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Devel::DProf(3)        Perl Programmers Reference Guide        Devel::DProf(3)

       Devel::DProf - a Perl code profiler

               perl -d:DProf

       The Devel::DProf package is a Perl code profiler.  This will collect information on the execution time of a
       Perl script and of the subs in that script.  This information can be used to determine which subroutines are
       using the most time and which subroutines are being called most often.  This information can also be used to
       create an execution graph of the script, showing subroutine relationships.

       To profile a Perl script run the perl interpreter with the -d debugging switch.  The profiler uses the debug-
       ging hooks.  So to profile script the following command should be used:

               perl -d:DProf

       When the script terminates (or when the output buffer is filled) the profiler will dump the profile information
       to a file called tmon.out.  A tool like dprofpp can be used to interpret the information which is in that pro-
       file.  The following command will print the top 15 subroutines which used the most time:


       To print an execution graph of the subroutines in the script use the following command:

               dprofpp -T

       Consult dprofpp for other options.

       The old profile is a text file which looks like this:

               $XS_VERSION='DProf 19970606';
               # All values are given in HZ
               $rrun_utime=2; $rrun_stime=0; $rrun_rtime=7
               + 26 28 566822884 DynaLoader::import
               - 26 28 566822884 DynaLoader::import
               + 27 28 566822885 main::bar
               - 27 28 566822886 main::bar
               + 27 28 566822886 main::baz
               + 27 28 566822887 main::bar
               - 27 28 566822888 main::bar

       The first line is the magic number.  The second line is the hertz value, or clock ticks, of the machine where
       the profile was collected.  The third line is the name and version identifier of the tool which created the
       profile.  The fourth line is a comment.  The fifth line contains three variables holding the user time, system
       time, and realtime of the process while it was being profiled.  The sixth line indicates the beginning of the
       sub entry/exit profile section.

       The columns in PART2 are:

               sub entry(+)/exit(-) mark
               app's user time at sub entry/exit mark, in ticks
               app's system time at sub entry/exit mark, in ticks
               app's realtime at sub entry/exit mark, in ticks
               fully-qualified sub name, when possible

       With newer perls another format is used, which may look like this:

               $XS_VERSION='DProf 19971213';
               # All values are given in HZ
               $over_utime=5917; $over_stime=0; $over_rtime=5917;
               $rrun_utime=1284; $rrun_stime=0; $rrun_rtime=1284;

               @ 406 0 406
               & 2 main bar
               + 2
               @ 456 0 456
               - 2
               @ 1 0 1
               & 3 main baz
               + 3
               @ 141 0 141
               + 2
               @ 141 0 141
               - 2
               @ 1 0 1
               & 4 main foo
               + 4
               @ 142 0 142
               + & Devel::DProf::write
               @ 5 0 5
               - & Devel::DProf::write

       (with high value of $ENV{PERL_DPROF_TICKS}).

       New "$over_*" values show the measured overhead of making $over_tests calls to the profiler These values are
       used by the profiler to subtract the overhead from the runtimes.

       The lines starting with "@" mark time passed from the previous "@" line.  The lines starting with "&" introduce
       new subroutine id and show the package and the subroutine name of this id.  Lines starting with "+", "-" and
       "*" mark entering and exit of subroutines by ids, and "goto &subr".

       The old-style "+"- and "-"-lines are used to mark the overhead related to writing to profiler-output file.

       When Devel::DProf finds a call to an &AUTOLOAD subroutine it looks at the $AUTOLOAD variable to find the real
       name of the sub being called.  See "Autoloading" in perlsub.

       "PERL_DPROF_BUFFER" sets size of output buffer in words.  Defaults to 2**14.

       "PERL_DPROF_TICKS" sets number of ticks per second on some systems where a replacement for times() is used.
       Defaults to the value of "HZ" macro.

       "PERL_DPROF_OUT_FILE_NAME" sets the name of the output file.  If not set, defaults to tmon.out.

       Builtin functions cannot be measured by Devel::DProf.

       With a newer Perl DProf relies on the fact that the numeric slot of $DB::sub contains an address of a subrou-
       tine.  Excessive manipulation of this variable may overwrite this slot, as in

         $DB::sub = 'current_sub';
         $addr = $DB::sub + 0;

       will set this numeric slot to numeric value of the string "current_sub", i.e., to 0.  This will cause a seg-
       fault on the exit from this subroutine.  Note that the first assignment above does not change the numeric slot
       (it will mark it as invalid, but will not write over it).

       Another problem is that if a subroutine exits using goto(LABEL), last(LABEL) or next(LABEL) then perl may crash
       or Devel::DProf will die with the error:

          panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return

       For example, this code will break under Devel::DProf:

          sub foo {
            last FOO;
          FOO: {

       A pattern like this is used by Test::More's skip() function, for example.  See perldiag for more details.

       Mail bug reports and feature requests to the perl5-porters mailing list at <>.

       perl, dprofpp, times(2)

perl v5.8.8                       2001-09-21                   Devel::DProf(3)