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Opcode(3)              Perl Programmers Reference Guide              Opcode(3)

       Opcode - Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

         use Opcode;

       Perl code is always compiled into an internal format before execution.

       Evaluating perl code (e.g. via "eval" or "do 'file'") causes the code to be compiled into an internal format
       and then, provided there was no error in the compilation, executed.  The internal format is based on many dis-
       tinct opcodes.

       By default no opmask is in effect and any code can be compiled.

       The Opcode module allow you to define an operator mask to be in effect when perl next compiles any code.
       Attempting to compile code which contains a masked opcode will cause the compilation to fail with an error. The
       code will not be executed.

       The Opcode module is not usually used directly. See the ops pragma and Safe modules for more typical uses.

       The authors make no warranty, implied or otherwise, about the suitability of this software for safety or secu-
       rity purposes.

       The authors shall not in any case be liable for special, incidental, consequential, indirect or other similar
       damages arising from the use of this software.

       Your mileage will vary. If in any doubt do not use it.

Operator Names and Operator Lists
       The canonical list of operator names is the contents of the array PL_op_name defined and initialised in file
       opcode.h of the Perl source distribution (and installed into the perl library).

       Each operator has both a terse name (its opname) and a more verbose or recognisable descriptive name. The
       opdesc function can be used to return a list of descriptions for a list of operators.

       Many of the functions and methods listed below take a list of operators as parameters. Most operator lists can
       be made up of several types of element. Each element can be one of

       an operator name (opname)
               Operator names are typically small lowercase words like enterloop, leaveloop, last, next, redo etc.
               Sometimes they are rather cryptic like gv2cv, i_ncmp and ftsvtx.

       an operator tag name (optag)
               Operator tags can be used to refer to groups (or sets) of operators.  Tag names always begin with a
               colon. The Opcode module defines several optags and the user can define others using the define_optag

       a negated opname or optag
               An opname or optag can be prefixed with an exclamation mark, e.g., !mkdir.  Negating an opname or optag
               means remove the corresponding ops from the accumulated set of ops at that point.

       an operator set (opset)
               An opset as a binary string of approximately 44 bytes which holds a set or zero or more operators.

               The opset and opset_to_ops functions can be used to convert from a list of operators to an opset and
               vice versa.

               Wherever a list of operators can be given you can use one or more opsets.  See also Manipulating Opsets

Opcode Functions
       The Opcode package contains functions for manipulating operator names tags and sets. All are available for
       export by the package.

       opcodes In a scalar context opcodes returns the number of opcodes in this version of perl (around 350 for

               In a list context it returns a list of all the operator names.  (Not yet implemented, use @names =

       opset (OP, ...)
               Returns an opset containing the listed operators.

       opset_to_ops (OPSET)
               Returns a list of operator names corresponding to those operators in the set.

       opset_to_hex (OPSET)
               Returns a string representation of an opset. Can be handy for debugging.

               Returns an opset which includes all operators.

               Returns an opset which contains no operators.

       invert_opset (OPSET)
               Returns an opset which is the inverse set of the one supplied.

       verify_opset (OPSET, ...)
               Returns true if the supplied opset looks like a valid opset (is the right length etc) otherwise it
               returns false. If an optional second parameter is true then verify_opset will croak on an invalid opset
               instead of returning false.

               Most of the other Opcode functions call verify_opset automatically and will croak if given an invalid

       define_optag (OPTAG, OPSET)
               Define OPTAG as a symbolic name for OPSET. Optag names always start with a colon ":".

               The optag name used must not be defined already (define_optag will croak if it is already defined).
               Optag names are global to the perl process and optag definitions cannot be altered or deleted once

               It is strongly recommended that applications using Opcode should use a leading capital letter on their
               tag names since lowercase names are reserved for use by the Opcode module. If using Opcode within a
               module you should prefix your tags names with the name of your module to ensure uniqueness and thus
               avoid clashes with other modules.

       opmask_add (OPSET)
               Adds the supplied opset to the current opmask. Note that there is currently no mechanism for unmasking
               ops once they have been masked.  This is intentional.

       opmask  Returns an opset corresponding to the current opmask.

       opdesc (OP, ...)
               This takes a list of operator names and returns the corresponding list of operator descriptions.

       opdump (PAT)
               Dumps to STDOUT a two column list of op names and op descriptions.  If an optional pattern is given
               then only lines which match the (case insensitive) pattern will be output.

               It's designed to be used as a handy command line utility:

                       perl -MOpcode=opdump -e opdump
                       perl -MOpcode=opdump -e 'opdump Eval'

Manipulating Opsets
       Opsets may be manipulated using the perl bit vector operators & (and), | (or), ^ (xor) and ~ (negate/invert).

       However you should never rely on the numerical position of any opcode within the opset. In other words both
       sides of a bit vector operator should be opsets returned from Opcode functions.

       Also, since the number of opcodes in your current version of perl might not be an exact multiple of eight,
       there may be unused bits in the last byte of an upset. This should not cause any problems (Opcode functions
       ignore those extra bits) but it does mean that using the ~ operator will typically not produce the same 'physi-
       cal' opset 'string' as the invert_opset function.

TO DO (maybe)
           $bool = opset_eq($opset1, $opset2)  true if opsets are logically eqiv

           $yes = opset_can($opset, @ops)      true if $opset has all @ops set

           @diff = opset_diff($opset1, $opset2) => ('foo', '!bar', ...)

Predefined Opcode Tags
                null stub scalar pushmark wantarray const defined undef

                rv2sv sassign

                rv2av aassign aelem aelemfast aslice av2arylen

                rv2hv helem hslice each values keys exists delete

                preinc i_preinc predec i_predec postinc i_postinc postdec i_postdec
                int hex oct abs pow multiply i_multiply divide i_divide
                modulo i_modulo add i_add subtract i_subtract

                left_shift right_shift bit_and bit_xor bit_or negate i_negate
                not complement

                lt i_lt gt i_gt le i_le ge i_ge eq i_eq ne i_ne ncmp i_ncmp
                slt sgt sle sge seq sne scmp

                substr vec stringify study pos length index rindex ord chr

                ucfirst lcfirst uc lc quotemeta trans chop schop chomp schomp

                match split qr

                list lslice splice push pop shift unshift reverse

                cond_expr flip flop andassign orassign and or xor

                warn die lineseq nextstate scope enter leave setstate

                rv2cv anoncode prototype

                entersub leavesub leavesublv return method method_named -- XXX loops via recursion?

                leaveeval -- needed for Safe to operate, is safe without entereval

            These memory related ops are not included in :base_core because they can easily be used to implement a
            resource attack (e.g., consume all available memory).

                concat repeat join range

                anonlist anonhash

            Note that despite the existence of this optag a memory resource attack may still be possible using only
            :base_core ops.

            Disabling these ops is a very heavy handed way to attempt to prevent a memory resource attack. It's proba-
            ble that a specific memory limit mechanism will be added to perl in the near future.

            These loop ops are not included in :base_core because they can easily be used to implement a resource
            attack (e.g., consume all available CPU time).

                grepstart grepwhile
                mapstart mapwhile
                enteriter iter
                enterloop leaveloop unstack
                last next redo

            These ops enable filehandle (rather than filename) based input and output. These are safe on the assump-
            tion that only pre-existing filehandles are available for use.  To create new filehandles other ops such
            as open would need to be enabled.

                readline rcatline getc read

                formline enterwrite leavewrite

                print sysread syswrite send recv

                eof tell seek sysseek

                readdir telldir seekdir rewinddir

            These are a hotchpotch of opcodes still waiting to be considered

                gvsv gv gelem

                padsv padav padhv padany

                rv2gv refgen srefgen ref

                bless -- could be used to change ownership of objects (reblessing)

                pushre regcmaybe regcreset regcomp subst substcont

                sprintf prtf -- can core dump


                tie untie

                dbmopen dbmclose
                sselect select
                pipe_op sockpair

                getppid getpgrp setpgrp getpriority setpriority localtime gmtime

                entertry leavetry -- can be used to 'hide' fatal errors

                custom -- where should this go

            These ops are not included in :base_core because of the risk of them being used to generate floating point
            exceptions (which would have to be caught using a $SIG{FPE} handler).

                atan2 sin cos exp log sqrt

            These ops are not included in :base_core because they have an effect beyond the scope of the compartment.

                rand srand

            These ops are related to multi-threading.

                lock threadsv

            A handy tag name for a reasonable default set of ops.  (The current ops allowed are unstable while devel-
            opment continues. It will change.)

                :base_core :base_mem :base_loop :base_io :base_orig :base_thread

            If safety matters to you (and why else would you be using the Opcode module?)  then you should not rely on
            the definition of this, or indeed any other, optag!

                stat lstat readlink

                ftatime ftblk ftchr ftctime ftdir fteexec fteowned fteread
                ftewrite ftfile ftis ftlink ftmtime ftpipe ftrexec ftrowned
                ftrread ftsgid ftsize ftsock ftsuid fttty ftzero ftrwrite ftsvtx

                fttext ftbinary


                ghbyname ghbyaddr ghostent shostent ehostent      -- hosts
                gnbyname gnbyaddr gnetent snetent enetent         -- networks
                gpbyname gpbynumber gprotoent sprotoent eprotoent -- protocols
                gsbyname gsbyport gservent sservent eservent      -- services

                gpwnam gpwuid gpwent spwent epwent getlogin       -- users
                ggrnam ggrgid ggrent sgrent egrent                -- groups

            A handy tag name for a reasonable default set of ops beyond the :default optag.  Like :default (and indeed
            all the other optags) its current definition is unstable while development continues. It will change.

            The :browse tag represents the next step beyond :default. It it a superset of the :default ops and adds
            :filesys_read the :sys_db.  The intent being that scripts can access more (possibly sensitive) information
            about your system but not be able to change it.

                :default :filesys_read :sys_db

                sysopen open close
                umask binmode

                open_dir closedir -- other dir ops are in :base_io

                link unlink rename symlink truncate

                mkdir rmdir

                utime chmod chown

                fcntl -- not strictly filesys related, but possibly as dangerous?

                backtick system


                wait waitpid

                glob -- access to Cshell via <'rm *'>

                exec exit kill

                time tms -- could be used for timing attacks (paranoid?)

            This tag holds groups of assorted specialist opcodes that don't warrant having optags defined for them.

            SystemV Interprocess Communications:

                msgctl msgget msgrcv msgsnd

                semctl semget semop

                shmctl shmget shmread shmwrite

                flock ioctl

                socket getpeername ssockopt
                bind connect listen accept shutdown gsockopt getsockname

                sleep alarm -- changes global timer state and signal handling
                sort -- assorted problems including core dumps
                tied -- can be used to access object implementing a tie
                pack unpack -- can be used to create/use memory pointers

                entereval -- can be used to hide code from initial compile
                require dofile

                caller -- get info about calling environment and args


                dbstate -- perl -d version of nextstate(ment) opcode

            This tag is simply a bucket for opcodes that are unlikely to be used via a tag name but need to be tagged
            for completeness and documentation.

                syscall dump chroot

       ops(3) -- perl pragma interface to Opcode module.

       Safe(3) -- Opcode and namespace limited execution compartments

       Originally designed and implemented by Malcolm Beattie, as part of Safe version 1.

       Split out from Safe module version 1, named opcode tags and other changes added by Tim Bunce.

perl v5.8.8                       2001-09-21                         Opcode(3)