Man Pages

web2c - phpMan web2c - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  


File: web2c.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Introduction,  Up: (dir)

Web2c
*****

This document describes how to install and use the programs in the Web2c
implementation of the TeX system, especially for Unix systems.  It
corresponds to Web2c version 7.5.6, released in January 2007.

* Menu:

* Introduction::                A brief introduction.
* Installation::                How to compile and install Web2c.
* Commonalities::               Option syntax, standard options, memory dumps.
* TeX::                         Typesetting.
* Metafont::                    Typeface design.
* MetaPost::                    Technical illustrations.
* BibTeX::                      Reusable bibliographies.
* WEB::                         Literate programming.
* DVI utilities::               DVI expansion.
* Font utilities::              Font format conversion.
* Legalisms::                   Blah blah blah.
* References::                  Books and such.
* Index::                       General index.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Installation,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction
**************

This manual corresponds to version 7.5.6 of Web2c, released in
January 2007.

   "Web2c" is the name of a TeX implementation, originally for Unix,
but now also running under DOS, Amiga, and other operating systems. By
"TeX implementation", we mean all of the standard programs developed by
the Stanford TeX project directed by Donald E. Knuth: Metafont,
DVItype, GFtoDVI, BibTeX, Tangle, etc., as well as TeX itself. Other
programs are also included: DVIcopy, written by Peter Breitenlohner,
MetaPost and its utilities (derived from Metafont), by John Hobby, etc.

   General strategy: Web2c works, as its name implies, by translating
the WEB source in which TeX is written into C source code. Its output is
not self-contained, however; it makes extensive use of many macros and
functions in a library (the `web2c/lib' directory in the sources).
Therefore, it will not work without change on an arbitrary WEB program.

   Availability: All of Web2c is freely available--"free" both in the
sense of no cost (free ice cream) and of having the source code to
modify and/or redistribute (free speech).  *Note unixtex.ftp:
(kpathsea)unixtex.ftp, for the practical details of how to obtain Web2c.

   Different parts of the Web2c distribution have different licensing
terms, however, reflecting the different circumstances of their
creation; consult each source file for exact details.  The main
practical implication for redistributors of Web2c is that the
executables are covered by the GNU General Public License, and
therefore anyone who gets a binary distribution must also get the
sources, as explained by the terms of the GPL (*note Copying:
(kpathsea)Copying.). The GPL covers the Web2c executables, including
`tex', because the Free Software Foundation sponsored the initial
development of the Kpathsea library that Web2c uses.  The basic source
files from Stanford, however, have their own copyright terms or are in
the public domain, and are not covered by the GPL.

   History: Tomas Rokicki originated the TeX-to-C system in 1987,
working from the first change files for TeX under Unix, which were done
primarily by Howard Trickey and Pavel Curtis. Tim Morgan then took over
development and maintenance for a number of years; the name changed to
Web-to-C somewhere in there.  In 1990, Karl Berry became the
maintainer.  He made many changes to the original sources, and started
using the shorter name Web2c.  In 1997, Olaf Weber took over.  Dozens of
other people have contributed; their names are listed in the
`ChangeLog' files.

   Other acknowledgements: The University of Massachusetts at Boston
(particularly Rick Martin and Bob Morris) has provided computers and ftp
access to me for many years.  Richard Stallman at the Free Software
Foundation employed me while I wrote the original path searching library
(for the GNU font utilities).  (rms also gave us Emacs, GDB, and GCC,
without which I cannot imagine developing Web2c.)  And, of course, TeX
would not exist in the first place without Donald E. Knuth.

   Further reading: *Note References::.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Installation,  Next: Commonalities,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Installation
**************

(A copy of this chapter is in the distribution file `web2c/INSTALL'.)

Installing Web2c is mostly the same as installing any other
Kpathsea-using program.  Therefore, for the basic steps involved, see
*Note Installation: (kpathsea)Installation.  (A copy is in the file
`kpathsea/INSTALL'.)

   One peculiarity to Web2c is that the source distribution comes in two
files: `web.tar.gz' and `web2c.tar.gz'.  You must retrieve and unpack
them both.  (We have two because the former archive contains the very
large and seldom-changing original WEB source files.)  *Note
unixtex.ftp: (kpathsea)unixtex.ftp.

   Another peculiarity is the MetaPost program.  Although it has been
installed previously as `mp', as of Web2c 7.0 the installed name is now
`mpost', to avoid conflict with the `mp' program that does
prettyprinting.  This approach was recommended by the MetaPost author,
John Hobby.  If you as the TeX administrator wish to make it available
under its shorter name as well, you will have to set up a link or some
such yourself.  And of course individual users can do the same.

   For solutions to common installation problems and information on how
to report a bug, see the file `kpathsea/BUGS' (*note Bugs:
(kpathsea)Bugs.).  See also the Web2c home page,
`http://www.tug.org/web2c'.

   Points worth repeating:

   * Before starting the standard compilation and installation you must
     install the basic fonts, macros, and other library files.  *Note
     Installation: (kpathsea)Installation.

   * If you do not wish to use the standard file locations, see *Note
     Changing search paths: (kpathsea)Changing search paths.

   * Some Web2c features are enabled or disabled at `configure' time,
     as described in the first section below.


* Menu:

* configure options::           Especially --with and --enable.
* Compile-time options::        Unusual -D's.
* Additional targets::		Breaking down the task.
* Triptrap::                    Running the torture tests.
* Runtime options::             Array sizes and the like.

File: web2c.info,  Node: configure options,  Next: Compile-time options,  Up: Installation

2.1 `configure' options
=======================

This section gives pointers to descriptions of the `--with' and
`--enable' `configure' arguments that Web2c accepts.  Some are specific
to Web2c, others are generic to all Kpathsea-using programs.

   For a list of all the options `configure' accepts, run `configure
--help'.  The generic options are listed first, and the
package-specific options come last.

   For a description of the generic options (which mainly allow you to
specify installation directories) and basic `configure' usage, see
*Note Running `configure' scripts: (autoconf)Invoking configure, a copy
is in the file `kpathsea/CONFIGURE'.

`--disable-dump-share'
     Do not make fmt/base/mem files sharable across different endian
     architectures.  *Note Hardware and memory dumps::.

`--without-maketexmf-default'
`--without-maketexpk-default'
`--without-maketextfm-default'
`--with-maketextex-default'
     Enable or disable the dynamic generation programs.  *Note mktex
     configuration: (kpathsea)mktex configuration.  The defaults are
     the inverse of the options, i.e., everything is enabled except
     `mktextex'.

`--enable-shared'
     Build Kpathsea as a shared library.  *Note Shared library:
     (kpathsea)Shared library.

`--with-editor=CMD'
     Change the default editor invoked by the `e' interactive command.
     *Note Editor invocation::.

`--with-epsfwin'
`--with-hp2627win'
`--with-mftalkwin'
`--with-nextwin'
`--with-regiswin'
`--with-suntoolswin'
`--with-tektronixwin'
`--with-unitermwin'
`--with-x'
`--with-x-toolkit=KIT'
`--with-x11win'
`--with-x11'
     Define Metafont graphics support; by default, no graphics support
     is enabled.  *Note Online Metafont graphics::.

`--x-includes=DIR'
`--x-libraries=DIR'
     Define the locations of the X11 include files and libraries; by
     default, `configure' does its best to guess).  *Note Optional
     Features: (autoconf)Optional Features.  A copy is in
     `kpathsea/CONFIGURE'.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Compile-time options,  Next: Additional targets,  Prev: configure options,  Up: Installation

2.2 Compile-time options
========================

In addition to the `configure' options listed in the previous section,
there are a few things that can be affected at compile-time with C
definitions, rather than with `configure'.  Using any of these is
unusual.

   To specify extra compiler flags (`-DNAME' in this case), the
simplest thing to do is:
     make XCFLAGS="CCOPTIONS"
   You can also set the `CFLAGS' environment variable before running
`configure'.  *Note configure environment: (kpathsea)configure
environment.

   Anyway, here are the possibilities:

`-DFIXPT'
`-DNO_MF_ASM'
     Use the original WEB fixed-point routines for Metafont and MetaPost
     arithmetic calculations regarding fractions.  By default,
     assembly-language routines are used on x86 hardware with GNU C
     (unless `NO_MF_ASM' is defined), and floating-point routines are
     used otherwise.

`-DIPC_DEBUG'
     Report on various interprocess communication activities.  *Note
     IPC and TeX: IPC and TeX.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Additional targets,  Next: Triptrap,  Prev: Compile-time options,  Up: Installation

2.3 Additional targets
======================

Web2c has several Make targets besides the standard ones.  You can
invoke these either in the top level directory of the source
distribution (the one containing `kpathsea/' and `web2c/'), or in the
`web2c/' directory.

`c-sources'
     Make only the C files, translated from the Web sources, presumably
     because you want to take them to a non-Unix machine.

`formats'
`install-formats'
     Make or install all the memory dumps (*note Memory dumps::).  By
     default, the standard plain formats plus `latex.fmt' are made.  You
     can add other formats by redefining the `fmts', `bases', and
     `mems' variables.  See the top of `web2c/Makefile' for the
     possibilities.

`fmts'
`install-fmts'
     Make or install the TeX `.fmt' files. *Note Initial TeX::.

`bases'
`install-bases'
     Make or install the Metafont `.base' files.  *Note Initial
     Metafont::.

`mems'
`install-mems'
     Make or install the MetaPost `.mem' files.  *Note Initial
     MetaPost::.

`triptrap'
`trip'
`trap'
`mptrap'
     To run the torture tests for TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost
     (respectively).  See the next section.


File: web2c.info,  Node: Triptrap,  Next: Runtime options,  Prev: Additional targets,  Up: Installation

2.4 Trip, trap, and mptrap: Torture tests
=========================================

To validate your TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost executables, run `make
triptrap'.  This runs the trip, trap, and mptrap "torture tests".  See
the files `triptrap/tripman.tex', `triptrap/trapman.tex', and
`triptrap/mptrap.readme' for detailed information and background on the
tests.

   The differences between your executables' behavior and the standard
values will show up on your terminal.  The usual differences (these are
all acceptable) are:

   * string usage and table sizes;

   * glue set ratios;

   * `down4', `right4', and `y4' commands in DVItype output;

   * dates and times.

Any other differences are trouble. The most common culprit in the past
has been compiler bugs, especially when optimizing.  *Note TeX or
Metafont failing: (kpathsea)TeX or Metafont failing.

   The files `trip.diffs', `mftrap.diffs', and `mptrap.diffs' in the
`triptrap' directory show the standard diffs against the original
output.  If you diff your diffs against these files, you should come up
clean.  For example
     make trip >&mytrip.diffs
     diff triptrap/trip.diffs mytrip.diffs

   To run the tests separately, use the targets `trip', `trap', and
`mptrap'.

   To run simple tests for all the programs as well as the torture
tests, run `make check'.  You can compare the output to the distributed
file `tests/check.log' if you like.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Runtime options,  Prev: Triptrap,  Up: Installation

2.5 Runtime options
===================

Besides the configure- and compile-time options described in the
previous sections, you can control a number of parameters (in
particular, array sizes) in the `texmf.cnf' runtime file read by
Kpathsea (*note Config files: (kpathsea)Config files.).

   Rather than exhaustively listing them here, please see the last
section of the distributed `kpathsea/texmf.cnf'.  Some of the more
interesting values:

`main_memory'
     Total words of memory available, for TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost.
     Must remake the format file after changing.

`extra_mem_bot'
     Extra space for "large" TeX data structures: boxes, glue,
     breakpoints, et al.  If you use PiCTeX, you may well want to set
     this.

`font_mem_size'
     Words of font info available for TeX; this is approximately the
     total size of all TFM files read.

`hash_extra'
     Additional space for the hash table of control sequence names.
     Approximately 10,000 control sequences can be stored in the main
     hash table; if you have a large book with numerous
     cross-references, this might not be enough, and thus you will want
     to set `hash_extra'.


   Of course, ideally all arrays would be dynamically expanded as
necessary, so the only limiting factor would be the amount of swap space
available.  Unfortunately, implementing this is extremely difficult, as
the fixed size of arrays is assumed in many places throughout the source
code.  These runtime limits are a practical compromise between the
compile-time limits in previous versions, and truly dynamic arrays.  (On
the other hand, the Web2c BibTeX implementation does do dynamic
reallocation of some arrays.)

File: web2c.info,  Node: Commonalities,  Next: TeX,  Prev: Installation,  Up: Top

3 Commonalities
***************

Many aspects of the TeX system are the same among more than one
program, so we describe all those pieces together, here.

* Menu:

* Option conventions::   -- or -, = or ` ' for values.
* Common options::       --help --version --verbose, and TeX/MF/MP options.
* Path searching::       Features of the common path searching library.
* Output file location:: TEXMFOUTPUT allows output in places other than `.'.
* Three programs::       TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost have a lot in common.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Option conventions,  Next: Common options,  Up: Commonalities

3.1 Option conventions
======================

To provide a clean and consistent behavior, we chose to have all these
programs use the GNU function `getopt_long_only' to parse command
lines.  However, we do use in a restricted mode, where all the options
have to come before the rest of the arguments.

   As a result, you can:
   * use `-' or `--' to start an option name;

   * use any unambiguous abbreviation for an option name;

   * separate option names and values with either `=' or one or more
     spaces;

   * use filenames that would otherwise look like options by putting
     them after an option `--'.

   By convention, non-option arguments, if specified, generally define
the name of an input file, as documented for each program.

   If a particular option with a value is given more than once, it is
the last value that counts.

   For example, the following command line specifies the options `foo',
`bar', and `verbose'; gives the value `baz' to the `abc' option, and
the value `xyz' to the `quux' option; and specifies the filename
`-myfile-'.

     -foo --bar -verb -abc=baz -quux karl --quux xyz -- -myfile-

File: web2c.info,  Node: Common options,  Next: Path searching,  Prev: Option conventions,  Up: Commonalities

3.2 Common options
==================

All of these programs accept the standard GNU `--help' and `--version'
options, and several programs accept `--verbose'.  Rather than writing
identical descriptions for every program, they are described here.

`--help'
     Print a usage message listing basic usage and all available
     options to standard output, then exit successfully.

`--verbose'
     Print progress reports to standard output.

`--version'
     Print the version number to standard output, then exit
     successfully.

   TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost have a number of additional options in
common:

`-file-line-error'
`-no-file-line-error'
     Change (or do not change) the way error messages are printed. The
     alternate style looks like error messages from many compilers and
     is easier to parse for some editors that invoke TeX.  This option
     used to be called `-file-line-error-style'.

`-fmt=DUMPNAME'
`-base=DUMPNAME'
`-mem=DUMPNAME'
     Use DUMPNAME instead of the program name or a `%&' line to
     determine the name of the memory dump file read (`fmt' for TeX,
     `base' for Metafont, `mem' for MetaPost).  *Note Memory dumps::.
     Also sets the program name to DUMPNAME if no `-progname' option
     was given.

`-halt-on-error'
     Stop processing and exit when an error occurs, as opposed to the
     normal process of trying to recover and continue.

`-ini'
     Enable the "initial" form of the program (*note Initial and
     virgin::).  This is implicitly set if the program name is `initex'
     resp. `inimf' resp. `inimpost', although these variants are no
     longer typically installed.

`-interaction=STRING'
     Set the interaction mode from the command line.  The STRING must
     be one of `batchmode', `nonstopmode', `scrollmode', or
     `errorstopmode'.

`-jobname=STRING'
     Set the job name to STRING, instead of deriving it from the name
     of the input file.

`-kpathsea-debug=NUMBER'
     Set path searching debugging flags according to the bits of NUMBER
     (*note Debugging: (kpathsea)Debugging.).  You can also specify
     this in `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' environment variable (for all Web2c
     programs).  (The command line value overrides.)  The most useful
     value is `-1', to get all available output.

`-output-directory=DIRNAME'
     Specify the directory DIRNAME to which output files are written.
     Also look for input files in DIRNAME first, before looking along
     the normal search path.  This is useful when you are in some
     read-only distribution directory, perhaps on a CD-ROM, and want to
     TeX some documentation, for example.  Note that for input files
     the "search" in DIRNAME does not use the full generality of the
     search mechanism.  This means that some files are not found there
     even though you might expect them to be.

`-parse-first-line'
`-no-parse-first-line'
     Check or disable checking whether the first line of the main input
     file starts with `%&', and parse it if it does.  This line can be
     used specify the format and/or a TCX file.

`-progname=STRING'
     Set program (and memory dump) name to STRING.  This may affect the
     search paths and other values used (*note Config files:
     (kpathsea)Config files.).  Using this option is equivalent to
     making a link named STRING to the binary and then invoking the
     binary under that name.  *Note Memory dumps::.

`-recorder'
     Enable the filename recorder.  This makes the program save a list
     of the opened files into a file with (by default) extension
     `.fls'.  For Omega, this option is always on, and the file has
     extension `.ofl'.

`-translate-file=TCXFILE'
     Use TCXFILE to define which characters are printable and
     translations between the internal and external character sets.
     Moreover, TCXFILE can be explicitly declared in  the first line of
     the main input file `%& -translate-file=TCXFILE'.  This is the
     recommended method for portability reasons.  *Note TCX files::.

`-8bit'
     This option specifies that by default all characters should be
     considered printable.  If `-translate-file' was given as well,
     then the TCX file may mark characters as non-printable.

`-oem'
     This option is specific to Windows. When specified, TeX engines
     will use the OEM code page rather than the ANSI one to display
     their messages.


File: web2c.info,  Node: Path searching,  Next: Output file location,  Prev: Common options,  Up: Commonalities

3.3 Path searching
==================

All of the Web2c programs, including TeX, which do path searching use
the Kpathsea routines to do so.  The precise names of the environment
and configuration file variables which get searched for particular file
formatted are therefore documented in the Kpathsea manual (*note
Supported file formats: (kpathsea)Supported file formats.).  Reading
`texmf.cnf' (*note Config files: (kpathsea)Config files.), invoking
`mktex...' scripts (*note mktex scripts: (kpathsea)mktex scripts.), and
so on are all handled by Kpathsea.

   The programs which read fonts make use of another Kpathsea feature:
`texfonts.map', which allows arbitrary aliases for the actual names of
font files; for example, `Times-Roman' for `ptmr8r.tfm'.  The
distributed (and installed by default) `texfonts.map' includes aliases
for many widely available PostScript fonts by their PostScript names.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Output file location,  Next: Three programs,  Prev: Path searching,  Up: Commonalities

3.4 Output file location
========================

All the programs generally follow the usual convention for output files.
Namely, they are placed in the directory current when the program is
run, regardless of any input file location; or, in a few cases, output
is to standard output.

   For example, if you run `tex /tmp/foo', for example, the output will
be in `./foo.dvi' and `./foo.log', not `/tmp/foo.dvi' and
`/tmp/foo.log'.

   You can use the `-output-directory' option to cause all output files
that would normally be written in the current directory to be written
in the specified directory instead.  *Note Common options::.

   If the current directory is not writable, and `-output-directory' is
not specified, the main programs (TeX, Metafont, MetaPost, and BibTeX)
make an exception: if the config file value `TEXMFOUTPUT' is set (it is
not by default), output files are written to the directory specified.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Three programs,  Prev: Output file location,  Up: Commonalities

3.5 Three programs: Metafont, MetaPost, and TeX
===============================================

TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost have a number of features in common.
Besides the ones here, the common command-line options are described in
the previous section.  The configuration file options that let you
control some array sizes and other features are described in *Note
Runtime options::.

* Menu:

* Initial and virgin::          Making memory dumps vs. production runs.
* Memory dumps::                .fmt/.base/.mem files for fast startup.
* Editor invocation::           The `e' response at errors.
* \input filenames::            ~ and $ expansion in TeX/MF/MP.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Initial and virgin,  Next: Memory dumps,  Up: Three programs

3.5.1 Initial and virgin
------------------------

The TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost programs each have two main variants,
called "initial" and "virgin".  As of Web2c 7, one executable suffices
for both variants, and in fact, the `ini...' executables are no longer
created.

   The initial form is enabled if:
  1. the `-ini' option was specified; or

  2. the program name is `initex' resp. `inimf' resp.  `inimpost'
     (these variants are no longer typically installed); or

  3. the first line of the main input file is `%&ini';
        otherwise, the virgin form is used.

   The "virgin" form is the one generally invoked for production use.
The first thing it does is read a memory dump (*note Determining the
memory dump to use::), and then proceeds on with the main job.

   The "initial" form is generally used only to create memory dumps
(see the next section).  It starts up more slowly than the virgin form,
because it must do lengthy initializations that are encapsulated in the
memory dump file.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Memory dumps,  Next: Editor invocation,  Prev: Initial and virgin,  Up: Three programs

3.5.2 Memory dumps
------------------

In typical use, TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost require a large number of
macros to be predefined; therefore, they support "memory dump" files,
which can be read much more efficiently than ordinary source code.

* Menu:

* Creating memory dumps::
* Determining the memory dump to use::
* Hardware and memory dumps::

File: web2c.info,  Node: Creating memory dumps,  Next: Determining the memory dump to use,  Up: Memory dumps

3.5.2.1 Creating memory dumps
.............................

The programs all create memory dumps in slightly idiosyncratic (thought
substantially similar) way, so we describe the details in separate
sections (references below).  The basic idea is to run the initial
version of the program (*note Initial and virgin::), read the source
file to define the macros, and then execute the `\dump' primitive.

   Also, each program uses a different filename extension for its memory
dumps, since although they are completely analogous they are not
interchangeable (TeX cannot read a Metafont memory dump, for example).

   Here is a list of filename extensions with references to examples of
creating memory dumps:

TeX
     (`.fmt') *Note Initial TeX: Initial TeX.

Metafont
     (`.base') *Note Initial Metafont::.

MetaPost
     (`.mem') *Note Initial MetaPost::.

   When making memory dumps, the programs read environment variables and
configuration files for path searching and other values as usual.  If
you are making a new installation and have environment variables
pointing to an old one, for example, you will probably run into
difficulties.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Determining the memory dump to use,  Next: Hardware and memory dumps,  Prev: Creating memory dumps,  Up: Memory dumps

3.5.2.2 Determining the memory dump to use
..........................................

The virgin form (*note Initial and virgin::) of each program always
reads a memory dump before processing normal source input.  All three
programs determine the memory dump to use in the same way:

  1. If the first non-option command-line argument begins with `&', the
     program uses the remainder of that argument as the memory dump
     name.  For example, running `tex \&super' reads `super.fmt'.  (The
     backslash protects the `&' against interpretation by the shell.)

  2. If the `-fmt' resp. `-base' resp. `-mem' option is specified, its
     value is used.

  3. If the `-progname' option is specified, its value is used.

  4. If the first line of the main input file (which must be specified
     on the command line, not in response to `**') is `%&DUMP', and
     DUMP is an existing memory dump of the appropriate type, DUMP is
     used.

     The first line of the main input file can also specify which
     character translation file is to be used:
     `%&-translate-file=TCXFILE' (*note TCX files::).

     These two roles can be combined: `%&DUMP -translate-file=TCXFILE'.
     If this is done, the name of the dump must be given first.

  5. Otherwise, the program uses the program invocation name, most
     commonly `tex' resp. `mf' resp. `mpost'.  For example, if `latex'
     is a link to `tex', and the user runs `latex foo', `latex.fmt'
     will be used.


File: web2c.info,  Node: Hardware and memory dumps,  Prev: Determining the memory dump to use,  Up: Memory dumps

3.5.2.3 Hardware and memory dumps
.................................

By default, memory dump files are generally sharable between
architectures of different types; specifically, on machines of different
endianness (*note Byte order: (libc)Byte order.).  (This is a feature
of the Web2c implementation, and is not true of all TeX
implementations.)  If you specify `--disable-dump-share' to
`configure', however, memory dumps will be endian-dependent.

   The reason to do this is speed.  To achieve endian-independence, the
reading of memory dumps on LittleEndian architectures, such as PC's and
DEC architectures, is somewhat slowed (all the multibyte values have to
be swapped).  Usually, this is not noticeable, and the advantage of
being able to share memory dumps across all platforms at a site far
outweighs the speed loss.  But if you're installing Web2c for use on
LittleEndian machines only, perhaps on a PC being used only by you, you
may wish to get maximum speed.

   TeXnically, even without `--disable-dump-share', sharing of `.fmt'
files cannot be guaranteed to work.  Floating-point values are always
written in native format, and hence will generally not be readable
across platforms.  Fortunately, TeX uses floating point only to
represent glue ratios, and all common formats (plain, LaTeX, AMSTeX,
...) do not do any glue setting at `.fmt'-creation time.  Metafont and
MetaPost do not use floating point in any dumped value at all.

   Incidentally, different memory dump files will never compare equal
byte-for-byte, because the program always dumps the current date and
time. So don't be alarmed by just a few bytes difference.

   If you don't know what endianness your machine is, and you're
curious, here is a little C program to tell you. (The `configure' script
contains a similar program.)  This is from the book `C: A Reference
Manual', by Samuel P. Harbison and Guy L. Steele Jr. (*note
References::).

     main ()
     {
       /* Are we little or big endian?  From Harbison&Steele.  */
       union
       {
         long l;
         char c[sizeof (long)];
       } u;
       u.l = 1;
       if (u.c[0] == 1)
         printf ("LittleEndian\n");
       else if (u.c[sizeof (long) - 1] == 1)
         printf ("BigEndian\n");
       else
         printf ("unknownEndian");

       exit (u.c[sizeof (long) - 1] == 1);
     }

File: web2c.info,  Node: Editor invocation,  Next: \input filenames,  Prev: Memory dumps,  Up: Three programs

3.5.3 Editor invocation
-----------------------

TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost all (by default) stop and ask for user
intervention at an error.  If the user responds with `e' or `E', the
program invokes an editor.

   Specifying `--with-editor=CMD' to `configure' sets the default
editor command string to CMD.  The environment variables/configuration
values `TEXEDIT', `MFEDIT', and `MPEDIT' (respectively) override this.
If `--with-editor' is not specified, the default is `vi +%d %s'.

   In this string, `%d' is replaced by the line number of the error,
and `%s' is replaced by the name of the current input file.

File: web2c.info,  Node: \input filenames,  Prev: Editor invocation,  Up: Three programs

3.5.4 `\input' filenames
------------------------

TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost source programs can all read other source
files with the `\input' (TeX) and `input' (MF and MP) primitives:
     \input NAME % in TeX

   The file NAME can always be terminated with whitespace; for Metafont
and MetaPost, the statement terminator `;' also works.  (LaTeX and
other macro packages provide other interfaces to `\input' that allow
different notation; here we are concerned only with the primitive
operation.)

   As of Web2c version 7.5.3, double-quote characters can be used to
include spaces or other special cases.  In typical use, the `"'
characters surround the entire filename:
     \input "filename with spaces"

   Technically, the quote characters can be used inside the name, and
can enclose any characters, as in:
     \input filename" "with" "spaces

   One more point.  In LaTeX, the quotes are needed inside the braces,
thus
     \input{a b}    % fails
     \input{"a b"}  % ok

   This quoting mechanism comes into play _after_ TeX has tokenized and
expanded the input.  So, multiple spaces and tabs may be seen as a
single space, active characters such as `~' are expanded first, and so
on.  (See below.)

   On the other hand, various C library routines and Unix itself use
the null byte (character code zero, ASCII NUL) to terminate strings.  So
filenames in Web2c cannot contain nulls, even though TeX itself does
not treat NUL specially.  In addition, some older Unix variants do not
allow eight-bit characters (codes 128-255) in filenames.

   For maximal portability of your document across systems, use only the
characters `a'-`z', `0'-`9', and `.', and restrict your filenames to at
most eight characters (not including the extension), and at most a
three-character extension.  Do not use anything but simple filenames,
since directory separators vary among systems; instead, add the
necessary directories to the appropriate search path.

   Finally, the present Web2c implementation does `~' and `$' expansion
on NAME, unlike Knuth's original implementation and older versions of
Web2c.  Thus:
     \input ~jsmith/$foo.bar
   will dereference the environment variable or Kpathsea config file
value `foo' and read that file extended with `.bar' in user `jsmith''s
home directory.  You can also use braces, as in `${foo}bar', if you
want to follow the variable name with a letter, numeral, or `_'.

   (So another way to get a program to read a filename containing
whitespace is to define an environment variable and dereference it.)

   In all the common TeX formats (plain TeX, LaTeX, AMSTeX), the
characters `~' and `$' have special category codes, so to actually use
these in a document you have to change their catcodes or use `\string'.
(The result is unportable anyway, see the suggestions above.)  The
place where they are most likely to be useful is when typing
interactively.

File: web2c.info,  Node: TeX,  Next: Metafont,  Prev: Commonalities,  Up: Top

4 TeX: Typesetting
******************

TeX is a typesetting system: it was especially designed to handle
complex mathematics, as well as most ordinary text typesetting.

   TeX is a batch language, like C or Pascal, and not an interactive
"word processor": you compile a TeX input file into a corresponding
device-independent (DVI) file (and then translate the DVI file to the
commands for a particular output device).  This approach has both
considerable disadvantages and considerable advantages.  For a complete
description of the TeX language, see `The TeXbook' (*note
References::).  Many other books on TeX, introductory and otherwise,
are available.

* Menu:

* tex invocation::              Invoking TeX.
* Initial TeX::                 Making format files.
* Formats::                     Major TeX macro packages.
* Languages and hyphenation::   TeX supports many human languages.
* IPC and TeX::                 DVI output to a socket.
* TeX extensions::              Changes to the TeX language.

File: web2c.info,  Node: tex invocation,  Next: Initial TeX,  Up: TeX

4.1 `tex' invocation
====================

TeX (usually invoked as `tex') formats the given text and commands, and
outputs a corresponding device-independent representation of the
typeset document.  This section merely describes the options available
in the Web2c implementation.  For a complete description of the TeX
typesetting language, see `The TeXbook' (*note References::).

   TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost process the command line (described
here) and determine their memory dump (fmt) file in the same way (*note
Memory dumps::).  Synopses:

     tex [OPTION]... [TEXNAME[.tex]] [TEX-COMMANDS]
     tex [OPTION]... \FIRST-LINE
     tex [OPTION]... &FMT ARGS

   TeX searches the usual places for the main input file TEXNAME (*note
Supported file formats: (kpathsea)Supported file formats.), extending
TEXNAME with `.tex' if necessary.  To see all the relevant paths, set
the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before running the
program.

   After TEXNAME is read, TeX processes any remaining TEX-COMMANDS on
the command line as regular TeX input.  Also, if the first non-option
argument begins with a TeX escape character (usually `\'), TeX
processes all non-option command-line arguments as a line of regular
TeX input.

   If no arguments or options are specified, TeX prompts for an input
file name with `**'.

   TeX writes the main DVI output to the file `BASETEXNAME.dvi', where
BASETEXNAME is the basename of TEXNAME, or `texput' if no input file
was specified.  A DVI file is a device-independent binary
representation of your TeX document.  The idea is that after running
TeX, you translate the DVI file using a separate program to the
commands for a particular output device, such as a PostScript printer
(*note Introduction: (dvips)Top.) or an X Window System display (see
xdvi(1)).

   TeX also reads TFM files for any fonts you load in your document with
the `\font' primitive.  By default, it runs an external program named
`mktextfm' to create any nonexistent TFM files.  You can disable this
at configure-time or runtime (*note mktex configuration:
(kpathsea)mktex configuration.).  This is enabled mostly for the sake
of the EC fonts, which can be generated at any size.

   TeX can write output files, via the `\openout' primitive; this opens
a security hole vulnerable to Trojan horse attack: an unwitting user
could run a TeX program that overwrites, say, `~/.rhosts'.  (MetaPost
has a `write' primitive with similar implications).  To alleviate this,
there is a configuration variable `openout_any', which selects one of
three levels of security.  When it is set to `a' (for "any"), no
restrictions are imposed.  When it is set to `r' (for "restricted"),
filenames beginning with `.' are disallowed (except `.tex' because
LaTeX needs it).  When it is set to `p' (for "paranoid") additional
restrictions are imposed: an absolute filename must refer to a file in
(a subdirectory) of `TEXMFOUTPUT', and any attempt to go up a directory
level is forbidden (that is, paths may not contain a `..'  component).
The paranoid setting is the default.  (For backwards compatibility, `y'
and `1' are synonyms of `a', while `n' and `0' are synonyms for `r'.)

   In any case, all `\openout' filenames are recorded in the log file,
except those opened on the first line of input, which is processed when
the log file has not yet been opened.  (If you as a TeX administrator
wish to implement more stringent rules on `\openout', modifying the
function `openoutnameok' in `web2c/lib/texmfmp.c' is intended to
suffice.)

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-enc'
`-[no]-file-line-error'
`-fmt=FMTNAME'
`-halt-on-error'
`-ini'
`-interaction=STRING'
`-ipc'
`-ipc-start'
`-jobname=STRING'
`-kpathsea-debug=NUMBER'
`-[no]parse-first-line'
`-output-directory'
`-progname=STRING'
`-recorder'
`-translate-file=TCXFILE'
`-8bit'
     These options are common to TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost.  *Note
     Common options::.

`-enc'
     Enable encTeX extensions, such as `\mubyte'.  This can be used to
     support Unicode UTF-8 input encoding.  See
     `http://www.olsak.net/enctex.html'.

`-ipc'
`-ipc-start'
     With either option, TeX writes its DVI output to a socket as well
     as to the usual `.dvi' file.  With `-ipc-start', TeX also opens a
     server program at the other end to read the output.  *Note IPC and
     TeX: IPC and TeX.

     These options are available only if the `--enable-ipc' option was
     specified to `configure' during installation of Web2c.

`-mktex=FILETYPE'
`-no-mktex=FILETYPE'
     Turn on or off the `mktex' script associated with FILETYPE.  The
     only values that make sense for FILETYPE are `tex' and `tfm'.

`-mltex'
     If we are `INITEX' (*note Initial and virgin::), enable MLTeX
     extensions such as `\charsubdef'.  Implicitly set if the program
     name is `mltex'.  *Note MLTeX: MLTeX.

`-output-comment=STRING'
     Use STRING as the DVI file comment.  Ordinarily, this comment
     records the date and time of the TeX run, but if you are doing
     regression testing, you may not want the DVI file to have this
     spurious difference.  This is also taken from the environment
     variable and config file value `output_comment'.

`-shell-escape'
`-no-shell-escape'
     Enable (or disable) the `\write18{SHELL-COMMAND}' feature.  This
     is also enabled if the environment variable or config file value
     `shell_escape' is set to `t' (but the `-no-shell-escape' command
     line option overrides this).  (For backwards compatibility, `y'
     and `1' are accepted as synonyms of `t').  It is disabled by
     default to avoid security problems.  When enabled, the
     SHELL-COMMAND string (which first undergoes the usual TeX
     expansions, just as in `\special') is passed to the command shell
     (via the C library function `system').  The output of
     SHELL-COMMAND is not diverted anywhere, so it will not appear in
     the log file.  The system call either happens at `\output' time or
     right away, according to the absence or presence of the
     `\immediate' prefix, as usual for `\write'.  (If you as a TeX
     administrator wish to implement more stringent rules on what can
     be executed, you will need to modify `tex.ch'.)

`-src-specials'
`-src-specials=STRING'
     This option makes TeX output specific source information using
     `\special' commands in the DVI file. These `\special' track the
     current file name and line number.

     Using the first form of this option, the `\special' commands are
     inserted automatically.

     In the second form of the option, STRING is a comma separated list
     of the following values: `cr', `display', `hbox', `math', `par',
     `parend', `vbox'. You can use this list to specify where you want
     TeX to output such commands. For example, `-src-specials=cr,math'
     will output source information every line and every math formula.

     These commands  can  be used with  the  appropriate DVI viewer and
     text editor to switch from the current position in the editor to
     the same position in the viewer and back from the viewer to the
     editor.

     This option works by inserting `\special' commands into the token
     stream, and thus in principle these additional tokens can be
     recovered or seen by the tricky-enough macros.  If you run across
     a case, let us know, because this counts as a bug.  However, such
     bugs are very hard to fix, requiring significant changes to TeX,
     so please don't count on it.

     Redefining `\special' will not affect the functioning of this
     option.  The commands inserted into the token stream are
     hard-coded to always use the `\special' primitive.

     TeX does not pass the trip test when this option is enabled.


File: web2c.info,  Node: Initial TeX,  Next: Formats,  Prev: tex invocation,  Up: TeX

4.2 Initial TeX
===============

The "initial" form of TeX is invoked by `tex -ini'.  It does lengthy
initializations avoided by the "virgin" (`vir') form, so as to be
capable of dumping `.fmt' files (*note Memory dumps::).  For a detailed
comparison of virgin and initial forms, *note Initial and virgin::.  In
past releases, a separate program `initex' was installed to invoke the
initial form, but this is no longer the case.

   For a list of options and other information, *note tex invocation::.

   Unlike Metafont and MetaPost, many format files are commonly used
with TeX.  The standard one implementing the features described in the
`TeXbook' is `plain.fmt', also known as `tex.fmt' (again, *note Memory
dumps::).  It is created by default during installation, but you can
also do so by hand if necessary (e.g., if an update to `plain.tex' is
issued):
     tex -ini '\input plain \dump'
   (The quotes prevent interpretation of the backslashes from the
shell.)  Then install the resulting `plain.fmt' in `$(fmtdir)'
(`/usr/local/share/texmf/web2c' by default), and link `tex.fmt' to it.

   The necessary invocation for generating a format file differs for
each format, so instructions that come with the format should explain.
The top-level `web2c' Makefile has targets for making most common
formats: plain latex amstex texinfo eplain.  *Note Formats::, for more
details on TeX formats.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Formats,  Next: Languages and hyphenation,  Prev: Initial TeX,  Up: TeX

4.3 Formats
===========

TeX "formats" are large collections of macros, often dumped into a
`.fmt' file (*note Memory dumps::) by `tex -ini' (*note Initial TeX::).
A number of formats are in reasonably widespread use, and the Web2c
Makefile has targets to make the versions current at the time of
release.  You can change which formats are automatically built by
setting the `fmts' Make variable; by default, only the `plain' and
`latex' formats are made.

   You can get the latest versions of most of these formats from the
CTAN archives in subdirectories of `CTAN:/macros' (for CTAN info, *note
unixtex.ftp: (kpathsea)unixtex.ftp.).  The archive
`ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/lib.tar.gz' (also available from CTAN) contains
most of these formats (although perhaps not the absolute latest
version), among other things.

latex
     The most widely used format.  The current release is named `LaTeX
     2e'; new versions are released approximately every six months, with
     patches issued as needed.  The old release was called `LaTeX 2.09',
     and is no longer maintained or supported.  LaTeX attempts to
     provide generic markup instructions, such as "emphasize", instead
     of specific typesetting instructions, such as "use the 10pt
     Computer Modern italic font".  The LaTeX home page:
     `http://www.latex-project.org'.

context
     ConTeXt is an independent macro package which has a basic document
     structuring approach similar to LaTeX.  It also supports creating
     interactive PDF files and has integrated MetaPost support, among
     many other interesting features.  The ConTeXt home page:
     `http://www.pragma-ade.com'.

amstex
     The official typesetting system of the American Mathematical
     Society.  Like LaTeX, it encourages generic markup commands.  The
     AMS also provides many LaTeX package for authors who prefer LaTeX.
     Taken together, they are used to produce nearly all AMS
     publications, e.g., `Mathematical Reviews'.  The AMSTeX home page:
     `http://www.ams.org/tex'.

texinfo
     The documentation system developed and maintained by the Free
     Software Foundation for their software manuals.  It can be
     automatically converted into plain text, a machine-readable
     on-line format called `info', HTML, etc.  The Texinfo home page:
     `http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo'.

eplain
     The "expanded plain" format provides various common features (e.g.,
     symbolic cross-referencing, tables of contents, indexing, citations
     using BibTeX), for those authors who prefer to handle their own
     high-level formatting.  The Eplain home page:
     `http://www.tug.org/eplain'.

slitex
     An obsolete LaTeX 2.09 format for making slides.  It is replaced by
     the `slides' document class, along with the `beamer', `texpower',
     and other packages.


File: web2c.info,  Node: Languages and hyphenation,  Next: IPC and TeX,  Prev: Formats,  Up: TeX

4.4 Languages and hyphenation
=============================

TeX supports most natural languages.  See also *Note TeX extensions:
TeX extensions.

* Menu:

* MLTeX::                Multi-lingual TeX.
* patgen invocation::    Creating hyphenation patterns.
* TCX files::            Support for different character sets & fonts.

File: web2c.info,  Node: MLTeX,  Next: patgen invocation,  Up: Languages and hyphenation

4.4.1 MLTeX: Multi-lingual TeX
------------------------------

Multi-lingual TeX (`mltex') is an extension of TeX originally written
by Michael Ferguson and now updated and maintained by Bernd Raichle.
It allows the use of non-existing glyphs in a font by declaring glyph
substitutions.  These are restricted to substitutions of an accented
character glyph, which need not be defined in the current font, by its
appropriate `\accent' construction using a base and accent character
glyph, which do have to exist in the current font.  This substitution
is automatically done behind the scenes, if necessary, and thus MLTeX
additionally supports hyphenation of words containing an accented
character glyph for fonts missing this glyph (e.g., Computer Modern).
Standard TeX suppresses hyphenation in this case.

   MLTeX works at `.fmt'-creation time: the basic idea is to specify
the `-mltex' option to TeX when you `\dump' a format.  Then, when you
subsequently invoke TeX and read that `.fmt' file, the MLTeX features
described below will be enabled.

   Generally, you use special macro files to create an MLTeX `.fmt'
file.

   The sections below describe the two new primitives that MLTeX
defines.  Aside from these, MLTeX is completely compatible with
standard TeX.

* Menu:

* \charsubdef::                 Character substitution definitions.
* \tracingcharsubdef::          Tracing substitutions.

File: web2c.info,  Node: \charsubdef,  Next: \tracingcharsubdef,  Up: MLTeX

4.4.1.1 `\charsubdef': Character substitutions
..............................................

The most important primitive MLTeX adds is `\charsubdef', used in a way
reminiscent of `\chardef':
     \charsubdef COMPOSITE [=] ACCENT BASE

   Each of COMPOSITE, ACCENT, and BASE are font glyph numbers,
expressed in the usual TeX syntax: `\e symbolically, '145 for octal,
"65 for hex, 101 for decimal.

   MLTeX's `\charsubdef' declares how to construct an accented
character glyph (not necessarily existing in the current font) using two
character glyphs (that do exist).  Thus it defines whether a character
glyph code, either typed as a single character or using the `\char'
primitive, will be mapped to a font glyph or to an `\accent' glyph
construction.

   For example, if you assume glyph code 138 (decimal) for an
e-circumflex and you are using the Computer Modern fonts, which have
the circumflex accent in position 18 and lowercase `e' in the usual
ASCII position 101 decimal, you would use `\charsubdef' as follows:

     \charsubdef 138 = 18 101

   For the plain TeX format to make use of this substitution, you have
to redefine the circumflex accent macro `\^' in such a way that if its
argument is character `e' the expansion `\char138 ' is used instead of
`\accent18 e'.  Similar `\charsubdef' declaration and macro
redefinitions have to be done for all other accented characters.

   To disable a previous `\charsubdef C', redefine C as a pair of
zeros. For example:
     \charsubdef '321 = 0 0  % disable N tilde
   (Octal '321 is the ISO Latin-1 value for the Spanish N tilde.)

   `\charsubdef' commands should only be given once.  Although in
principle you can use `\charsubdef' at any time, the result is
unspecified.  If `\charsubdef' declarations are changed, usually either
incorrect character dimensions will be used or MLTeX will output
missing character warnings.  (The substitution of a `\charsubdef' is
used by TeX when appending the character node to the current horizontal
list, to compute the width of a horizontal box when the box gets
packed, and when building the `\accent' construction at
`\shipout'-time.  In summary, the substitution is accessed often, so
changing it is not desirable, nor generally useful.)

File: web2c.info,  Node: \tracingcharsubdef,  Prev: \charsubdef,  Up: MLTeX

4.4.1.2 `\tracingcharsubdef': Substitution diagnostics
......................................................

To help diagnose problems with `\charsubdef', MLTeX provides a new
primitive parameter, `\tracingcharsubdef'.  If positive, every use of
`\charsubdef' will be reported.  This can help track down when a
character is redefined.

   In addition, if the TeX parameter `\tracinglostchars' is 100 or
more, the character substitutions actually performed at `\shipout'-time
will be recorded.

File: web2c.info,  Node: patgen invocation,  Next: TCX files,  Prev: MLTeX,  Up: Languages and hyphenation

4.4.3 Patgen: Creating hyphenation patterns
-------------------------------------------

Patgen creates hyphenation patterns from dictionary files for use with
TeX. Synopsis:

     patgen DICTIONARY PATTERNS OUTPUT TRANSLATE

   Each argument is a filename. No path searching is done. The output is
written to the file OUTPUT.

   In addition, Patgen prompts interactively for other values.

   For more information, see `Word hy-phen-a-tion by com-puter' by
Frank Liang (*note References::), and also the `patgen.web' source file.

   The only options are `-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::).

File: web2c.info,  Node: TCX files,  Prev: patgen invocation,  Up: Languages and hyphenation

4.4.2 TCX files: Character translations
---------------------------------------

TCX (TeX character translation) files help TeX support direct input of
8-bit international characters if fonts containing those characters are
being used.  Specifically, they map an input (keyboard) character code
to the internal TeX character code (a superset of ASCII).

   Of the various proposals for handling more than one input encoding,
TCX files were chosen because they follow Knuth's original ideas for
the use of the `xchr' and `xord' tables.  He ventured that these would
be changed in the WEB source in order to adjust the actual version to a
given environment.  It turns out, however, that recompiling the WEB
sources is not as simple a task as Knuth may have imagined; therefore,
TCX files, providing the possibility of changing of the conversion
tables on on-the-fly, have been implemented instead.

   This approach limits the portability of TeX documents, as some
implementations do not support it (or use a different method for
input-internal reencoding).  It may also be problematic to determine
the encoding to use for a TeX document of unknown provenance; in the
worst case, failure to do so correctly may result in subtle errors in
the typeset output.  But we feel the benefits outweigh these
disadvantages.

   This is entirely independent of the MLTeX extension (*note MLTeX::):
whereas a TCX file defines how an input keyboard character is mapped to
TeX's internal code, MLTeX defines substitutions for a non-existing
character glyph in a font with a `\accent' construction made out of two
separate character glyphs.  TCX files involve no new primitives; it is
not possible to specify that an input (keyboard) character maps to more
than one character.

   Information on specifying TCX files:

   * The best way to specify a TCX file is to list it explicitly in the
     first line of the main document:
          %& -translate-file=TCXFILE

   * You can also specify a TCX file to be used on a particular TeX run
     with the command-line option `-translate-file=TCXFILE'.

   * TCX files are searched for along the `WEB2C' path.

   * Initial TeX (*note Initial TeX: Initial TeX.) ignores TCX files.

   The Web2c distribution comes with a number of TCX files.  Two
important ones are `il1-t1.tcx' and `il2-t1.tcx', which support ISO
Latin 1 and ISO Latin 2, respectively, with Cork-encoded fonts (a.k.a.
the LaTeX T1 encoding).  TCX files for Czech, Polish, and Slovak are
also provided.

   One other notable TCX file is `empty.tcx', which is, well, empty.
Its purpose is to reset Web2C's behavior to the default (only visible
ASCII being printable, as described below) when a format was dumped
with another TCX being active--which is in fact the case for everything
but plain TeX in the TeX Live and other distributions.  Thus:

     latex somefile8.tex
     => terminal etc. output with 8-bit chars
     latex --translate-file=empty.tcx somefile8.tex
     => terminal etc. output with ^^ notation

   Syntax of TCX files:
  1. Line-oriented. Blank lines are ignored.

  2. Whitespace is ignored except as a separator.

  3. Comments start with `%' and continue to the end of the line.

  4. Otherwise, a line consists of one or two character codes,
     optionally followed by 0 or 1.  The last number indicates whether
     DEST is considered printable.
          SRC [DEST [PRNT]]

  5. Each character code may be specified in octal with a leading `0',
     hexadecimal with a leading `0x', or decimal otherwise. Values must
     be between 0 and 255, inclusive (decimal).

  6. If the DEST code is not specified, it is taken to be the same as
     SRC.

  7. If the same SRC code is specified more than once, it is the last
     definition that counts.

   Finally, here's what happens: when TeX sees an input character with
code SRC, it 1) changes SRC to DEST; and 2) makes the DEST code
"printable", i.e., printed as-is in diagnostics and the log file rather
than in `^^' notation.

   By default, no characters are translated, and character codes
between 32 and 126 inclusive (decimal) are printable.

   Specifying translations for the printable ASCII characters (codes
32-127) will yield unpredictable results.  Additionally you shouldn't
make the following characters printable: `^^I' (TAB), `^^J' (line
feed), `^^M' (carriage return), and `^^?' (delete), since TeX uses them
in various ways.

   Thus, the idea is to specify the input (keyboard) character code for
SRC, and the output (font) character code for DEST.

   By default, only the printable ASCII characters are considered
printable by TeX.  If you specify the `-8bit' option, all characters are
considered printable by default.  If you specify both the `-8bit'
option and a TCX file, then the TCX can set specific characters to be
non-printable.

   Both the specified TCX encoding and whether characters are printable
are saved in the dump files (like `tex.fmt').  So by giving these
options in combination with `-ini', you control the defaults seen by
anyone who uses the resulting dump file.

   When loading a dump, if the `-8bit' option was given, then all
characters become printable by default.

   When loading a dump, if a TCX file was specified, then the TCX data
from the dump is ignored and the data from the file used instead.

File: web2c.info,  Node: IPC and TeX,  Next: TeX extensions,  Prev: Languages and hyphenation,  Up: TeX

4.5 IPC and TeX
===============

(Sorry, but I'm not going to write this unless someone actually uses
this feature. Let me know.)

   This functionality is available only if the `--enable-ipc' option
was specified to `configure' during installation of Web2c (*note
Installation::).

   If you define `IPC_DEBUG' before compilation (e.g., with `make
XCFLAGS=-DIPC_DEBUG'), TeX will print messages to standard error about
its socket operations.  This may be helpful if you are, well, debugging.

File: web2c.info,  Node: TeX extensions,  Prev: IPC and TeX,  Up: TeX

4.6 TeX extensions
==================

The base TeX program has been extended in many ways.  Here's a partial
list.  Please send information on extensions not listed here to the
address in *Note Reporting bugs: (kpathsea)Reporting bugs.

e-TeX
     Adds many new primitives, including right-to-left typesetting.
     Available from `http://www.vms.rhbnc.ac.uk/e-TeX/' and
     `CTAN:/systems/e-tex'.

Omega
     Adds Unicode support, right-to-left typesetting, and more.
     Available from `http://www.ens.fr/omega' and `CTAN:/systems/omega'.

pdfTeX
     A variant of TeX that produces PDF instead of DVI files.  It also
     includes primitives for hypertext and micro-typography.  Available
     from `CTAN:/systems/pdftex'.

`TeX--XeT'
     Adds primitives and DVI opcodes for right-to-left typesetting (as
     used in Arabic, for example).  An old version for TeX 3.1415 is
     available from `CTAN:/systems/knuth/tex--xet'.  A newer version is
     included in e-TeX.

File-handling TeX
     Adds primitives for creating multiple DVI files in a single run;
     and appending to output files as well as overwriting.  Web2c
     implementation available in the distribution file
     `web2c/contrib/file-handling-tex'.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Metafont,  Next: MetaPost,  Prev: TeX,  Up: Top

5 Metafont: Creating typeface families
**************************************

Metafont is a system for producing shapes; it was designed for producing
complete typeface families, but it can also produce geometric designs,
dingbats, etc.  And it has considerable mathematical and
equation-solving capabilities which can be useful entirely on their own.

   Metafont is a batch language, like C or Pascal: you compile a
Metafont program into a corresponding font, rather than interactively
drawing lines or curves.  This approach has both considerable
disadvantages (people unfamiliar with conventional programming
languages will be unlikely to find it usable) and considerable
advantages (you can make your design intentions specific and
parameterizable).  For a complete description of the Metafont language,
see `The METAFONTbook' (*note References::).

* Menu:

* mf invocation::               Invoking Metafont.
* Initial Metafont::            Making bases.
* Modes::                       Device definitions for Metafont.
* Online Metafont graphics::    Seeing MF output online.
* gftodvi invocation::          Making proofsheets for fonts.
* mft invocation::              Prettyprinting Metafont sources.

File: web2c.info,  Node: mf invocation,  Next: Initial Metafont,  Up: Metafont

5.1 `mf' invocation
===================

Metafont (usually invoked as `mf') reads character definitions
specified in the Metafont programming language, and outputs the
corresponding font.  This section merely describes the options available
in the Web2c implementation.  For a complete description of the Metafont
language, see `The Metafontbook' (*note References::).

   Metafont processes its command line and determines its memory dump
(base) file in a way exactly analogous to MetaPost and TeX (*note tex
invocation::, and *note Memory dumps::).  Synopses:

     mf [OPTION]... [MFNAME[.mf]] [MF-COMMANDS]
     mf [OPTION]... \FIRST-LINE
     mf [OPTION]... &BASE ARGS

   Most commonly, a Metafont invocation looks like this:
     mf '\mode:=MODE; mag:=MAGNIFICATION; input MFNAME'
   (The single quotes avoid unwanted interpretation by the shell.)

   Metafont searches the usual places for the main input file MFNAME
(*note Supported file formats: (kpathsea)Supported file formats.),
extending MFNAME with `.mf' if necessary.  To see all the relevant
paths, set the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before
running the program.  By default, Metafont runs an external program
named `mktexmf' to create any nonexistent Metafont source files you
input.  You can disable this at configure-time or runtime (*note mktex
configuration: (kpathsea)mktex configuration.).  This is mostly for the
sake of the EC fonts, which can be generated at any size.

   Metafont writes the main GF output to the file `BASEMFNAME.NNNgf',
where NNN is the font resolution in pixels per inch, and BASEMFNAME is
the basename of MFNAME, or `mfput' if no input file was specified.  A
GF file contains bitmaps of the actual character shapes.  Usually GF
files are converted immediately to PK files with GFtoPK (*note gftopk
invocation::), since PK files contain equivalent information, but are
more compact.  (Metafont output in GF format rather than PK for only
historical reasons.)

   Metafont also usually writes a metric file in TFM format to
`BASEMFNAME.tfm'.  A TFM file contains character dimensions, kerns, and
ligatures, and spacing parameters.  TeX reads only this .tfm file, not
the GF file.

   The MODE in the example command above is a name referring to a
device definition (*note Modes::); for example, `localfont' or
`ljfour'.  These device definitions must generally be precompiled into
the base file.  If you leave this out, the default is `proof' mode, as
stated in `The Metafontbook', in which Metafont outputs at a resolution
of 2602dpi; this is usually not what you want.  The remedy is simply to
assign a different mode--`localfont', for example.

   The MAGNIFICATION assignment in the example command above is a
magnification factor; for example, if the device is 600dpi and you
specify `mag:=2', Metafont will produce output at 1200dpi.  Very often,
the MAGNIFICATION is an expression such as `magstep(.5)', corresponding
to a TeX "magstep", which are factors of 1.2 * sqrt(2).

   After running Metafont, you can use the font in a TeX document as
usual.  For example:
     \font\myfont = newfont
     \myfont Now I am typesetting in my new font (minimum hamburgers).

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-[no]-file-line-error'
`-fmt=FMTNAME'
`-halt-on-error'
`-ini'
`-interaction=STRING'
`-jobname=STRING'
`-kpathsea-debug=NUMBER'
`-[no]parse-first-line'
`-output-directory'
`-progname=STRING'
`-recorder'
`-translate-file=TCXFILE'
`-8bit'
     These options are common to TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost.  *Note
     Common options::.

`-mktex=FILETYPE'
`-no-mktex=FILETYPE'
     Turn on or off the `mktex' script associated with FILETYPE.  The
     only value that makes sense for FILETYPE is `mf'.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Initial Metafont,  Next: Modes,  Prev: mf invocation,  Up: Metafont

5.2 Initial Metafont
====================

`inimf' is the "initial" form of Metafont, which does lengthy
initializations avoided by the "virgin" (`vir') form, so as to be
capable of dumping `.base' files (*note Memory dumps::).  For a
detailed comparison of virgin and initial forms, see *Note Initial and
virgin::.  In past releases, a separate program `inimf' was installed
to invoke the initial form, but this is no longer the case.

   For a list of options and other information, see *Note mf
invocation::.

   The only memory dump file commonly used with Metafont is the default
`plain.base', also known as `mf.base' (again, *note Memory dumps::).
It is created by default during installation, but you can also do so by
hand if necessary (e.g., if a Metafont update is issued):
     mf -ini '\input plain; input modes; dump'
   (The quotes prevent interpretation of the backslashes from the
shell.)  Then install the resulting `plain.base' in `$(basedir)'
(`/usr/local/share/texmf/web2c' by default), and link `mf.base' to it.

   For an explanation of the additional `modes.mf' file, see *Note
Modes::.  This file has no counterpart in TeX or MetaPost.

   In the past, it was sometimes useful to create a base file
`cmmf.base' (a.k.a. `cm.base'), with the Computer Modern macros also
included in the base file.  Nowadays, however, the additional time
required to read `cmbase.mf' is exceedingly small, usually not enough
to be worth the administrative hassle of updating the `cmmf.base' file
when you install a new version of `modes.mf'.  People actually working
on a typeface may still find it worthwhile to create their own base
file, of course.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Modes,  Next: Online Metafont graphics,  Prev: Initial Metafont,  Up: Metafont

5.3 Modes: Device definitions for Metafont
==========================================

Running Metafont and creating Metafont base files requires information
that TeX and MetaPost do not: "mode" definitions which specify device
characteristics, so Metafont can properly rasterize the shapes.

   When making a base file, a file containing modes for
locally-available devices should be input after `plain.mf'.  One
commonly used file is `ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/modes.mf'; it includes all
known definitions.

   If, however, for some reason you have decreased the memory available
in your Metafont, you may need to copy `modes.mf' and remove the
definitions irrelevant to you (probably most of them) instead of using
it directly.  (Or, if you're a Metafont hacker, maybe you can suggest a
way to redefine `mode_def' and/or `mode_setup'; right now, the amount
of memory used is approximately four times the total length of the
`mode_def' names, and that's a lot.)

   If you have a device not included in `modes.mf', please see comments
in that file for how to create the new definition, and please send the
definition to <tex-fontsATmail.org> to get it included in the next
release of `modes.mf'.

   Usually, when you run Metafont you must supply the name of a mode
that was dumped in the base file.  But you can also define the mode
characteristics dynamically, by invoking Metafont with an assignment to
`smode' instead of `mode', like this:
     mf '\smode:="newmode.mf"; mag:=MAGNIFICATION; input MFNAME'
   This is most useful when you are working on the definition of a new
mode.

   The MAGNIFICATION and MFNAME arguments are explained in *Note mf
invocation::.  In the file `newmode.mf', you should have the following
(with no `mode_def' or `enddef'), if you are using `modes.mf'
conventions:
     mode_param (pixels_per_inch, DPI);
     mode_param (blacker, B);
     mode_param (fillin, F);
     mode_param (o_correction, O);
     mode_common_setup_;
   (Of course, you should use real numbers for DPI, B, F, and O.)

   For more information on the use of `smode', or if you are not using
`modes.mf', see page 269 of `The Metafontbook'.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Online Metafont graphics,  Next: gftodvi invocation,  Prev: Modes,  Up: Metafont

5.4 Online Metafont graphics
============================

The Web2c implementation of Metafont can do online graphics with a
number of devices. (See the Metafont manual for more information about
how to draw on your screen.)  By default, no graphics support is
enabled.

   Metafont examines the `MFTERM' environment variable or config file
value at runtime, or the `TERM' environment variable if `MFTERM' is not
set, to determine the device support to use.  Naturally, only the
devices for which support has been compiled in can be selected.

   Here is a table of the possibilities, showing the `MFTERM' value and
the corresponding `configure' option(s) in parentheses.

`epsf'
     (`--with-epsfwin') Pseudo-window server for Encapsulated
     PostScript (see `web2c/window/epsf.c'). This device produces an
     EPS file containing the graphics which would be displayed online on
     other devices. The name of the EPS file defaults to metafont.eps
     but can be changed by setting the MFEPSF environment variable to
     the new filename.  Contributed by Mathias Herberts.

`hp2627'
     (`--with-hp2627win') HP2627a color graphics terminals.

`mftalk'
     (`--with-mftalkwin') Generic window server (see
     `web2c/window/mftalk.c').

`next'
     (`--with-next') NeXT window system. This requires a separate
     program, called `DrawingServant', available separately. See the
     `web2c/window/next.c'.

`regis'
     (`--with-regiswin') Regis terminals.

`sun'
     (`--with-suntoolswin') The old Suntools (not any flavor of X)
     window system. (You can get the even older SunWindows `gfx' system
     by using `sun-gfx.c'.)

`tek'
     (`--with-tektronixwin') Tektronix terminals.

`uniterm'
     (`--with-unitermwin') Uniterm, Simon Poole's emulator of a smart
     Tektronix 4014 terminal.  This may work with regular Tektronix
     terminals as well; it's faster than the driver `--with-tek'
     selects.

`xterm'
     (`--with-x11win', `--with-x', `--with-x11') The X window system
     (version 11).

     There are two variants of the X11 support, one that works with the
     Xt toolkit, and another that works directly with Xlib. The Xt
     support is more efficient and has more functionality, so it is the
     default. If you must use the Xlib support, use `configure --with-x
     --with-x-toolkit=no'.

     You cannot specify any of the usual X options (e.g., `-geometry')
     on the Metafont command line, but you can specify X resources in
     your `~/.Xdefaults' or `~/.Xresources' file. The class name is
     `Metafont'. If you're using the Xt support, all the usual X toolkit
     resources are supported.  If you're using the Xlib support, only
     the `geometry' resource is supported.

     You specify the X display to which Metafont connects in the
     `DISPLAY' environment variable, as usual.


   Writing support for a new device is straightforward. Aside from
defining the basic drawing routines that Metafont uses (see `mf.web'),
you only have to add another entry to the tables on the last page of
`web2c/lib/texmfmp.c'.  Or you can write an independent program and use
MFtalk (see `web2c/window/mftalk.c').

File: web2c.info,  Node: gftodvi invocation,  Next: mft invocation,  Prev: Online Metafont graphics,  Up: Metafont

5.5 GFtoDVI: Character proofs of fonts
======================================

GFtoDVI makes "proof sheets" from a GF bitmap file as output by, for
example, Metafont (*note Metafont::).  This is an indispensable aid for
font designers or Metafont hackers.  Synopsis:

     gftodvi [OPTION]... GFNAME[gf]

   The font GFNAME is searched for in the usual places (*note Glyph
lookup: (kpathsea)Glyph lookup.).  To see all the relevant paths, set
the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before running the
program.

   The suffix `gf' is supplied if not already present.  This suffix is
not an extension; no `.' precedes it: for instance `cmr10.600gf'.

   The output filename is the basename of GFNAME extended with `.dvi',
e.g., `gftodvi /wherever/foo.600gf' creates `./foo.dvi'.

   The characters from GFNAME appear one per page in the DVI output,
with labels, titles, and annotations, as specified in Appendix H
(Hardcopy Proofs) of `The Metafontbook'.

   GFtoDVI uses several fonts besides GFNAME itself:

   * "gray font" (default `gray'): for the pixels that actually make up
     the character.  Simply using black is not right, since then labels,
     key points, and other information could not be shown.

   * "title font" (default `cmr8'): for the header information at the
     top of each output page.

   * "label font" (default `cmtt10'): for the labels on key points of
     the figure.

   * "slant font" (no default): for diagonal lines, which are otherwise
     simulated using horizontal and vertical rules.


   To change the default fonts, you must use `special' commands in your
Metafont source file.

   The program accepts the following option, as well as the standard
`-verbose', `-help', and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-overflow-label-offset=POINTS'
     Typeset the so-called overflow labels, if any, POINTS TeX points
     from the right edge of the character bounding box.  The default is
     a little over two inches (ten million scaled points, to be
     precise).  Overflow equations are used to locate coordinates when
     their actual position is too crowded with other information.

File: web2c.info,  Node: mft invocation,  Prev: gftodvi invocation,  Up: Metafont

5.6 MFT: Prettyprinting Metafont source
=======================================

MFT translates a Metafont program into a TeX document suitable for
typesetting, with the aid of TeX macros defined in the file
`mftmac.tex'.  Synopsis:

     mft [OPTION]... MFNAME[.mf]

   MFT searches the usual places for MFNAME (*note Supported file
formats: (kpathsea)Supported file formats.).  To see all the relevant
paths, set the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before
running the program.  The output goes to the basename of MFNAME extended
with `.tex', e.g., `mft /wherever/foo.mf' creates `./foo.tex'.

   Line breaks in the input are carried over into the output; moreover,
blank spaces at the beginning of a line are converted to quads of
indentation in the output. Thus, you have full control over the
indentation and line breaks. Each line of input is translated
independently of the others.

   Further control is allowed via Metafont comments:
   * Metafont comments following a single `%' should be valid TeX
     input.  But Metafont material can be included within vertical bars
     in a comment; this will be translated by MFT as if it were regular
     Metafont code.  For example, a comment like `% |x2r| is the tip of
     the bowl' will be translated into the TeX `% $x_{2r}$ is the ...',
     i.e., the `x2r' is treated as an identifier.

   * `%%' indicates that the remainder of an input line should be copied
     verbatim to the output.  This is typically used to introduce
     additional TeX material at the beginning or an MFT job, e.g. code
     to modify the standard layout or the formatting macros defined in
     `mftmac.tex', or to add a line saying `%%\bye' at the end of the
     job.  (MFT doesn't add this automatically in order to allow
     processing several files produces by MFT in the same TeX job.)

   * `%%% TOKEN1 OTHER-TOKENS' introduces a change in MFT's formatting
     rules; all the OTHER-TOKENS will henceforth be translated
     according to the current conventions for TOKEN1. The tokens must
     be symbolic (i.e., not numeric or string tokens). For example, the
     input line
          %%% addto fill draw filldraw
     says to format the `fill', `draw', and `filldraw' operations of
     plain Metafont just like the primitive token `addto', i.e., in
     boldface type.  Without such reformatting commands, MFT would
     treat `fill' like an ordinary tag or variable name.  In fact, you
     need a `%%%' command even to get parentheses to act like
     delimiters.

   * `%%%%' introduces an MFT comment, i.e., MFT ignores the remainder
     of such a line.

   * Five or more `%' signs should not be used.

   (The above description was edited from `mft.web', written by
D.E. Knuth.)

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-change=CHFILE[.ch]'
     Apply the change file CHFILE as with Tangle and Weave (*note
     WEB::).

`-style=MFTFILE[.mft]'
     Read MFTFILE before anything else; a MFT style file typically
     contains only MFT directives as described above.  The default
     style file is named `plain.mft', which defines this properly for
     programs using plain Metafont.  The MFT files is searched along the
     `MFTINPUTS' path; see *Note Supported file formats:
     (kpathsea)Supported file formats.

     Other examples of MFT style files are `cmbase.mft', which defines
     formatting rules for the macros defined in `cm.base', and `e.mft',
     which was used in the production of Knuth's Volume E, `Computer
     Modern Typefaces'.

     Using an appropriate MFT style file, it is also possible to
     configure MFT for typesetting MetaPost sources.  However, MFT does
     not search the usual places for MetaPost input files.

   If you use eight-bit characters in the input file, they are passed
on verbatim to the TeX output file; it is up to you to configure TeX to
print these properly.

File: web2c.info,  Node: MetaPost,  Next: BibTeX,  Prev: Metafont,  Up: Top

6 MetaPost: Creating technical illustrations
********************************************

MetaPost is a picture-drawing language similar to Metafont (*note
Metafont::), but instead of outputting bitmaps in a "font", it outputs
PostScript commands.  It's primarily intended for creating technical
illustrations.

   MetaPost also provides for arbitrary integration of text and
graphics in a natural way, using any typesetter (TeX and Troff are both
supported) and a number of other subsidiary programs, described below.

* Menu:

* mpost invocation::            Invoking MetaPost.
* Initial MetaPost::            Making mems.
* makempx invocation::          Create MPX files for labels.
* dvitomp invocation::          DVI-to-MPX translation.
* dmp invocation::              Ditroff-to-MPX translation.
* mpto invocation::             Extracting labels from MetaPost programs.
* newer invocation::            Is one file newer than another?

File: web2c.info,  Node: mpost invocation,  Next: Initial MetaPost,  Up: MetaPost

6.1 `mpost' invocation
======================

MetaPost (installed as `mpost') reads a series of pictures specified in
the MetaPost programming language, and outputs corresponding PostScript
code.  This section merely describes the options available in the Web2c
implementation.  For a complete description of the MetaPost language,
see AT&T technical report CSTR-162, generally available in
`TEXMF/doc/metapost/', where TEXMF is the root of TeX directory
structure.  See also:
   * `http://cm.bell-labs.com/who/hobby/MetaPost.html' (the
     MetaPost author's home page);

   * `http://tug.org/metapost.html' (papers, packages, and
     related information).

   Also, a standard MetaPost package for drawing graphs is documented in
AT&T technical report CSTR-164, available as the file `mpgraph.ps',
generally stored alongside `mpman.ps'.

   MetaPost processes its command line and determines its memory dump
(mem) file in a way exactly analogous to Metafont and TeX (*note `tex'
invocation: tex invocation, and *note Memory dumps::).  Synopses:

     mpost [OPTION]... [MPNAME[.mp]] [MP-COMMANDS]
     mpost [OPTION]... \FIRST-LINE
     mpost [OPTION]... &MEM ARGS

   MetaPost searches the usual places for the main input file MPNAME
(*note Supported file formats: (kpathsea)Supported file formats.),
extending MPNAME with `.mp' if necessary.  To see all the relevant
paths, set the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before
running the program.

   MetaPost writes its PostScript output to a series of files
`BASEMPNAME.NNN' (or perhaps `BASEMPNAME.ps', very occasionally
`BASEMPNAME.tfm'), where NNN are the figure numbers specified in the
input, typically to the `beginfig' macro, and BASEMPNAME is the
basename of MPNAME, or `mpout' if no input file was specified.
MetaPost uses the `.ps' extension when the figure number is out of
range, e.g., if you say `beginfig(-1)'.

   You can use the output files as figures in a TeX document just as
with any other PostScript figures. For example, with this TeX command:
     \special{psfile="FILENAME"}
   or by using `epsf.tex' (*note EPSF macros: (dvips)EPSF macros.).

   The MetaPost construct
     btex ... TEX-INPUT ... etex
   calls MakeMPX to generate a MPX file containing a MetaPost picture
expression corresponding to TEX-INPUT (*note makempx invocation::).

   The construct
     verbatimtex ... TEX-INPUT ... etex
   simply passes the TEX-INPUT through to MakeMPX and thus to TeX. For
example, if you are using LaTeX, your MetaPost input file must start
with a `verbatimtex' block that gives the necessary `\documentclass'
(or `\documentstyle') `\begin{document}' command.  You will also need
to set the enviroment variable `TEX' to `latex' (*note makempx
invocation::).

   TEX-INPUT need not be specifically TeX input; it could also be
Troff.  In that case, you will need the `-m pictures' Troff macro
package (unfortunately absent from many Troff implementations), or an
equivalent such as the `-m pspic' macros from GNU groff described in
grops(1).

   Other typesetters can be supported with no change to MetaPost itself;
only MakeMPX needs to be updated.

   Naturally, you must use fonts that are supported by the typesetter;
specifically, you'll probably want to use standard PostScript fonts with
Troff.  And only the TeX system understands Computer Modern or other
Metafont fonts; you can also use PostScript fonts with TeX, of course.

   MetaPost-generated PostScript figures which do use Computer Modern
fonts for labels cannot be directly previewed or printed.  Instead, you
must include them in a TeX document and run the resulting DVI file
through Dvips to arrange for the downloading of the required fonts
(*note Fonts in figures: (dvips)Fonts in figures.).  To help with this,
the MetaPost distribution provides a small TeX file `mproof.tex' which
is typically called as:
     tex mproof MP-OUTPUT-FILES... ; dvips mproof -o
   The resulting file `mproof.ps' can then be printed or previewed.

   To generate EPSF files, set the internal MetaPost variable
`prologues' positive.  To make the output files self-contained, use
only standard PostScript fonts.  MetaPost reads the same `psfonts.map'
file as Dvips, to determine PostScript fonts that need to be downloaded
(*note psfonts.map: (dvips)psfonts.map.).

   MetaPost can write output files, via the `write' primitive; this
opens a security hole.  *Note tex invocation::.

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-[no]-file-line-error'
`-fmt=FMTNAME'
`-halt-on-error'
`-ini'
`-interaction=STRING'
`-jobname=STRING'
`-kpathsea-debug=NUMBER'
`-[no]parse-first-line'
`-output-directory'
`-progname=STRING'
`-recorder'
`-translate-file=TCXFILE'
`-8bit'
     These options are common to TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost.  *Note
     Common options::.

`-T'
`-troff'
     Set the `prologues' internal variable to `1', and use `makempx
     -troff' to generate MPX files.

`-tex=TEXPROGRAM'
     When this option is given, the program TEXPROGRAM is used to
     typeset the labels.


File: web2c.info,  Node: Initial MetaPost,  Next: makempx invocation,  Prev: mpost invocation,  Up: MetaPost

6.2 Initial MetaPost
====================

`inimpost' is the "initial" form of MetaPost, which does lengthy
initializations avoided by the "virgin" (`vir') form, so as to be
capable of dumping `.mem' files (*note Memory dumps::).  For a detailed
comparison of virgin and initial forms, see *Note Initial and virgin::.
In past releases, a separate program `inimpost' was installed for the
initial form, but this is no longer the case.

   For a list of options and other information, see *Note mpost
invocation::.

   The principal memory dump file used with MetaPost is the default,
`plain.mem', also known as `mpost.mem' (again, *note Memory dumps::).
It is created by default during installation, but you can also do so by
hand if necessary (e.g., if a `plain.mp' update is issued):
     mpost -ini '\input plain dump'
   (The quotes prevent interpretation of the backslashes from the
shell.)  Then install the resulting `plain.mem' in `$(memdir)'
(`/usr/local/share/texmf/web2c' by default), and link `mpost.mem' to it.

   MetaPost also provides a mem file with all the features of plain
Metafont, called `mfplain.mem'.  You can create that in the same way;
just replace `plain' in the above command with `mfplain'.
`mfplain.mem' file lets you directly process Metafont source files with
MetaPost, producing character proofs (one file for each character)
similar to those produced with Metafont in proof mode and GFtoDVI
(*note gftodvi invocation::).

   Another MetaPost mem file, named MetaFun, provides many advanced
features.  It was developed and maintained by Pragma ADE.  The home
page for MetaFun, and other MetaPost-related things from Pragma:
`http://www.pragma-ade.com/metapost.htm'.

File: web2c.info,  Node: makempx invocation,  Next: dvitomp invocation,  Prev: Initial MetaPost,  Up: MetaPost

6.3 MakeMPX: Support MetaPost labels
====================================

In MetaPost, labels can be typeset using any document processor; the
Web2c implementation supports TeX and Troff.  MakeMPX translates the
labels from the typesetting language back into low-level MetaPost
commands in a so-called "mpx file", so text can be manipulated like
other graphic objects.  It is invoked automatically by MetaPost.
Synopsis:

     makempx [-troff] MPFILE MPXFILE

The input comes from MPFILE (no path searching is done), and the output
goes to MPXFILE.  However, if the file MPXFILE already exists, and is
newer than MPFILE, then nothing is done (presumably the file is
up-to-date).

   Otherwise:
  1. MPto is run to extract the label text from the MetaPost source
     file MPFILE (*note mpto invocation::).

  2. The typesetting program itself is run, either TeX or Troff (see
     below).  If TeX, and the file named by the `MPTEXPRE' environment
     variable exists (`mptexpre.tex' by default), that file is
     prepended to the input from the MetaPost file.

  3. The typesetter output (a DVI file in the case of TeX, Ditroff
     output for Troff) is translated back to MetaPost, by DVItoMP
     (*note dvitomp invocation::) or DMP (*note dmp invocation::)
     respectively.

   If any of the above steps fail, for example if there was a
typesetting mistake in the original MPFILE, output may be left in files
named `mpxerr.{log,tex,dvi}' (TeX) or `mpxerr{,.t}' (Troff), so you can
diagnose the problem.

   The `-troff' option to MPto selects the Troff commands, rather than
TeX.  MetaPost supplies this automatically if the `-T' or `-troff'
option was specified to MetaPost.

   The MPX file created by MakeMPX is a sequence of MetaPost picture
expressions, one for every label in the original MetaPost input file.

   The names of the commands run by MakeMPX, and the directory added to
the shell search `PATH' for the commands' location, are overridden by
environment variables.  Here is a list:

`MAKEMPX_BINDIR'
     The directory added to the `PATH'.  Default is the `$(bindir)'
     Make directory, which in turn is set from the configure-time
     `--bindir', `--exec-prefix' and `--prefix' options; if nothing
     else is specified, the default is file `/usr/local'.

`NEWER'
     The command run to determine if MPXFILE is out of date with respect
     to MPFILE; default is `newer'.

`MPTOTEX'
     The command run to extract MetaPost labels in TeX format; default
     is `mpto -tex'.

`MPTOTR'
     Likewise, for Troff; default is `mpto -troff'.

`DVITOMP'
     The command run to convert TeX output back to MetaPost; default is
     `dvitomp'.

`DMP'
     Likewise, for Troff; default is `dmp'.

`TEX'
     The command run to typeset the labels in TeX; the default is
     `etex', set in `texmf.cnf'.  If you use LaTeX, set this to
     `latex', and supply an appropriate `verbatimtex' header in the MP
     source (*note mpost invocation::).  Or put `%&latex' as the first
     line of your LaTeX source.

`TROFF'
     Likewise, for Troff; default is `'eqn -d\$\$ | troff -Tpost''.  You
     may need to replace `-Tpost' by `-TTERM', where TERM is the
     PostScript device name for your Troff implementation, e.g., `ps'
     or `psc'; see troff(1).

     If you change this, you will also need to set the `TRFONTS'
     environment variable or configuration value to point to the
     appropriate font directory, traditionally `/usr/lib/font/devTERM'.

     One more complication is whether the troff programs have a `g'
     prefix.  On Windows, TeX Live supports both ways: `makempx.exe' is
     built to use `gsoelim.exe', `geqn.exe', and `gtroff.exe', while
     `makempx-without-g-prefix.exe' is built to use `soelim.exe',
     `eqn.exe', and `troff.exe'.  MetaPost users on Windows using troff
     for their labels should arrange to run the proper binary.


File: web2c.info,  Node: dvitomp invocation,  Next: dmp invocation,  Prev: makempx invocation,  Up: MetaPost

6.4 DVItoMP: DVI to MPX conversion
==================================

DVItoMP converts DVI files into low-level MetaPost commands in a
so-called MPX file.  This program is generally invoked only by MakeMPX
(*note makempx invocation::).  Synopsis:

     dvitomp DVIFILE[.dvi] [MPXFILE[.mpx]]

If MPXFILE is not specified, the output goes to the basename of DVIFILE
extended with `.mpx', e.g., `dvitomp /wherever/foo.dvi' creates
`./foo.mpx'.

   The only options are `-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::).

File: web2c.info,  Node: dmp invocation,  Next: mpto invocation,  Prev: dvitomp invocation,  Up: MetaPost

6.5 DMP: Ditroff to MPX conversion
==================================

DMP converts device-independent Troff (ditroff) output files into
low-level MetaPost commands in a so-called MPX file.  This program is
generally invoked by MakeMPX (*note makempx invocation::).  Synopsis:

     dmp [DITROFF-FILE [MPXFILE]]

If DITROFF-FILE is not specified, input comes from standard input; and
if MPXFILE is not specified, output goes to standard output.

   DMP was written to process the output of a Troff pipeline fed the
output of `mpto -troff' (*note mpto invocation::).  DMP understands all
the `DC' graphics functions that `dpost' does, but it ignores `x X'
device control functions such as `x X SetColor:...', `x X BeginPath:',
and `x X DrawPath:...'.

   The available font names are defined in the support file
`trfonts.map', which DMP looks for along the `MPSUPPORT' path.

   Another support file `trchars.adj', also looked for along the
`MPSUPPORT' path, contains a character adjustment table which should
reflect the shift amounts found in the standard PostScript prologue for
Troff and dpost found in the `TRFONTS' directory.  Such an adjustment
table is unnecessary for some Troff implementations, in which case
`trchars.adj' should be replaced by an empty file--but it must still
exist.

   DMP was written for one particular Troff implementation, and it
unfortunately has many built-in assumptions about the output and fonts
file formats used by Troff, which may not be satisfied in other
environments.  In particular, GNU groff uses some extensions in its file
formats described in groff_font(5) and groff_out(5) which make its
output completely unusable for DMP.  On the other hand, the Troff
version found in Sun Solaris 2.x, and perhaps other systems derived from
System V R4, works fine with the default settings.

   If you run into trouble and want to adapt DMP to other systems, you
might have to try the following (this is primarily for hackers):

   * If DMP complains about a missing font table (e.g., `Cannot find
     TR'), your Troff may not support the device `post'.

     Check troff(1) for the devices supported by your Troff and set the
     `TROFF' environment variable appropriately (see above).  Also,
     locate the appropriate font directory and set the `TRFONTS'
     variable as needed.

   * If DMP complains about a missing font description file (e.g., `Font
     TR was not in map file'), your version of Troff may be using
     internal font names different from those in the distributed
     `trfonts.map'; e.g., TR and TI instead of R and I for Times-Roman
     and Times-Italic.

     In this case, you may have to adapt `trfonts.map' and perhaps also
     `trchars.adj' in the MetaPost support directory
     (`texmf/metapost/support' by default).

   * If DMP still complains that it cannot parse the font description
     files or the Troff output (e.g., `TR has a bad line in its
     description file', you are probably out of luck and have to hack
     the DMP program (in `web2c/mpware/dmp.c').

     Such problems may be caused by subtle differences in the file
     formats, such as use of tabs vs. spaces as field separators or
     decimal vs. octal vs. hex format for font metric data.

     A reasonably good description of the expected Troff file formats
     can be found in AT&T technical report CSTR-54 (`Troff User's
     Manual', Revised 1992).  Documentation on the subtle differences
     in other Troff implementation is harder to find except for GNU
     groff, where it's all documented in the above-mentioned
     groff_font(5) and groff_out(5).

     Any contributions to improve the portability of DMP or to make it
     work with GNU groff are welcome, of course.


   (Some of the above description was edited from the `dmp.c' source
file, written by John Hobby.)

   The only options are `--help' and `--version' (*note Common
options::).

File: web2c.info,  Node: mpto invocation,  Next: newer invocation,  Prev: dmp invocation,  Up: MetaPost

6.6 MPto: Extract labels from MetaPost input
============================================

MPto extracts the labels from a MetaPost input file; this is the
contents of any `btex...etex' and `verbatimtex...etex' sections.  This
program is generally invoked by MakeMPX (*note makempx invocation::).
Synopsis:

     mpto [OPTION]... MPFILE

The input comes from MPFILE; no path searching is done.  The output
goes to standard output.  Leading and trailing spaces and tabs are
removed, and various predefined typesetter commands are included at the
beginning of and end of the file and of each section.

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-troff'
     Surround the MetaPost sections with Troff commands.

`-tex'
     Surround the MetaPost sections with TeX commands. This is the
     default.

File: web2c.info,  Node: newer invocation,  Prev: mpto invocation,  Up: MetaPost

6.7 Newer: Compare file modification times
==========================================

Newer compares file modification times.  Synopsis:

     newer SRC1 [ SRC2 ... SRCN ] TARGET

Newer exits successfully if the files SRC1 ... SRCN exist and at least
one of them is not older than DEPENDENT, i.e., the modification time
(mtime) of at least one of the source files is greater than or the same
as that of DEPENDENT.  Newer also exits successfully if the file
DEPENDENT doesn't exist.  *Note Attribute Meanings: (libc)Attribute
Meanings.

   The program accepts the following option, as well as the standard
`--help' and `--version' (*note Common options::):
`--quiet'
     Return result only, do not print any output.

`--verbose'
     List missing source files to STDERR.  This is the default.

   This is used by MakeMPX (*note makempx invocation::).

File: web2c.info,  Node: BibTeX,  Next: WEB,  Prev: MetaPost,  Up: Top

7 BibTeX: Bibliographies
************************

BibTeX automates much of the job of typesetting bibliographies, and
makes bibliography entries reusable in many different contexts.

* Menu:

* bibtex invocation::
* Basic BibTeX style files::    The standard and semi-standard styles.

File: web2c.info,  Node: bibtex invocation,  Next: Basic BibTeX style files,  Up: BibTeX

7.1 BibTeX invocation
=====================

BibTeX creates a printable bibliography (`.bbl') file from references
in a `.aux' file, generally written by TeX or LaTeX.  The `.bbl' file
is then incorporated on a subsequent run.  The basic bibliographic
information comes from `.bib' files, and a BibTeX style (`.bst') file
controls the precise contents of the `.bbl' file.  Synopsis:

     bibtex [OPTION]... AUXFILE[.aux]

The output goes to the basename of AUXFILE extended with `.bbl'; for
example, `bibtex /wherever/foo.aux' creates `./foo.bbl'.  BibTeX also
writes a log file to the basename of AUXFILE extended with `.blg'.

   The names of the `.bib' and `.bst' files are specified in the `.aux'
file as well, via the `\bibliography' and `\bibliographystyle' (La)TeX
macros.  BibTeX searches for `.bib' files using the `BIBINPUTS' and
`TEXBIB' paths, and for `.bst' files using `BSTINPUTS' (*note Supported
file formats: (kpathsea)Supported file formats.).  It does no path
searching for `.aux' files.

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-terse'
     Suppress the program banner and progress reports normally output.

`-min-crossrefs=N'
     If at least N (2 by default) bibliography entries refer to another
     entry E via their `crossref' field, include E in the .bbl file,
     even if it was not explicitly referenced in the .aux file. For
     example, E might be a conference proceedings as a whole, with the
     cross-referencing entries being individual articles published in
     the proceedings.  In some circumstances, you may want to avoid
     these automatic inclusions altogether; to do this, make N a
     sufficiently large number.

   See also:
`btxdoc.tex'
     Basic LaTeXable documentation for general BibTeX users.

`btxhak.tex'
     LaTeXable documentation for style designers.

`btxdoc.bib'
     BibTeX database file for the two above documents.

`xampl.bib'
     Example database file with all the standard entry types.

``ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/''
     A very large `.bib' and `.bst' collection, including references
     for all the standard TeX books and a complete bibliography for
     TUGboat.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Basic BibTeX style files,  Prev: bibtex invocation,  Up: BibTeX

7.2 Basic BibTeX style files
============================

Here are descriptions of the four standard and four semi-standard basic
BibTeX styles.  `CTAN:/biblio/bibtex' contains these and many more (for
CTAN info, *note unixtex.ftp: (kpathsea)unixtex.ftp.).

`plain'
     Sorts entries alphabetically, with numeric labels.  Generally
     formatted according to van Leunen's `A Handbook for Scholars'.
     The other style files listed here are based on `plain'.

`abbrv'
     First names, month names, and journal names are abbreviated.

`acm'
     Names are printed in small caps.

`alpha'
     Alphanumeric labels, e.g., `Knu66'.

`apalike'
     No labels at all; instead, the year appears in parentheses after
     the author.  Use this in conjunction with `apalike.tex' (plain
     TeX) or `apalike.sty' (LaTeX), which also changes the citations in
     the text to be `(AUTHOR, YEAR)'.

`ieeetr'
     Numeric labels, entries in citation order, IEEE abbreviations,
     article titles in quotes.

`siam'
     Numeric labels, alphabetic order, `Math. Reviews' abbreviations,
     names in small caps.

`unsrt'
     Lists entries in citation order, i.e., unsorted.

`btxbst.doc'
     The template file and documentation for the standard styles.


File: web2c.info,  Node: WEB,  Next: DVI utilities,  Prev: BibTeX,  Up: Top

8 WEB: Literate programming
***************************

"WEB" languages allow you to write a single source file that can
produce both a compilable program and a well-formatted document
describing the program in as much detail as you wish to prepare.
Writing in this kind of dual-purpose language is called "literate
programming".  (The Usenet newsgroup `comp.programming.literate' and
the mailing list <litprogATshsu.edu> are devoted to this subject; they
are gatewayed to each other.)

   WEB-like languages have been implemented with many pairs of base
languages: Cweb provides C and Troff (*note References::); CWEB provides
C and TeX (`CTAN:/web/c_cpp/cweb'); Spiderweb provides C, C++, Awk,
Ada, many others, and TeX (`CTAN:/web/spiderweb'); and, of course, the
original WEB provides Pascal and TeX, the implementation languages for
the original TeX, Metafont, MetaPost, and related programs to come from
the TeX project at Stanford.

   The original WEB language is documented in the file `webman.tex',
which is included in the `ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/lib.tar.gz' archive
(and available in many other places, of course).

* Menu:

* tangle invocation::
* weave invocation::
* pooltype invocation::

File: web2c.info,  Node: tangle invocation,  Next: weave invocation,  Up: WEB

8.1 Tangle: Translate WEB to Pascal
===================================

Tangle creates a compilable Pascal program from a WEB source file
(*note WEB::).  Synopsis:

     tangle [OPTION]... WEBFILE[.web] [CHANGEFILE[.ch]]

The Pascal output is written to the basename of WEBFILE extended with
`.p'; for example, `tangle /wherever/foo.web' creates `./foo.p'.
Tangle applies CHANGEFILE to WEBFILE before writing the output; by
default, there is no change file.

   If the program makes use of the WEB string facility, Tangle writes
the string pool to the basename of WEBFILE extended with `.pool'.

   The Pascal output is packed into lines of 72 characters or less, with
the only concession to readability being the termination of lines at
semicolons when this can be done conveniently.

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`--help' and `--version' (*note Common options::):

`-length=NUMBER'
     The number of characters that are considered significant in an
     identifier.  Whether underline characters are counted depends on
     the `-underline' option.  The default value is 32, the original
     tangle used 7, but this proved too restrictive for use by Web2c.

`-lowercase'
`-mixedcase'
`-uppercase'
     These options specify the case of identifiers in the output of
     tangle.  If `-uppercase' (`-lowercase') is specified, tangle will
     convert all identfiers to uppercase (lowercase).  The default is
     `-mixedcase', which specifies that the case will not be changed.

`-underline'
     When this option is given, tangle does not strip underline
     characters from identifiers.

`-loose'
`-strict'
     These options specify how strict tangle must be when checking
     identifiers for equality.  The default is `-loose', which means
     that tangle will follow the rules set by the case-smashing and
     underline options above.  If `-strict' is set, then identifiers
     will always be stripped of underlines and converted to uppercase
     before checking whether they collide.


File: web2c.info,  Node: weave invocation,  Next: pooltype invocation,  Prev: tangle invocation,  Up: WEB

8.2 Weave: Translate WEB to TeX
===============================

Weave creates a TeX document from a WEB source file (*note WEB::),
assuming various macros defined in `webmac.tex'.   It takes care of
typographic details such as page layout, indentation, and italicizing
identifiers.  It also automatically gathers and outputs extensive
cross-reference information.  Synopsis:

     weave [OPTION]... WEBFILE[.web] [CHANGEFILE[.ch]]

The output is to the basename of WEBFILE extended with `.tex'; for
example, `weave /wherever/foo.web' creates `./foo.tex'.  Weave applies
CHANGEFILE to WEBFILE before writing the output; by default, there is
no change file.

   The program accepts the following option, as well as the standard
`-verbose', `-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-x'
     Omit the cross-reference information: the index, the list of WEB
     module names, and the table of contents (an empty `CONTENTS.tex'
     file will still be written when the Weave output file is processed
     by TeX using the default `webmac.tex', though).

   Conventionally, WEB programmers should define the TeX `\title' macro
at the beginning of the source file.  Also, to get output of only
changed modules, one can say `\let\maybe=\iffalse' (usually as the
first change in the change file).

File: web2c.info,  Node: pooltype invocation,  Prev: weave invocation,  Up: WEB

8.3 Pooltype: Display WEB pool files
====================================

Pooltype shows the so-called "string number" of each string in a WEB
pool file (*note WEB::), as output by Tangle (*note tangle
invocation::), including the first 256 strings corresponding to the
possible input characters.  Pooltype primarily serves as an example of
WEB conventions to implementors of the TeX system.  Synopsis:

     pooltype [OPTION]... POOLFILE[.pool]

No path searching is done for POOLFILE.  Output is to standard output.

   The only options are `--help' and `--version' (*note Common
options::).

   As an example of the output, here is the (edited) output for
`tex.pool':
     0: "^^@"
     1: "^^A"
     ...
     255: "^^ff"
     256: "pool size"
     ...
     1314: "Using character substitution: "
     (23617 characters in all.)

   In Metafont and MetaPost, the first 256 characters are actually
represented as single bytes (i.e., themselves), not in the `^^'
notation.  Consider Pooltype as showing the results after conversion for
output.

File: web2c.info,  Node: DVI utilities,  Next: Font utilities,  Prev: WEB,  Up: Top

9 DVI utilities
***************

TeX outputs a file in "DVI" (DeVice Independent) format as a compact
representation of the original document.  DVI files can be translated
to meet the requirements of a real physical device, such as PostScript
printers (*note Introduction: (dvips)Top.), PCL printers (see
dvilj(1)), and X displays (see xdvi(1)).  In fact, DVI translators are
available for virtually all common devices: see `CTAN:/dviware' (for
CTAN info, *note unixtex.ftp: (kpathsea)unixtex.ftp.).

   For the precise definition of the DVI file format, see (for example)
the source file `web2c/dvitype.web'.

   The DVI-processing programs in the Web2c distribution are not device
drivers; they perform generic utility functions.

* Menu:

* dvicopy invocation::          Expand virtual fonts.
* dvitype invocation::          DVI to human-readable text.

File: web2c.info,  Node: dvicopy invocation,  Next: dvitype invocation,  Up: DVI utilities

9.1 DVIcopy: Canonicalize virtual font references
=================================================

DVIcopy reads a DVI file, expands any references to virtual fonts
(*note Virtual fonts: (dvips)Virtual fonts.) to base fonts, and writes
the resulting DVI file.  Thus you can use virtual fonts even if your DVI
processor does not support them, by passing the documents through
DVIcopy first.  Synopsis:

     dvicopy [OPTION]... [INDVI[.dvi] [OUTDVI[.dvi]]]

   DVIcopy reads standard input if INDVI is not specified, and writes
standard output if OUTDVI is not specified.

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-magnification=INTEGER'
     Override existing magnification in INDVI with INTEGER; 1000
     specifies no magnification.  This is equivalent to setting TeX's
     `\mag' parameter.

`-max-pages=N'
     Process N pages; default is one million.

`-page-start=PAGE-SPEC'
     Start at the first page matching PAGE-SPEC, which is one or more
     (signed) integers separated by periods, corresponding to TeX's
     `\count0...9' parameters at `\shipout' time; `*' matches anything.
     Examples: `3', `1.*.-4'.

File: web2c.info,  Node: dvitype invocation,  Prev: dvicopy invocation,  Up: DVI utilities

9.2 DVItype: Plain text transliteration of DVI files
====================================================

DVItype translates a DeVice Independent (DVI) file (as output by TeX,
for example) to a plain text file that humans can read.  It also serves
as a DVI-validating program, i.e., if DVItype can read a file, it's
correct.  Synopsis:

     dvitype [OPTION]... DVIFILE[.dvi]

DVItype does not read any bitmap files, but it does read TFM files for
fonts referenced in DVIFILE.  The usual places are searched (*note
Supported file formats: (kpathsea)Supported file formats.).  To see all
the relevant paths, set the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to
`-1' before running the program.

   Output goes to standard output.

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-dpi=REAL'
     Do pixel movement calculations at REAL pixels per inch; default
     300.0.

`-magnification=INTEGER'
     Override existing magnification in INDVI with INTEGER; 1000
     specifies no magnification.  This is equivalent to setting TeX's
     `\mag' parameter.

`-max-pages=N'
     Process N pages; default is one million.

`-output-level=N'
     Verbosity level of output, from 0 to 4 (default 4):
        * 0: Global document information only.

        * 1: Most DVI commands included, and typeset characters
          summarized.

        * 2: Character and movement commands explicitly included.

        * 3: DVI stack and current position calculations included.

        * 4: Same information as level 3, but DVItype does random
          positioning in the file, reading the DVI postamble first.

`-page-start=PAGE-SPEC'
     Start at the first page matching PAGE-SPEC, which is one or more
     (signed) integers separated by periods, corresponding to TeX's
     `\count0...9' parameters at `\shipout' time; `*' matches anything.
     Examples: `1', `5.*.-9'.

`-show-opcodes'
     Show numeric opcode values (in decimal) for DVI commands, in braces
     after the command name. This can help in debugging DVI utilities.
     We use decimal because in the DVI format documentation (in
     `dvitype.web', among others) the opcodes are shown in decimal.

* Menu:

* dvitype output example::

File: web2c.info,  Node: dvitype output example,  Up: dvitype invocation

9.2.1 DVItype output example
----------------------------

As an example of the output from DVItype (see section above), here is
its (abridged) translation of the `story.dvi' resulting from running
the example in `The TeXbook', with `-output-level=4' and
`-show-opcodes' on.

     ...
     Options selected:
       Starting page = *
       Maximum number of pages = 1000000
       Output level = 4 (the works)
       Resolution = 300.00000000 pixels per inch
     numerator/denominator=25400000/473628672
     magnification=1000;       0.00006334 pixels per DVI unit
     ' TeX output 1992.05.17:0844'
     Postamble starts at byte 564.
     maxv=43725786, maxh=30785863, maxstackdepth=3, totalpages=1
     Font 33: cmsl10---loaded at size 655360 DVI units
     Font 23: cmbx10---loaded at size 655360 DVI units
     Font 0: cmr10---loaded at size 655360 DVI units

     42: beginning of page 1
     87: push {141}
     level 0:(h=0,v=0,w=0,x=0,y=0,z=0,hh=0,vv=0)
     88: down3 -917504 {159} v:=0-917504=-917504, vv:=-58
     92: pop {142}
     ...
     104: putrule {137} height 26214, width 30785863 (2x1950 pixels)
     113: down3 5185936 {159} v:=655360+5185936=5841296, vv:=370
     117: push {141}
     level 1:(h=0,v=5841296,w=0,x=0,y=0,z=0,hh=0,vv=370)
     118: right4 12265425 {146} h:=0+12265425=12265425, hh:=777
     [ ]
     123: fntdef1 23 {243}: cmbx10
     145: fntnum23 {194} current font is cmbx10
     146: setchar65 h:=12265425+569796=12835221, hh:=813
     147: w3 251220 {150} h:=12835221+251220=13086441, hh:=829
     151: setchar83 h:=13086441+418700=13505141, hh:=856
     ...
     164: setchar82 h:=17448202+565245=18013447, hh:=1142
     165: x0 -62805 {152} h:=18013447-62805=17950642, hh:=1138
     166: setchar89 h:=17950642+569796=18520438, hh:=1174
     [A SHORT STORY]
     167: pop {142}
     level 1:(h=0,v=5841296,w=0,x=0,y=0,z=0,hh=0,vv=370)
     ...
     550: pop {142}
     level 0:(h=0,v=42152922,w=0,x=0,y=0,z=0,hh=0,vv=2670)
     551: down3 1572864 {159} v:=42152922+1572864=43725786, vv:=2770
     555: push {141}
     level 0:(h=0,v=43725786,w=0,x=0,y=0,z=0,hh=0,vv=2770)
     556: right4 15229091 {146} h:=0+15229091=15229091, hh:=965
     561: setchar49 h:=15229091+327681=15556772, hh:=986
     [ 1]
     562: pop {142}
     level 0:(h=0,v=43725786,w=0,x=0,y=0,z=0,hh=0,vv=2770)
     563: eop {140}

   Explanation:

   * The DVItype options are recorded at the beginning, followed by
     global information about the document, including fonts used.

   * Each DVI command is preceded by its byte position in the file
     (`42:', `87:', ...), and (because of the `-show-opcodes') followed
     by its decimal opcode value in braces (`{141}', `{142}', ...).

   * The `level' lines record information about the DVI stack; `h' and
     `v' define the current position in DVI units, while `hh' and `vv'
     are the same in pixels.

   * Text sequences are summarized in brackets, as in `[A SHORT STORY]'
     and the `[ 1]'.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Font utilities,  Next: Legalisms,  Prev: DVI utilities,  Up: Top

10 Font utilities
*****************

The Web2c programs described here convert between various TeX-related
font formats; the first section below briefly describes the formats.
GFtoPK is the only one that is routinely used, as Metafont outputs GF
format, but it's most efficient for device drivers to use PK.

   The precise definitions of the PK, GF, TFM, PL, VF, and VPL formats
mentioned below are in the source files that read them; `pktype.web',
`gftype.web', `tftopl.web', etc.

* Menu:

* Font file formats::       Explanations of GF, PK, TFM, VF, ...
* gftopk invocation::       GF -> PK (compact)
* pktogf invocation::       PK -> GF (expand).
* pktype invocation::       PK -> human-readable text.
* gftype invocation::       GF -> human-readable text.
* tftopl invocation::       TFM -> PL (for editing TFM).
* pltotf invocation::       PL -> TFM (make editing results usable).
* vftovp invocation::       VF -> VPL (tftopl for virtual fonts).
* vptovf invocation::       VPL -> VF (pltotf for virtual fonts).
* Font utilities available elsewhere:: Type 1, BDF, editors, etc.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Font file formats,  Next: gftopk invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.1 Font file formats
======================

(For another perspective on this, *note Font concepts: (dvips)Font
concepts.).

   Font files come in several varieties, with suffixes like:
     .tfm  .*pk  .*gf  .*pxl (obsolete)  .pl  .mf  .vf  .vpl
   Each represents a file format.

   A TFM (TeX font metric) file is a compact binary file that contains
information about each character in a font, about combinations of
characters within that font, and about the font as a whole.  The font
metric information contained in TFM files is device-independent units is
used by TeX to do typesetting.  Unlike the bitmap (raster) fonts
described below, TFM font files contain no information about the shapes
of characters.  They describe rectangular areas and combinations
thereof, but not what will eventually be printed in those areas.

   Since TeX does scaling calculations, one TFM file serves for all
magnifications of a given typeface.  On the other hand, the best printed
results are obtained when magnified (or reduced fonts) are not produced
geometrically (as done by PostScript, for example) but rather optically,
with each size a separate design (as done with Computer Modern and the
EC fonts, for example); then a separate TFM file is needed for each
size.

   At any rate, TeX produces a DVI (DeVice Independent) file from your
source document.  In order to print DVI files on real devices, you need
font files defining digitized character shapes and other data.  Then
previewers and printer-driver programs can translate your DVI files into
something usable by your monitor or printer.  Bitmap fonts come with
suffixes such as `.600pk' or `.600gf' or `.3000pxl', where the `600' is
the horizontal dots-per-inch resolution at which the font was produced,
and the `pk' or `gf' or `pxl' indicates the font format.  Outline fonts
in PostScript Type 1 format have suffixes such as `.pfa' or `.pfb'.

   Fonts in pk (packed) format are in the tightly packed raster format
that is pretty much the standard today.  They take up less space than
fonts in the gf (generic font) format that Metafont generates, and far
less space than fonts in pxl format.  Fonts in pxl format take up gross
amounts of disk space and permit only 128 characters.  They are
obsolete.

   Font files with the `.pl' (property list) suffix are the plain text
(human-readable) analog of the binary `.tfm' files.  The TFtoPL and
PLtoTF programs convert between the two formats (*note tftopl
invocation:: and *Note pltotf invocation::).

   Font files with the `.mf' suffix are in Metafont source format.
These are the files used by Metafont to generate rastered fonts for
specific typefaces at specific magnifications for the specific
resolution and type of mapping used by your device.

   The suffix `.vf' identifies "virtual font" files, for which `.vpl'
is the human-readable analog.  See *Note vftovp invocation::, and *Note
vptovf invocation::.  For further discussion of virtual fonts, see
`CTAN:/doc/virtual-fonts.knuth', `CTAN:/help/virtualfonts.txt', and
*Note Virtual fonts: (dvips)Virtual fonts.

   (This section is based on documentation in the original Unix TeX
distribution by Pierre MacKay and Elizabeth Tachikawa.)

File: web2c.info,  Node: gftopk invocation,  Next: pktogf invocation,  Prev: Font file formats,  Up: Font utilities

10.2 GFtoPK: Generic to packed font conversion
==============================================

GFtoPK converts a generic font (GF) file output by, for example,
Metafont (*note mf invocation::) to a packed font (PK) file.  PK files
are considerably smaller than the corresponding gf files, so they are
generally the bitmap font format of choice.  Some DVI-processing
programs, notably Dvips, only support PK files and not GF files.
Synopsis:

     gftopk [OPTION]... GFNAME.DPI[gf] [PKFILE]

The font GFNAME is searched for in the usual places (*note Glyph
lookup: (kpathsea)Glyph lookup.).  To see all the relevant paths, set
the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before running the
program.

   The suffix `gf' is supplied if not already present.  This suffix is
not an extension; no `.' precedes it: for instance, `cmr10.600gf'.

   If PKFILE is not specified, the output is written to the basename of
`GFNAME.DPIpk', e.g., `gftopk /wherever/cmr10.600gf' creates
`./cmr10.600pk'.

   The only options are `--verbose', `--help', and `--version' (*note
Common options::).

File: web2c.info,  Node: pktogf invocation,  Next: pktype invocation,  Prev: gftopk invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.3 PKtoGF: Packed to generic font conversion
==============================================

PKtoGF converts a packed font (PK) file to a generic font (GF) file.
Since PK format is much more compact than GF format, the most likely
reason to do this is to run GFtype (*note gftype invocation::) on the
result, so you can see the bitmap images.  Also, a few old utility
programs do not support PK format.  Synopsis:

     pktogf [OPTION]... PKNAME.DPI[pk] [GFFILE]

The font PKNAME is searched for in the usual places (*note Glyph
lookup: (kpathsea)Glyph lookup.).  To see all the relevant paths, set
the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before running the
program.

   The suffix `pk' is supplied if not already present.  This suffix is
not an extension; no `.' precedes it: for instance, `cmr10.600pk'.

   If GFFILE is not specified, the output is written to the basename of
`PKNAME.DPIgf', e.g., `pktogf /wherever/cmr10.600pk' creates
`./cmr10.600gf'.

   The only options are `--verbose', `--help', and `--version' (*note
Common options::).

File: web2c.info,  Node: pktype invocation,  Next: gftype invocation,  Prev: pktogf invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.4 PKtype: Plain text transliteration of packed fonts
=======================================================

PKtype translates a packed font (PK) bitmap file (as output by GFtoPK,
for example) to a plain text file that humans can read.  It also serves
as a PK-validating program, i.e., if PKtype can read a file, it's
correct.  Synopsis:

     pktype PKNAME.DPI[pk]

   The font PKNAME is searched for in the usual places (*note Glyph
lookup: (kpathsea)Glyph lookup.).  To see all the relevant paths, set
the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before running the
program.

   The suffix `pk' is supplied if not already present.  This suffix is
not an extension; no `.' precedes it: for instance, `cmr10.600pk'.

   The translation is written to standard output.

   The only options are `-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::).

   As an example of the output, here is the (abridged) translation of
the letter `K' in `cmr10', as rendered at 600dpi with the mode `ljfour'
from `modes.mf' (available from `ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/modes.mf').

     955:  Flag byte = 184  Character = 75  Packet length = 174
       Dynamic packing variable = 11
       TFM width = 815562  dx = 4259840
       Height = 57  Width = 57  X-offset = -3  Y-offset = 56
       [2]23(16)17(8)9(25)11(13)7(27)7(16)7(28)4(18)7(28)2(20)7(27)...
       ...
       (14)9(24)12(5)[2]23(13)21

Explanation:

`955'
     The byte position in the file where this character starts.

`Flag byte'
`Dynamic packing variable'
     Related to the packing for this character; see the source code.

`Character'
     The character code, in decimal.

`Packet length'
     The total length of this character definition, in bytes.

`TFM width'
     The device-independent (TFM) width of this character.  It is 2^24
     times the ratio of the true width to the font's design size.

`dx'
     The device-dependent width, in "scaled pixels", i.e., units of
     horizontal pixels times 2^16.

`Height'
`Width'
     The bitmap height and width, in pixels.

`X-offset'
`Y-offset'
     Horizontal and vertical offset from the upper left pixel to the
     reference (origin) pixel for this character, in pixels (right and
     down are positive).  The "reference pixel" is the pixel that
     occupies the unit square in Metafont; the Metafont reference point
     is the lower left hand corner of this pixel. Put another way, the
     x-offset is the negative of the left side bearing; the right side
     bearing is the horizontal escapement minus the bitmap width plus
     the x-offset.

`[2]23(16)...'
     Finally, run lengths of black pixels alternate with parenthesized
     run lengths of white pixels, and brackets indicate a repeated row.

File: web2c.info,  Node: gftype invocation,  Next: tftopl invocation,  Prev: pktype invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.5 GFtype: Plain text transliteration of generic fonts
========================================================

GFtype translates a generic font (GF) bitmap file (as output by
Metafont, for example) to a plain text file that humans can read.  It
also serves as a GF-validating program, i.e., if GFtype can read a file,
it's correct.  Synopsis:

     gftype [OPTION]... GFNAME.DPI[gf]

   The font GFNAME is searched for in the usual places (*note Glyph
lookup: (kpathsea)Glyph lookup.).  To see all the relevant paths, set
the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before running the
program.

   The suffix `gf' is supplied if not already present.  This suffix is
not an extension; no `.' precedes it: for instance, `cmr10.600gf'.

   The translation is written to standard output.

   The program accepts the following options, as well as the standard
`-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-images'
     Show the characters' bitmaps using asterisks and spaces.

`-mnemonics'
     Translate all commands in the GF file.

   As an example of the output, here is the (abrdiged) translation of
the letter `K' in `cmr10', as rendered at 600dpi with the mode `ljfour'
from `modes.mf' (available from `ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/modes.mf'), with
both `-mnemonics' and `-images' enabled.

   GFtype outputs the information about a character in two places: a
main definition and a one-line summary at the end. We show both.  Here
is the main definition:

     2033: beginning of char 75: 3<=m<=60 0<=n<=56
     (initially n=56) paint (0)24(12)20
     2043: newrow 0 (n=55) paint 24(12)20
     2047: newrow 0 (n=54) paint 24(12)20
     2051: newrow 0 (n=53) paint 24(12)20
     2055: newrow 7 (n=52) paint 10(21)13
     2059: newrow 8 (n=51) paint 8(23)9
     ...
     2249: newrow 8 (n=5) paint 8(23)11
     2253: newrow 7 (n=4) paint 10(22)12
     2257: newrow 0 (n=3) paint 24(11)22
     2261: newrow 0 (n=2) paint 24(11)22
     2265: newrow 0 (n=1) paint 24(11)22
     2269: newrow 0 (n=0) paint 24(11)22
     2273: eoc
     .<--This pixel's lower left corner is at (3,57) in METAFONT coordinates
     ************************            ********************
     ************************            ********************
     ************************            ********************
     ************************            ********************
            **********                     *************
             ********                       *********
     ...
             ********                       ***********
            **********                      ************
     ************************           **********************
     ************************           **********************
     ************************           **********************
     ************************           **********************
     .<--This pixel's upper left corner is at (3,0) in METAFONT coordinates

Explanation:

`2033'
`2043'
`...'
     The byte position in the file where each GF command starts.

`beginning of char 75'
     The character code, in decimal.

`3<=m<=60 0<=n<=56'
     The character's bitmap lies between 3 and 60 (inclusive)
     horizontally, and between 0 and 56 (inclusive) vertically. (m is a
     column position and n is a row position.)  Thus, 3 is the left side
     bearing.  The right side bearing is the horizontal escapement
     (given below) minus the maximum m.

`(initially n=56) paint (0)24(12)20'
     The first row of pixels: 0 white pixels, 24 black pixels, 12 white
     pixels, etc.

`newrow 0 (n=55) paint 24(12)20'
     The second row of pixels, with zero leading white pixels on the
     row.

`eoc'
     The end of the main character definition.


   Here is the GF postamble information that GFtype outputs at the end:

     Character 75: dx 4259840 (65), width 815562 (64.57289), loc 2033

   Explanation:

`dx'
     The device-dependent width, in "scaled pixels", i.e., units of
     horizontal pixels times 2^16.  The `(65)' is simply the same number
     rounded.  If the vertical escapement is nonzero, it would appear
     here as a `dy' value.

`width'
     The device-independent (TFM) width of this character.  It is 2^24
     times the ratio of the true width to the font's design size.  The
     `64.57289' is the same number converted to pixels.

`loc'
     The byte position in the file where this character starts.


File: web2c.info,  Node: tftopl invocation,  Next: pltotf invocation,  Prev: gftype invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.6 TFtoPL: TeX font metric to property list conversion
========================================================

TFtoPL translates a TeX font metric (TFM, *note Metric files:
(dvips)Metric files.) file (as output by Metafont, for example) to
"property list format" (a list of parenthesized items describing the
font) that humans can edit or read.  This program is mostly used by
people debugging TeX implementations, writing font utilities, etc.
Synopsis:

     tftopl [OPTION]... TFMNAME[.tfm] [PLFILE[.pl]]

   The font TFMNAME (extended with `.tfm' if necessary) is searched for
in the usual places (*note Supported file formats: (kpathsea)Supported
file formats.).  To see all the relevant paths, set the environment
variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before running the program.

   If PLFILE (which is extended with `.pl' if necessary) is not
specified, the property list file is written to standard output.  The
property list file can be converted back to TFM format by the companion
program TFtoPL (see the next section).

   The program accepts the following option, as well as the standard
`-verbose', `-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-charcode-format=TYPE'
     Output character codes in the PL file according to TYPE: either
     `octal' or `ascii'.  Default is `ascii' for letters and digits,
     octal for all other characters.  Exception: if the font's coding
     scheme starts with `TeX math sy' or `TeX math ex', all character
     codes are output in octal.

     In `ascii' format, character codes that correspond to graphic
     characters, except for left and right parentheses, are output as a
     `C' followed by the single character: `C K', for example.  In
     octal format, character codes are output as the letter `O' followed
     by octal digits, as in `O 113' for `K'.

     `octal' format is useful for symbol and other non-alphabetic fonts,
     where using ASCII characters for the character codes is merely
     confusing.

   As an example of the output, here is the (abridged) property list
translation of `cmr10.tfm':

     (FAMILY CMR)
     (FACE O 352)
     (CODINGSCHEME TEX TEXT)
     (DESIGNSIZE R 10.0)
     (COMMENT DESIGNSIZE IS IN POINTS)
     (COMMENT OTHER SIZES ARE MULTIPLES OF DESIGNSIZE)
     (CHECKSUM O 11374260171)
     (FONTDIMEN
        (SLANT R 0.0)
        (SPACE R 0.333334)
        (STRETCH R 0.166667)
        (SHRINK R 0.111112)
        (XHEIGHT R 0.430555)
        (QUAD R 1.000003)
        (EXTRASPACE R 0.111112)
        )
     (LIGTABLE
        ...
        (LABEL C f)
        (LIG C i O 14)
        (LIG C f O 13)
        (LIG C l O 15)
        (KRN O 47 R 0.077779)
        (KRN O 77 R 0.077779)
        (KRN O 41 R 0.077779)
        (KRN O 51 R 0.077779)
        (KRN O 135 R 0.077779)
        (STOP)
        ...
        )
     ...
     (CHARACTER C f
        (CHARWD R 0.305557)
        (CHARHT R 0.694445)
        (CHARIC R 0.077779)
        (COMMENT
           (LIG C i O 14)
           (LIG C f O 13)
           (LIG C l O 15)
           (KRN O 47 R 0.077779)
           (KRN O 77 R 0.077779)
           ...
           )
        )
     ...

   As you can see, the general format is a list of parenthesized
"properties", nested where necessary.

   * The first few items (`FAMILY', `FACE', and so on) are the
     so-called "headerbyte" information from Metafont, giving general
     information about the font.

   * The `FONTDIMEN' property defines the TeX `\fontdimen' values.

   * The `LIGTABLE' property defines the ligature and kerning table.
     `LIG' properties define ligatures: in the example above, an `f'
     (in the `LABEL') followed by an `i' is a ligature, i.e., a
     typesetting program like TeX replaces those two consecutive
     characters by the character at position octal '014 in the current
     font--presumably the `fi' ligature.  `KRN' properties define
     kerns: if an `f' is followed by character octal '047 (an
     apostrophe), TeX inserts a small amount of space between them:
     0.077779 times the design size the font was loaded at (about
     three-quarters of a printer's point by default in this case, or
     .001 inches).

   * The `CHARACTER' property defines the dimensions of a character: its
     width, height, depth, and italic correction, also in design-size
     units, as explained in the previous item.  For our example `f',
     the depth is zero, so that property is omitted.  TFtoPL also
     inserts any kerns and ligatures for this character as a comment.


File: web2c.info,  Node: pltotf invocation,  Next: vftovp invocation,  Prev: tftopl invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.7 PLtoTF: Property list to TeX font metric conversion
========================================================

PLtoTF translates a property list file (as output by TFtoPL, for
example) to TeX font metric (TFM, *note Metric files: (dvips)Metric
files.)  format.  It's much easier for both programs and humans to
create the (plain text) property list files and let PLtoTF take care of
creating the binary TFM equivalent than to output TFM files directly.
Synopsis:

     pltotf [OPTION]... PLFILE[.pl] [TFMFILE[.tfm]]

   If TFMFILE (extended with `.tfm' if necessary) is not specified, the
TFM file is written to the basename of `PLFILE.tfm', e.g., `pltotf
/wherever/cmr10.pl' creates `./cmr10.tfm'.  (Since TFM files are
binary, writing to standard output by default is undesirable.)

   The only options are `-verbose', `-help', and `-version' (*note
Common options::).

   For an example of property list format, see the previous section.

File: web2c.info,  Node: vftovp invocation,  Next: vptovf invocation,  Prev: pltotf invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.8 VFtoVP: Virtual font to virtual property lists
===================================================

VFtoVP translates a virtual font metric (VF, *note Virtual fonts:
(dvips)Virtual fonts.) file and its accompanying TeX font metric (TFM,
*note Metric files: (dvips)Metric files.) file (as output by VPtoVF, for
example) to "virtual property list format" (a list of parenthesized
items describing the virtual font) that humans can edit or read.  This
program is mostly used by people debugging virtual font utilities.
Synopsis:

     vftovp [OPTION]... VFNAME[.vf] [TFMNAME[.tfm] [VPLFILE[.vpl]]]

   The fonts VFNAME and TFMNAME (extended with `.vf' and `.tfm' if
necessary) are searched for in the usual places (*note Supported file
formats: (kpathsea)Supported file formats.).  To see all the relevant
paths, set the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before
running the program.  If TFMNAME is not specified, VFNAME (without a
trailing `.vf') is used.

   If VPLFILE (extended with `.vpl' if necessary) is not specified, the
property list file is written to standard output.  The property list
file can be converted back to VF and TFM format by the companion
program VFtoVP (see the next section).

   The program accepts the following option, as well as the standard
`-verbose', `-help' and `-version' (*note Common options::):
`-charcode-format=TYPE'
     Output character codes in the PL file according to TYPE: either
     `octal' or `ascii'.  Default is `ascii' for letters and digits,
     octal for all other characters.  Exception: if the font's coding
     scheme starts with `TeX math sy' or `TeX math ex', all character
     codes are output in octal.

     In `ascii' format, character codes that correspond to graphic
     characters, except for left and right parentheses, are output as a
     `C' followed by the single character: `C K', for example.  In
     octal format, character codes are output as the letter `O' followed
     by octal digits, as in `O 113' for `K'.

     `octal' format is useful for symbol and other non-alphabetic fonts,
     where using ASCII characters for the character codes is merely
     confusing.

File: web2c.info,  Node: vptovf invocation,  Next: Font utilities available elsewhere,  Prev: vftovp invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.9 VPtoVF: Virtual property lists to virtual font
===================================================

VPtoVF translates a virtual property list file (as output by VFtoVP, for
example) to virtual font (VF, *note Virtual fonts: (dvips)Virtual
fonts.) and TeX font metric (TFM, *note Metric files: (dvips)Metric
files.) files.  It's much easier for both programs and humans to create
the (plain text) property list files and let VPtoVF take care of
creating the binary VF and TFM equivalents than to output them
directly.  Synopsis:

     vptovf [OPTION]... VPLFILE[.vpl] [VFFILE[.vf] [TFMFILE[.tfm]]]

   If VFFILE (extended with `.vf' if necessary) is not specified, the
VF output is written to the basename of `VPLFILE.vf'; similarly for
TFMFILE.  For example, `vptovf /wherever/ptmr.vpl' creates `./ptmr.vf'
and `./ptmr.tfm'.

   The only options are `-verbose', `-help', and `-version' (*note
Common options::).

File: web2c.info,  Node: Font utilities available elsewhere,  Prev: vptovf invocation,  Up: Font utilities

10.10 Font utilities available elsewhere
========================================

The Web2c complement of font utilities merely implements a few basic
conversions.  Many other more sophisticated font utilities exist; most
are in `CTAN:/fonts/utilities' (for CTAN info, *note unixtex.ftp:
(kpathsea)unixtex.ftp.).  Here are some of the most commonly-requested
items:

   * AFM (Adobe font metric) to TFM conversion: *note Invoking afm2tfm:
     (dvips)Invoking afm2tfm, and `CTAN:/fonts/utilities/afmtopl'.

   * BDF (the X bitmap format) conversion:
     `ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/bdf.tar.gz'.

   * Creating fonts using MetaPost: MetaType1.
     `ftp://bop.eps.gda.pl/pub/metatype1'.  This is used to create the
     excellent Latin Modern font family (`CTAN:/fonts/lm'), which
     extends Computer Modern to a vast repertoire of scripts.

   * Editing of bitmap fonts: Xbfe from the GNU font utilities mentioned
     below; the X BDF-editing programs available from
     `ftp://ftp.x.org/R5contrib/xfed.tar.Z' and
     `ftp://ftp.x.org/R5contrib/xfedor.tar.Z'; and finally, if your
     fonts have only 128 characters, you can use the old `gftopxl',
     `pxtoch', and `chtopx' programs from `ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/web'.

   * Editing of outline fonts: FontForge, `fontforge.sourceforge.net'.
     This is a very elaborate program with support for many outline
     formats (Type 1, OpenType, TrueType, ...), and many advanced font
     editing features.

   * PK bitmaps from PostScript outline fonts: gsftopk from the `xdvi'
     distribution.  Alternatively, `ps2pk', from
     `CTAN:/fonts/utilities/ps2pk'.

   * PostScript Type 1 font format conversion (i.e., between PFA and PFB
     formats): `ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/t1utils.tar.gz'.

   * Scanned image conversion: the (aging) GNU font utilities convert
     type specimen images to Metafont, PostScript, etc.:
     `http://www.gnu.org/software/fontutils/'.

   * Tracing bitmaps to fitted outlines: Autotrace
     (`http://autotrace.sourceforge.net'), Potrace
     (`http://potrace.sourceforge.net').  For Metafont fonts, either of
     the two programs `mftrace'
     (`http://www.xs4all.nl/~hanwen/mftrace') or `textrace'
     (`http://textrace.sourceforge.net') make the job easier.

   * Virtual font creation: `CTAN:/fonts/utilities/fontinst'.

File: web2c.info,  Node: Legalisms,  Next: References,  Prev: Font utilities,  Up: Top

Appendix A Legalisms
********************

In general, each file has its own copyright notice stating the copying
permissions for that file.  Following is a summary.

   The Web2c system itself and most of the original WEB source files are
public domain.

   `tex.web', the MLTeX code, `mf.web', and `bibtex.web', are
copyrighted by their authors.  They may be copied verbatim, but may be
modified only through a `.ch' file.

   MetaPost-related files, including `mp.web' itself, are copyrighted
under X-like terms; the precise notice is included below.

   Finally, the Kpathsea library is covered by the GNU Lesser General
Public License (*note Introduction: (kpathsea)Introduction.).
Therefore, the _binaries_ resulting from a standard Web2c compilation
are also covered by the LGPL; so if you (re)distribute the binaries,
you must also (offer to) distribute the complete source that went into
those binaries.  See the file `LGPL' for complete details on the LGPL.

   The following notice must be included by the terms of the MetaPost
copyright.

     Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and
     its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby
     granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all
     copies and that both that the copyright notice and this permission
     notice and warranty disclaimer appear in supporting documentation,
     and that the names of AT&T Bell Laboratories or any of its
     entities not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to
     distribution of the software without specific, written prior
     permission.

     AT&T disclaims all warranties with regard to this software,
     including all implied warranties of merchantability and fitness.
     In no event shall AT&T be liable for any special, indirect or
     consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from
     loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract,
     negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in
     connection with the use or performance of this software.

File: web2c.info,  Node: References,  Next: Index,  Prev: Legalisms,  Up: Top

Appendix B References
*********************

  1. Kpathsea: *Note Introduction: (kpathsea)Top.

  2. Dvips and Afm2tfm: *Note Introduction: (dvips)Top.

  3. The TeX Users Group: `http://www.tug.org'.  For an introduction to
     the TeX system, see `http://tug.org/begin.html'.

  4. TUGboat: `http://tug.org/TUGboat'.

  5. TeX and computer typesetting in general:
     `ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/texbook1.bib'.

  6. For a bibliography of formal articles and technical reports on the
     TeX project, see the books `TeX: The Program' or `Metafont: The
     Program' cited below.

  7. [Bil87] Neenie Billawala.  Write-white printing engines and tuning
     fonts with Metafont.  `TUGboat', 8(1):29-32, April 1987.

  8. [GMS94] Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin.
     `The LaTeX Companion'.  Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1994.

  9. [Hob89] John D. Hobby.  A Metafont-like system with PS output.
     `TUGboat', 10(4):505-512, December 1989.

 10. [Hob92] John D. Hobby.  A User's Manual for MetaPost.  Technical
     Report CSTR-162, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1992.

 11. [Hob93] John D. Hobby.  Drawing Graphs with MetaPost.  Technical
     Report CSTR-164, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1993.

 12. [HS91] Samuel P. Harbison and Guy L. Steele Jr.  `C--A Reference
     Manual'.  Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458, USA, third
     edition, 1991.  An authoritative reference to the C programming
     language, and a good   companion to Kernighan and Ritchie.

 13. [KL93] Donald E. Knuth and Silvio Levy.  `The CWEB System of
     Structured Documentation, Version 3.0'.  Addison-Wesley, Reading,
     MA, USA, 1993.

 14. [Knu84] Donald E. Knuth.  A torture test for TeX.  Report No.
     STAN-CS-84-1027, Stanford University, Department of Computer
     Science, 1984.

 15. [Knu86a] Donald E. Knuth.  A Torture Test for METAFONT.  Report
     No. STAN-CS-86-1095, Stanford University, Department of Computer
     Science, 1986.

 16. [Knu86b] Donald E. Knuth.  `The TeXbook', volume A of `Computers
     and Typesetting'.  Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986.

 17. [Knu86c] Donald E. Knuth.  `TeX: The Program', volume B of
     `Computers and Typesetting'.  Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA,
     1986.

 18. [Knu86d] Donald E. Knuth.  `The METAFONTbook', volume C of
     `Computers and Typesetting'.  Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA,
     1986.

 19. [Knu86e] Donald E. Knuth.  `METAFONT: The Program', volume D of
     `Computers and   Typesetting'.  Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA,
     1986.

 20. [Knu86f] Donald E. Knuth.  `Computer Modern Typefaces', volume E
     of `Computers and   Typesetting'.  Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA,
     USA, 1986.

 21. [Knu89] Donald E. Knuth.  The errors of TeX.  `Software--Practice
     and Experience', 19(7):607-681, July   1989.  This is an updated
     version of iteKnuth:1988:ET.

 22. [Knu90] Donald Knuth.  Virtual Fonts: More Fun for Grand Wizards.
     `TUGboat', 11(1):13-23, April 1990.

 23. [Knu92] Donald E. Knuth.  `Literate Programming'.  CSLI Lecture
     Notes Number 27. Stanford University Center for the Study of
     Language and Information, Stanford, CA, USA, 1992.

 24. [Lam94] Leslie Lamport.  `LaTeX: A Document Preparation System:
     User's Guide and Reference   Manual'.  Addison-Wesley, Reading,
     MA, USA, second edition, 1994.  Reprinted with corrections in 1996.

 25. [Lia83] Franklin Mark Liang.  Word hy-phen-a-tion by com-pu-ter.
     Technical Report STAN-CS-83-977, Stanford University, August 1983.

 26. [Mac91] Pierre A. MacKay.  Looking at the pixels: Quality control
     for 300 dpi laser printer fonts,   especially Metafonts.  In
     Robert A. Morris and Jacques Andre, editors, `Raster Imaging and
     Digital Typography II--Papers from the second RIDT meeting, held in
      Boston, Oct. 14-16, 1991', pages 205-215, New York, 1991.
     Cambridge   University Press.

 27. [Spi89] Michael D. Spivak.  `LAMSTeX, The Synthesis'.  The
     TeXplorators Corporation, 3701 W. Alabama, Suite 450-273, Houston,
     TX   77027, USA, 1989.

 28. [Spi90] Michael D. Spivak.  `The Joy of TeX--A Gourmet Guide to
     Typesetting with the   AMSTeX macro package'.  American
     Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, USA, 2nd revised edition,
     1990.


File: web2c.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: References,  Up: Top

Index
*****

[index]
* Menu:

* #define options:                       Compile-time options.
                                                              (line   6)
* $ expansion in filenames:              \input filenames.    (line  48)
* %& magic number:                       Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line  20)
* - starting a filename:                 Option conventions.  (line  19)
* - starts option names:                 Option conventions.  (line  11)
* -- starts option names:                Option conventions.  (line  11)
* --disable-dump-share configure option: Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* --enable-ipc configure option:         tex invocation.      (line 101)
* --help common option:                  Common options.      (line  11)
* --quiet (newer):                       newer invocation.    (line  20)
* --verbose (newer):                     newer invocation.    (line  23)
* --verbose common option:               Common options.      (line  15)
* --version common option:               Common options.      (line  18)
* --with-editor=CMD:                     Editor invocation.   (line  10)
* --with-epsfwin:                        Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  20)
* --with-hp2627win:                      Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  28)
* --with-mftalkwin:                      Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  31)
* --with-next:                           Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  35)
* --with-regiswin:                       Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  40)
* --with-suntoolswin:                    Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  43)
* --with-tektronixwin:                   Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  48)
* --with-unitermwin:                     Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  51)
* --with-x:                              Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  57)
* --with-x-toolkit=KIT:                  Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  60)
* --with-x11:                            Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  57)
* --with-x11win:                         Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  57)
* -8bit:                                 Common options.      (line 103)
* -base=BASE:                            Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line  15)
* -base=DUMPNAME:                        Common options.      (line  34)
* -change=CHFILE:                        mft invocation.      (line  64)
* -charcode-format=TYPE <1>:             vftovp invocation.   (line  31)
* -charcode-format=TYPE:                 tftopl invocation.   (line  28)
* -D compiler options:                   Compile-time options.
                                                              (line   6)
* -dpi=REAL:                             dvitype invocation.  (line  24)
* -enc:                                  tex invocation.      (line  95)
* -file-line-error:                      Common options.      (line  25)
* -file-line-error-style:                Common options.      (line  26)
* -fmt=DUMPNAME:                         Common options.      (line  34)
* -fmt=FMT:                              Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line  15)
* -geometry, supported with Xt:          Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  66)
* -halt-on-error:                        Common options.      (line  41)
* -images:                               gftype invocation.   (line  26)
* -ini <1>:                              Initial and virgin.  (line  12)
* -ini:                                  Common options.      (line  45)
* -interaction=STRING:                   Common options.      (line  51)
* -ipc:                                  tex invocation.      (line 101)
* -ipc-start:                            tex invocation.      (line 101)
* -jobname=STRING:                       Common options.      (line  56)
* -kpathsea-debug=NUMBER:                Common options.      (line  60)
* -length=NUMBER:                        tangle invocation.   (line  27)
* -loose:                                tangle invocation.   (line  46)
* -lowercase:                            tangle invocation.   (line  35)
* -magnification=INTEGER <1>:            dvitype invocation.  (line  28)
* -magnification=INTEGER:                dvicopy invocation.  (line  20)
* -max-pages=N <1>:                      dvitype invocation.  (line  33)
* -max-pages=N:                          dvicopy invocation.  (line  25)
* -mem=DUMPNAME:                         Common options.      (line  34)
* -mem=MEM:                              Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line  15)
* -min-crossrefs=N:                      bibtex invocation.   (line  31)
* -mixedcase:                            tangle invocation.   (line  35)
* -mktex=FILETYPE <1>:                   mf invocation.       (line  87)
* -mktex=FILETYPE:                       tex invocation.      (line 111)
* -mltex:                                tex invocation.      (line 115)
* -mnemonics:                            gftype invocation.   (line  29)
* -no-file-line-error:                   Common options.      (line  26)
* -no-mktex=FILETYPE <1>:                mf invocation.       (line  87)
* -no-mktex=FILETYPE:                    tex invocation.      (line 111)
* -no-parse-first-line:                  Common options.      (line  78)
* -no-shell-escape:                      tex invocation.      (line 128)
* -oem:                                  Common options.      (line 108)
* -output-comment=STRING:                tex invocation.      (line 120)
* -output-directory <1>:                 Output file location.
                                                              (line  15)
* -output-directory:                     Common options.      (line  67)
* -output-level=N:                       dvitype invocation.  (line  36)
* -overflow-label-offset=POINTS:         gftodvi invocation.  (line  49)
* -page-start=PAGE-SPEC <1>:             dvitype invocation.  (line  50)
* -page-start=PAGE-SPEC:                 dvicopy invocation.  (line  28)
* -parse-first-line:                     Common options.      (line  77)
* -progname=STRING <1>:                  Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line  18)
* -progname=STRING:                      Common options.      (line  83)
* -recorder:                             Common options.      (line  90)
* -shell-escape:                         tex invocation.      (line 127)
* -show-opcodes:                         dvitype invocation.  (line  56)
* -strict:                               tangle invocation.   (line  46)
* -style=MFTFILE:                        mft invocation.      (line  68)
* -T:                                    mpost invocation.    (line 117)
* -terse:                                bibtex invocation.   (line  28)
* -tex:                                  mpto invocation.     (line  24)
* -tex=TEXPROGRAM:                       mpost invocation.    (line 121)
* -translate-file=TCXFILE:               Common options.      (line  96)
* -troff <1>:                            mpto invocation.     (line  21)
* -troff <2>:                            makempx invocation.  (line  39)
* -troff:                                mpost invocation.    (line 117)
* -underline:                            tangle invocation.   (line  41)
* -uppercase:                            tangle invocation.   (line  35)
* -x:                                    weave invocation.    (line  22)
* ., used for output:                    Output file location.
                                                              (line   6)
* .2602gf:                               mf invocation.       (line  48)
* .aux cross-reference files:            bibtex invocation.   (line   6)
* .base:                                 Initial Metafont.    (line   6)
* .bbl bibliography files:               bibtex invocation.   (line   6)
* .bib bibliography databases:           bibtex invocation.   (line   6)
* .blg BibTeX log file:                  bibtex invocation.   (line  14)
* .fmt:                                  Initial TeX.         (line   6)
* .mem:                                  Initial MetaPost.    (line   6)
* .mf:                                   mf invocation.       (line  24)
* .mp:                                   mpost invocation.    (line  31)
* .NNN PostScript figures:               mpost invocation.    (line  37)
* .NNNgf generic fonts:                  mf invocation.       (line  34)
* .tcx character translation files <1>:  TCX files.           (line   6)
* .tcx character translation files:      Common options.      (line  96)
* .tex:                                  tex invocation.      (line  20)
* .tfm output <1>:                       mpost invocation.    (line  37)
* .tfm output:                           mf invocation.       (line  43)
* .Xdefaults:                            Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  66)
* .Xresources:                           Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  66)
* 2602gf:                                mf invocation.       (line  48)
* 8 bit clean:                           Common options.      (line 103)
* 8 bit clean output, specifying:        Common options.      (line 103)
* 8-bit characters:                      TCX files.           (line   6)
* \bibliography:                         bibtex invocation.   (line  18)
* \bibliographystyle:                    bibtex invocation.   (line  18)
* \charsubdef and MLTeX:                 \charsubdef.         (line   6)
* \countN <1>:                           dvitype invocation.  (line  50)
* \countN:                               dvicopy invocation.  (line  28)
* \font and dynamic generation:          tex invocation.      (line  44)
* \fontdimen:                            tftopl invocation.   (line 100)
* \immediate\write18:                    tex invocation.      (line 128)
* \input filenames:                      \input filenames.    (line   6)
* \mag <1>:                              dvitype invocation.  (line  28)
* \mag:                                  dvicopy invocation.  (line  20)
* \openout and security:                 tex invocation.      (line  51)
* \string:                               \input filenames.    (line  60)
* \tracingcharsubdef and MLTeX:          \tracingcharsubdef.  (line   6)
* \tracinglostchars and MLTeX:           \tracingcharsubdef.  (line  11)
* \write18 shell escape extension:       tex invocation.      (line 128)
* ^^ notation, avoiding:                 TCX files.           (line  88)
* `Computer Modern Typefaces', production of: mft invocation. (line  75)
* abbrv.bst:                             Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line  16)
* accented character:                    TCX files.           (line   6)
* accents, hyphenating words with:       MLTeX.               (line   6)
* acknowledgements:                      Introduction.        (line  51)
* acm.bst:                               Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line  19)
* Ada, WEB for:                          WEB.                 (line  14)
* additional Make targets:               Additional targets.  (line   6)
* AFM to TFM conversion:                 Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  12)
* afm2tfm:                               Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  12)
* afmtopl:                               Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  12)
* aliases for fonts:                     Path searching.      (line  15)
* alpha.bst:                             Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line  22)
* American Mathematical Society, typesetting system: Formats. (line  39)
* AMSTeX:                                Formats.             (line  39)
* apalike.bst:                           Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line  25)
* Arabic typesetting:                    TeX extensions.      (line  25)
* architecture dependencies:             Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* array limit, fixed:                    Runtime options.     (line  36)
* array sizes:                           Runtime options.     (line   6)
* assembly language routines:            Compile-time options.
                                                              (line  22)
* autotrace:                             Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  46)
* Awk, WEB for:                          WEB.                 (line  14)
* base file, determining:                Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line   6)
* base files:                            Initial Metafont.    (line   6)
* base files, need mode definitions:     Modes.               (line   6)
* base files, plain only:                Initial Metafont.    (line  28)
* base files, sharing:                   Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* bases Make target:                     Additional targets.  (line  29)
* basic BibTeX style files:              Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line   6)
* basic fonts and macros:                Installation.        (line  34)
* batch languages:                       TeX.                 (line   9)
* BDF and GF conversion:                 Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  15)
* beginfig:                              mpost invocation.    (line  37)
* BeginPath ditroff command:             dmp invocation.      (line  15)
* Berry, Karl:                           Introduction.        (line  41)
* BIBINPUTS, search path for bib files:  bibtex invocation.   (line  18)
* bibliographies, creating:              BibTeX.              (line   6)
* bibliography:                          References.          (line   6)
* bibliography items, cross-referenced:  bibtex invocation.   (line  31)
* bibtex:                                bibtex invocation.   (line   6)
* BibTeX:                                BibTeX.              (line   6)
* BibTeX collection:                     bibtex invocation.   (line  54)
* BibTeX style files:                    Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line   6)
* BigEndian machines:                    Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* binaries, linking:                     Common options.      (line  83)
* blank lines, in TCX files:             TCX files.           (line  67)
* Bourne shell commands in TeX:          tex invocation.      (line 128)
* boxes, memory for:                     Runtime options.     (line  20)
* breakpoints, memory for:               Runtime options.     (line  20)
* Breitenlohner, Peter:                  Introduction.        (line   9)
* BSTINPUTS, search path for bst files:  bibtex invocation.   (line  18)
* btex and label extraction:             mpto invocation.     (line   6)
* btex for MetaPost labels:              mpost invocation.    (line  50)
* btxdoc.bib:                            bibtex invocation.   (line  48)
* btxdoc.tex:                            bibtex invocation.   (line  42)
* btxhak.tex:                            bibtex invocation.   (line  45)
* byte position <1>:                     gftype invocation.   (line  76)
* byte position:                         pktype invocation.   (line  40)
* byte swapping:                         Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  13)
* c-sources Makefile target:             Additional targets.  (line  12)
* captions, extracting from MetaPost input: mpto invocation.  (line   6)
* captions, for MetaPost:                makempx invocation.  (line   6)
* change files, and MFT:                 mft invocation.      (line  64)
* change files, and Tangle:              tangle invocation.   (line  11)
* change files, and Weave:               weave invocation.    (line  14)
* changing error messages style:         Common options.      (line  26)
* character codes, in GFtype output:     gftype invocation.   (line  79)
* character codes, in PKtype output:     pktype invocation.   (line  47)
* character codes, in TCX files:         TCX files.           (line  78)
* character proofs of fonts:             gftodvi invocation.  (line   6)
* CHARACTER property:                    tftopl invocation.   (line 114)
* character translation files:           TCX files.           (line   6)
* CHARDP property:                       tftopl invocation.   (line 114)
* CHARHT property:                       tftopl invocation.   (line 114)
* CHARIC property:                       tftopl invocation.   (line 114)
* CHARWD property:                       tftopl invocation.   (line 114)
* chtopx:                                Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  23)
* class name for Metafont:               Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  66)
* cm.base:                               Initial Metafont.    (line  28)
* cmbase.mf:                             Initial Metafont.    (line  28)
* cmbase.mft:                            mft invocation.      (line  75)
* cmmf.base not recommended:             Initial Metafont.    (line  28)
* comments, in TCX files:                TCX files.           (line  71)
* comments, MFT control:                 mft invocation.      (line  24)
* common options:                        Common options.      (line   6)
* commonalities:                         Commonalities.       (line   6)
* comparing file modification times:     newer invocation.    (line   6)
* compilation:                           Installation.        (line   6)
* compile-time options <1>:              Compile-time options.
                                                              (line   6)
* compile-time options:                  configure options.   (line   6)
* Computer Modern fonts, and Troff:      mpost invocation.    (line  73)
* Computer Modern macros:                Initial Metafont.    (line  28)
* configuration:                         Installation.        (line   6)
* configuration file reading:            Path searching.      (line   6)
* configuration file values:             Runtime options.     (line   6)
* configuration, compile-time:           configure options.   (line   6)
* configure --with/--enable options:     configure options.   (line   6)
* CONTENTS.tex:                          weave invocation.    (line  22)
* control sequence names, space for:     Runtime options.     (line  29)
* conventions for options,:              Option conventions.  (line   6)
* conversion, DVI to plain text:         dvitype invocation.  (line   6)
* conversion, GF to PK:                  gftopk invocation.   (line   6)
* conversion, GF to plain text:          gftype invocation.   (line   6)
* conversion, PK to GF:                  pktogf invocation.   (line   6)
* conversion, PK to plain text:          pktype invocation.   (line   6)
* conversion, property list to TFM:      pltotf invocation.   (line   6)
* conversion, property list to VF:       vptovf invocation.   (line   6)
* conversion, TFM to property list:      tftopl invocation.   (line   6)
* conversion, VF to VPL:                 vftovp invocation.   (line   6)
* copyright notices:                     Legalisms.           (line   6)
* Cork encoding and ISO input:           TCX files.           (line  49)
* creating memory dumps:                 Creating memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* cross-referenced bibliography items:   bibtex invocation.   (line  31)
* cross-references, omitting:            weave invocation.    (line  22)
* current directory, used for output:    Output file location.
                                                              (line   6)
* Curtis, Pavel:                         Introduction.        (line  41)
* CWEB:                                  WEB.                 (line  14)
* Cweb:                                  WEB.                 (line  14)
* D C ditroff graphics:                  dmp invocation.      (line  15)
* date and time, in memory dumps:        Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  30)
* debugging DVI utilities:               dvitype invocation.  (line  56)
* debugging flags, specifying:           Common options.      (line  60)
* decimal character codes, in TCX files: TCX files.           (line  78)
* dependencies, hardware:                Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* design-size units:                     tftopl invocation.   (line 102)
* device definitions, for Metafont:      Modes.               (line   6)
* device-independent width <1>:          gftype invocation.   (line 113)
* device-independent width:              pktype invocation.   (line  53)
* directory structure:                   Installation.        (line  34)
* DISPLAY:                               Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  73)
* ditroff output, converting to MPX:     dmp invocation.      (line   6)
* DMP <1>:                               dmp invocation.      (line   6)
* DMP:                                   makempx invocation.  (line  71)
* DMP, invoked by MakeMPX:               makempx invocation.  (line  29)
* dmp.c:                                 dmp invocation.      (line  82)
* dot files, written by TeX programs:    tex invocation.      (line  51)
* downloading of fonts for MetaPost labels: mpost invocation. (line  78)
* dpost:                                 dmp invocation.      (line  15)
* DrawingServant:                        Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  35)
* DrawPath ditroff command:              dmp invocation.      (line  15)
* dump file:                             Common options.      (line  34)
* dumping memory:                        Memory dumps.        (line   6)
* DVI comment, specifying:               tex invocation.      (line 120)
* DVI files, converting to MPX:          dvitomp invocation.  (line   6)
* DVI files, creating multiple:          TeX extensions.      (line  31)
* DVI files, explained:                  Font file formats.   (line  30)
* DVI format definition:                 DVI utilities.       (line  14)
* DVI opcodes, showing:                  dvitype invocation.  (line  56)
* DVI utilities:                         DVI utilities.       (line   6)
* dvicopy:                               dvicopy invocation.  (line   6)
* dvitomp:                               dvitomp invocation.  (line   6)
* DVITOMP:                               makempx invocation.  (line  67)
* DVItoMP, invoked by MakeMPX:           makempx invocation.  (line  29)
* dvitype DVI validation:                dvitype invocation.  (line   6)
* dvitype output example:                dvitype output example.
                                                              (line   6)
* dvitype.web:                           DVI utilities.       (line  14)
* dx horizontal escapement <1>:          gftype invocation.   (line 107)
* dx horizontal escapement:              pktype invocation.   (line  57)
* dy vertical escapement:                gftype invocation.   (line 107)
* dynamic array allocation:              Runtime options.     (line  36)
* dynamic Metafont mode definitions with smode: Modes.        (line  28)
* dynamic packing variable:              pktype invocation.   (line  44)
* e response at error prompt:            Editor invocation.   (line   6)
* e-circumflex:                          \charsubdef.         (line  21)
* e-TeX:                                 TeX extensions.      (line  11)
* e.mft:                                 mft invocation.      (line  75)
* EC fonts <1>:                          mf invocation.       (line  24)
* EC fonts:                              tex invocation.      (line  44)
* editing of bitmap fonts:               Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  23)
* editor invoked at error:               Editor invocation.   (line   6)
* eight-bit characters in filenames:     \input filenames.    (line  35)
* empty.tcx:                             TCX files.           (line  49)
* endian dependencies:                   Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* eoc GF command:                        gftype invocation.   (line  97)
* Eplain:                                Formats.             (line  54)
* epsf:                                  Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  19)
* errors, editor invoked at:             Editor invocation.   (line   6)
* escapement, horizontal <1>:            gftype invocation.   (line 107)
* escapement, horizontal:                pktype invocation.   (line  57)
* escapement, vertical:                  gftype invocation.   (line 107)
* etex and label extraction:             mpto invocation.     (line   6)
* etex for MetaPost labels:              mpost invocation.    (line  50)
* executables, shared initial and virgin: Initial and virgin. (line   6)
* expanded plain format:                 Formats.             (line  54)
* extensions to TeX:                     TeX extensions.      (line   6)
* extra_mem_bot:                         Runtime options.     (line  19)
* FACE property:                         tftopl invocation.   (line  96)
* FAMILY property:                       tftopl invocation.   (line  96)
* Ferguson, Michael:                     MLTeX.               (line   6)
* file formats for fonts:                Font file formats.   (line   6)
* file mtimes, comparing:                newer invocation.    (line   6)
* file recorder:                         Common options.      (line  90)
* File-handling TeX:                     TeX extensions.      (line  31)
* filename conventions, in input files:  \input filenames.    (line   6)
* filenames starting with -:             Option conventions.  (line  19)
* first line of the main input file:     Common options.      (line  96)
* fixed-point arithmetic:                Compile-time options.
                                                              (line  22)
* FIXPT:                                 Compile-time options.
                                                              (line  22)
* flag byte:                             pktype invocation.   (line  44)
* floating-point arithmetic:             Compile-time options.
                                                              (line  22)
* floating-point values:                 Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  22)
* fmt file, determining:                 Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line   6)
* fmt files:                             Initial TeX.         (line   6)
* fmt files, sharing:                    Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* fmts Make target:                      Additional targets.  (line  25)
* font aliases:                          Path searching.      (line  15)
* font character code, translating:      TCX files.           (line 102)
* font design:                           Metafont.            (line   6)
* font downloading for MetaPost labels:  mpost invocation.    (line  78)
* font file formats:                     Font file formats.   (line   6)
* font proofs:                           gftodvi invocation.  (line   6)
* font utilities:                        Font utilities.      (line   6)
* font utilities, non-Web2c:             Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line   6)
* font_mem_size:                         Runtime options.     (line  24)
* fontforge:                             Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  30)
* fontinst, for creating virtual fonts:  Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  53)
* fonts, basic:                          Installation.        (line  34)
* fontutils:                             Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  42)
* format files:                          Initial TeX.         (line  15)
* formats for TeX:                       Formats.             (line   6)
* formats Make target:                   Additional targets.  (line  17)
* fraction routines:                     Compile-time options.
                                                              (line  22)
* Free Software Foundation documentation system: Formats.     (line  47)
* freedom of Web2c:                      Introduction.        (line  23)
* ftp.math.utah.edu:                     bibtex invocation.   (line  54)
* generating source specials:            tex invocation.      (line 146)
* geometric designs:                     Metafont.            (line   6)
* geometric font scaling:                Font file formats.   (line  22)
* geometry for Metafont:                 Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  66)
* getopt_long_only:                      Option conventions.  (line   6)
* GF files, explained:                   Font file formats.   (line  40)
* GF files, output by Metafont:          mf invocation.       (line  34)
* GF format definition:                  Font utilities.      (line  11)
* GF output:                             mf invocation.       (line  34)
* GF, converting PK to:                  pktogf invocation.   (line   6)
* GF, converting to PK:                  gftopk invocation.   (line   6)
* gftodvi:                               gftodvi invocation.  (line   6)
* gftopk:                                gftopk invocation.   (line   6)
* gftopxl:                               Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  23)
* gftype GF validation:                  gftype invocation.   (line   6)
* gftype.web:                            Font utilities.      (line  11)
* glue ratio representations:            Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  22)
* glue, memory for:                      Runtime options.     (line  20)
* glyph substitutions:                   MLTeX.               (line   6)
* gray font:                             gftodvi invocation.  (line  29)
* Gruff, Billy Goat:                     Triptrap.            (line   6)
* gsftopk:                               Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  35)
* Harbison, Samuel P.:                   Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  34)
* hardware and memory dumps:             Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* hash table, increasing size of:        Runtime options.     (line  29)
* hash_extra:                            Runtime options.     (line  28)
* headerbyte information:                tftopl invocation.   (line  96)
* height, in pixels:                     pktype invocation.   (line  62)
* help, online:                          Common options.      (line  11)
* Henry, Patrick:                        Introduction.        (line  23)
* Herberts, Mathias:                     Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  20)
* hex character codes, in TCX files:     TCX files.           (line  78)
* history:                               Introduction.        (line  41)
* Hobby, John <1>:                       dmp invocation.      (line  82)
* Hobby, John:                           Introduction.        (line   9)
* horizontal escapement <1>:             gftype invocation.   (line 107)
* horizontal escapement:                 pktype invocation.   (line  57)
* hp2627:                                Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  27)
* human languages, supported in TeX:     Languages and hyphenation.
                                                              (line   6)
* human-readable text, converting DVI to: dvitype invocation. (line   6)
* human-readable text, converting GF to: gftype invocation.   (line   6)
* human-readable text, converting PK to: pktype invocation.   (line   6)
* human-readable text, converting TFM to: tftopl invocation.  (line   6)
* human-readable text, converting VF to: vftovp invocation.   (line   6)
* hyphenation and languages:             Languages and hyphenation.
                                                              (line   6)
* hyphenation patterns, creating:        patgen invocation.   (line   6)
* ice cream:                             Introduction.        (line  23)
* identifier case:                       tangle invocation.   (line  35)
* identifier collisions:                 tangle invocation.   (line  46)
* identifier length:                     tangle invocation.   (line  27)
* identifiers with underlines:           tangle invocation.   (line  41)
* ieeetr.bst:                            Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line  31)
* il1-t1.tcx:                            TCX files.           (line  49)
* il2-t1.tcx:                            TCX files.           (line  49)
* Info format:                           Formats.             (line  47)
* initial form, enabling:                Common options.      (line  45)
* initial Metafont:                      Initial Metafont.    (line   6)
* initial MetaPost:                      Initial MetaPost.    (line   6)
* initial programs:                      Initial and virgin.  (line  24)
* initial TeX:                           Initial TeX.         (line   6)
* initializations, lengthy:              Initial and virgin.  (line  24)
* input filenames:                       \input filenames.    (line   6)
* install-bases Make target:             Additional targets.  (line  29)
* install-fmts Make target:              Additional targets.  (line  25)
* install-formats Make target:           Additional targets.  (line  17)
* install-mems Make target:              Additional targets.  (line  34)
* installation:                          Installation.        (line   6)
* interaction between TCX files and -8bit.: TCX files.        (line 105)
* interaction mode:                      Common options.      (line  51)
* international characters:              TCX files.           (line   6)
* introduction:                          Introduction.        (line   6)
* IPC:                                   IPC and TeX.         (line   6)
* IPC_DEBUG <1>:                         IPC and TeX.         (line  13)
* IPC_DEBUG:                             Compile-time options.
                                                              (line  29)
* job name:                              Common options.      (line  56)
* kerning table, in TFM files:           tftopl invocation.   (line 102)
* keyboard character code, translating:  TCX files.           (line 102)
* Knuth, Donald E. <1>:                  mft invocation.      (line  58)
* Knuth, Donald E.:                      Introduction.        (line   9)
* KPATHSEA_DEBUG:                        Common options.      (line  60)
* KRN property:                          tftopl invocation.   (line 102)
* label font:                            gftodvi invocation.  (line  36)
* LABEL property:                        tftopl invocation.   (line 102)
* labels, extracting from MetaPost input: mpto invocation.    (line   6)
* labels, for MetaPost:                  makempx invocation.  (line   6)
* language support in TeX:               Languages and hyphenation.
                                                              (line   6)
* languages, hyphenation rules for:      patgen invocation.   (line   6)
* LaTeX:                                 Formats.             (line  22)
* Latin Modern:                          Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  18)
* left side bearing <1>:                 gftype invocation.   (line  82)
* left side bearing:                     pktype invocation.   (line  66)
* legalisms:                             Legalisms.           (line   6)
* licensing terms:                       Introduction.        (line  23)
* LIG property:                          tftopl invocation.   (line 102)
* ligature table, in TFM files:          tftopl invocation.   (line 102)
* LIGTABLE property:                     tftopl invocation.   (line 102)
* linking binaries:                      Common options.      (line  83)
* links to binaries:                     Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line  32)
* literate programming:                  WEB.                 (line   6)
* litprogATshsu.edu:                      WEB.                 (line   6)
* LittleEndian machines:                 Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* log file, BibTeX:                      bibtex invocation.   (line  14)
* machine dependencies:                  Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* machine-readable, converting property lists to <1>: vptovf invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* machine-readable, converting property lists to: pltotf invocation.
                                                              (line   6)
* MacKay, Pierre:                        Font file formats.   (line  63)
* macro packages, major TeX:             Formats.             (line   6)
* macros, basic:                         Installation.        (line  34)
* macros, predefining in memory dumps:   Memory dumps.        (line   6)
* magnification <1>:                     dvitype invocation.  (line  28)
* magnification:                         dvicopy invocation.  (line  20)
* main_memory:                           Runtime options.     (line  15)
* Make targets, additional:              Additional targets.  (line   6)
* makempx:                               makempx invocation.  (line   6)
* MAKEMPX_BINDIR:                        makempx invocation.  (line  50)
* Martin, Rick:                          Introduction.        (line  51)
* Mathematical Reviews:                  Formats.             (line  39)
* mathematical typesetting:              TeX.                 (line   6)
* mem file, determining:                 Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line   6)
* mem files:                             Initial MetaPost.    (line   6)
* mem files, plain only:                 Initial MetaPost.    (line  16)
* mem files, sharing:                    Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* memory dump to use, determining:       Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line   6)
* memory dumps:                          Memory dumps.        (line   6)
* memory dumps and hardware:             Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* memory dumps, contain date and time:   Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  30)
* memory dumps, creating:                Creating memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* mems Make target:                      Additional targets.  (line  34)
* meta characters in filenames:          \input filenames.    (line  35)
* Metafont:                              Metafont.            (line   6)
* Metafont geometry:                     Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  66)
* Metafont graphics:                     Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line   6)
* Metafont input files:                  mf invocation.       (line  24)
* Metafont invocation:                   mf invocation.       (line   6)
* Metafont meets PostScript:             MetaPost.            (line   6)
* Metafont online support, new devices:  Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  77)
* Metafont source, prettyprinting:       mft invocation.      (line   6)
* Metafont, compatibility in MetaPost:   Initial MetaPost.    (line  25)
* Metafont, initial:                     Initial Metafont.    (line   6)
* Metafont, MetaPost, and TeX:           Three programs.      (line   6)
* MetaFun, enhanced MetaPost:            Initial MetaPost.    (line  33)
* metafun.mp:                            Initial MetaPost.    (line  33)
* MetaPost:                              MetaPost.            (line   6)
* MetaPost and plain Metafont compatibility: Initial MetaPost.
                                                              (line  25)
* MetaPost input files:                  mpost invocation.    (line  31)
* MetaPost input, extracting labels from: mpto invocation.    (line   6)
* MetaPost invocation:                   mpost invocation.    (line   6)
* MetaPost labels:                       makempx invocation.  (line   6)
* MetaPost source, prettyprinting:       mft invocation.      (line  80)
* MetaPost, initial:                     Initial MetaPost.    (line   6)
* MetaPost, TeX, and Metafont:           Three programs.      (line   6)
* metatype1:                             Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  18)
* mf:                                    mf invocation.       (line   6)
* mf.base:                               Initial Metafont.    (line  16)
* MFEDIT:                                Editor invocation.   (line  10)
* mfplain.mem:                           Initial MetaPost.    (line  25)
* mfput:                                 mf invocation.       (line  34)
* mft:                                   mft invocation.      (line   6)
* mftalk:                                Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  30)
* MFTERM:                                Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  11)
* mftmac.tex:                            mft invocation.      (line   6)
* mktexmf, disabling:                    mf invocation.       (line  24)
* mktextfM, disabling:                   tex invocation.      (line  44)
* mltex:                                 MLTeX.               (line   6)
* MLTeX, enabling:                       tex invocation.      (line 115)
* mode needed to run Metafont:           mf invocation.       (line  48)
* mode_def:                              Modes.               (line  15)
* mode_setup:                            Modes.               (line  15)
* modes file needed for Metafont:        Modes.               (line   6)
* modes.mf recommended modes file:       Modes.               (line  10)
* Morgan, Tim:                           Introduction.        (line  41)
* Morris, Bob:                           Introduction.        (line  51)
* MPEDIT:                                Editor invocation.   (line  10)
* mpgraph.ps:                            mpost invocation.    (line  19)
* mpman.ps:                              mpost invocation.    (line   6)
* mpost:                                 mpost invocation.    (line   6)
* mpost, reason for name change:         Installation.        (line  19)
* mpost.mem:                             Initial MetaPost.    (line  16)
* mpout:                                 mpost invocation.    (line  37)
* mproof.tex:                            mpost invocation.    (line  78)
* MPSUPPORT:                             dmp invocation.      (line  21)
* MPto:                                  mpto invocation.     (line   6)
* MPto, invoked by MakeMPX:              makempx invocation.  (line  21)
* MPTOTEX:                               makempx invocation.  (line  60)
* MPTOTR:                                makempx invocation.  (line  64)
* mptrap Make target:                    Additional targets.  (line  41)
* mptrap test:                           Triptrap.            (line   6)
* mptrap.readme:                         Triptrap.            (line   6)
* mpx file, defined:                     makempx invocation.  (line  43)
* MPX files, converting from DVI files:  dvitomp invocation.  (line   6)
* MPX files, creating from ditroff output: dmp invocation.    (line   6)
* mpxerr:                                makempx invocation.  (line  34)
* mpxerr.dvi:                            makempx invocation.  (line  34)
* mpxerr.log:                            makempx invocation.  (line  34)
* mpxerr.t:                              makempx invocation.  (line  34)
* mpxerr.tex:                            makempx invocation.  (line  34)
* mtimes of files, comparing:            newer invocation.    (line   6)
* Multi-lingual TeX:                     MLTeX.               (line   6)
* multiple DVI files, creating:          TeX extensions.      (line  31)
* N tilde:                               \charsubdef.         (line  37)
* new graphics support for Metafont:     Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  77)
* NEWER:                                 makempx invocation.  (line  56)
* newer file comparison:                 newer invocation.    (line   6)
* newrow GF command:                     gftype invocation.   (line  93)
* next:                                  Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  34)
* NO_X11WIN:                             Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  56)
* non-Unix system, compiling on:         Additional targets.  (line  12)
* NUL, not allowed in filenames:         \input filenames.    (line  35)
* octal character codes, in TCX files:   TCX files.           (line  78)
* offset for overflow labels:            gftodvi invocation.  (line  49)
* older-than, file comparisons:          newer invocation.    (line   6)
* Omega:                                 TeX extensions.      (line  16)
* online Metafont graphics:              Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line   6)
* opcodes, showing DVI:                  dvitype invocation.  (line  56)
* optical font scaling:                  Font file formats.   (line  22)
* option conventions:                    Option conventions.  (line   6)
* origin:                                pktype invocation.   (line  66)
* output directory, specifying <1>:      Output file location.
                                                              (line  15)
* output directory, specifying:          Common options.      (line  67)
* output file location:                  Output file location.
                                                              (line   6)
* output files, written by TeX programs: tex invocation.      (line  51)
* output_comment for DVI files:          tex invocation.      (line 120)
* overflow label offset:                 gftodvi invocation.  (line  49)
* packet length:                         pktype invocation.   (line  50)
* page, starting <1>:                    dvitype invocation.  (line  50)
* page, starting:                        dvicopy invocation.  (line  28)
* parsing the first line:                Common options.      (line  78)
* Pascal, creating from WEB:             tangle invocation.   (line   6)
* patgen:                                patgen invocation.   (line   6)
* path searching:                        Path searching.      (line   6)
* path searching debugging:              Common options.      (line  60)
* PDF:                                   TeX extensions.      (line  20)
* pdfTeX:                                TeX extensions.      (line  20)
* permissions, legal:                    Legalisms.           (line   6)
* PFA and PFB conversion:                Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  39)
* pfaedit:                               Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  30)
* PiCTeX, increasing memory for:         Runtime options.     (line  20)
* picture expressions:                   makempx invocation.  (line  43)
* pixel height:                          pktype invocation.   (line  62)
* pixel width:                           pktype invocation.   (line  62)
* PK bitmaps from PostScript:            Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  35)
* PK files, explained:                   Font file formats.   (line  40)
* PK files, not output by Metafont:      mf invocation.       (line  34)
* PK format definition:                  Font utilities.      (line  11)
* PK, converting GF to:                  gftopk invocation.   (line   6)
* PK, converting to GF:                  pktogf invocation.   (line   6)
* pktogf:                                pktogf invocation.   (line   6)
* pktype PK validation:                  pktype invocation.   (line   6)
* pktype.web:                            Font utilities.      (line  11)
* PL files, explained:                   Font file formats.   (line  47)
* plain Metafont, compatibility in MetaPost: Initial MetaPost.
                                                              (line  25)
* plain text, converting DVI to:         dvitype invocation.  (line   6)
* plain text, converting GF to:          gftype invocation.   (line   6)
* plain text, converting PK to:          pktype invocation.   (line   6)
* plain text, converting TFM to:         tftopl invocation.   (line   6)
* plain text, converting VF to:          vftovp invocation.   (line   6)
* plain.base:                            Initial Metafont.    (line  16)
* plain.bst:                             Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line  11)
* plain.fmt:                             Initial TeX.         (line  15)
* plain.mem:                             Initial MetaPost.    (line  16)
* plain.mft:                             mft invocation.      (line  68)
* pltotf:                                pltotf invocation.   (line   6)
* pool file, writing:                    tangle invocation.   (line  16)
* Poole, Simon:                          Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  50)
* pooltype:                              pooltype invocation. (line   6)
* portable filenames:                    \input filenames.    (line  41)
* PostScript fonts, and Troff:           mpost invocation.    (line  73)
* PostScript meets Metafont:             MetaPost.            (line   6)
* PostScript output:                     mpost invocation.    (line  37)
* PostScript to PK bitmaps:              Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  35)
* PostScript Type 1 font conversion:     Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  39)
* PostScript, and font scaling:          Font file formats.   (line  22)
* potrace:                               Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  46)
* Pragma ADE:                            Initial MetaPost.    (line  33)
* predefined macros and memory dumps:    Memory dumps.        (line   6)
* prettyprinting Metafont source:        mft invocation.      (line   6)
* prettyprinting WEB programs:           weave invocation.    (line   6)
* primitives, new:                       TeX extensions.      (line  11)
* printable characters, specifying:      TCX files.           (line  88)
* printer characteristics, for Metafont: Modes.               (line   6)
* production use:                        Initial and virgin.  (line  20)
* program name, determines memory dump:  Determining the memory dump to use.
                                                              (line  32)
* program names, special <1>:            tex invocation.      (line 115)
* program names, special:                Common options.      (line  45)
* prologues:                             mpost invocation.    (line 117)
* prologues and Troff in MetaPost:       makempx invocation.  (line  39)
* prologues, and EPSF output:            mpost invocation.    (line  88)
* proof mode:                            mf invocation.       (line  48)
* proof sheets, of fonts:                gftodvi invocation.  (line   6)
* property list format:                  tftopl invocation.   (line  44)
* property list, converting TFM to:      tftopl invocation.   (line   6)
* property list, converting VF to virtual: vftovp invocation. (line   6)
* ps2pk:                                 Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  35)
* psfonts.map, read by MetaPost:         mpost invocation.    (line  88)
* PXL files, explained:                  Font file formats.   (line  40)
* pxtoch:                                Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  23)
* Raichle, Bernd:                        MLTeX.               (line   6)
* reading, additional:                   Introduction.        (line  59)
* readonly directory, running TeX in:    Output file location.
                                                              (line  15)
* reallocation of arrays:                Runtime options.     (line  36)
* redefined character substitutions:     \tracingcharsubdef.  (line   6)
* reference pixel:                       pktype invocation.   (line  66)
* references:                            References.          (line   6)
* regis:                                 Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  39)
* Regis graphics support:                Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  40)
* regression testing:                    tex invocation.      (line 120)
* repeated rows:                         pktype invocation.   (line  76)
* representation of strings:             pooltype invocation. (line  30)
* right side bearing <1>:                gftype invocation.   (line  82)
* right side bearing:                    pktype invocation.   (line  66)
* right-to-left typesetting:             TeX extensions.      (line  25)
* Rokicki, Tomas:                        Introduction.        (line  41)
* run length encoded bitmaps <1>:        gftype invocation.   (line  89)
* run length encoded bitmaps:            pktype invocation.   (line  76)
* runtime options:                       Runtime options.     (line   6)
* scaled pixels <1>:                     gftype invocation.   (line 107)
* scaled pixels:                         pktype invocation.   (line  57)
* scaling of fonts:                      Font file formats.   (line  22)
* scanned images of fonts:               Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  42)
* security, and \openout:                tex invocation.      (line  51)
* security, and output files:            tex invocation.      (line  51)
* security, and shell escapes:           tex invocation.      (line 128)
* SetColor ditroff command:              dmp invocation.      (line  15)
* shapes:                                Metafont.            (line   6)
* sharing memory dumps:                  Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* shell commands in TeX:                 tex invocation.      (line 128)
* shell_escape enabling in TeX:          tex invocation.      (line 128)
* siam.bst:                              Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line  35)
* side bearings <1>:                     gftype invocation.   (line  82)
* side bearings:                         pktype invocation.   (line  66)
* slant font:                            gftodvi invocation.  (line  39)
* slides, producing:                     Formats.             (line  61)
* SliTeX:                                Formats.             (line  61)
* small Metafont memory and modes:       Modes.               (line  15)
* smode and dynamic Metafont mode definition: Modes.          (line  28)
* sockets:                               IPC and TeX.         (line   6)
* space-terminated filenames:            \input filenames.    (line  10)
* Spiderweb:                             WEB.                 (line  14)
* Stallman, Richard:                     Introduction.        (line  51)
* starting page <1>:                     dvitype invocation.  (line  50)
* starting page:                         dvicopy invocation.  (line  28)
* Steele Jr., Guy L.:                    Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  34)
* stopping at the first error:           Common options.      (line  41)
* strategy, overall:                     Introduction.        (line  17)
* string numbers, displaying:            pooltype invocation. (line   6)
* string pool, writing:                  tangle invocation.   (line  16)
* string representation:                 pooltype invocation. (line  30)
* style design, for BibTeX:              bibtex invocation.   (line  45)
* style files:                           mft invocation.      (line  68)
* substitutions of font glyphs:          MLTeX.               (line   6)
* sun:                                   Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  42)
* sun-gfx.c:                             Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  43)
* Suntools:                              Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  43)
* SunView:                               Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  43)
* swap space, as array limit:            Runtime options.     (line  36)
* swapping bytes:                        Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  13)
* syntax of TCX files:                   TCX files.           (line  66)
* system C library function:             tex invocation.      (line 128)
* T1 encoding and ISO input:             TCX files.           (line  49)
* Tachikawa, Elizabeth:                  Font file formats.   (line  63)
* tangle:                                tangle invocation.   (line   6)
* targets, additional Make:              Additional targets.  (line   6)
* TCX character translation files:       TCX files.           (line   6)
* tek:                                   Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  47)
* Tektronix:                             Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  48)
* Tektronix 4014:                        Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  51)
* TERM:                                  Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  11)
* terminator for filenames:              \input filenames.    (line  10)
* terse output:                          bibtex invocation.   (line  28)
* TEX:                                   makempx invocation.  (line  74)
* tex:                                   tex invocation.      (line   6)
* TeX, bibliographies for:               bibtex invocation.   (line  54)
* TeX, creating from Metafont:           mft invocation.      (line   6)
* TeX, creating from WEB:                weave invocation.    (line   6)
* TeX, description of:                   TeX.                 (line   6)
* TeX, extensions to:                    TeX extensions.      (line   6)
* TeX, format packages for:              Formats.             (line   6)
* TeX, initial:                          Initial TeX.         (line   6)
* TeX, input files found:                tex invocation.      (line  20)
* TeX, invocation:                       tex invocation.      (line   6)
* TeX, Metafont, and MetaPost:           Three programs.      (line   6)
* TeX, Web2c implementation of:          Introduction.        (line   9)
* TeX--XeT:                              TeX extensions.      (line  25)
* tex.fmt:                               Initial TeX.         (line  15)
* TEXBIB, search path for bib files:     bibtex invocation.   (line  18)
* TEXEDIT:                               Editor invocation.   (line  10)
* texfonts.map:                          Path searching.      (line  15)
* Texinfo:                               Formats.             (line  47)
* texmf.cnf:                             Path searching.      (line   6)
* texmfmp.c:                             Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  77)
* texmfmp.c and openoutnameok:           tex invocation.      (line  51)
* TEXMFOUTPUT, used if . unwritable:     Output file location.
                                                              (line  19)
* texput:                                tex invocation.      (line  35)
* text, extracting from MetaPost input:  mpto invocation.     (line   6)
* TFM files, converting property lists to: pltotf invocation. (line   6)
* TFM files, explained:                  Font file formats.   (line  13)
* TFM files, memory for:                 Runtime options.     (line  25)
* TFM files, output by Metafont:         mf invocation.       (line  43)
* TFM files, output by MetaPost:         mpost invocation.    (line  37)
* TFM width of characters <1>:           gftype invocation.   (line 113)
* TFM width of characters:               pktype invocation.   (line  53)
* tftopl:                                tftopl invocation.   (line   6)
* three programs:                        Three programs.      (line   6)
* time and date, in memory dumps:        Hardware and memory dumps.
                                                              (line  30)
* title font:                            gftodvi invocation.  (line  33)
* toolkits, X:                           Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  60)
* torture tests:                         Triptrap.            (line   6)
* translation file for TeX, specifying:  Common options.      (line  96)
* translation from WEB to C:             Introduction.        (line  17)
* trap Make target:                      Additional targets.  (line  41)
* trap test:                             Triptrap.            (line   6)
* trapman.tex:                           Triptrap.            (line   6)
* trchars.adj:                           dmp invocation.      (line  24)
* Trickey, Howard:                       Introduction.        (line  41)
* trip Make target:                      Additional targets.  (line  41)
* trip test:                             Triptrap.            (line   6)
* tripman.tex:                           Triptrap.            (line   6)
* triptrap Make target:                  Additional targets.  (line  41)
* TROFF:                                 makempx invocation.  (line  81)
* Troff, and MetaPost:                   mpost invocation.    (line  73)
* Troff, WEB for:                        WEB.                 (line  14)
* Trojan horses and TeX programs:        tex invocation.      (line  51)
* TUGboat bibliography:                  bibtex invocation.   (line  54)
* Type 1 conversion:                     Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  39)
* type design, personal:                 Initial Metafont.    (line  33)
* type programs, DVI:                    dvitype invocation.  (line   6)
* type programs, GF:                     gftype invocation.   (line   6)
* type programs, PK:                     pktype invocation.   (line   6)
* type programs, pool:                   pooltype invocation. (line   6)
* typeface families:                     Metafont.            (line   6)
* typeface specimen sheets:              Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  42)
* typesetting:                           TeX.                 (line   6)
* Unicode:                               TeX extensions.      (line  16)
* Unicode input:                         tex invocation.      (line  95)
* uniterm:                               Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  50)
* unsrt.bst:                             Basic BibTeX style files.
                                                              (line  39)
* using local codepage to display messages: Common options.   (line 108)
* UTF-8 input:                           tex invocation.      (line  95)
* validation, of DVI files:              dvitype invocation.  (line   6)
* validation, of GF files:               gftype invocation.   (line   6)
* validation, of PK files:               pktype invocation.   (line   6)
* validation, of TFM files:              tftopl invocation.   (line   6)
* validation, of VF files:               vftovp invocation.   (line   6)
* verbatimtex MetaPost command:          mpto invocation.     (line   6)
* verbose BibTeX output, suppressing:    bibtex invocation.   (line  28)
* verbosity, enabling:                   Common options.      (line  15)
* version number, finding:               Common options.      (line  18)
* vertical escapement:                   gftype invocation.   (line 107)
* VF files, converting property lists to: vptovf invocation.  (line   6)
* vftovp:                                vftovp invocation.   (line   6)
* virgin programs:                       Initial and virgin.  (line  20)
* virtual font creation:                 Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  53)
* virtual fonts, expanding:              dvicopy invocation.  (line   6)
* virtual-fonts.knuth:                   Font file formats.   (line  57)
* virtualfonts.txt:                      Font file formats.   (line  57)
* vptovf:                                vptovf invocation.   (line   6)
* weave:                                 weave invocation.    (line   6)
* WEB:                                   WEB.                 (line   6)
* WEB pool files, displaying:            pooltype invocation. (line   6)
* WEB programs, compiling:               tangle invocation.   (line   6)
* WEB programs, typesetting:             weave invocation.    (line   6)
* WEB2C, search path for TCX files:      TCX files.           (line  36)
* Weber, Olaf:                           Introduction.        (line  41)
* webmac.tex:                            weave invocation.    (line  22)
* webman.tex:                            WEB.                 (line  14)
* whitespace, in TCX files:              TCX files.           (line  69)
* whitespace-terminated filenames:       \input filenames.    (line  10)
* width, device-independent <1>:         gftype invocation.   (line 113)
* width, device-independent:             pktype invocation.   (line  53)
* width, in pixels:                      pktype invocation.   (line  62)
* word processor, not:                   TeX.                 (line   9)
* writing memory dumps:                  Creating memory dumps.
                                                              (line   6)
* X bitmap fonts:                        Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  15)
* X class name for Metafont:             Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  66)
* x offset:                              pktype invocation.   (line  66)
* X resources:                           Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  66)
* X toolkits and Metafont:               Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  60)
* x X ditroff device control:            dmp invocation.      (line  15)
* xampl.bib:                             bibtex invocation.   (line  51)
* xbfe, bitmap font editor:              Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  23)
* xfed, bitmap font editor:              Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  23)
* xfedor, bitmap font editor:            Font utilities available elsewhere.
                                                              (line  23)
* Xlib:                                  Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  56)
* Xlib support:                          Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  60)
* Xt:                                    Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  56)
* Xt support:                            Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  60)
* xterm:                                 Online Metafont graphics.
                                                              (line  56)
* y offset:                              pktype invocation.   (line  66)
* ~ expansion in filenames:              \input filenames.    (line  48)