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MAILX(1)                         User Commands                        MAILX(1)



NAME
       mailx - send and receive Internet mail

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BDdEFintv~] [-s subject] [-a attachment ] [-c cc-addr] [-b bcc-addr] [-r from-addr] [-h hops]
              [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] to-addr . . .
       mailx [-BDdeEHiInNRv~] [-T name] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] -f [name]
       mailx [-BDdeEinNRv~] [-A account] [-S variable[=value]] [-u user]

DESCRIPTION
       Mailx is an intelligent mail processing system, which has a command syntax  reminiscent  of  ed(1)  with  lines
       replaced  by messages.  It is based on Berkeley Mail 8.1, is intended to provide the functionality of the POSIX
       mailx command, and offers extensions for MIME, IMAP, POP3, SMTP, and S/MIME.  Mailx provides enhanced  features
       for  interactive use, such as caching and disconnected operation for IMAP, message threading, scoring, and fil-
       tering.  It is also usable as a mail batch language, both for sending and receiving mail.

       The following options are accepted:

       -A name
              Executes an account command (see below) for name after the startup files have been read.

       -a file
              Attach the given file to the message.

       -B     Make standard input and standard output line-buffered.

       -b address
              Send blind carbon copies to list.  List should be a comma-separated list of names.

       -c address
              Send carbon copies to list of users.

       -D     Start in disconnected mode; see the description for the disconnected variable option.

       -d     Enables debugging messages and disables the actual delivery of messages.   Unlike  -v,  this  option  is
              intended for mailx development only.

       -e     Just  check  if  mail  is present in the system mailbox.  If yes, return an exit status of zero, else, a
              non-zero value.

       -E     If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or only message part, do not send  it  but
              discard  it silently, effectively setting the skipemptybody variable at program startup.  This is useful
              for sending messages from scripts started by cron(8).

       -f [file]
              Read in the contents of the user's mbox (or the specified file) for processing; when mailx is  quit,  it
              writes  undeleted  messages  back  to this file.  The string file is handled as described for the folder
              command below.

       -F     Save the message to send in a file named after the local part of the first recipient's address.

       -H     Print header summaries for all messages and exit.

       -h hops
              Invoke sendmail with the specified hop count.  This option has no effect when SMTP is used  for  sending
              mail.

       -i     Ignore tty interrupt signals.  This is particularly useful when using mailx on noisy phone lines.

       -I     Shows  the  'Newsgroup:'  or 'Article-Id:' fields in the header summary.  Only applicable in combination
              with -f.

       -n     Inhibits reading /etc/mail.rc upon startup.  This option should be activated for mailx scripts that  are
              invoked on more than one machine, because the contents of that file may differ between them.

       -N     Inhibits the initial display of message headers when reading mail or editing a mail folder.

       -q file
              Start the message with the contents of the specified file.  May be given in send mode only.

       -r address
              Sets  the  From  address.  Overrides any from variable specified in environment or startup files.  Tilde
              escapes are disabled.  The -r address options are passed to the mail transfer agent unless SMTP is used.
              This  option exists for compatibility only; it is recommended to set the from variable directly instead.

       -R     Opens any folders read-only.

       -s subject
              Specify subject on command line (only the first argument after the -s flag is  used  as  a  subject;  be
              careful to quote subjects containing spaces).

       -S variable[=value]
              Sets the internal option variable and, in case of a string option, assigns value to it.

       -T name
              Writes the 'Message-Id:' and 'Article-Id:' header fields of each message read in the file name.  Implies
              -I.  Compressed files are handled as described for the folder command below.

       -t     The message to be sent is expected to contain a message header with 'To:', 'Cc:', or 'Bcc:' fields  giv-
              ing its recipients.  Recipients specified on the command line are ignored.

       -u user
              Reads the mailbox of the given user name.

       -v     Verbose mode.  The details of delivery are displayed on the user's terminal.

       -V     Print mailx's version and exit.

       -~     Enable tilde escapes even if not in interactive mode.

   Sending mail
       To  send  a message to one or more people, mailx can be invoked with arguments which are the names of people to
       whom the mail will be sent.  The user is then expected to type in his message, followed by  an  'control-D'  at
       the  beginning  of a line.  The section below Replying to or originating mail, describes some features of mailx
       available to help when composing letters.

   Reading mail
       In normal usage mailx is given no arguments and checks the user's mail out of the post office, then prints  out
       a  one  line header of each message found.  The current message is initially the first message (numbered 1) and
       can be printed using the print command which can be abbreviated 'p').  The user can  move  among  the  messages
       much  as he moves between lines in ed(1), with the commands '+' and '-' moving backwards and forwards, and sim-
       ple numbers.

   Disposing of mail
       After examining a message the user can delete 'd') the message or reply 'r') to it.  Deletion causes the  mailx
       program to forget about the message.  This is not irreversible; the message can be undeleted 'u') by giving its
       number, or the mailx session can be aborted by giving the exit 'x') command.  Deleted messages  will,  however,
       usually disappear never to be seen again.

   Specifying messages
       Commands  such  as print and delete can be given a list of message numbers as arguments to apply to a number of
       messages at once.  Thus 'delete 1 2' deletes messages 1 and 2, while 'delete 1-5' deletes messages 1 through 5.
       In  sorted  or  threaded  mode  (see  the sort and thread commands), 'delete 1-5' deletes the messages that are
       located between (and including) messages 1 through 5 in the sorted/threaded order, as shown in the header  sum-
       mary.  The following special message names exist:

       :n     All new messages.

       :o     All old messages (any not in state read or new).

       :u     All unread messages.

       :d     All deleted messages (for the undelete command).

       :r     All read messages.

       :f     All 'flagged' messages.

       :a     All answered messages (cf. the markanswered variable).

       :t     All messages marked as draft.

       :k     All 'killed' messages.

       :j     All messages classified as junk.

       .      The current message.

       ;      The message that was previously the current message.

       ,      The  parent  message  of  the current message, that is the message with the Message-ID given in the 'In-
              Reply-To:' field or the last entry of the 'References:' field of the current message.

       -      The next previous undeleted message, or the next previous deleted message for the undelete command.   In
              sorted/threaded mode, the next previous such message in the sorted/threaded order.

       +      The  next  undeleted  message, or the next deleted message for the undelete command.  In sorted/threaded
              mode, the next such message in the sorted/threaded order.

       ^      The first undeleted message, or the first deleted message for the undelete command.  In  sorted/threaded
              mode, the first such message in the sorted/threaded order.

       $      The last message.  In sorted/threaded mode, the last message in the sorted/threaded order.

       &x     In  threaded mode, selects the message addressed with x, where x is any other message specification, and
              all messages from the thread that begins at it.  Otherwise, it is identical to x.  If x is omitted,  the
              thread beginning with the current message is selected.

       *      All messages.

       '      All messages that were included in the message list for the previous command.

       /string
              All  messages that contain string in the subject field (case ignored).  See also the searchheaders vari-
              able.  If string is empty, the string from the previous specification of that type is used again.

       address
              All messages from address.

       (criterion)
              All messages that satisfy the given IMAP-style SEARCH criterion.  This addressing mode is available with
              all  types  of  folders;  for  folders not located on IMAP servers, or for servers unable to execute the
              SEARCH command, mailx will perform the search locally.  Strings must be enclosed by double quotes '"' in
              their entirety if they contain white space or parentheses; within the quotes, only backslash '\' is rec-
              ognized as an escape character.  All string searches are case-insensitive.  When the  description  indi-
              cates  that the 'envelope' representation of an address field is used, this means that the search string
              is checked against both a list constructed as

              ("real name" "source-route" "local-part" "domain-part")

              for each address, and the addresses without real names from the respective header field.   Criteria  can
              be nested using parentheses.

       (criterion1 criterion2 ... criterionN)
              All messages that satisfy all of the given criteria.

       (or criterion1 criterion2)
              All  messages  that satisfy either criterion1 or criterion2, or both.  To connect more than two criteria
              using  'or',  (or)  specifications  have  to  be  nested   using   additional   parentheses,   as   with
              '(or a (or b c))'; '(or a b c)' means ((a or b) and c).  For a simple 'or' operation of independent cri-
              teria on the lowest nesting level, it is possible to achieve similar effects  by  using  three  separate
              criteria, as with '(a) (b) (c)'.

       (not criterion)
              All messages that do not satisfy criterion.

       (bcc string)
              All messages that contain string in the 'envelope' representation of the Bcc: field.

       (cc string)
              All messages that contain string in the 'envelope' representation of the Cc: field.

       (from string)
              All messages that contain string in the 'envelope' representation of the From: field.

       (subject string)
              All messages that contain string in the Subject: field.

       (to string)
              All messages that contain string in the 'envelope' representation of the To: field.

       (header name string)
              All messages that contain string in the specified Name: field.

       (body string)
              All messages that contain string in their body.

       (text string)
              All messages that contain string in their header or body.

       (larger size)
              All messages that are larger than size (in bytes).

       (smaller size)
              All messages that are smaller than size (in bytes).

       (before date)
              All  messages  that were received before date; date must be in the form d[d]-mon-yyyy, where d[d] is the
              day of the month as one or two digits, mon is the name of the month--one of 'Jan', 'Feb',  'Mar',  'Apr',
              'May',  'Jun',  'Jul',  'Aug',  'Sep', 'Oct', 'Nov', or 'Dec', and yyyy is the year as four digits; e.g.
              "30-Aug-2004".

       (on date)
              All messages that were received on the specified date.

       (since date)
              All messages that were received since the specified date.

       (sentbefore date)
              All messages that were sent on the specified date.

       (senton date)
              All messages that were sent on the specified date.

       (sentsince date)
              All messages that were sent since the specified date.

       ()     The same criterion as for the previous search.  This specification cannot be used  as  part  of  another
              criterion.   If  the  previous  command  line contained more than one independent criterion, the last of
              those criteria is used.

       A practical method to read a set of messages is to issue a from command with the search criteria first to check
       for appropriate messages, and to read each single message then by typing ''' repeatedly.

   Replying to or originating mail
       The reply command can be used to set up a response to a message, sending it back to the person who it was from.
       Text the user types in then, up to an end-of-file, defines the contents of the message.  While the user is com-
       posing  a  message,  mailx  treats lines beginning with the character '~' specially.  For instance, typing '~m'
       (alone on a line) will place a copy of the current message into the response right shifting  it  by  a  tabstop
       (see indentprefix variable, below).  Other escapes will set up subject fields, add and delete recipients to the
       message, attach files to it and allow the user to escape to an editor to revise the message or to  a  shell  to
       run some commands.  (These options are given in the summary below.)

   Ending a mail processing session
       The  user  can  end  a  mailx session with the quit ('q') command.  Messages which have been examined go to the
       user's mbox file unless they have been deleted in which case they are discarded.  Unexamined messages  go  back
       to the post office.  (See the -f option above).

   Personal and systemwide distribution lists
       It  is  also  possible to create a personal distribution lists so that, for instance, the user can send mail to
       'cohorts' and have it go to a group of people.  Such lists can be defined by placing a line like

               alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory

       in the file .mailrc in the user's home directory.  The current list of such aliases can be displayed  with  the
       alias  command in mailx.  System wide distribution lists can be created by editing /etc/aliases, see aliases(5)
       and sendmail(8); these are kept in a different syntax.  In mail  the  user  sends,  personal  aliases  will  be
       expanded  in mail sent to others so that they will be able to reply to the recipients.  System wide aliases are
       not expanded when the mail is sent, but any reply returned to the machine  will  have  the  system  wide  alias
       expanded as all mail goes through sendmail.

   Recipient address specifications
       If  the  expandaddr  option  is  not set (the default), recipient addresses must be names of local mailboxes or
       Internet mail addresses.

       If the expandaddr option is set, the following rules apply: When an address is used to name a recipient (in any
       of  To, Cc, or Bcc), names of local mail folders and pipes to external commands can also be specified; the mes-
       sage text is then written to them.  The rules are: Any name which starts with a '|' character specifies a pipe,
       the  command string following the '|' is executed and the message is sent to its standard input; any other name
       which contains a '@' character is treated as a mail address; any other name which starts with a  '+'  character
       specifies a folder name; any other name which contains a '/' character but no '!'  or '%' character before also
       specifies a folder name; what remains is treated  as  a  mail  address.   Compressed  folders  are  handled  as
       described for the folder command below.

   Network mail (Internet / ARPA, UUCP, Berknet)
       See  mailaddr(7) for a description of network addresses.  Mailx has a number of options which can be set in the
       .mailrc file to alter its behavior; thus 'set askcc' enables the askcc feature.  (These options are  summarized
       below).

   MIME types
       For  any  outgoing  attachment,  mailx  tries to determine the content type.  It does this by reading MIME type
       files whose lines have the following syntax:

               type/subtype      extension [extension . . .]

       where type/subtype are strings describing the file contents, and extension is the part of a  filename  starting
       after  the  last  dot.   Any  line not immediately beginning with an ASCII alphabetical character is ignored by
       mailx.  If there is a match with the extension of the file to attach, the  given  type/subtype  pair  is  used.
       Otherwise,  or  if  the filename has no extension, the content types text/plain or application/octet-stream are
       used, the first for text or international text files, the second for any file that contains formatting  charac-
       ters other than newlines and horizontal tabulators.

   Character sets
       Mailx normally detects the character set of the terminal using the LC_CTYPE locale setting.  If the locale can-
       not be used appropriately, the ttycharset variable should be set to provide an explicit  value.   When  reading
       messages,  their text is converted to the terminal character set if possible.  Unprintable characters and ille-
       gal byte sequences are detected and replaced by Unicode substitute characters  or  question  marks  unless  the
       print-all-chars is set at initialization time.

       The  character  set  for  outgoing messages is not necessarily the same as the one used on the terminal.  If an
       outgoing text message contains characters not representable in US-ASCII, the character set being used  must  be
       declared  within  its header.  Permissible values can be declared using the sendcharsets variable, separated by
       commas; mailx tries each of the values in order and uses the first appropriate one.  If  the  message  contains
       characters that cannot be represented in any of the given character sets, the message will not be sent, and its
       text will be saved to the 'dead.letter' file.  Messages that contain NUL bytes are not converted.

       Outgoing attachments are converted if they are plain text.  If the sendcharsets variable contains more than one
       character  set  name,  the  ~@ tilde escape will ask for the character sets for individual attachments if it is
       invoked without arguments.

       Best results are usually achieved when mailx is run in a UTF-8 locale on a UTF-8  capable  terminal.   In  this
       setup,  characters from various countries can be displayed, while it is still possible to use more simple char-
       acter sets for sending to retain maximum compatibility with older mail clients.

   Commands
       Each command is typed on a line by itself, and may take arguments following the command word.  The command need
       not  be  typed  in its entirety - the first command which matches the typed prefix is used.  For commands which
       take message lists as arguments, if no message list is given, then the next message forward which satisfies the
       command's  requirements  is used.  If there are no messages forward of the current message, the search proceeds
       backwards, and if there are no good messages at all, mailx types 'applicable messages' and aborts the  command.
       If the command begins with a # sign, the line is ignored.

       The arguments to commands can be quoted, using the following methods:

       ?      An  argument can be enclosed between paired double-quotes "" or single-quotes ''; any white space, shell
              word expansion, or backslash characters within the quotes are treated literally as part of the argument.
              A  double-quote  will be treated literally within single-quotes and vice versa. These special properties
              of the quote marks occur only when they are paired at the beginning and end of the argument.

       ?      A backslash outside of the enclosing quotes is discarded and the following character is  treated  liter-
              ally as part of the argument.

       ?      An unquoted backslash at the end of a command line is discarded and the next line continues the command.

       Filenames, where expected, are subjected to the following transformations, in sequence:

       ?      If the filename begins with an unquoted plus sign, and the folder variable is  defined,  the  plus  sign
              will  be  replaced  by  the  value of the folder variable followed by a slash. If the folder variable is
              unset or is set to null, the filename will be unchanged.

       ?      Shell word expansions are applied to the filename.  If more than a single  pathname  results  from  this
              expansion and the command is expecting one file, an error results.

       The following commands are provided:

       -      Print  out  the preceding message.  If given a numeric argument n, goes to the n'th previous message and
              prints it.

       ?      Prints a brief summary of commands.

       !      Executes the shell (see sh(1) and csh(1)) command which follows.

       |      A synonym for the pipe command.

       account
              (ac) Creates, selects or lists an email account.  An account is formed by a group of commands, primarily
              of  those  to set variables.  With two arguments, of which the second is a '{', the first argument gives
              an account name, and the following lines create a group of commands for that account until a  line  con-
              taining  a  single  '}'  appears.   With  one argument, the previously created group of commands for the
              account name is executed, and a folder command is executed for the  system  mailbox  or  inbox  of  that
              account.  Without arguments, the list of accounts and their contents are printed.  As an example,

                  account myisp {
                      set folder=imaps://myloginATimap.example
                      set record=+Sent
                      set from="mynameATmyisp.example (My Name)"
                      set smtp=smtp.myisp.example
                  }

              creates an account named 'myisp' which can later be selected by specifying 'account myisp'.

       alias  (a)  With  no  arguments,  prints out all currently-defined aliases.  With one argument, prints out that
              alias.  With more than one argument, creates a new alias or changes an old one.

       alternates
              (alt) The alternates command is useful if the user has accounts on several machines.  It can be used  to
              inform  mailx  that  the listed addresses all belong to the invoking user.  When he replies to messages,
              mailx will not send a copy of the message to any of the addresses listed on the alternates list.  If the
              alternates command is given with no argument, the current set of alternate names is displayed.

       answered
              (ans) Takes a message list and marks each message as a having been answered.  This mark has no technical
              meaning in the mail system; it just causes messages to be marked in the header summary, and  makes  them
              specially addressable.

       cache  Only applicable to cached IMAP mailboxes; takes a message list and reads the specified messages into the
              IMAP cache.

       call   Calls a macro (see the define command).

       cd     Same as chdir.

       certsave
              Only applicable to S/MIME signed messages.  Takes a message list and a file name and saves the  certifi-
              cates  contained  within the message signatures to the named file in both human-readable and PEM format.
              The certificates can later be used to send encrypted messages to the messages'  originators  by  setting
              the smime-encrypt-user@host variable.

       chdir  (ch)  Changes  the user's working directory to that specified, if given.  If no directory is given, then
              changes to the user's login directory.

       classify
              (cl) Takes a list of messages and examines  their  contents  for  characteristics  of  junk  mail  using
              Bayesian  filtering.  Messages considered to be junk are then marked as such.  The junk mail database is
              not changed.

       collapse
              (coll) Only applicable to threaded mode.  Takes a message list and makes all replies to  these  messages
              invisible in header summaries, unless they are in state 'new'.

       connect
              (conn)  If  operating  in disconnected mode on an IMAP mailbox, switch to online mode and connect to the
              mail server while retaining the mailbox status.  See the description of the  disconnected  variable  for
              more information.

       copy   (c) The copy command does the same thing that save does, except that it does not mark the messages it is
              used on for deletion when the user quits.  Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are handled as  described
              for the folder command.

       Copy   (C)  Similar  to copy, but saves the messages in a file named after the local part of the sender address
              of the first message.

       decrypt
              (dec) For unencrypted messages, this command  is  identical  to  copy.   Encrypted  messages  are  first
              decrypted, if possible, and then copied.

       Decrypt
              (Dec)  Similar  to  decrypt,  but  saves the messages in a file named after the local part of the sender
              address of the first message.

       define (def) Defines a macro.  A macro definition is a sequence of commands in the following form:

                  define name {
                      command1
                      command2
                      ...
                      commandN
                  }

              Once defined, a macro can be explicitly invoked using the call command, or can be implicitly invoked  by
              setting the folder-hook or folder-hook-fullname variables.

       defines
              Prints the currently defined macros including their contents.

       delete (d)  Takes  a  list of messages as argument and marks them all as deleted.  Deleted messages will not be
              saved in mbox, nor will they be available for most other commands.

       discard
              Same as ignore.

       disconnect
              (disco) If operating in online mode on an IMAP mailbox, switch to disconnected mode while retaining  the
              mailbox  status.  See the description of the disconnected variable for more information.  A list of mes-
              sages may optionally be given as argument; the respective messages are then read into the  cache  before
              the  connection  is  closed.  Thus 'disco *' makes the entire current mailbox available for disconnected
              use.

       dp or dt
              Deletes the current message and prints the next message.  If there is no next message,  mailx  says  'at
              EOF'.

       draft  Takes  a message list and marks each message as a draft.  This mark has no technical meaning in the mail
              system; it just causes messages to be marked in the header summary, and makes  them  specially  address-
              able.

       echo   Echoes  its  arguments,  resolving  special  names  as  documented  for  the folder command.  The escape
              sequences '\a', '\b', '\c', '\f', '\n', '\r', '\t', '\v', '\\', and '\0num' are interpreted as with  the
              echo(1) command.

       edit   (e) Takes a list of messages and points the text editor at each one in turn.  Modified contents are dis-
              carded unless the writebackedited variable is set.

       else   Marks the end of the then-part of an if statement and the beginning of the part to take  effect  if  the
              condition of the if statement is false.

       endif  Marks the end of an if statement.

       exit   (ex or x) Effects an immediate return to the Shell without modifying the user's system mailbox, his mbox
              file, or his edit file in -f.

       file   (fi) The same as folder.

       flag   (fl) Takes a message list and marks the messages as 'flagged' for urgent/special attention.   This  mark
              has  no  technical  meaning  in the mail system; it just causes messages to be highlighted in the header
              summary, and makes them specially addressable.

       folders
              With no arguments, list the names of the folders in the folder directory.  With an existing folder as an
              argument,  lists  then  names  of folders below the named folder; e.g. the command 'folders @' lists the
              folders on the base level of the current IMAP server.  See also the imap-list-depth variable.

       folder (fold) The folder command switches to a new mail file or folder.  With no arguments, it tells  the  user
              which  file  he is currently reading.  If an argument is given, it will write out changes (such as dele-
              tions) the user has made in the current file and read in the new file.   Some  special  conventions  are
              recognized  for  the name.  # means the previous file, % means the invoking user's system mailbox, %user
              means user's system mailbox, & means the invoking user's mbox file, and +file means a file in the folder
              directory.   %:filespec expands to the same value as filespec, but the file is handled as a system mail-
              box e. g. by the mbox and save commands.  If the name matches one of the strings defined with the short-
              cut  command,  it  is  replaced by its long form and expanded.  If the name ends with .gz or .bz2, it is
              treated as compressed with gzip(1) or bzip2(1), respectively.  Likewise, if name  does  not  exist,  but
              either  name.gz or name.bz2 exists, the compressed file is used.  If name refers to a directory with the
              subdirectories 'tmp', 'new', and 'cur', it is treated as a folder in maildir format.  A name of the form

                     protocol://[user@]host[:port][/file]

              is  taken as an Internet mailbox specification.  The supported protocols are currently imap (IMAP v4r1),
              imaps (IMAP with SSL/TLS encryption), pop3 (POP3), and pop3s (POP3 with SSL/TLS  encryption).   If  user
              contains special characters, in particular '/' or '%', they must be escaped in URL notation, as '%2F' or
              '%25'.  The optional file part applies to IMAP only; if it is omitted, the default 'INBOX' is used.   If
              mailx  is connected to an IMAP server, a name of the form @mailbox refers to the mailbox on that server.
              If the 'folder' variable refers to an IMAP account, the special name '%' selects  the  'INBOX'  on  that
              account.

       Followup
              (F)  Similar to Respond, but saves the message in a file named after the local part of the first recipi-
              ent's address.

       followup
              (fo) Similar to respond, but saves the message in a file named after the local part of the first recipi-
              ent's address.

       followupall
              Similar to followup, but responds to all recipients regardless of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       followupsender
              Similar to Followup, but responds to the sender only regardless of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       forward
              (fwd)  Takes  a message and the address of a recipient and forwards the message to him.  The text of the
              original message is included in the new one, with the value of the fwdheading variable  printed  before.
              The  fwdignore and fwdretain commands specify which header fields are included in the new message.  Only
              the first part of a multipart message is included unless the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       Forward
              (Fwd) Similar to forward, but saves the message in a file named after the local part of the  recipient's
              address.

       from   (f)  Takes  a  list  of messages and prints their message headers, piped through the pager if the output
              does not fit on the screen.

       fwdignore
              Specifies which header fields are to be ignored with the forward command.  This command  has  no  effect
              when the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       fwdretain
              Specifies  which  header fields are to be retained with the forward command.  fwdretain overrides fwdig-
              nore.  This command has no effect when the forward-as-attachment option is set.

       good   (go) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as not being junk mail.  Data from these messages is
              then inserted into the junk mail database for future classification.

       headers
              (h)  Lists the current range of headers, which is an 18-message group.  If a '+' argument is given, then
              the next 18-message group is printed, and if a '-' argument is given, the previous 18-message  group  is
              printed.

       help   A synonym for ?.

       hold   (ho, also preserve) Takes a message list and marks each message therein to be saved in the user's system
              mailbox instead of in mbox.  Does not override the delete command.  mailx deviates from the POSIX  stan-
              dard  with this command, as a 'next' command issued after 'hold' will display the following message, not
              the current one.

       if     Commands in mailx's startup files can be executed conditionally depending on whether the user is sending
              or receiving mail with the if command.  For example:

                      if receive
                              commands . . .
                      endif

              An else form is also available:

                      if receive
                              commands . . .
                      else
                              commands . . .
                      endif

              Note  that the only allowed conditions are receive, send, and term (execute command if standard input is
              a tty).

       ignore Add the list of header fields named to the ignored list.  Header fields  in  the  ignore  list  are  not
              printed  on  the terminal when a message is printed.  This command is very handy for suppression of cer-
              tain machine-generated header fields.  The Type and Print commands can be used to print a message in its
              entirety,  including  ignored fields.  If ignore is executed with no arguments, it lists the current set
              of ignored fields.

       imap   Sends command strings directly to the current IMAP server.  Mailx operates always in IMAP selected state
              on  the  current  mailbox;  commands  that  change  this  will produce undesirable results and should be
              avoided.  Useful IMAP commands are:

              create Takes the name of an IMAP mailbox as an argument and creates it.

              getquotaroot
                     Takes the name of an IMAP mailbox as an argument and prints the quotas that apply to the mailbox.
                     Not all IMAP servers support this command.

              namespace
                     Takes  no  arguments  and  prints  the  Personal Namespaces, the Other User's Namespaces, and the
                     Shared Namespaces.  Each namespace type is printed in parentheses; if there are  multiple  names-
                     paces  of the same type, inner parentheses separate them.  For each namespace, a namespace prefix
                     and a hierarchy separator is listed.  Not all IMAP servers support this command.

       inc    Same as newmail.

       junk   (j) Takes a list of messages and marks all of them as junk mail.   Data  from  these  messages  is  then
              inserted into the junk mail database for future classification.

       kill   (k) Takes a list of messages and 'kills' them.  Killed messages are not printed in header summaries, and
              are ignored by the next command.  The kill command also sets the  score  of  the  messages  to  negative
              infinity,  so  that subsequent score commands will not unkill them again.  Killing is only effective for
              the current session on a folder; when it is quit, all messages are automatically unkilled.

       list   Prints the names of all available commands.

       Mail   (M) Similar to mail, but saves the message in a file named after the local part of the first recipient's
              address.

       mail   (m) Takes as argument login names and distribution group names and sends mail to those people.

       mbox   Indicate  that a list of messages be sent to mbox in the user's home directory when mailx is quit.  This
              is the default action for messages if unless the hold option is set.   mailx  deviates  from  the  POSIX
              standard  with this command, as a 'next' command issued after 'mbox' will display the following message,
              not the current one.

       move   (mv) Acts like copy, but marks the messages for deletion if they were transferred successfully.

       Move   (Mv) Similar to move, but moves the messages to a file named after the local part of the sender  address
              of the first message.

       newmail
              Checks  for  new  mail  in  the  current  folder  without committing any changes before.  If new mail is
              present, a message is printed.  If the header variable is set, the headers of each new message are  also
              printed.

       next   (n)  like  + or CR) Goes to the next message in sequence and types it.  With an argument list, types the
              next matching message.

       New    Same as unread.

       new    Same as unread.

       online Same as connect.

       noop   If the current folder is located on an IMAP or POP3 server, a NOOP command is sent.  Otherwise, no oper-
              ation is performed.

       Pipe   (Pi)  Like  pipe  but  also pipes ignored header fields and all parts of MIME multipart/alternative mes-
              sages.

       pipe   (pi) Takes a message list and a shell command and pipes the messages through the  command.   Without  an
              argument,  the  current  message  is  piped through the command given by the cmd variable.  If the  page
              variable is set, every message is followed by a formfeed character.

       preserve
              (pre) A synonym for hold.

       Print  (P) Like print but also prints out ignored header fields and all  parts  of  MIME  multipart/alternative
              messages.  See also print, ignore, and retain.

       print  (p)  Takes  a  message list and types out each message on the user's terminal.  If the message is a MIME
              multipart message, all parts with a content type of 'text' or 'message' are shown, the other are  hidden
              except  for their headers.  Messages are decrypted and converted to the terminal character set if neces-
              sary.

       probability
              (prob) For each word given as argument, the contents of its junk mail database entry are printed.

       quit   (q) Terminates the session, saving all undeleted, unsaved messages in the user's mbox file in his  login
              directory,  preserving all messages marked with hold or preserve or never referenced in his system mail-
              box, and removing all other messages from his system mailbox.  If new mail has arrived during  the  ses-
              sion, the message 'You have new mail' is given.  If given while editing a mailbox file with the -f flag,
              then the edit file is rewritten.  A return to the Shell is effected, unless the  rewrite  of  edit  file
              fails, in which case the user can escape with the exit command.

       redirect
              (red) Same as resend.

       Redirect
              (Red) Same as Resend.

       remove (rem) Removes the named folders.  The user is asked for confirmation in interactive mode.

       rename (ren)  Takes the name of an existing folder and the name for the new folder and renames the first to the
              second one.  Both folders must be of the same type and must be located on the current server for IMAP.

       Reply  (R) Reply to originator.  Does not reply to other recipients of the original message.

       reply  (r) Takes a message list and sends mail to the sender and all recipients of the specified message.   The
              default message must not be deleted.

       replyall
              Similar to reply, but responds to all recipients regardless of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       replysender
              Similar to Reply, but responds to the sender only regardless of the flipr and Replyall variables.

       Resend Like  resend,  but  does not add any header lines.  This is not a way to hide the sender's identity, but
              useful for sending a message again to the same recipients.

       resend Takes a list of messages and a user name and sends each message to the named user.   'Resent-From:'  and
              related header fields are prepended to the new copy of the message.

       Respond
              Same as Reply.

       respond
              Same as reply.

       respondall
              Same as replyall.

       respondsender
              Same as replysender.

       retain Add the list of header fields named to the retained list.  Only the header fields in the retain list are
              shown on the terminal when a message is printed.  All other header fields are suppressed.  The Type  and
              Print commands can be used to print a message in its entirety.  If retain is executed with no arguments,
              it lists the current set of retained fields.

       Save   (S) Similar to save, but saves the messages in a file named after the local part of the  sender  of  the
              first message instead of taking a filename argument.

       save   (s)  Takes a message list and a filename and appends each message in turn to the end of the file.  If no
              filename is given, the mbox file is used.  The filename in quotes, followed by the line count and  char-
              acter  count is echoed on the user's terminal.  If editing a system mailbox, the messages are marked for
              deletion.  Compressed files and IMAP mailboxes are handled as described for the -f command  line  option
              above.

       savediscard
              Same as saveignore.

       saveignore
              Saveignore is to save what ignore is to print and type.  Header fields thus marked are filtered out when
              saving a message by save or when automatically saving to mbox.  This command should only be  applied  to
              header  fields  that do not contain information needed to decode the message, as MIME content fields do.
              If saving messages on an IMAP account, ignoring fields makes it impossible to copy the data directly  on
              the server, thus operation usually becomes much slower.

       saveretain
              Saveretain  is  to  save  what retain is to print and type.  Header fields thus marked are the only ones
              saved with a message when saving by save or when automatically saving  to  mbox.   Saveretain  overrides
              saveignore.   The  use of this command is strongly discouraged since it may strip header fields that are
              needed to decode the message correctly.

       score  (sc) Takes a message list and a floating point number and adds the number to the  score  of  each  given
              message.   All  messages  start at score 0 when a folder is opened.  When the score of a message becomes
              negative, it is 'killed' with the effects described for the kill command; otherwise if it  was  negative
              before  and becomes positive, it is 'unkilled'.  Scores only refer to the currently opened instance of a
              folder.

       set    (se) With no arguments, prints all variable values, piped through the pager if the output does  not  fit
              on  the  screen.   Otherwise,  sets  option.  Arguments are of the form option=value (no space before or
              after =) or option.  Quotation marks may be placed around any part of the assignment statement to  quote
              blanks  or  tabs,  i.e. 'set indentprefix="->"'.  If an argument begins with no, as in 'set nosave', the
              effect is the same as invoking the unset command with the remaining part of the variable ('unset save').

       seen   Takes a message list and marks all messages as having been read.

       shell  (sh) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.

       shortcut
              Defines  a  shortcut  name  and  its string for expansion, as described for the folder command.  With no
              arguments, a list of defined shortcuts is printed.

       show   (Sh) Like print, but performs neither MIME decoding nor decryption so  that  the  raw  message  text  is
              shown.

       size   Takes a message list and prints out the size in characters of each message.

       sort   Create  a  sorted  representation  of the current folder, and change the next command and the addressing
              modes such that they refer to messages in the sorted order.  Message numbers are the same as in  regular
              mode.  If the header variable is set, a header summary in the new order is also printed.  Possible sort-
              ing criteria are:

              date   Sort the messages by their 'Date:' field, that is by the time they were sent.

              from   Sort messages by the value of their 'From:' field, that is by the address of the sender.  If  the
                     showname variable is set, the sender's real name (if any) is used.

              size   Sort the messages by their size.

              score  Sort the messages by their score.

              status Sort the messages by their message status (new, read, old, etc.).

              subject
                     Sort the messages by their subject.

              thread Create a threaded order, as with the thread command.

              to     Sort messages by the value of their 'To:' field, that is by the address of the recipient.  If the
                     showname variable is set, the recipient's real name (if any) is used.

              If no argument is given, the current sorting criterion is printed.

       source The source command reads commands from a file.

       thread (th) Create a threaded representation of the current folder, i.e. indent messages that  are  replies  to
              other  messages  in  the  header display, and change the next command and the addressing modes such that
              they refer to messages in the threaded order.  Message numbers are the same as in unthreaded  mode.   If
              the header variable is set, a header summary in threaded order is also printed.

       top    Takes a message list and prints the top few lines of each.  The number of lines printed is controlled by
              the variable toplines and defaults to five.

       touch  Takes a message list and marks the messages for saving in the mbox file.  mailx deviates from the  POSIX
              standard  with this command, as a 'next' command issued after 'mbox' will display the following message,
              not the current one.

       Type   (T) Identical to the Print command.

       type   (t) A synonym for print.

       unalias
              Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and discards the remembered groups of users.  The  group
              names no longer have any significance.

       unanswered
              Takes a message list and marks each message as not having been answered.

       uncollapse
              (unc)  Only  applicable to threaded mode.  Takes a message list and makes the message and all replies to
              it visible in header summaries again.  When a message becomes the current message, it  is  automatically
              made  visible.   Also  when  a message with collapsed replies is printed, all of these are automatically
              uncollapsed.

       undef  Undefines each of the named macros.  It is not an error to use a name that does not belong to one of the
              currently defined macros.

       undelete
              (u) Takes a message list and marks each message as not being deleted.

       undraft
              Takes a message list and marks each message as a draft.

       unflag Takes a message list and marks each message as not being 'flagged'.

       unfwdignore
              Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields for the forward command.

       unfwdretain
              Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields for the forward command.

       ungood Takes  a  message  list  and  undoes the effect of a good command that was previously applied on exactly
              these messages.

       unignore
              Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields.

       unjunk Takes a message list and undoes the effect of a junk command that  was  previously  applied  on  exactly
              these messages.

       unkill Takes a message list and 'unkills' each message.  Also sets the score of the messages to 0.

       Unread Same as unread.

       unread (U) Takes a message list and marks each message as not having been read.

       unretain
              Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields.

       unsaveignore
              Removes the header field names from the list of ignored fields for saving.

       unsaveretain
              Removes the header field names from the list of retained fields for saving.

       unset  Takes a list of option names and discards their remembered values; the inverse of set.

       unshortcut
              Deletes the shortcut names given as arguments.

       unsort Disable  sorted or threaded mode (see the sort and thread commands), return to normal message order and,
              if the header variable is set, print a header summary.

       unthread
              (unth) Same as unsort.

       verify (verif) Takes a message list and verifies each message.  If a message is not an S/MIME  signed  message,
              verification  will fail for it.  The verification process checks if the message was signed using a valid
              certificate, if the message sender's email address matches one of those contained  within  the  certifi-
              cate, and if the message content has been altered.

       visual (v)  Takes  a  message  list and invokes the display editor on each message.  Modified contents are dis-
              carded unless the writebackedited variable is set.

       write  (w) For conventional messages, the body without all headers is written.  The  output  is  decrypted  and
              converted  to  its  native  format, if necessary.  If the output file exists, the text is appended.--If a
              message is in MIME multipart format, its first part is written to the specified file as for conventional
              messages,  and  the  user  is asked for a filename to save each other part; if the contents of the first
              part are not to be saved, 'write /dev/null' can be used.  For the second and subsequent  parts,  if  the
              filename  given  starts  with  a  '|' character, the part is piped through the remainder of the filename
              interpreted as a shell command.  In non-interactive mode, only the parts of the multipart  message  that
              have  a filename given in the part header are written, the other are discarded.  The original message is
              never marked for deletion in the originating mail folder.  For attachments, the contents of the destina-
              tion  file  are  overwritten if the file previously existed.  No special handling of compressed files is
              performed.

       xit    (x) A synonym for exit.

       z      Mailx presents message headers in windowfuls as described under the  headers  command.   The  z  command
              scrolls  to  the  next  window of messages.  If an argument is given, it specifies the window to use.  A
              number prefixed by '+' or '-' indicates that the window is calculated in relation to the  current  posi-
              tion.  A number without a prefix specifies an absolute window number, and a '$' lets mailx scroll to the
              last window of messages.

       Z      Similar to z, but scrolls to the next or previous window that contains at least  one  new  or  'flagged'
              message.

   Tilde escapes
       Here  is  a  summary of the tilde escapes, which are used when composing messages to perform special functions.
       Tilde escapes are only recognized at the beginning of lines.  The name 'tilde escape' is somewhat of a misnomer
       since the actual escape character can be set by the option escape.

       ~!command
              Execute the indicated shell command, then return to the message.

       ~.     Same effect as typing the end-of-file character.

       ~<filename
              Identical to ~r.

       ~<!command
              Command is executed using the shell.  Its standard output is inserted into the message.

       ~@ [filename . . . ]
              With no arguments, edit the attachment list.  First, the user can edit all existing attachment data.  If
              an attachment's file name is left empty, that attachment is deleted from the list.  When the end of  the
              attachment  list  is reached, mailx will ask for further attachments, until an empty file name is given.
              If filename arguments are specified, all of them are appended to the end of the attachment list.   File-
              names which contain white space can only be specified with the first method (no filename arguments).

       ~A     Inserts the string contained in the Sign variable (same as '~i Sign').  The escape sequences '\t' (tabu-
              lator) and '\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~a     Inserts the string contained in the sign variable (same as '~i sign').  The escape sequences '\t' (tabu-
              lator) and '\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~bname . . .
              Add  the  given names to the list of carbon copy recipients but do not make the names visible in the Cc:
              line ('blind' carbon copy).

       ~cname . . .
              Add the given names to the list of carbon copy recipients.

       ~d     Read the file 'dead.letter' from the user's home directory into the message.

       ~e     Invoke the text editor on the message collected so far.  After the editing session is finished, the user
              may continue appending text to the message.

       ~fmessages
              Read  the named messages into the message being sent.  If no messages are specified, read in the current
              message.  Message headers currently being ignored (by the ignore or retain command)  are  not  included.
              For MIME multipart messages, only the first printable part is included.

       ~Fmessages
              Identical to ~f, except all message headers and all MIME parts are included.

       ~h     Edit  the  message  header  fields  'To:',  'Cc:', 'Bcc:', and 'Subject:' by typing each one in turn and
              allowing the user to append text to the end or modify the field by using the current terminal erase  and
              kill characters.

       ~H     Edit  the  message header fields 'From:', 'Reply-To:', 'Sender:', and 'Organization:' in the same manner
              as described for ~h.  The default values for these fields originate from the from, replyto, and  ORGANI-
              ZATION variables.  If this tilde command has been used, changing the variables has no effect on the cur-
              rent message anymore.

       ~ivariable
              Insert the value of the specified variable into the message adding a newline character at the  end.   If
              the  variable  is  unset or empty, the message remains unaltered.  The escape sequences '\t' (tabulator)
              and '\n' (newline) are understood.

       ~mmessages
              Read the named messages into the message being sent, indented by a tab or by the value of  indentprefix.
              If no messages are specified, read the current message.  Message headers currently being ignored (by the
              ignore or retain command) are not included.  For MIME multipart messages, only the first printable  part
              is included.

       ~Mmessages
              Identical to ~m, except all message headers and all MIME parts are included.

       ~p     Print  out  the  message  collected  so  far,  prefaced by the message header fields and followed by the
              attachment list, if any.  If the message text is longer than the screen size, it is  piped  through  the
              pager.

       ~q     Abort  the message being sent, copying the message to 'dead.letter' in the user's home directory if save
              is set.

       ~rfilename
              Read the named file into the message.

       ~sstring
              Cause the named string to become the current subject field.

       ~tname . . .
              Add the given names to the direct recipient list.

       ~v     Invoke an alternate editor (defined by the VISUAL option) on the message collected so far.  Usually, the
              alternate  editor will be a screen editor.  After the editor is quit, the user may resume appending text
              to the end of the message.

       ~wfilename
              Write the message onto the named file.  If the file exists, the message is appended to it.

       ~x     Same as ~q, except that the message is not saved to the 'dead.letter' file.

       ~|command
              Pipe the message through the command as a filter.  If the command gives no output or  terminates  abnor-
              mally,  retain  the original text of the message.  The command fmt(1) is often used as command to rejus-
              tify the message.

       ~:mailx-command
              Execute the given mailx command.  Not all commands, however, are allowed.

       ~_mailx-command
              Identical to ~:.

       ~~string
              Insert the string of text in the message prefaced by a single ~.   If  the  escape  character  has  been
              changed, that character must be doubled in order to send it at the beginning of a line.

   Variable options
       Options  are  controlled  via set and unset commands, see their entries for a syntax description.  An option is
       also set if it is passed to mailx as part of the environment (this is not restricted to specific  variables  as
       in  the  POSIX  standard).   A  value  given in a startup file overrides a value imported from the environment.
       Options may be either binary, in which case it is only significant to see whether  they  are  set  or  not;  or
       string, in which case the actual value is of interest.

   Binary options
       The binary options include the following:

       allnet Causes only the local part to be evaluated when comparing addresses.

       append Causes  messages  saved  in mbox to be appended to the end rather than prepended.  This should always be
              set.

       ask or asksub
              Causes mailx to prompt for the subject of each message sent.  If the user responds with  simply  a  new-
              line, no subject field will be sent.

       askatend
              Causes the prompts for 'Cc:' and 'Bcc:' lists to appear after the message has been edited.

       askattach
              If  set, mailx asks for files to attach at the end of each message.  Responding with a newline indicates
              not to include an attachment.

       askcc  Causes the user to be prompted for additional carbon copy recipients (at the  end  of  each  message  if
              askatend  or  bsdcompat  is  set).  Responding with a newline indicates the user's satisfaction with the
              current list.

       askbcc Causes the user to be prompted for additional blind carbon copy recipients (at the end of  each  message
              if  askatend or bsdcompat is set).  Responding with a newline indicates the user's satisfaction with the
              current list.

       asksign
              Causes the user to be prompted if the message is to be signed at the end of each  message.   The  smime-
              sign variable is ignored when this variable is set.

       autocollapse
              Causes threads to be collapsed automatically when threaded mode is entered (see the collapse command).

       autoinc
              Same as newmail.

       autoprint
              Causes the delete command to behave like dp - thus, after deleting a message, the next one will be typed
              automatically.

       autothread
              Causes threaded mode (see the thread command) to be entered automatically when a folder is opened.

       bang   Enables the substitution of '!'  by the contents of the last command line in shell escapes.

       bsdannounce
              Causes automatic display of a header summary after executing a folder command.

       bsdcompat
              Sets some cosmetical features to traditional BSD style; has the same affect as  setting  'askatend'  and
              all other variables prefixed with 'bsd', setting prompt to '& ', and changing the default pager to more.

       bsdflags
              Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header summary to traditional BSD style.

       bsdheadline
              Changes the display of columns in a header summary to traditional BSD style.

       bsdmsgs
              Changes some informational messages to traditional BSD style.

       bsdorder
              Causes the 'Subject:' field to appear immediately after the 'To:' field in message headers and with  the
              ~h tilde command.

       bsdset Changes the output format of the set command to traditional BSD style.

       chained-junk-tokens
              Normally,  the  Bayesian junk mail filter bases its classifications on single word tokens extracted from
              messages.  If this option is set, adjacent words are combined to pairs, which are  then  used  as  addi-
              tional  tokens.   This  usually  improves  the  accuracy of the filter, but also increases the junk mail
              database five- to tenfold.

       datefield
              The date in a header summary is normally the date of the mailbox 'From ' line of the message.   If  this
              variable is set, the date as given in the 'Date:' header field is used, converted to local time.

       debug  Prints  debugging messages and disables the actual delivery of messages.  Unlike verbose, this option is
              intended for mailx development only.

       disconnected
              When an IMAP mailbox is selected and this variable is set, no connection to  the  server  is  initiated.
              Instead,  data is obtained from the local cache (see imap-cache).  Mailboxes that are not present in the
              cache and messages that have not yet entirely been fetched from the server are not available;  to  fetch
              all  messages  in  a  mailbox  at once, the command 'copy * /dev/null' can be used while still in online
              mode.  Changes that are made to IMAP mailboxes in disconnected mode are queued and committed later  when
              a  connection  to that server is opened in online mode.  This procedure is not completely reliable since
              it cannot be guaranteed that the IMAP unique identifiers (UIDs) on the server still match  the  ones  in
              the cache at that time.  Data is saved to 'dead.letter' when this problem occurs.

       disconnected-user@host
              The  specified  account  is handled as described for the disconnected variable above, but other accounts
              are not affected.

       dot    The binary option dot causes mailx to interpret a period alone on a line as the terminator of a  message
              the user is sending.

       editheaders
              When  a  message  is  edited  while being composed, its header is included in the editable text.  'To:',
              'Cc:', 'Bcc:', 'Subject:', 'From:', 'Reply-To:', 'Sender:',  and  'Organization:'  fields  are  accepted
              within the header, other fields are ignored.

       emptybox
              If  set,  an  empty  mailbox file is not removed.  This may improve the interoperability with other mail
              user agents when using a common folder directory.

       emptystart
              If the mailbox is empty, mailx normally prints 'No mail for user' and exits immediately.  If this option
              is set, mailx starts even with an empty mailbox.

       expandaddr
              Causes mailx to expand message recipient addresses, as explained in the section, Recipient address spec-
              ifications.

       flipr  Exchanges the Respond with the respond commands and vice-versa.

       forward-as-attachment
              Original messages are normally sent as inline text with the forward command, and only the first part  of
              a  multipart  message  is  included.  With this option, messages are sent as MIME message/rfc822 attach-
              ments, and all of their parts are included.  The fwdignore and fwdretain options are  ignored  when  the
              forward-as-attachment option is set.

       fullnames
              When  replying  to a message, mailx normally removes the comment parts of email addresses, which by con-
              vention contain the full names of the recipients.  If this variable is set, such stripping is  not  per-
              formed, and comments are retained.

       header Causes the header summary to be written at startup and after commands that affect the number of messages
              or the order of messages in the current folder; enabled by default.

       hold   This option is used to hold messages in the system mailbox by default.

       ignore Causes interrupt signals from the terminal to be ignored and echoed as @'s.

       ignoreeof
              An option related to dot is ignoreeof which makes mailx refuse to accept a control-d as  the  end  of  a
              message.  Ignoreeof also applies to mailx command mode.

       imap-use-starttls
              Causes  mailx  to  issue a STARTTLS command to make an unencrypted IMAP session SSL/TLS encrypted.  This
              functionality is not supported by all servers, and is not used if the session is  already  encrypted  by
              the IMAPS method.

       imap-use-starttls-user@host
              Activates imap-use-starttls for a specific account.

       keep   This  option causes mailx to truncate the user's system mailbox instead of deleting it when it is empty.
              This should always be set, since it prevents malicious users from creating fake mail folders in a world-
              writable spool directory.

       keepsave
              When  a  message is saved, it is usually discarded from the originating folder when mailx is quit.  Set-
              ting this option causes all saved message to be retained.

       markanswered
              When a message is replied to and this variable is set, it is marked as having been answered.  This  mark
              has no technical meaning in the mail system; it just causes messages to be marked in the header summary,
              and makes them specially addressable.

       metoo  Usually, when a group is expanded that contains the sender, the sender is removed  from  the  expansion.
              Setting this option causes the sender to be included in the group.

       newmail
              Checks  for  new  mail  in  the current folder each time the prompt is printed.  For IMAP mailboxes, the
              server is then polled for new mail, which may result in delayed  operation  if  the  connection  to  the
              server is slow.  A maildir folder must be re-scanned to determine if new mail has arrived.

              If  this variable is set to the special value nopoll, an IMAP server is not actively asked for new mail,
              but new mail may still be detected and announced with any other IMAP command that is sent to the server.
              A maildir folder is not scanned then.

              In  any case, the IMAP server may send notifications about messages that have been deleted on the server
              by another process or client.  In this case, 'Expunged n messages' is printed regardless of  this  vari-
              able, and message numbers may have changed.

       noheader
              Setting the option noheader is the same as giving the -N flag on the command line.

       outfolder
              Causes  the  filename  given in the record variable and the sender-based filenames for the Copy and Save
              commands to be interpreted relative to the directory given in the folder variable  rather  than  to  the
              current directory unless it is an absolute pathname.

       page   If set, each message the pipe command prints out is followed by a formfeed character.

       piperaw
              Send messages to the pipe command without performing MIME and character set conversions.

       pop3-use-apop
              If  this  variable  is set, the APOP authentication method is used when a connection to a POP3 server is
              initiated.  The advantage of this method over the usual USER/PASS authentication is that the password is
              not  sent  over the network in clear text.  The connection fails if the server does not support the APOP
              command.

       pop3-use-apop-user@host
              Enables pop3-use-apop for a specific account.

       pop3-use-starttls
              Causes mailx to issue a STLS command to make an unencrypted POP3 session SSL/TLS encrypted.  This  func-
              tionality  is  not  supported by all servers, and is not used if the session is already encrypted by the
              POP3S method.

       pop3-use-starttls-user@host
              Activates pop3-use-starttls for a specific account.

       print-all-chars
              This option causes all characters to be considered printable.  It  is  only  effective  if  given  in  a
              startup file.  With this option set, some character sequences in messages may put the user's terminal in
              an undefined state when printed; it should only be used as a last resort if no working system locale can
              be found.

       print-alternatives
              When  a  MIME  message part of type multipart/alternative is displayed and it contains a subpart of type
              text/plain, other parts are normally discarded.  Setting this variable causes all subparts  to  be  dis-
              played, just as if the surrounding part was of type multipart/mixed.

       quiet  Suppresses the printing of the version when first invoked.

       record-resent
              If  both  this variable and the record variable are set, the resend and Resend commands save messages to
              the record folder as it is normally only done for newly composed messages.

       reply-in-same-charset
              If this variable is set, mailx first tries to use the same character set of  the  original  message  for
              replies.  If this fails, the sendcharsets variable is evaluated as usual.

       Replyall
              Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands.

       save   When the user aborts a message with two RUBOUT (interrupt characters) mailx copies the partial letter to
              the file 'dead.letter' in the home directory.  This option is set by default.

       searchheaders
              If this option is set, then a message-list specifier in the form '/x:y' will expand to all messages con-
              taining the substring 'y' in the header field 'x'.  The string search is case insensitive.

       sendwait
              When  sending a message, wait until the mail transfer agent exits before accepting further commands.  If
              the mail transfer agent returns a non-zero exit status, the exit status of mailx will also be  non-zero.

       showlast
              Setting  this  option  causes mailx to start at the last message instead of the first one when opening a
              mail folder.

       showname
              Causes mailx to use the sender's real name instead of the plain address in the header field summary  and
              in message specifications.

       showto Causes  the  recipient  of  the message to be shown in the header summary if the message was sent by the
              user.

       skipemptybody
              If an outgoing message does not contain any text in its first or only message part, do not send  it  but
              discard it silently (see also the -E option).

       smime-force-encryption
              Causes mailx to refuse sending unencrypted messages.

       smime-sign
              If  this  variable  is  set, outgoing messages are S/MIME signed with the user's private key.  Signing a
              message enables a recipient to verify that the sender used a valid certificate, that the email addresses
              in the certificate match those in the message header, and that the message content has not been altered.
              It does not change the message text, and people will be able to read the message as usual.

       smime-no-default-ca
              Do not load the default CA locations when verifying S/MIME signed messages.  Only applicable  if  S/MIME
              support is built using OpenSSL.

       smtp-use-starttls
              Causes  mailx  to  issue  a STARTTLS command to make an SMTP session SSL/TLS encrypted.  Not all servers
              support this command; because of common implementation defects, it cannot  be  automatically  determined
              whether a server supports it or not.

       ssl-no-default-ca
              Do  not load the default CA locations to verify SSL/TLS server certificates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS
              support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-v2-allow
              Accept SSLv2 connections.  These are normally not allowed because this protocol version is insecure.

       stealthmua
              Inhibits the generation of the 'Message-Id:' and 'User-Agent:' header fields that include obvious refer-
              ences to mailx.  There are two pitfalls associated with this: First, the message id of outgoing messages
              is not known anymore.  Second, an expert may still use the remaining information in the header to  track
              down the originating mail user agent.

       verbose
              Setting  the  option  verbose  is the same as using the -v flag on the command line.  When mailx runs in
              verbose mode, details of the actual message delivery and protocol  conversations  for  IMAP,  POP3,  and
              SMTP,  as  well  as of other internal processes, are displayed on the user's terminal, This is sometimes
              useful to debug problems.  Mailx prints all data that is sent to remote servers in clear texts,  includ-
              ing passwords, so care should be taken that no unauthorized option can view the screen if this option is
              enabled.

       writebackedited
              If this variable is set, messages modified using the edit or visual commands are  written  back  to  the
              current  folder  when  it  is quit.  This is only possible for writable folders in mbox format.  Setting
              this variable also disables MIME decoding and decryption for the editing commands.

   String Options
       The string options include the following:

       attrlist
              A sequence of characters to print in the 'attribute' column of a header summary, each for  one  type  of
              messages  in  the  following  order:  new, unread but old, new but read, read and old, saved, preserved,
              mboxed, flagged, answered, draft, killed, start of a collapsed thread, collapsed,  classified  as  junk.
              The  default  is 'NUROSPMFATK+-J', or 'NU  *HMFATK+-J' if bsdflags or the SYSV3 environment variable are
              set.

       autobcc
              Specifies a list of recipients to which a blind carbon copy of each outgoing message will be sent  auto-
              matically.

       autocc Specifies  a  list  of recipients to which a carbon copy of each outgoing message will be sent automati-
              cally.

       autosort
              Causes sorted mode (see the sort command) to be entered automatically with the value of this  option  as
              sorting method when a folder is opened.

       cmd    The default value for the pipe command.

       crt    The  valued  option  crt  is used as a threshold to determine how long a message must be before PAGER is
              used to read it.  If crt is set without a value, then the height of the terminal screen  stored  in  the
              system is used to compute the threshold (see stty(1)).

       DEAD   The  name  of the file to use for saving aborted messages.  This defaults to 'dead.letter' in the user's
              home directory.

       EDITOR Pathname of the text editor to use in the edit command and ~e escape.  If not defined,  then  a  default
              editor is used.

       encoding
              The  default MIME encoding to use in outgoing text messages and message parts.  Valid values are 8bit or
              quoted-printable.  The default is 8bit.  In case the  mail  transfer  system  is  not  ESMTP  compliant,
              quoted-printable should be used instead.  If there is no need to encode a message, 7bit transfer mode is
              used, without regard to the value of this variable.  Binary data is always encoded in base64 mode.

       escape If defined, the first character of this option gives the character to use in the place of  ~  to  denote
              escapes.

       folder The  name of the directory to use for storing folders of messages.  All folder names that begin with '+'
              refer to files below that directory.  If the directory name begins with a '/', mailx considers it to  be
              an absolute pathname; otherwise, the folder directory is found relative to the user's home directory.

              The  directory  name may also refer to an IMAP account; any names that begin with '+' then refer to IMAP
              mailboxes on that account.  An IMAP folder is normally given in the form

                  imaps://myloginATimap.example

              In this case, the '+' and '@' prefixes for folder names have the same effect (see the folder command).

              Some IMAP servers do not accept the creation of mailboxes in the hierarchy base; they require that  they
              are created as subfolders of 'INBOX'.  With such servers, a folder name of the form

                  imaps://myloginATimap.example/INBOX.

              should  be  used (the last character is the server's hierarchy delimiter).  Folder names prefixed by '+'
              will then refer to folders below 'INBOX', while folder names prefixed by '@' refer to folders below  the
              hierarchy base.  See the imap namespace command for a method to detect the appropriate prefix and delim-
              iter.

       folder-hook
              When a folder is opened and this variable is set, the macro corresponding to the value of this  variable
              is  executed.   The macro is also invoked when new mail arrives, but message lists for commands executed
              from the macro only include newly arrived messages then.

       folder-hook-fullname
              When a folder named fullname is opened, the macro corresponding to the value of this  variable  is  exe-
              cuted.  Unlike other folder specifications, the fully expanded name of a folder, without metacharacters,
              is used to avoid ambiguities.  The macro specified with folder-hook is not executed if this variable  is
              effective for a folder (unless it is explicitly invoked within the called macro).

       from   The  address  (or a list of addresses) to put into the 'From:' field of the message header.  If replying
              to a message, these addresses are handled as if they were in the  alternates  list.   If  the  machine's
              hostname  is  not valid at the Internet (for example at a dialup machine), either this variable or host-
              name have to be set to get correct Message-ID header fields.  If from contains more  than  one  address,
              the sender variable must also be set.

       fwdheading
              The string to print before the text of a message with the forward command (unless the forward-as-attach-
              ment variable is set).  Defaults to ''-------- Original Message --------'' if unset.  If it  is  set  to
              the empty string, no heading is printed.

       headline
              A  format string to use for the header summary, similar to printf formats.  A '%' character introduces a
              format specifier.  It may be followed by a number indicating the field width.  If the field is a number,
              the width may be negative, which indicates that it is to be left-aligned.  Valid format specifiers are:


                  %a    Message attributes.
                  %c    The score of the message.
                  %d    The date when the message was received.
                  %e    The indenting level in threaded mode.
                  %f    The address of the message sender.
                  %i    The message thread structure.
                  %l    The number of lines of the message.
                  %m    Message number.
                  %o    The number of octets (bytes) in the message.
                  %s    Message subject (if any).
                  %S    Message subject (if any) in double quotes.
                  %t    The position in threaded/sorted order.
                  %>    A '>' for the current message, otherwise ' '.
                  %<    A '<' for the current message, otherwise ' '.
                  %%    A '%' character.

              The  default  is  '%>%a%m %18f %16d %4l/%-5o %i%s', or '%>%a%m %20f  %16d %3l/%-5o %i%S' if bsdcompat is
              set.

       hostname
              Use this string as hostname when expanding local addresses instead of the value obtained  from  uname(2)
              and getaddrinfo(3).

       imap-auth
              Sets  the IMAP authentication method.  Valid values are 'login' for the usual password-based authentica-
              tion (the default), 'cram-md5', which is a password-based authentication that does not send the password
              over the network in clear text, and 'gssapi' for GSSAPI-based authentication.

       imap-auth-user@host
              Sets the IMAP authentication method for a specific account.

       imap-cache
              Enables  caching of IMAP mailboxes.  The value of this variable must point to a directory that is either
              existent or can be created by mailx.  All contents of the cache can be deleted by mailx at any time;  it
              is not safe to make assumptions about them.

       imap-keepalive
              IMAP  servers may close the connection after a period of inactivity; the standard requires this to be at
              least 30 minutes, but practical experience may vary.  Setting this variable to a numeric  value  greater
              than 0 causes a NOOP command to be sent each value seconds if no other operation is performed.

       imap-list-depth
              When  retrieving the list of folders on an IMAP server, the folders command stops after it has reached a
              certain depth to avoid possible infinite loops.  The value of  this  variable  sets  the  maximum  depth
              allowed.   The  default  is  2.  If the folder separator on the current IMAP server is a slash '/', this
              variable has no effect, and the folders command does not descend to subfolders.

       indentprefix
              String used by the '~m' and '~M' tilde escapes and by the quote option for indenting messages, in  place
              of the normal tab character (^I).  Be sure to quote the value if it contains spaces or tabs.

       junkdb The  location of the junk mail database.  The string is treated like a folder name, as described for the
              folder command.

              The files in the junk mail database are normally stored in compress(1) format for saving space.  If pro-
              cessing time is considered more important, uncompress(1) can be used to store them in plain form.  Mailx
              will then work using the uncompressed files.

       LISTER Pathname of the directory lister to use in the  folders  command  when  operating  on  local  mailboxes.
              Default is /bin/ls.

       MAIL   Is  used as the user's mailbox, if set.  Otherwise, a system-dependent default is used.  Can be a proto-
              col:// string (see the folder command for more information).

       MAILX_HEAD
              A string to put at the beginning of each new message.  The escape sequences '\t'  (tabulator)  and  '\n'
              (newline) are understood.

       MAILX_TAIL
              A  string  to  put at the end of each new message.  The escape sequences '\t' (tabulator) and '\n' (new-
              line) are understood.

       maximum-unencoded-line-length
              Messages that contain lines longer than the value of this variable are encoded in quoted-printable  even
              if they contain only ASCII characters.  The maximum effective value is 950.  If set to 0, all ASCII text
              messages are encoded in quoted-printable.  S/MIME signed messages are always encoded in quoted-printable
              regardless of the value of this variable.

       MBOX   The  name  of  the mbox file.  It can be the name of a folder.  The default is 'mbox' in the user's home
              directory.

       NAIL_EXTRA_RC
              The name of an optional startup file to be read after ~/.mailrc.  This variable  is  ignored  if  it  is
              imported  from the environment; it has an effect only if it is set in /etc/mail.rc or ~/.mailrc to allow
              bypassing the configuration with e. g. 'MAILRC=/dev/null'.  Use this file  for  commands  that  are  not
              understood by other mailx implementations.

       newfolders
              If this variable has the value maildir, newly created local folders will be in maildir format.

       nss-config-dir
              A directory that contains the files certN.db to retrieve certificates, keyN.db to retrieve private keys,
              and secmod.db, where N is a digit.  These are usually taken from Mozilla installations, so an  appropri-
              ate  value  might  be  '~/.mozilla/firefox/default.clm'.  Mailx opens these files read-only and does not
              modify them.  However, if the files are modified by Mozilla while mailx is running, it will print a 'Bad
              database'  message.   It  may  be necessary to create copies of these files that are exclusively used by
              mailx then.  Only applicable if S/MIME and SSL/TLS support is  built  using  Network  Security  Services
              (NSS).

       ORGANIZATION
              The value to put into the 'Organization:' field of the message header.

       PAGER  Pathname  of  the program to use in the more command or when crt variable is set.  The default paginator
              pg(1) or, in BSD compatibility mode, more(1) is used if this option is not defined.

       password-user@host
              Set the password for user when connecting to host.  If no such variable is defined for a host, the  user
              will  be  asked for a password on standard input.  Specifying passwords in a startup file is generally a
              security risk, the file should be readable by the invoking user only.

       pipe-content/subcontent
              When a MIME message part of content/subcontent type is displayed or it is replied to, its text  is  fil-
              tered  through  the  value  of this variable interpreted as a shell command.  Special care must be taken
              when using such commands as mail viruses may be distributed by this method; if messages of type applica-
              tion/x-sh  were filtered through the shell, for example, a message sender could easily execute arbitrary
              code on the system mailx is running on.

       pop3-keepalive
              POP3 servers may close the connection after a period of inactivity; the standard requires this to be  at
              least  10  minutes, but practical experience may vary.  Setting this variable to a numeric value greater
              than 0 causes a NOOP command to be sent each value seconds if no other operation is performed.

       prompt The string printed when a command is accepted.  Defaults to '? ', or to '& ' if the  bsdcompat  variable
              is set.

       quote  If  set, mailx starts a replying message with the original message prefixed by the value of the variable
              indentprefix.  Normally, a heading consisting of 'Fromheaderfield wrote:' is printed before  the  quota-
              tion.   If  the  string  noheading  is  assigned to the quote variable, this heading is omitted.  If the
              string headers is assigned, the headers selected by the ignore/retain commands  are  printed  above  the
              message  body, thus quote acts like an automatic ~m command then.  If the string allheaders is assigned,
              all headers are printed above the message body, and all MIME parts are included, thus quote acts like an
              automatic ~M command then.

       record If  defined,  gives  the  pathname of the folder used to record all outgoing mail.  If not defined, then
              outgoing mail is not so saved.  When saving to this folder fails, the message is not sent but  saved  to
              the 'dead.letter' file instead.

       replyto
              A  list of addresses to put into the 'Reply-To:' field of the message header.  If replying to a message,
              such addresses are handled as if they were in the alternates list.

       screen When mailx initially prints the message headers, it determines the number to print  by  looking  at  the
              speed  of the terminal.  The faster the terminal, the more it prints.  This option overrides this calcu-
              lation and specifies how many message headers are printed.  This number is also used for scrolling  with
              the z command.

       sendcharsets
              A  comma-separated  list  of character set names that can be used in Internet mail.  When a message that
              contains characters not representable in US-ASCII is prepared for sending, mailx tries  to  convert  its
              text  to  each  of the given character sets in order and uses the first appropriate one.  The default is
              'utf-8'.

              Character sets assigned to this variable should be ordered in ascending complexity.  That is,  the  list
              should start with e.g.  'iso-8859-1' for compatibility with older mail clients, might contain some other
              language-specific character sets, and should end with 'utf-8' to handle messages that combine  texts  in
              multiple languages.

       sender An  address that is put into the 'Sender:' field of outgoing messages.  This field needs not normally be
              present.  It is, however, required if the 'From:' field contains more than one address.  It can also  be
              used  to indicate that a message was sent on behalf of somebody other; in this case, 'From:' should con-
              tain the address of the person that took responsibility for the message, and  'Sender:'  should  contain
              the  address  of the person that actually sent the message.  The sender address is handled as if it were
              in the alternates list.

       sendmail
              To use an alternate mail delivery system, set this option to the full pathname of the  program  to  use.
              This should be used with care.

       SHELL  Pathname of the shell to use in the ! command and the ~! escape.  A default shell is used if this option
              is not defined.


       Sign   A string for use with the ~A command.

       sign   A string for use with the ~a command.

       signature
              Must correspond to the name of a readable file if set.  The file's content is  then  appended  to
              each singlepart message and to the first part of each multipart message.  Be warned that there is
              no possibility to edit the signature for an individual message.

       smime-ca-dir
              Specifies a directory with CA certificates for verification of S/MIME signed messages.  The  for-
              mat is the same as described in SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).  Only applicable if S/MIME sup-
              port is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-ca-file
              Specifies a file with CA certificates for verification of S/MIME signed messages.  The format  is
              the  same as described in SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3).  Only applicable if S/MIME support is
              built using OpenSSL.

       smime-cipher-user@host
              Specifies a cipher to use when generating S/MIME encrypted messages for user@host.  Valid ciphers
              are  rc2-40 (RC2 with 40 bits), rc2-64 (RC2 with 64 bits), des (DES, 56 bits) and des-ede3 (3DES,
              112/168 bits).  The default is 3DES.  It is not recommended to use the  other  ciphers  unless  a
              recipient's  client is actually unable to handle 3DES since they are comparatively weak; but even
              so, the recipient should upgrade his software in preference.

       smime-crl-file
              Specifies a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use when verifying S/MIME  messages.   Only
              applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-crl-dir
              Specifies  a  directory  that contains files with CRLs in PEM format to use when verifying S/MIME
              messages.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-encrypt-user@host
              If this variable is set, messages to user@host are encrypted before sending.  If  S/MIME  support
              is built using OpenSSL, the value of the variable must be set to the name of a file that contains
              a certificate in PEM format.  If S/MIME support is built using NSS, the value of this variable is
              ignored,  but  if multiple certificates for user@host are available, the smime-nickname-user@host
              variable should be set.  Otherwise a certificate for the  recipient  is  automatically  retrieved
              from the certificate database, if possible.

              If  a  message  is sent to multiple recipients, each of them for whom a corresponding variable is
              set will receive an individually encrypted message; other recipients will continue to receive the
              message  in  plain  text unless the smime-force-encryption variable is set.  It is recommended to
              sign encrypted messages, i.e. to also set the smime-sign variable.

       smime-nickname-user@host
              Specifies the nickname of a certificate to be used when encrypting messages for user@host .  Only
              applicable if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-cert
              Points  to  a file in PEM format that contains the user's private key as well as his certificate.
              Both are used with S/MIME for signing and decrypting messages.  Only applicable if S/MIME support
              is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-cert-user@host
              Overrides smime-sign-cert for the specific addresses.  When signing messages and the value of the
              from variable is set to user@host, the specific file is used.  When  decrypting  messages,  their
              recipient  fields  (To:  and  Cc:)  are  searched for addresses for which such a variable is set.
              Mailx always uses the first address that matches, so if the same message is sent to more than one
              of  the user's addresses using different encryption keys, decryption might fail.  Only applicable
              if S/MIME support is built using OpenSSL.

       smime-sign-nickname
              Specifies that the named certificate be used for signing mail.  If this variable is not set,  but
              a single certificate matching the current from address is found in the database, that one is used
              automatically.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built using NSS.

       smime-sign-nickname-user@host
              Overrides smime-sign-nickname for a specific address.  Only applicable if S/MIME support is built
              using NSS.

       smtp   Normally,  mailx invokes sendmail(8) directly to transfer messages.  If the smtp variable is set,
              a SMTP connection to the server specified by the value of this variable is used instead.  If  the
              SMTP  server  does not use the standard port, a value of server:port can be given, with port as a
              name or as a number.

              There are two possible methods to get SSL/TLS encrypted SMTP sessions: First, the  STARTTLS  com-
              mand  can  be  used to encrypt a session after it has been initiated, but before any user-related
              data has been sent; see smtp-use-starttls above.  Second, some servers accept sessions  that  are
              encrypted  from their beginning on. This mode is configured by assigning smtps://server[:port] to
              the smtp variable.

              The SMTP transfer is executed in a child process; unless either the sendwait or the verbose vari-
              able  is  set, this process runs asynchronously.  If it receives a TERM signal, it will abort and
              save the message to the 'dead.letter' file.

       smtp-auth
              Sets the SMTP authentication method.  If set to 'login', or if unset and smtp-auth-user  is  set,
              AUTH  LOGIN  is used.  If set to 'cram-md5', AUTH CRAM-MD5 is used; if set to 'plain', AUTH PLAIN
              is used.  Otherwise, no SMTP authentication is performed.

       smtp-auth-user@host
              Overrides smtp-auth for specific values of sender addresses, depending on the from variable.

       smtp-auth-password
              Sets the global password for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and password have to be given for  AUTH  LOGIN
              and AUTH CRAM-MD5.

       smtp-auth-password-user@host
              Overrides smtp-auth-password for specific values of sender addresses, depending on the from vari-
              able.

       smtp-auth-user
              Sets the global user name for SMTP AUTH.  Both user and password have to be given for AUTH  LOGIN
              and AUTH CRAM-MD5.

              If this variable is set but neither smtp-auth-password or a matching smtp-auth-password-user@host
              can be found, mailx will as for a password on the user's terminal.

       smtp-auth-user-user@host
              Overrides smtp-auth-user for specific values of sender addresses, depending on the from variable.

       ssl-ca-dir
              Specifies  a directory with CA certificates for verification of SSL/TLS server certificates.  See
              SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3) for more information.  Only applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is
              built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-ca-file
              Specifies  a  file  with  CA  certificates  for verification of SSL/TLS server certificates.  See
              SSL_CTX_load_verify_locations(3) for more information.  Only applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is
              built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert
              Sets the file name for a SSL/TLS client certificate required by some servers.  Only applicable if
              SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-cert-user@host
              Sets an account-specific file name for a SSL/TLS client certificate  required  by  some  servers.
              Overrides  ssl-cert for the specified account.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-cipher-list
              Specifies a list of ciphers for SSL/TLS connections.  See ciphers(1) for more information.   Only
              applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-file
              Specifies  a file that contains a CRL in PEM format to use when verifying SSL/TLS server certifi-
              cates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-crl-dir
              Specifies a directory that contains files with CRLs in PEM format to use when  verifying  SSL/TLS
              server certificates.  Only applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key
              Sets  the  file  name for the private key of a SSL/TLS client certificate.  If unset, the name of
              the certificate file is used.  The file is expected to be in  PEM  format.   Only  applicable  if
              SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-key-user@host
              Sets  an  account-specific  file name for the private key of a SSL/TLS client certificate.  Over-
              rides ssl-key for the specified account.  Only applicable  if  SSL/TLS  support  is  built  using
              OpenSSL.

       ssl-method
              Selects  a  SSL/TLS protocol version; valid values are 'ssl2', 'ssl3', and 'tls1'.  If unset, the
              method is selected automatically, if possible.

       ssl-method-user@host
              Overrides ssl-method for a specific account.

       ssl-rand-egd
              Gives the pathname to an entropy daemon socket, see RAND_egd(3).

       ssl-rand-file
              Gives the pathname to a file with entropy data, see RAND_load_file(3).  If the file is a  regular
              file  writable  by  the  invoking user, new data is written to it after it has been loaded.  Only
              applicable if SSL/TLS support is built using OpenSSL.

       ssl-verify
              Sets the action to be performed if an error occurs during SSL/TLS server certificate  validation.
              Valid values are 'strict' (fail and close connection immediately), 'ask' (ask whether to continue
              on standard input), 'warn' (print a warning and continue), 'ignore' (do not perform  validation).
              The default is 'ask'.

       ssl-verify-user@host
              Overrides ssl-verify for a specific account.

       toplines
              If  defined,  gives the number of lines of a message to be printed out with the top command; nor-
              mally, the first five lines are printed.

       ttycharset
              The character set of the terminal mailx operates on.  There is normally no need to set this vari-
              able  since  mailx can determine this automatically by looking at the LC_CTYPE locale setting; if
              this succeeds, the value is assigned at startup and will be displayed by the set  command.   Note
              that this is not necessarily a character set name that can be used in Internet messages.

       VISUAL Pathname of the text editor to use in the visual command and ~v escape.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Besides the variables described above, mailx uses the following environment strings:

       HOME   The user's home directory.

       LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES
              See locale(7).

       MAILRC Is used as startup file instead of ~/.mailrc if set.  When mailx scripts are invoked on behalf of
              other users, this variable should be set to '/dev/null' to avoid side-effects from reading  their
              configuration files.

       NAILRC If this variable is set and MAILRC is not set, it is read as startup file.

       SYSV3  Changes the letters printed in the first column of a header summary.

       TMPDIR Used as directory for temporary files instead of /tmp, if set.

FILES
       ~/.mailrc
              File giving initial commands.

       /etc/mail.rc
              System wide initialization file.

       ~/.mime.types
              Personal MIME types.

       /etc/mime.types
              System wide MIME types.

EXAMPLES
   Getting started
       The  mailx  command  has  two  distinct  usages, according to whether one wants to send or receive mail.
       Sending mail is simple: to send a message to a user whose email address  is,  say,  <billAThost.example>,
       use the shell command:

           $ mailx billAThost.example

       then  type  your message.  Mailx will prompt you for a message subject first; after that, lines typed by
       you form the body of the message.  When you reach the end of the message, type an EOT (control-d) at the
       beginning of a line, which will cause mailx to echo 'EOT' and return you to the shell.

       If,  while  you  are composing the message you decide that you do not wish to send it after all, you can
       abort the letter with a RUBOUT.  Typing a single RUBOUT causes mailx to print '(Interrupt -- one more to
       kill  letter)'.   Typing a second RUBOUT causes mailx to save your partial letter on the file 'dead.let-
       ter' in your home directory and abort the letter.  Once you have sent mail to someone, there is  no  way
       to undo the act, so be careful.

       If  you want to send the same message to several other people, you can list their email addresses on the
       command line.  Thus,

           $ mailx samATworkstation.example bobATserver.example
           Subject: Fees
           Tuition fees are due next Friday.  Don't forget!
           <Control-d>
           EOT
           $

       will send the reminder to <samATworkstation.example>.  and <bobATserver.example>.

       To read your mail, simply type

           $ mailx

       Mailx will respond by typing its version number and date and then listing the messages you have waiting.
       Then  it  will  type  a  prompt and await your command.  The messages are assigned numbers starting with
       1--you refer to the messages with these numbers.  Mailx keeps track of which messages are new (have  been
       sent  since  you  last read your mail) and read (have been read by you).  New messages have an N next to
       them in the header listing and old, but unread messages have a U next to them.   Mailx  keeps  track  of
       new/old and read/unread messages by putting a header field called Status into your messages.

       To  look  at a specific message, use the type command, which may be abbreviated to simply t .  For exam-
       ple, if you had the following messages:

           O 1 drfooATmyhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52  18/631 "Fees"
           O 2 samATfriends.example  Thu Sep  2 00:08  30/895

       you could examine the first message by giving the command:

           type 1

       which might cause to respond with, for example:

           Message  1:
           From drfooATmyhost.example Wed Sep  1 19:52:25 2004
           Subject: Fees
           Status: R

           Tuition fees are due next Wednesday.  Don't forget!


       Many mailx commands that operate on messages take a message number as an argument like the type command.
       For  these commands, there is a notion of a current message.  When you enter the mailx program, the cur-
       rent message is initially the first (or the first recent) one.  Thus, you can  often  omit  the  message
       number and use, for example,

           t

       to  type  the current message.  As a further shorthand, you can type a message by simply giving its mes-
       sage number.  Hence,

           1

       would type the first message.

       Frequently, it is useful to read the messages in your mailbox in order, one after another.  You can read
       the next message in mailx by simply typing a newline.  As a special case, you can type a newline as your
       first command to mailx to type the first message.

       If, after typing a message, you wish to immediately send a reply, you can do so with the reply  command.
       This  command,  like type, takes a message number as an argument.  mailx then begins a message addressed
       to the user who sent you the message.  You may then type in your letter in reply, followed  by  a  <con-
       trol-d> at the beginning of a line, as before.

       Note  that  mailx  copies  the  subject  header  from  the  original  message.   This  is useful in that
       correspondence about a particular matter will tend to retain the same subject heading, making it easy to
       recognize.  If there are other header fields in the message, like 'Cc:', the information found will also
       be used.

       Sometimes you will receive a message that has been sent to several people and wish to reply only to  the
       person who sent it.  Reply with a capital R replies to a message, but sends a copy to the sender only.

       If  you  wish,  while reading your mail, to send a message to someone, but not as a reply to one of your
       messages, you can send the message directly with the mail command, which takes as arguments the names of
       the  recipients  you  wish  to  send to.  For example, to send a message to <frankATmachine.example>, you
       would do:

           mail frankATmachine.example

       To delete a message from the mail folder, you can use the delete command.  In  addition  to  not  saving
       deleted messages, mailx will not let you type them, either.  The effect is to make the message disappear
       altogether, along with its number.

       Many features of mailx can be tailored to your liking with the set command.  The  set  command  has  two
       forms,  depending  on  whether  you  are setting a binary option or a valued option.  Binary options are
       either on or off.  For example, the askcc option informs mailx that each time you send  a  message,  you
       want  it  to prompt you for a 'Cc:' header, to be included in the message.  To set the askcc option, you
       would type

           set askcc

       Valued options are values which mailx uses to adapt to your tastes.   For  example,  the  record  option
       tells mailx where to save messages sent by you, and is specified by

           set record=Sent

       for example.  Note that no spaces are allowed in set record=Sent .

       Mailx  includes  a  simple  facility for maintaining groups of messages together in folders.  To use the
       folder facility, you must tell mailx where you wish to keep your folders.  Each folder of messages  will
       be a single file.  For convenience, all of your folders are kept in a single directory of your choosing.
       To tell mailx where your folder directory is, put a line of the form

           set folder=letters

       in your .mailrc file.  If, as in the example above, your folder directory does not  begin  with  a  '/',
       mailx will assume that your folder directory is to be found starting from your home directory.

       Anywhere  a  file name is expected, you can use a folder name, preceded with '+'.  For example, to put a
       message into a folder with the save command, you can use:

           save +classwork

       to save the current message in the classwork folder.  If the classwork folder does  not  yet  exist,  it
       will  be  created.   Note  that messages which are saved with the save command are automatically removed
       from your system mailbox.

       In order to make a copy of a message in a folder without causing that message to be  removed  from  your
       system mailbox, use the copy command, which is identical in all other respects to the save command.

       The folder command can be used to direct mailx to the contents of a different folder.  For example,

           folder +classwork

       directs  mailx  to  read  the contents of the classwork folder.  All of the commands that you can use on
       your system mailbox are also applicable to folders, including type, delete, and reply.  To inquire which
       folder you are currently editing, use simply:

           folder

       To list your current set of folders, use the folders command.

       Finally,  the  help  command  is available to print out a brief summary of the most important mailx com-
       mands.

       While typing in a message to be sent to others, it is often useful to be able to invoke the text  editor
       on the partial message, print the message, execute a shell command, or do some other auxiliary function.
       Mailx provides these capabilities through tilde escapes , which consist of a tilde (~) at the  beginning
       of a line, followed by a single character which indicates the function to be performed.  For example, to
       print the text of the message so far, use:

           ~p

       which will print a line of dashes, the recipients of your message, and the text of the message  so  far.
       A list of the most important tilde escapes is available with '~?'.

   IMAP or POP3 client setup
       First you need the following data from your ISP: the host name of the IMAP or POP3 server, user name and
       password for this server, and a notice whether the server uses SSL/TLS encryption.   Assuming  the  host
       name  is  'server.myisp.example'  and your user name for that server is 'mylogin', you can refer to this
       account using the folder command or -f command line option with

           imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       (This string is not necessarily the same as your Internet mail address.)   You  can  replace  'imaps://'
       with 'imap://' if the server does not support SSL/TLS.  (If SSL/TLS support is built using NSS, the nss-
       config-dir variable must be set before a connection can be initiated, see  above).   Use  'pop3s://'  or
       'pop3://'  if  the server does not offer IMAP.  You should use IMAP if you can, though; first because it
       requires fewer network operations than POP3 to get the contents of the mailbox and is thus  faster;  and
       second  because  message attributes are maintained by the IMAP server, so you can easily distinguish new
       and old messages each time you connect.  Even if the server does not accept IMAPS or POP3S  connections,
       it  is  possible that it supports the STARTTLS method to make a session SSL/TLS encrypted after the ini-
       tial connection has been performed, but before authentication begins.  The only reliable method  to  see
       if this works is to try it; enter one of

           set imap-use-starttls
           set pop3-use-starttls

       before you initiate the connection.

       As  you  probably  want messages to be deleted from this account after saving them, prefix it with '%:'.
       The shortcut command can be used to avoid typing that many characters every time you want to connect:

           shortcut myisp %:imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example

       You might want to put this string into a startup file.  As the shortcut  command  is  specific  to  this
       implementation  of  mailx  and  will  confuse other implementations, it should not be used in ~/.mailrc,
       instead, put

           set NAIL_EXTRA_RC=~/.nailrc

       in ~/.mailrc and create a file ~/.nailrc containing the shortcut command above.   You  can  then  access
       your  remote mailbox by invoking 'mailx -f myisp' on the command line, or by executing 'fi myisp' within
       mailx.

       If you want to use more than one IMAP mailbox on a server, or if you want to use  the  IMAP  server  for
       mail storage too, the account command (which is also mailx-specific) is more appropriate than the short-
       cut command.  You can put the following in ~/.nailrc:

           account myisp {
               set folder=imaps://mylogin@server.myisp.example
               set record=+Sent MBOX=+mbox outfolder
           }

       and can then access incoming mail for this account by invoking 'mailx -A myisp' on the command line,  or
       by  executing  'ac  myisp' within mailx.  After that, a command like 'copy 1 +otherfolder' will refer to
       otherfolder on the IMAP server.  In particular, 'fi &' will change to the mbox folder,  and  'fi  +Sent'
       will show your recorded sent mail, with both folders located on the IMAP server.

       Mailx  will ask you for a password string each time you connect to a remote account.  If you can reason-
       ably trust the security of your workstation, you can give this password in the startup file as

           set password-mylogin@server.myisp.example="SECRET"

       You should change the permissions of this file to 0600, see chmod(1).

       Mailx supports different authentication methods for both IMAP and POP3.  If Kerberos  is  used  at  your
       location, you can try to activate GSSAPI-based authentication by

           set imap-auth=gssapi

       The advantage of this method is that mailx does not need to know your password at all, nor needs to send
       sensitive data over the network.  Otherwise, the options

           set imap-auth=cram-md5
           set pop3-use-apop

       for IMAP and POP3, respectively, offer authentication methods that avoid to send the password  in  clear
       text  over the network, which is especially important if SSL/TLS cannot be used.  If the server does not
       offer any of these authentication methods, conventional user/password based authentication must be used.
       It  is  sometimes helpful to set the verbose option when authentication problems occur.  Mailx will dis-
       play all data sent to the server in clear text on the screen with this option, including passwords.  You
       should thus take care that no unauthorized person can look at your terminal when this option is set.

       If  you  regularly use the same workstation to access IMAP accounts, you can greatly enhance performance
       by enabling local caching of IMAP messages.  For any message that has been fully  or  partially  fetched
       from  the  server,  a local copy is made and is used when the message is accessed again, so most data is
       transferred over the network once only.  To enable the IMAP cache, select a local directory name and put

           set imap-cache=~/localdirectory

       in  the  startup  file.   All  files within that directory can be overwritten or deleted by mailx at any
       time, so you should not use the directory to store other information.

       Once the cache contains some messages, it is not strictly necessary anymore to open a connection to  the
       IMAP server to access them.  When mailx is invoked with the -D option, or when the disconnected variable
       is set, only cached data is used for any folder you open.  Messages that have not  yet  been  completely
       cached  are  not  available  then, but all other messages can be handled as usual.  Changes made to IMAP
       mailboxes in disconnected mode are committed to the IMAP server next time it is  used  in  online  mode.
       Synchronizing  the local status with the status on the server is thus partially within your responsibil-
       ity; if you forget to initiate a connection to the server again before you leave your location,  changes
       made  on  one workstation are not available on others.  Also if you alter IMAP mailboxes from a worksta-
       tion while uncommitted changes are still pending on another, the latter data may  become  invalid.   The
       same  might  also  happen because of internal server status changes.  You should thus carefully evaluate
       this feature in your environment before you rely on it.

       Many servers will close the connection after a short period of inactivity. Use one of

           set pop3-keepalive=30
           set imap-keepalive=240

       to send a keepalive message each 30 seconds for POP3, or each 4 minutes for IMAP.

       If you encounter problems connecting to a SSL/TLS server, try the ssl-rand-egd and  ssl-rand-file  vari-
       ables  (see the OpenSSL FAQ for more information) or specify the protocol version with ssl-method.  Con-
       tact your ISP if you need a client certificate or if verification of the server certificate  fails.   If
       the failed certificate is indeed valid, fetch its CA certificate by executing the shell command

           $ openssl s_client </dev/null -showcerts -connect \
                  server.myisp.example:imaps 2>&1 | tee log

       (see  s_client(1)) and put it into the file specified with ssl-ca-file.  The data you need is located at
       the end of the certificate chain within (and including) the 'BEGIN CERTIFICATE'  and  'END  CERTIFICATE'
       lines.  (Note that it is possible to fetch a forged certificate by this method.  You can only completely
       rely on the authenticity of the CA certificate if you fetch it in a way that is trusted by other  means,
       such as by personally receiving the certificate on storage media.)

   Creating a score file or message filter
       The  scoring commands are best separated from other configuration for clarity, and are mostly mailx spe-
       cific.  It is thus recommended to put them in a separate file that is sourced from your NAIL_EXTRA_RC as
       follows:

           source ~/.scores

       The .scores file could then look as follows:

           define list {
               score (subject "important discussion") +10
               score (subject "annoying discussion") -10
               score (from "nicefellow@goodnet") +15
               score (from "badguy@poornet") -5
               move (header x-spam-flag "+++++") +junk
           }
           set folder-hook-imap://user@host/public.list=list

       In  this scheme, you would see any mail from 'nicefellow@goodnet', even if the surrounding discussion is
       annoying; but you normally would not see mail from  'badguy@poornet',  unless  he  participates  in  the
       important discussion.  Messages that are marked with five or more plus characters in their 'X-Spam-Flag'
       field (inserted by some server-side filtering software) are moved to the folder  'junk'  in  the  folder
       directory.

       Be  aware  that all criteria in () lead to substring matches, so you would also score messages from e.g.
       'notsobadguy@poornetmakers' negative here.  It is possible to select addresses exactly  using  "address"
       message  specifications,  but  these  cannot  be executed remotely and will thus cause all headers to be
       downloaded from IMAP servers while looking for matches.

       When searching messages on an IMAP server, best performance is usually achieved by sending as many  cri-
       teria as possible in one large () specification, because each single such specification will result in a
       separate network operation.

   Activating the Bayesian filter
       The Bayesian junk mail filter works by examining the words contained in messages.  You  decide  yourself
       what  a good and what a bad message is.  Thus the resulting filter is your very personal one; once it is
       correctly set up, it will filter only messages similar to those previously specified by you.

       To use the Bayesian filter, a location for the junk mail database must be defined first:

           set junkdb=~/.junkdb

       The junk mail database does not contain actual words extracted from messages, but hashed representations
       of  them.   A  foreign  person  who can read the database could only examine the frequency of previously
       known words in your mail.

       If you have sufficient disk space (several 10 MB) available, it is recommended that you set the chained-
       junk-tokens option.  The filter will then also consider two-word tokens, improving its accuracy.

       A  set of good messages and junk messages must now be available; it is also possible to use the incoming
       new messages for this purpose, although it will of course take some time until the filter becomes useful
       then.   Do  not underestimate the amount of statistical data needed; some hundred messages are typically
       necessary to get satisfactory results, and many thousand messages for best operation.  You have to  pass
       the  good messages to the good command, and the junk messages to the junk command.  If you ever acciden-
       tally mark a good message as junk or vice-versa, call the ungood or unjunk command to correct this.

       Once a reasonable amount of statistics has been collected, new messages can be classified automatically.
       The  classify  command  marks all messages that the filter considers to be junk, but it does not perform
       any action on them by default.  It is recommended that you move these messages into  a  separate  folder
       just for the case that false positives occur, or to pass them to the junk command later again to further
       improve the junk mail database.  To automatically move incoming junk messages every time  the  inbox  is
       opened,  put  lines  like the following into your .scores file (or whatever name you gave to the file in
       the last example):

           define junkfilter {
               classify (smaller 20000) :n
               move :j +junk
           }
           set folder-hook-imap://user@host/INBOX=junkfilter

       If you set the verbose option before running the classify command, mailx prints the words  it  uses  for
       calculating  the  junk status along with their statistical probabilities.  This can help you to find out
       why some messages are not classified as you would like them to be.  To see the  statistical  probability
       of a given word, use the probability command.

       If  a  junk  message  was  not  recognized  as  such, use the junk command to correct this.  Also if you
       encounter a false positive (a good message that was wrongly classified as junk), pass  it  to  the  good
       command.

       Since  the  classify  command must examine the entire text of all new messages in the respective folder,
       this will also cause all of them to be downloaded from the IMAP server.  You should  thus  restrict  the
       size of messages for automatic filtering.  If server-based filtering is also available, you might try if
       that works for you first.

   Reading HTML mail
       You need either the w3m or lynx utility or another command-line web browser that can write plain text to
       standard output.

           set pipe-text/html="w3m -dump -T text/html"

       or

           set pipe-text/html="lynx -dump -force_html /dev/stdin"

       will then cause HTML message parts to be converted into a more friendly form.

   Viewing PDF attachments
       Most PDF viewers do not accept input directly from a pipe.  It is thus necessary to store the attachment
       in a temporary file, as with

           set pipe-application/pdf="cat >/tmp/mailx$$.pdf; \
                  acroread /tmp/mailx$$.pdf; rm /tmp/mailx$$.pdf"

       Note that security defects are discovered in PDF viewers from time to time.  Automatical command  execu-
       tion  like this can compromise your system security, in particular if you stay not always informed about
       such issues.

   Signed and encrypted messages with S/MIME
       S/MIME provides two central mechanisms: message signing and message encryption.  A signed  message  con-
       tains  some  data  in addition to the regular text.  The data can be used to verify that the message was
       sent using a valid certificate, that the sender's address in the message header matches that in the cer-
       tificate, and that the message text has not been altered.  Signing a message does not change its regular
       text; it can be read regardless of whether the recipient's software is able to  handle  S/MIME.   It  is
       thus  usually  possible  to sign all outgoing messages if so desired.--Encryption, in contrast, makes the
       message text invisible for all people except those who have access to the  secret  decryption  key.   To
       encrypt  a message, the specific recipient's public encryption key must be known.  It is thus not possi-
       ble to send encrypted mail to people unless their key has been retrieved from either previous communica-
       tion  or  public key directories.  A message should always be signed before it is encrypted.  Otherwise,
       it is still possible that the encrypted message text is altered.

       A central concept to S/MIME is that of the certification authority (CA).  A CA is a trusted  institution
       that  issues certificates.  For each of these certificates, it can be verified that it really originates
       from the CA, provided that the CA's own certificate is previously known.  A set of  CA  certificates  is
       usually  delivered  with  OpenSSL and installed on your system.  If you trust the source of your OpenSSL
       software installation, this offers reasonable security for S/MIME on the Internet.  In general,  a  cer-
       tificate cannot be more secure than the method its CA certificate has been retrieved with, though.  Thus
       if you download a CA certificate from the Internet, you can only trust the  messages  you  verify  using
       that certificate as much as you trust the download process.

       The  first  thing  you  need  for participating in S/MIME message exchange is your personal certificate,
       including a private key.  The certificate contains public information, in particular your name and  your
       email  address,  and  the  public  key that is used by others to encrypt messages for you, and to verify
       signed messages they supposedly received from you.  The certificate is included in each  signed  message
       you  send.   The  private  key must be kept secret.  It is used to decrypt messages that were previously
       encrypted with your public key, and to sign messages.

       For personal use, it is recommended that you get a S/MIME certificate from one of the major CAs  on  the
       Internet using your WWW browser.  (Many CAs offer such certificates for free.)  You will usually receive
       a combined certificate and private key in PKCS#12 format which mailx does not directly accept if  S/MIME
       support is built using OpenSSL.  To convert it to PEM format, use the following shell command:

           $ openssl pkcs12 -in cert.p12 -out cert.pem -clcerts \
               -nodes

       If you omit the -nodes parameter, you can specifiy an additional PEM pass phrase for protecting the pri-
       vate key.  Mailx will then ask you for that pass phrase each time it signs or decrypts a  message.   You
       can then use

           set smime-sign-cert-mynameATmyisp.example=cert.pem

       to make this private key and certificate known to mailx.

       If  S/MIME  support  is built using NSS, the PKCS#12 file must be installed using Mozilla (provided that
       nss-config-dir is set appropriately, see above), and no further action is necessary unless multiple user
       certificates  for  the same email address are installed.  In this case, the smime-sign-nickname variable
       has to be set appropriately.

       You can now sign outgoing messages.  Just use

           set smime-sign

       to do so.

       From each signed message you send, the recipient can fetch your certificate and use it to send encrypted
       mail  back  to you.  Accordingly if somebody sends you a signed message, you can do the same.  First use
       the verify command to check the validity of the certificate.  After that, retrieve the  certificate  and
       tell mailx that it should use it for encryption:

           certsave filename
           set smime-encrypt-user@host=filename

       If  S/MIME support is built using NSS, the saved certificate must be installed using Mozilla.  The value
       of the smime-encrypt-user@host is ignored then, but if  multiple  certificates  for  the  recipient  are
       available, the smime-nickname-user@host variable must be set.

       You  should  carefully consider if you prefer to store encrypted messages in decrypted form.  If you do,
       anybody who has access to your mail folders can read them, but if you do not, you  might  be  unable  to
       read  them yourself later if you happen to lose your private key.  The decrypt command saves messages in
       decrypted form, while the save, copy, and move commands leave them encrypted.

       Note that neither S/MIME signing nor encryption applies to message  subjects  or  other  header  fields.
       Thus  they  may  not contain sensitive information for encrypted messages, and cannot be trusted even if
       the message content has been verified.  When sending signed messages, it is recommended  to  repeat  any
       important header information in the message text.

   Using CRLs with S/MIME or SSL/TLS
       Certification  authorities  (CAs)  issue  certificate revocation lists (CRLs) on a regular basis.  These
       lists contain the serial numbers of certificates that have been declared invalid after  they  have  been
       issued.   Such usually happens because the private key for the certificate has been compromised, because
       the owner of the certificate has left the organization that is mentioned in the  certificate,  etc.   To
       seriously  use S/MIME or SSL/TLS verification, an up-to-date CRL is required for each trusted CA.  There
       is otherwise no method to distinguish between  valid  and  invalidated  certificates.   Mailx  currently
       offers  no  mechanism  to fetch CRLs, or to access them on the Internet, so you have to retrieve them by
       some external mechanism.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using OpenSSL, mailx accepts CRLs in PEM format  only;  CRLs  in
       DER format must be converted, e.g. with the shell command

           $ openssl crl -inform DER -in crl.der -out crl.pem

       To  tell mailx about the CRLs, a directory that contains all CRL files (and no other files) must be cre-
       ated.  The smime-crl-dir or ssl-crl-dir variables, respectively, must then  be  set  to  point  to  that
       directory.  After that, mailx requires a CRL to be present for each CA that is used to verify a certifi-
       cate.

       If S/MIME and SSL/TLS support are built using NSS, CRLs can be imported in  Mozilla  applications  (pro-
       vided that nss-config-dir is set appropriately).

   Sending mail from scripts
       If you want to send mail from scripts, you must be aware that mailx reads the user's configuration files
       by default.  So unless your script is only intended for your own personal use (as e.g. a cron job),  you
       need to circumvent this by invoking mailx like

           MAILRC=/dev/null mailx -n

       You  then need to create a configuration for mailx for your script.  This can be done by either pointing
       the MAILRC variable to a custom configuration file, or by passing the configuration in environment vari-
       ables.  Since many of the configuration options are not valid shell variables, the env command is useful
       in this situation.  An invocation could thus look like

           env MAILRC=/dev/null from=scriptreply@domain smtp=host \
                 smtp-auth-user=login smtp-auth-password=secret \
                 smtp-auth=login mailx -n -s "subject" \
                 -a attachment_file recipient@domain <content_file

SEE ALSO
       fmt(1),  newaliases(1),  openssl(1),  pg(1),  more(1),  vacation(1),  ssl(3),   aliases(5),   locale(7),
       mailaddr(7), sendmail(8)

NOTES
       Variables in the environment passed to mailx cannot be unset.

       The  character set conversion relies on the iconv(3) function.  Its functionality differs widely between
       the various system environments mailx runs on.  If the message 'Cannot convert from  a  to  b'  appears,
       either  some characters within the message header or text are not appropriate for the currently selected
       terminal character set, or the needed conversion is not supported by the system.  In the first case,  it
       is necessary to set an appropriate LC_CTYPE locale (e.g. en_US) or the ttycharset variable.  In the sec-
       ond case, the sendcharsets and ttycharset variables must be set to the same value to  inhibit  character
       set  conversion.   If iconv() is not available at all, the value assigned to sendcharsets must match the
       character set that is used on the terminal.

       Mailx expects input text to be in Unix format, with lines separated by newline (^J, \n) characters only.
       Non-Unix  text  files that use carriage return (^M, \r) characters in addition will be treated as binary
       data; to send such files as text, strip these characters e. g. by

              tr -d '\015' <input | mailx . . .

       or fix the tools that generate them.

       Limitations with IMAP mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit messages, but it is possible  to  append
       them.   Thus  to edit a message, create a local copy of it, edit it, append it, and delete the original.
       The line count for the header display is only appropriate if the entire message has been downloaded from
       the  server.   The marking of messages as 'new' is performed by the IMAP server; use of the exit command
       instead of quit will not cause it to be reset, and if the autoinc/newmail variables are unset,  messages
       that  arrived during a session will not be in state 'new' anymore when the folder is opened again.  Also
       if commands queued in disconnected mode are committed, the IMAP server will delete the  'new'  flag  for
       all messages in the changed folder, and new messages will appear as unread when it is selected for view-
       ing later.  The 'flagged', 'answered', and 'draft' attributes  are  usually  permanent,  but  some  IMAP
       servers  are  known  to drop them without notification.  Message numbers may change with IMAP every time
       before the prompt is printed if mailx is notified by the server that messages have been deleted by  some
       other  client  or process.  In this case, 'Expunged n messages' is printed, and message numbers may have
       changed.

       Limitations with POP3 mailboxes are: It is not possible to edit messages, they can only  be  copied  and
       deleted.  The line count for the header display is only appropriate if the entire message has been down-
       loaded from the server.  The status field of a message is maintained by the server between  connections;
       some servers do not update it at all, and with a server that does, the 'exit' command will not cause the
       message status to be reset.  The 'newmail' command and the 'newmail' variable have no effect.  It is not
       possible to rename or to remove POP3 mailboxes.

       If  a  RUBOUT (interrupt) is typed while an IMAP or POP3 operation is in progress, mailx will wait until
       the operation can be safely aborted, and will then return to the  command  loop  and  print  the  prompt
       again.   When  a second RUBOUT is typed while mailx is waiting for the operation to complete, the opera-
       tion itself will be canceled.  In this case, data that has not been fetched yet will have to be  fetched
       before  the  next  command  can  be performed.  If the canceled operation was using an SSL/TLS encrypted
       channel, an error in the SSL transport will very likely result, and the connection is no longer  usable.

       As  mailx  is  a  mail  user  agent,  it  provides only basic SMTP services.  If it fails to contact its
       upstream SMTP server, it will not make further attempts to transfer the message at a later time, and  it
       does  not  leave  other  information  about  this  condition than an error message on the terminal and a
       'dead.letter' file.  This is usually not a problem if the SMTP server is located in the same local  net-
       work as the computer on which mailx is run.  However, care should be taken when using a remote server of
       an ISP; it might be better to set up a local SMTP server then which just acts as a proxy.

       Mailx immediately contacts the SMTP server (or /usr/lib/sendmail) even when  operating  in  disconnected
       mode.   It would not make much sense for mailx to defer outgoing mail since SMTP servers usually provide
       much more elaborated delay handling than mailx could perform as a client.  Thus  the  recommended  setup
       for  sending  mail  in disconnected mode is to configure a local SMTP server such that it sends outgoing
       mail as soon as an external network connection is available again, i.e. to advise it to do that  from  a
       network startup script.

       The junk mail filter follows the concepts developed by Paul Graham in his articles, ''A Plan for Spam'',
       August 2002, <http://www.paulgraham.com/spam.html>;, and ''Better  Bayesian  Filtering'',  January  2003,
       <http://www.paulgraham.com/better.html>;.   Chained  tokens  are due to a paper by Jonathan A. Zdziarski,
       ''Advanced     Language     Classification     using     Chained      Tokens'',      February      2004,
       <http://www.nuclearelephant.com/papers/chained.html>;.

       A mail command appeared in Version 1 AT&T Unix.  Berkeley Mail was written in 1978 by Kurt Shoens.  This
       man page is derived from from The Mail Reference Manual originally written  by  Kurt  Shoens.   Heirloom
       Mailx enhancements are maintained and documented by Gunnar Ritter.

       Portions  of  this  text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edi-
       tion, Standard for Information Technology -- Operating System Interface  (POSIX),  The  Open  Group  Base
       Specifications  Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
       Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original  IEEE  and
       The  Open  Group  Standard,  the  original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The
       original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .   Redistribution
       of this material is permitted so long as this notice remains intact.



Heirloom mailx 12.4                 10/1/07                           MAILX(1)