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Cwd(3)                 Perl Programmers Reference Guide                 Cwd(3)

       Cwd - get pathname of current working directory

           use Cwd;
           my $dir = getcwd;

           use Cwd 'abs_path';
           my $abs_path = abs_path($file);

       This module provides functions for determining the pathname of the current working directory.  It is recom-
       mended that getcwd (or another *cwd() function) be used in all code to ensure portability.

       By default, it exports the functions cwd(), getcwd(), fastcwd(), and fastgetcwd() (and, on Win32, getdcwd())
       into the caller's namespace.

       getcwd and friends

       Each of these functions are called without arguments and return the absolute path of the current working direc-

               my $cwd = getcwd();

           Returns the current working directory.

           Re-implements the getcwd(3) (or getwd(3)) functions in Perl.

               my $cwd = cwd();

           The cwd() is the most natural form for the current architecture. For most systems it is identical to 'pwd'
           (but without the trailing line terminator).

               my $cwd = fastcwd();

           A more dangerous version of getcwd(), but potentially faster.

           It might conceivably chdir() you out of a directory that it can't chdir() you back into.  If fastcwd
           encounters a problem it will return undef but will probably leave you in a different directory.  For a mea-
           sure of extra security, if everything appears to have worked, the fastcwd() function will check that it
           leaves you in the same directory that it started in. If it has changed it will "die" with the message
           "Unstable directory path, current directory changed unexpectedly". That should never happen.

             my $cwd = fastgetcwd();

           The fastgetcwd() function is provided as a synonym for cwd().

               my $cwd = getdcwd();
               my $cwd = getdcwd('C:');

           The getdcwd() function is also provided on Win32 to get the current working directory on the specified
           drive, since Windows maintains a separate current working directory for each drive.  If no drive is speci-
           fied then the current drive is assumed.

           This function simply calls the Microsoft C library _getdcwd() function.

       abs_path and friends

       These functions are exported only on request.  They each take a single argument and return the absolute path-
       name for it.  If no argument is given they'll use the current working directory.

             my $abs_path = abs_path($file);

           Uses the same algorithm as getcwd().  Symbolic links and relative-path components ("." and "..") are
           resolved to return the canonical pathname, just like realpath(3).

             my $abs_path = realpath($file);

           A synonym for abs_path().

             my $abs_path = fast_abs_path($file);

           A more dangerous, but potentially faster version of abs_path.


       If you ask to override your chdir() built-in function,

         use Cwd qw(chdir);

       then your PWD environment variable will be kept up to date.  Note that it will only be kept up to date if all
       packages which use chdir import it from Cwd.

       ?   Since the path seperators are different on some operating systems ('/' on Unix, ':' on MacPerl, etc...) we
           recommend you use the File::Spec modules wherever portability is a concern.

       ?   Actually, on Mac OS, the "getcwd()", "fastgetcwd()" and "fastcwd()" functions  are all aliases for the
           "cwd()" function, which, on Mac OS, calls 'pwd'. Likewise, the "abs_path()" function is an alias for

       Originally by the perl5-porters.

       Maintained by Ken Williams <>

       Copyright (c) 2004 by the Perl 5 Porters.  All rights reserved.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

       Portions of the C code in this library are copyright (c) 1994 by the Regents of the University of California.
       All rights reserved.  The license on this code is compatible with the licensing of the rest of the distribution
       - please see the source code in Cwd.xs for the details.


perl v5.8.8                       2001-09-21                            Cwd(3)