a temporary file.

                       $tmpfile = POSIX::tmpnam();

               For security reasons, which are probably detailed in your system's documentation for the C library tmp-
               nam() function, this interface should not be used; instead see File::Temp.

       tolower This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Consider using the "lc()" function, see "lc" in perlfunc, or the equivalent "\L" operator
               inside doublequotish strings.

       toupper This is identical to the C function, except that it can apply to a single character or to a whole
               string.  Consider using the "uc()" function, see "uc" in perlfunc, or the equivalent "\U" operator
               inside doublequotish strings.

       ttyname This is identical to the C function "ttyname()" for returning the name of the current terminal.

       tzname  Retrieves the time conversion information from the "tzname" variable.

                       POSIX::tzset();
                       ($std, $dst) = POSIX::tzname();

       tzset   This is identical to the C function "tzset()" for setting the current timezone based on the environment
               variable "TZ", to be used by "ctime()", "localtime()", "mktime()", and "strftime()" functions.

       umask   This is identical to Perl's builtin "umask()" function for setting (and querying) the file creation
               permission mask, see "umask" in perlfunc.

       uname   Get name of current operating system.

                       ($sysname, $nodename, $release, $version, $machine) = POSIX::uname();

               Note that the actual meanings of the various fields are not that well standardized, do not expect any
               great portability.  The $sysname might be the name of the operating system, the $nodename might be the
               name of the host, the $release might be the (major) release number of the operating system, the $ver-
               sion might be the (minor) release number of the operating system, and the $machine might be a hardware
               identifier.  Maybe.

       ungetc  Use method "IO::Handle::ungetc()" instead.

       unlink  This is identical to Perl's builtin "unlink()" function for removing files, see "unlink" in perlfunc.

       utime   This is identical to Perl's builtin "utime()" function for changing the time stamps of files and direc-
               tories, see "utime" in perlfunc.

       vfprintf
               vfprintf() is C-specific, see "printf" in perlfunc instead.

       vprintf vprintf() is C-specific, see "printf" in perlfunc instead.

       vsprintf
               vsprintf() is C-specific, see "sprintf" in perlfunc instead.

       wait    This is identical to Perl's builtin "wait()" function, see "wait" in perlfunc.

       waitpid Wait for a child process to change state.  This is identical to Perl's builtin "waitpid()" function,
               see "waitpid" in perlfunc.

                       $pid = POSIX::waitpid( -1, POSIX::WNOHANG );
                       print "status = ", ($? / 256), "\n";

       wcstombs
               This is identical to the C function "wcstombs()".  Perl does not have any support for the wide and
               multibyte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

       wctomb  This is identical to the C function "wctomb()".  Perl does not have any support for the wide and multi-
               byte characters of the C standards, so this might be a rather useless function.

       write   Write to a file.  This uses file descriptors such as those obtained by calling "POSIX::open".

                       $fd = POSIX::open( "foo", &POSIX::O_WRONLY );
                       $buf = "hello";
                       $bytes = POSIX::write( $b, $buf, 5 );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

               See also "syswrite" in perlfunc.

CLASSES
       POSIX::SigAction


       new     Creates a new "POSIX::SigAction" object which corresponds to the C "struct sigaction".  This object
               will be destroyed automatically when it is no longer needed.  The first parameter is the fully-quali-
               fied name of a sub which is a signal-handler.  The second parameter is a "POSIX::SigSet" object, it
               defaults to the empty set.  The third parameter contains the "sa_flags", it defaults to 0.

                       $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new(SIGINT, SIGQUIT);
                       $sigaction = POSIX::SigAction->new( \&main::handler, $sigset, &POSIX::SA_NOCLDSTOP );

               This "POSIX::SigAction" object is intended for use with the "POSIX::sigaction()" function.

       handler
       mask
       flags   accessor functions to get/set the values of a SigAction object.

                       $sigset = $sigaction->mask;
                       $sigaction->flags(&POSIX::SA_RESTART);

       safe    accessor function for the "safe signals" flag of a SigAction object; see perlipc for general informa-
               tion on safe (a.k.a. "deferred") signals.  If you wish to handle a signal safely, use this accessor to
               set the "safe" flag in the "POSIX::SigAction" object:

                       $sigaction->safe(1);

               You may also examine the "safe" flag on the output action object which is filled in when given as the
               third parameter to "POSIX::sigaction()":

                       sigaction(SIGINT, $new_action, $old_action);
                       if ($old_action->safe) {
                           # previous SIGINT handler used safe signals
                       }

       POSIX::SigSet


       new     Create a new SigSet object.  This object will be destroyed automatically when it is no longer needed.
               Arguments may be supplied to initialize the set.

               Create an empty set.

                       $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new;

               Create a set with SIGUSR1.

                       $sigset = POSIX::SigSet->new( &POSIX::SIGUSR1 );

       addset  Add a signal to a SigSet object.

                       $sigset->addset( &POSIX::SIGUSR2 );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       delset  Remove a signal from the SigSet object.

                       $sigset->delset( &POSIX::SIGUSR2 );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       emptyset
               Initialize the SigSet object to be empty.

                       $sigset->emptyset();

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       fillset Initialize the SigSet object to include all signals.

                       $sigset->fillset();

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       ismember
               Tests the SigSet object to see if it contains a specific signal.

                       if( $sigset->ismember( &POSIX::SIGUSR1 ) ){
                               print "contains SIGUSR1\n";
                       }

       POSIX::Termios


       new     Create a new Termios object.  This object will be destroyed automatically when it is no longer needed.
               A Termios object corresponds to the termios C struct.  new() mallocs a new one, getattr() fills it from
               a file descriptor, and setattr() sets a file descriptor's parameters to match Termios' contents.

                       $termios = POSIX::Termios->new;

       getattr Get terminal control attributes.

               Obtain the attributes for stdin.

                       $termios->getattr()

               Obtain the attributes for stdout.

                       $termios->getattr( 1 )

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       getcc   Retrieve a value from the c_cc field of a termios object.  The c_cc field is an array so an index must
               be specified.

                       $c_cc[1] = $termios->getcc(1);

       getcflag
               Retrieve the c_cflag field of a termios object.

                       $c_cflag = $termios->getcflag;

       getiflag
               Retrieve the c_iflag field of a termios object.

                       $c_iflag = $termios->getiflag;

       getispeed
               Retrieve the input baud rate.

                       $ispeed = $termios->getispeed;

       getlflag
               Retrieve the c_lflag field of a termios object.

                       $c_lflag = $termios->getlflag;

       getoflag
               Retrieve the c_oflag field of a termios object.

                       $c_oflag = $termios->getoflag;

       getospeed
               Retrieve the output baud rate.

                       $ospeed = $termios->getospeed;

       setattr Set terminal control attributes.

               Set attributes immediately for stdout.

                       $termios->setattr( 1, &POSIX::TCSANOW );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       setcc   Set a value in the c_cc field of a termios object.  The c_cc field is an array so an index must be
               specified.

                       $termios->setcc( &POSIX::VEOF, 1 );

       setcflag
               Set the c_cflag field of a termios object.

                       $termios->setcflag( $c_cflag | &POSIX::CLOCAL );

       setiflag
               Set the c_iflag field of a termios object.

                       $termios->setiflag( $c_iflag | &POSIX::BRKINT );

       setispeed
               Set the input baud rate.

                       $termios->setispeed( &POSIX::B9600 );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       setlflag
               Set the c_lflag field of a termios object.

                       $termios->setlflag( $c_lflag | &POSIX::ECHO );

       setoflag
               Set the c_oflag field of a termios object.

                       $termios->setoflag( $c_oflag | &POSIX::OPOST );

       setospeed
               Set the output baud rate.

                       $termios->setospeed( &POSIX::B9600 );

               Returns "undef" on failure.

       Baud rate values
               B38400 B75 B200 B134 B300 B1800 B150 B0 B19200 B1200 B9600 B600 B4800 B50 B2400 B110

       Terminal interface values
               TCSADRAIN TCSANOW TCOON TCIOFLUSH TCOFLUSH TCION TCIFLUSH TCSAFLUSH TCIOFF TCOOFF

       c_cc field values
               VEOF VEOL VERASE VINTR VKILL VQUIT VSUSP VSTART VSTOP VMIN VTIME NCCS

       c_cflag field values
               CLOCAL CREAD CSIZE CS5 CS6 CS7 CS8 CSTOPB HUPCL PARENB PARODD

       c_iflag field values
               BRKINT ICRNL IGNBRK IGNCR IGNPAR INLCR INPCK ISTRIP IXOFF IXON PARMRK

       c_lflag field values
               ECHO ECHOE ECHOK ECHONL ICANON IEXTEN ISIG NOFLSH TOSTOP

       c_oflag field values
               OPOST

PATHNAME CONSTANTS
       Constants
               _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED _PC_LINK_MAX _PC_MAX_CANON _PC_MAX_INPUT _PC_NAME_MAX _PC_NO_TRUNC _PC_PATH_MAX
               _PC_PIPE_BUF _PC_VDISABLE

POSIX CONSTANTS
       Constants
               _POSIX_ARG_MAX _POSIX_CHILD_MAX _POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED _POSIX_JOB_CONTROL _POSIX_LINK_MAX
               _POSIX_MAX_CANON _POSIX_MAX_INPUT _POSIX_NAME_MAX _POSIX_NGROUPS_MAX _POSIX_NO_TRUNC _POSIX_OPEN_MAX
               _POSIX_PATH_MAX _POSIX_PIPE_BUF _POSIX_SAVED_IDS _POSIX_SSIZE_MAX _POSIX_STREAM_MAX _POSIX_TZNAME_MAX
               _POSIX_VDISABLE _POSIX_VERSION

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
       Constants
               _SC_ARG_MAX _SC_CHILD_MAX _SC_CLK_TCK _SC_JOB_CONTROL _SC_NGROUPS_MAX _SC_OPEN_MAX _SC_PAGESIZE
               _SC_SAVED_IDS _SC_STREAM_MAX _SC_TZNAME_MAX _SC_VERSION

ERRNO
       Constants
               E2BIG EACCES EADDRINUSE EADDRNOTAVAIL EAFNOSUPPORT EAGAIN EALREADY EBADF EBUSY ECHILD ECONNABORTED
               ECONNREFUSED ECONNRESET EDEADLK EDESTADDRREQ EDOM EDQUOT EEXIST EFAULT EFBIG EHOSTDOWN EHOSTUNREACH
               EINPROGRESS EINTR EINVAL EIO EISCONN EISDIR ELOOP EMFILE EMLINK EMSGSIZE ENAMETOOLONG ENETDOWN ENETRE-
               SET ENETUNREACH ENFILE ENOBUFS ENODEV ENOENT ENOEXEC ENOLCK ENOMEM ENOPROTOOPT ENOSPC ENOSYS ENOTBLK
               ENOTCONN ENOTDIR ENOTEMPTY ENOTSOCK ENOTTY ENXIO EOPNOTSUPP EPERM EPFNOSUPPORT EPIPE EPROCLIM EPROTONO-
               SUPPORT EPROTOTYPE ERANGE EREMOTE ERESTART EROFS ESHUTDOWN ESOCKTNOSUPPORT ESPIPE ESRCH ESTALE ETIMED-
               OUT ETOOMANYREFS ETXTBSY EUSERS EWOULDBLOCK EXDEV

FCNTL
       Constants
               FD_CLOEXEC F_DUPFD F_GETFD F_GETFL F_GETLK F_OK F_RDLCK F_SETFD F_SETFL F_SETLK F_SETLKW F_UNLCK
               F_WRLCK O_ACCMODE O_APPEND O_CREAT O_EXCL O_NOCTTY O_NONBLOCK O_RDONLY O_RDWR O_TRUNC O_WRONLY

FLOAT
       Constants
               DBL_DIG DBL_EPSILON DBL_MANT_DIG DBL_MAX DBL_MAX_10_EXP DBL_MAX_EXP DBL_MIN DBL_MIN_10_EXP DBL_MIN_EXP
               FLT_DIG FLT_EPSILON FLT_MANT_DIG FLT_MAX FLT_MAX_10_EXP FLT_MAX_EXP FLT_MIN FLT_MIN_10_EXP FLT_MIN_EXP
               FLT_RADIX FLT_ROUNDS LDBL_DIG LDBL_EPSILON LDBL_MANT_DIG LDBL_MAX LDBL_MAX_10_EXP LDBL_MAX_EXP LDBL_MIN
               LDBL_MIN_10_EXP LDBL_MIN_EXP

LIMITS
       Constants
               ARG_MAX CHAR_BIT CHAR_MAX CHAR_MIN CHILD_MAX INT_MAX INT_MIN LINK_MAX LONG_MAX LONG_MIN MAX_CANON
               MAX_INPUT MB_LEN_MAX NAME_MAX NGROUPS_MAX OPEN_MAX PATH_MAX PIPE_BUF SCHAR_MAX SCHAR_MIN SHRT_MAX
               SHRT_MIN SSIZE_MAX STREAM_MAX TZNAME_MAX UCHAR_MAX UINT_MAX ULONG_MAX USHRT_MAX

LOCALE
       Constants
               LC_ALL LC_COLLATE LC_CTYPE LC_MONETARY LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME

MATH
       Constants
               HUGE_VAL

SIGNAL
       Constants
               SA_NOCLDSTOP SA_NOCLDWAIT SA_NODEFER SA_ONSTACK SA_RESETHAND SA_RESTART SA_SIGINFO SIGABRT SIGALRM
               SIGCHLD SIGCONT SIGFPE SIGHUP SIGILL SIGINT SIGKILL SIGPIPE SIGQUIT SIGSEGV SIGSTOP SIGTERM SIGTSTP
               SIGTTIN SIGTTOU SIGUSR1 SIGUSR2 SIG_BLOCK SIG_DFL SIG_ERR SIG_IGN SIG_SETMASK SIG_UNBLOCK

STAT
       Constants
               S_IRGRP S_IROTH S_IRUSR S_IRWXG S_IRWXO S_IRWXU S_ISGID S_ISUID S_IWGRP S_IWOTH S_IWUSR S_IXGRP S_IXOTH
               S_IXUSR

       Macros  S_ISBLK S_ISCHR S_ISDIR S_ISFIFO S_ISREG

STDLIB
       Constants
               EXIT_FAILURE EXIT_SUCCESS MB_CUR_MAX RAND_MAX

STDIO
       Constants
               BUFSIZ EOF FILENAME_MAX L_ctermid L_cuserid L_tmpname TMP_MAX

TIME
       Constants
               CLK_TCK CLOCKS_PER_SEC

UNISTD
       Constants
               R_OK SEEK_CUR SEEK_END SEEK_SET STDIN_FILENO STDOUT_FILENO STDERR_FILENO W_OK X_OK

WAIT
       Constants
               WNOHANG WUNTRACED

               WNOHANG         Do not suspend the calling process until a child process changes state but instead
                               return immediately.

               WUNTRACED       Catch stopped child processes.

       Macros  WIFEXITED WEXITSTATUS WIFSIGNALED WTERMSIG WIFSTOPPED WSTOPSIG

               WIFEXITED       WIFEXITED($?) returns true if the child process exited normally ("exit()" or by falling
                               off the end of "main()")

               WEXITSTATUS     WEXITSTATUS($?) returns the normal exit status of the child process (only meaningful if
                               WIFEXITED($?) is true)

               WIFSIGNALED     WIFSIGNALED($?) returns true if the child process terminated because of a signal

               WTERMSIG        WTERMSIG($?) returns the signal the child process terminated for (only meaningful if
                               WIFSIGNALED($?) is true)

               WIFSTOPPED      WIFSTOPPED($?) returns true if the child process is currently stopped (can happen only
                               if you specified the WUNTRACED flag to waitpid())

               WSTOPSIG        WSTOPSIG($?) returns the signal the child process was stopped for (only meaningful if
                               WIFSTOPPED($?) is true)



perl v5.8.8                       2001-09-21                          POSIX(3)