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File: url,  Node: Top,  Next: Getting Started,  Up: (dir)

URL
***

This file documents the Emacs Lisp URL loading package.

   Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2002, 2004,
2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Getting Started::             Preparing your program to use URLs.
* Retrieving URLs::             How to use this package to retrieve a URL.
* Supported URL Types::         Descriptions of URL types currently supported.
* Defining New URLs::           How to define a URL loader for a new protocol.
* General Facilities::          URLs can be cached, accessed via a gateway
                                and tracked in a history list.
* Customization::               Variables you can alter.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Function Index::
* Variable Index::
* Concept Index::

File: url,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: Retrieving URLs,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Getting Started
*****************

"Uniform Resource Locators" (URLs) are a specific form of "Uniform
Resource Identifiers" (URI) described in RFC 2396 which updates RFC
1738 and RFC 1808.  RFC 2016 defines uniform resource agents.

   URIs have the form SCHEME:SCHEME-SPECIFIC-PART, where the SCHEMEs
supported by this library are described below.  *Note Supported URL
Types::.

   FTP, NFS, HTTP, HTTPS, `rlogin', `telnet', tn3270, IRC and gopher
URLs all have the form

     SCHEME://[USERINFO@]HOSTNAME[:PORT][/PATH]
   where `[' and `]' delimit optional parts.  USERINFO sometimes takes
the form USERNAME:PASSWORD but you should beware of the security risks
of sending cleartext passwords.  HOSTNAME may be a domain name or a
dotted decimal address.  If the `:PORT' is omitted then the library will
use the `well known' port for that service when accessing URLs.  With
the possible exception of `telnet', it is rare for ports to be
specified, and it is possible using a non-standard port may have
undesired consequences if a different service is listening on that port
(e.g., an HTTP URL specifying the SMTP port can cause mail to be sent).
The meaning of the PATH component depends on the service.

* Menu:

* Configuration::
* Parsed URLs::                 URLs are parsed into vector structures.

File: url,  Node: Configuration,  Next: Parsed URLs,  Up: Getting Started

1.1 Configuration
=================

 -- Variable: url-configuration-directory
     The directory in which URL configuration files, the cache etc.,
     reside.  Default `~/.url'.

File: url,  Node: Parsed URLs,  Prev: Configuration,  Up: Getting Started

1.2 Parsed URLs
===============

The library functions typically operate on "parsed" versions of URLs.
These are actually vectors of the form:

     [TYPE USER PASSWORD HOST PORT FILE TARGET ATTRIBUTES FULL]

where
TYPE
     is the type of the URL scheme, e.g., `http'

USER
     is the username associated with it, or `nil';

PASSWORD
     is the user password associated with it, or `nil';

HOST
     is the host name associated with it, or `nil';

PORT
     is the port number associated with it, or `nil';

FILE
     is the `file' part of it, or `nil'.  This doesn't necessarily
     actually refer to a file;

TARGET
     is the target part, or `nil';

ATTRIBUTES
     is the attributes associated with it, or `nil';

FULL
     is `t' for a fully-specified URL, with a host part indicated by
     `//' after the scheme part.

   These attributes have accessors named `url-PART', where PART is the
name of one of the elements above, e.g., `url-host'.  Similarly, there
are setters of the form `url-set-PART'.

   There are functions for parsing and unparsing between the string and
vector forms.

 -- Function: url-generic-parse-url url
     Return a parsed version of the string URL.

 -- Function: url-recreate-url url
     Recreates a URL string from the parsed URL.

File: url,  Node: Retrieving URLs,  Next: Supported URL Types,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Top

2 Retrieving URLs
*****************

 -- Function: url-retrieve-synchronously url
     Retrieve URL synchronously and return a buffer containing the
     data.  URL is either a string or a parsed URL structure.  Return
     `nil' if there are no data associated with it (the case for dired,
     info, or mailto URLs that need no further processing).

 -- Function: url-retrieve url callback &optional cbargs
     Retrieve URL asynchronously and call CALLBACK with args CBARGS
     when finished.  The callback is called when the object has been
     completely retrieved, with the current buffer containing the
     object and any MIME headers associated with it.  URL is either a
     string or a parsed URL structure.  Returns the buffer URL will
     load into, or `nil' if the process has already completed.

File: url,  Node: Supported URL Types,  Next: Defining New URLs,  Prev: Retrieving URLs,  Up: Top

3 Supported URL Types
*********************

* Menu:

* http/https::                  Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
* file/ftp::                    Local files and FTP archives.
* info::                        Emacs `Info' pages.
* mailto::                      Sending email.
* news/nntp/snews::             Usenet news.
* rlogin/telnet/tn3270::        Remote host connectivity.
* irc::                         Internet Relay Chat.
* data::                        Embedded data URLs.
* nfs::                         Networked File System
* cid::                         Content-ID.
* about::
* ldap::                        Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
* imap::                        IMAP mailboxes.
* man::                         Unix man pages.

File: url,  Node: http/https,  Next: file/ftp,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.1 `http' and `https'
======================

The scheme `http' is Hypertext Transfer Protocol.  The library supports
version 1.1, specified in RFC 2616.  (This supersedes 1.0, defined in
RFC 1945) HTTP URLs have the following form, where most of the parts
are optional:
     http://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/PATH?SEARCHPART#FRAGMENT

   The scheme `https' is a secure version of `http', with transmission
via SSL.  It is defined in RFC 2069.  Its default port is 443.  This
scheme depends on SSL support in Emacs via the `ssl.el' library and is
actually implemented by forcing the `ssl' gateway method to be used.
*Note Gateways in general::.

 -- User Option: url-honor-refresh-requests
     This controls honoring of HTTP `Refresh' headers by which servers
     can direct clients to reload documents from the same URL or a or
     different one.  `nil' means they will not be honored, `t' (the
     default) means they will always be honored, and otherwise the user
     will be asked on each request.

* Menu:

* Cookies::
* HTTP language/coding::
* HTTP URL Options::
* Dealing with HTTP documents::

File: url,  Node: Cookies,  Next: HTTP language/coding,  Up: http/https

3.1.1 Cookies
-------------

 -- User Option: url-cookie-file
     The file in which cookies are stored, defaulting to `cookies' in
     the directory specified by `url-configuration-directory'.

 -- User Option: url-cookie-confirmation
     Specifies whether confirmation is require to accept cookies.

 -- User Option: url-cookie-multiple-line
     Specifies whether to put all cookies for the server on one line in
     the HTTP request to satisfy broken servers like
     `http://www.hotmail.com'.

 -- User Option: url-cookie-trusted-urls
     A list of regular expressions matching URLs from which to accept
     cookies always.

 -- User Option: url-cookie-untrusted-urls
     A list of regular expressions matching URLs from which to reject
     cookies always.

 -- User Option: url-cookie-save-interval
     The number of seconds between automatic saves of cookies to disk.
     Default is one hour.

File: url,  Node: HTTP language/coding,  Next: HTTP URL Options,  Prev: Cookies,  Up: http/https

3.1.2 Language and Encoding Preferences
---------------------------------------

HTTP allows clients to express preferences for the language and
encoding of documents which servers may honor.  For each of these
variables, the value is a string; it can specify a single choice, or it
can be a comma-separated list.

   Normally this list ordered by descending preference.  However, each
element can be followed by `;q=PRIORITY' to specify its preference
level, a decimal number from 0 to 1; e.g., for
`url-mime-language-string', `"de, en-gb;q=0.8, en;q=0.7"'.  An element
that has no `;q' specification has preference level 1.

 -- User Option: url-mime-charset-string
     This variable specifies a preference for character sets when
     documents can be served in more than one encoding.

     HTTP allows specifying a series of MIME charsets which indicate
     your preferred character set encodings, e.g., Latin-9 or Big5, and
     these can be weighted.  The default series is generated
     automatically from the associated MIME types of all defined coding
     systems, sorted by the coding system priority specified in Emacs.
     *Note Recognizing Coding Systems: (emacs)Recognize Coding.

 -- User Option: url-mime-language-string
     A string specifying the preferred language when servers can serve
     files in several languages.  Use RFC 1766 abbreviations, e.g.,
     `en' for English, `de' for German.

     The string can be `"*"' to get the first available language (as
     opposed to the default).

File: url,  Node: HTTP URL Options,  Next: Dealing with HTTP documents,  Prev: HTTP language/coding,  Up: http/https

3.1.3 HTTP URL Options
----------------------

HTTP supports an `OPTIONS' method describing things supported by the
URL.

 -- Function: url-http-options url
     Returns a property list describing options available for URL.  The
     property list members are:

    `methods'
          A list of symbols specifying what HTTP methods the resource
          supports.

    `dav'
          A list of numbers specifying what DAV protocol/schema
          versions are supported.

    `dasl'
          A list of supported DASL search types supported (string form).

    `ranges'
          A list of the units available for use in partial document
          fetches.

    `p3p'
          The "Platform For Privacy Protection" description for the
          resource.  Currently this is just the raw header contents.


File: url,  Node: Dealing with HTTP documents,  Prev: HTTP URL Options,  Up: http/https

3.1.4 Dealing with HTTP documents
---------------------------------

HTTP URLs are retrieved into a buffer containing the HTTP headers
followed by the body.  Since the headers are quasi-MIME, they may be
processed using the MIME library.  *Note Emacs MIME: (emacs-mime)Top.
The URL package provides a function to do this in general:

 -- Function: url-decode-text-part handle &optional coding
     This function decodes charset-encoded text in the current buffer.
     In Emacs, the buffer is expected to be unibyte initially and is
     set to multibyte after decoding.  HANDLE is the MIME handle of the
     original part.  CODING is an explicit coding to use, overriding
     what the MIME headers specify.  The coding system used for the
     decoding is returned.

     Note that this function doesn't deal with `http-equiv' charset
     specifications in HTML `<meta>' elements.

File: url,  Node: file/ftp,  Next: info,  Prev: http/https,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.2 file and ftp
================

     ftp://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/FILE
     file://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/FILE

   These schemes are defined in RFC 1808.  `ftp:' and `file:' are
synonymous in this library.  They allow reading arbitrary files from
hosts.  Either `ange-ftp' (Emacs) or `efs' (XEmacs) is used to retrieve
them from remote hosts.  Local files are accessed directly.

   Compressed files are handled, but support is hard-coded so that
`jka-compr-compression-info-list' and so on have no affect.  Suffixes
recognized are `.z', `.gz', `.Z' and `.bz2'.

 -- User Option: url-directory-index-file
     The filename to look for when indexing a directory, default
     `"index.html"'.  If this file exists, and is readable, then it
     will be viewed instead of using `dired' to view the directory.

File: url,  Node: info,  Next: mailto,  Prev: file/ftp,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.3 info
========

     info:FILE#NODE

   Info URLs are not officially defined.  They invoke `Info-goto-node'
with argument `(FILE)NODE'.  `#NODE' is optional, defaulting to `Top'.

File: url,  Node: mailto,  Next: news/nntp/snews,  Prev: info,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.4 mailto
==========

A mailto URL will send an email message to the address in the URL, for
example `mailto:fooATbar.com' would compose a message to `fooATbar.com'.

 -- User Option: url-mail-command
     The function called whenever url needs to send mail.  This should
     normally be left to default from MAIL-USER-AGENT.  *Note
     Mail-Composition Methods: (emacs)Mail Methods.

   An `X-Url-From' header field containing the URL of the document that
contained the mailto URL is added if that URL is known.

   RFC 2368 extends the definition of mailto URLs in RFC 1738.  The
form of a mailto URL is
     `mailto:MAILBOX[?HEADER=CONTENTS[&HEADER=CONTENTS]]'
   where an arbitrary number of HEADERs can be added.  If the HEADER is
`body', then CONTENTS is put in the body otherwise a HEADER header
field is created with CONTENTS as its contents.  Note that the URL
library does not consider any headers `dangerous' so you should check
them before sending the message.

   Email messages are defined in RFC822.

File: url,  Node: news/nntp/snews,  Next: rlogin/telnet/tn3270,  Prev: mailto,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.5 `news', `nntp' and `snews'
==============================

The network news URL scheme take the following forms following RFC 1738
except that for compatibility with other clients, host and port fields
may be included in news URLs though they are properly only allowed for
nntp an snews.

`news:NEWSGROUP'
     Retrieves a list of messages in NEWSGROUP;

`news:MESSAGE-ID'
     Retrieves the message with the given MESSAGE-ID;

`news:*'
     Retrieves a list of all available newsgroups;

`nntp://HOST:PORT/NEWSGROUP'
`nntp://HOST:PORT/MESSAGE-ID'
`nntp://HOST:PORT/*'
     Similar to the `news' versions.

   `:PORT' is optional and defaults to :119.

   `snews' is the same as `nntp' except that the default port is :563.  (It
is tunneled through SSL.)

   An `nntp' URL is the same as a news URL, except that the URL may
specify an article by its number.

 -- User Option: url-news-server
     This variable can be used to override the default news server.
     Usually this will be set by the Gnus package, which is used to
     fetch news.  It may be set from the conventional environment
     variable `NNTPSERVER'.

File: url,  Node: rlogin/telnet/tn3270,  Next: irc,  Prev: news/nntp/snews,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.6 rlogin, telnet and tn3270
=============================

These URL schemes from RFC 1738 for logon via a terminal emulator have
the form
     telnet://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT
   but the `:PASSWORD' component is ignored.

   To handle rlogin, telnet and tn3270 URLs, a `rlogin', `telnet' or
`tn3270' (the program names and arguments are hardcoded) session is run
in a `terminal-emulator' buffer.  Well-known ports are used if the URL
does not specify a port.

File: url,  Node: irc,  Next: data,  Prev: rlogin/telnet/tn3270,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.7 irc
=======

"Internet Relay Chat" (IRC) is handled by handing off the IRC session
to a function named in `url-irc-function'.

 -- User Option: url-irc-function
     A function to actually open an IRC connection.  This function must
     take five arguments, HOST, PORT, CHANNEL, USER and PASSWORD.  The
     CHANNEL argument specifies the channel to join immediately, this
     can be `nil'.  By default this is `url-irc-rcirc'.

 -- Function: url-irc-rcirc host port channel user password
     Processes the arguments and lets `rcirc' handle the session.

 -- Function: url-irc-erc host port channel user password
     Processes the arguments and lets `ERC' handle the session.

 -- Function: url-irc-zenirc host port channel user password
     Processes the arguments and lets `zenirc' handle the session.

File: url,  Node: data,  Next: nfs,  Prev: irc,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.8 data
========

     data:[MEDIA-TYPE][;BASE64],DATA

   Data URLs contain MIME data in the URL itself.  They are defined in
RFC 2397.

   MEDIA-TYPE is a MIME `Content-Type' string, possibly including
parameters.  It defaults to `text/plain;charset=US-ASCII'.  The
`text/plain' can be omitted but the charset parameter supplied.  If
`;base64' is present, the DATA are base64-encoded.

File: url,  Node: nfs,  Next: cid,  Prev: data,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.9 nfs
=======

     nfs://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/FILE

   The `nfs:' scheme is defined in RFC 2224.  It is similar to `ftp:'
except that it points to a file on a remote host that is handled by the
automounter on the local host.

 -- Variable: url-nfs-automounter-directory-spec
   A string saying how to invoke the NFS automounter.  Certain `%'
sequences are recognized:

`%h'
     The hostname of the NFS server;

`%n'
     The port number of the NFS server;

`%u'
     The username to use to authenticate;

`%p'
     The password to use to authenticate;

`%f'
     The filename on the remote server;

`%%'
     A literal `%'.

   Each can be used any number of times.

File: url,  Node: cid,  Next: about,  Prev: nfs,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.10 cid
========

RFC 2111

File: url,  Node: about,  Next: ldap,  Prev: cid,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.11 about
==========

File: url,  Node: ldap,  Next: imap,  Prev: about,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.12 ldap
=========

The LDAP scheme is defined in RFC 2255.

File: url,  Node: imap,  Next: man,  Prev: ldap,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.13 imap
=========

RFC 2192

File: url,  Node: man,  Prev: imap,  Up: Supported URL Types

3.14 man
========

     `man:PAGE-SPEC'

   This is a non-standard scheme.  PAGE-SPEC is passed directly to the
Lisp `man' function.

File: url,  Node: Defining New URLs,  Next: General Facilities,  Prev: Supported URL Types,  Up: Top

4 Defining New URLs
*******************

* Menu:

* Naming conventions::
* Required functions::
* Optional functions::
* Asynchronous fetching::
* Supporting file-name-handlers::

File: url,  Node: Naming conventions,  Next: Required functions,  Up: Defining New URLs

4.1 Naming conventions
======================

File: url,  Node: Required functions,  Next: Optional functions,  Prev: Naming conventions,  Up: Defining New URLs

4.2 Required functions
======================

File: url,  Node: Optional functions,  Next: Asynchronous fetching,  Prev: Required functions,  Up: Defining New URLs

4.3 Optional functions
======================

File: url,  Node: Asynchronous fetching,  Next: Supporting file-name-handlers,  Prev: Optional functions,  Up: Defining New URLs

4.4 Asynchronous fetching
=========================

File: url,  Node: Supporting file-name-handlers,  Prev: Asynchronous fetching,  Up: Defining New URLs

4.5 Supporting file-name-handlers
=================================

File: url,  Node: General Facilities,  Next: Customization,  Prev: Defining New URLs,  Up: Top

5 General Facilities
********************

* Menu:

* Disk Caching::
* Proxies::
* Gateways in general::
* History::

File: url,  Node: Disk Caching,  Next: Proxies,  Up: General Facilities

5.1 Disk Caching
================

The disk cache stores retrieved documents locally, whence they can be
retrieved more quickly.  When requesting a URL that is in the cache,
the library checks to see if the page has changed since it was last
retrieved from the remote machine.  If not, the local copy is used,
saving the transmission over the network.  Currently the cache isn't
cleared automatically.

 -- User Option: url-automatic-caching
     Setting this variable non-`nil' causes documents to be cached
     automatically.

 -- User Option: url-cache-directory
     This variable specifies the directory to store the cache files.
     It defaults to sub-directory `cache' of
     `url-configuration-directory'.

 -- User Option: url-cache-creation-function
     The cache relies on a scheme for mapping URLs to files in the
     cache.  This variable names a function which sets the type of
     cache to use.  It takes a URL as argument and returns the absolute
     file name of the corresponding cache file.  The two supplied
     possibilities are `url-cache-create-filename-using-md5' and
     `url-cache-create-filename-human-readable'.

 -- Function: url-cache-create-filename-using-md5 url
     Creates a cache file name from URL using MD5 hashing.  This is
     creates entries with very few cache collisions and is fast.
          (url-cache-create-filename-using-md5 "http://www.example.com/foo/bar")
            => "/home/fx/.url/cache/fx/http/com/example/www/b8a35774ad20db71c7c3409a5410e74f"

 -- Function: url-cache-create-filename-human-readable url
     Creates a cache file name from URL more obviously connected to URL
     than for `url-cache-create-filename-using-md5', but more likely to
     conflict with other files.
          (url-cache-create-filename-human-readable "http://www.example.com/foo/bar")
            => "/home/fx/.url/cache/fx/http/com/example/www/foo/bar"

File: url,  Node: Proxies,  Next: Gateways in general,  Prev: Disk Caching,  Up: General Facilities

5.2 Proxies and Gatewaying
==========================

Proxy servers are commonly used to provide gateways through firewalls
or as caches serving some more-or-less local network.  Each protocol
(HTTP, FTP, etc.) can have a different gateway server.  Proxying is
conventionally configured commonly amongst different programs through
environment variables of the form `PROTOCOL_proxy', where PROTOCOL is
one of the supported network protocols (`http', `ftp' etc.).  The
library recognizes such variables in either upper or lower case.  Their
values are of one of the forms:
   * `HOST:PORT'

   * A full URL;

   * Simply a host name.

   The `NO_PROXY' environment variable specifies URLs that should be
excluded from proxying (on servers that should be contacted directly).
This should be a comma-separated list of hostnames, domain names, or a
mixture of both.  Asterisks can be used as wildcards, but other clients
may not support that.  Domain names may be indicated by a leading dot.
For example:
     NO_PROXY="*.aventail.com,home.com,.seanet.com"
   says to contact all machines in the `aventail.com' and `seanet.com'
domains directly, as well as the machine named `home.com'.  If
`NO_PROXY' isn't defined, `no_PROXY' and `no_proxy' are also tried, in
that order.

   Proxies may also be specified directly in Lisp.

 -- User Option: url-proxy-services
     This variable is an alist of URL schemes and proxy servers that
     gateway them.  The items are of the form
     `(SCHEME . HOST:PORTNUMBER)', says that the URL SCHEME is
     gatewayed through PORTNUMBER on the specified HOST.  An exception
     is the pseudo scheme `"no_proxy"', which is paired with a regexp
     matching host names not to be proxied.  This variable is
     initialized from the environment as above.

          (setq url-proxy-services
                '(("http"     . "proxy.aventail.com:80")
                  ("no_proxy" . "^.*\\(aventail\\|seanet\\)\\.com")))

File: url,  Node: Gateways in general,  Next: History,  Prev: Proxies,  Up: General Facilities

5.3 Gateways in General
=======================

The library provides a general gateway layer through which all
networking passes.  It can both control access to the network and
provide access through gateways in firewalls.  This may make direct
connections in some cases and pass through some sort of gateway in
others.(1)  The library's basic function responsible for making
connections is `url-open-stream'.

 -- Function: url-open-stream name buffer host service
     Open a stream to HOST, possibly via a gateway.  The other
     arguments are as for `open-network-stream'.  This will not make a
     connection if `url-gateway-unplugged' is non-`nil'.

 -- Variable: url-gateway-local-host-regexp
     This is a regular expression that matches local hosts that do not
     require the use of a gateway.  If `nil', all connections are made
     through the gateway.

 -- Variable: url-gateway-method
     This variable controls which gateway method is used.  It may be
     useful to bind it temporarily in some applications.  It has values
     taken from a list of symbols.  Possible values are:

    `telnet'
          Use this method if you must first telnet and log into a
          gateway host, and then run telnet from that host to connect
          to outside machines.

    `rlogin'
          This method is identical to `telnet', but uses `rlogin' to
          log into the remote machine without having to send the
          username and password over the wire every time.

    `socks'
          Use if the firewall has a SOCKS gateway running on it.  The
          SOCKS v5 protocol is defined in RFC 1928.

    `native'
          This method uses Emacs's builtin networking directly.  This
          is the default.  It can be used only if there is no firewall
          blocking access.

   The following variables control the gateway methods.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-telnet-host
     The gateway host to telnet to.  Once logged in there, you then
     telnet out to the hosts you want to connect to.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-telnet-parameters
     This should be a list of parameters to pass to the `telnet'
     program.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-telnet-password-prompt
     This is a regular expression that matches the password prompt when
     logging in.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-telnet-login-prompt
     This is a regular expression that matches the username prompt when
     logging in.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-telnet-user-name
     The username to log in with.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-telnet-password
     The password to send when logging in.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-prompt-pattern
     This is a regular expression that matches the shell prompt.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-rlogin-host
     Host to `rlogin' to before telnetting out.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-rlogin-parameters
     Parameters to pass to `rsh'.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-rlogin-user-name
     User name to use when logging in to the gateway.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-prompt-pattern
     This is a regular expression that matches the shell prompt.

 -- User Option: socks-server
     This specifies the default server, it takes the form
     `("Default server" SERVER PORT VERSION)' where VERSION can be
     either 4 or 5.

 -- Variable: socks-password
     If this is `nil' then you will be asked for the password,
     otherwise it will be used as the password for authenticating you to
     the SOCKS server.

 -- Variable: socks-username
     This is the username to use when authenticating yourself to the
     SOCKS server.  By default this is your login name.

 -- Variable: socks-timeout
     This controls how long, in seconds, to wait for responses from the
     SOCKS server; it is 5 by default.

 -- User Option: socks-nslookup-program
     This the `nslookup' program.  It is `"nslookup"' by default.

* Menu:

* Suppressing network connections::

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Proxies (which only operate over HTTP) are implemented using
this.

File: url,  Node: Suppressing network connections,  Up: Gateways in general

5.3.1 Suppressing Network Connections
-------------------------------------

In some circumstances it is desirable to suppress making network
connections.  A typical case is when rendering HTML in a mail user
agent, when external URLs should not be activated, particularly to
avoid `bugs' which `call home' by fetch single-pixel images and the
like.  To arrange this, bind the following variable for the duration of
such processing.

 -- Variable: url-gateway-unplugged
     If this variable is non-`nil' new network connections are never
     opened by the URL library.

File: url,  Node: History,  Prev: Gateways in general,  Up: General Facilities

5.4 History
===========

The library can maintain a global history list tracking URLs accessed.
URL completion can be done from it.  The history mechanism is set up
automatically via `url-do-setup' when it is configured to be on.  Note
that the size of the history list is currently not limited.

   The history `list' is actually a hash table,
`url-history-hash-table'.  It contains access times keyed by URL
strings.  The times are in the format returned by `current-time'.

 -- Function: url-history-update-url url time
     This function updates the history table with an entry for URL
     accessed at the given TIME.

 -- User Option: url-history-track
     If non-`nil', the library will keep track of all the URLs
     accessed.  If it is `t', the list is saved to disk at the end of
     each Emacs session.  The default is `nil'.

 -- User Option: url-history-file
     The file storing the history list between sessions.  It defaults to
     `history' in `url-configuration-directory'.

 -- User Option: url-history-save-interval
     The number of seconds between automatic saves of the history list.
     Default is one hour.  Note that if you change this variable
     directly, rather than using Custom, after `url-do-setup' has been
     run, you need to run the function `url-history-setup-save-timer'.

 -- Function: url-history-parse-history &optional fname
     Parses the history file FNAME (default `url-history-file') and
     sets up the history list.

 -- Function: url-history-save-history &optional fname
     Saves the current history to file FNAME (default
     `url-history-file').

 -- Function: url-completion-function string predicate function
     You can use this function to do completion of URLs from the
     history.

File: url,  Node: Customization,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: General Facilities,  Up: Top

6 Customization
***************

6.1 Environment Variables
=========================

The following environment variables affect the library's operation at
startup.

`TMPDIR'
     If this is defined, URL-TEMPORARY-DIRECTORY is initialized from it.

6.2 General User Options
========================

The following user options, settable with Customize, affect the general
operation of the package.

 -- User Option: url-debug
     Specifies the types of debug messages the library which are logged
     to the `*URL-DEBUG*' buffer.  `t' means log all messages.  A
     number means log all messages and show them with `message'.  If
     may also be a list of the types of messages to be logged.

 -- User Option: url-personal-mail-address

 -- User Option: url-privacy-level

 -- User Option: url-uncompressor-alist

 -- User Option: url-passwd-entry-func

 -- User Option: url-standalone-mode

 -- User Option: url-bad-port-list

 -- User Option: url-max-password-attempts

 -- User Option: url-temporary-directory

 -- User Option: url-show-status

 -- User Option: url-confirmation-func
     The function to use for asking yes or no functions.  This is
     normally either `y-or-n-p' or `yes-or-no-p', but could be another
     function taking a single argument (the prompt) and returning `t'
     only if an affirmative answer is given.

 -- User Option: url-gateway-method
     A symbol specifying the type of gateway support to use for
     connections from the local machine.  The supported methods are:

    `telnet'
          Run telnet in a subprocess to connect;

    `rlogin'
          Rlogin to another machine to connect;

    `socks'
          Connect through a socks server;

    `ssl'
          Connect with SSL;

    `native'
          Connect directly.

File: url,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Function Index,  Prev: Customization,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
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     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
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     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
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     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
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  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
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     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
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  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

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     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
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  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
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       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
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       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
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       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
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       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
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       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
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          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
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          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
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          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
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       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
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       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
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     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
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  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
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     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
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     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
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     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
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     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
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  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
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     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
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     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
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  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
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     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
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     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
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  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
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 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
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 11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
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     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

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     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
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     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.


ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: url,  Node: Function Index,  Next: Variable Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Command and Function Index
**************************

[index]
* Menu:

* Info-goto-node:                        info.                 (line  6)
* man:                                   man.                  (line  6)
* terminal-emulator:                     rlogin/telnet/tn3270. (line  6)
* url-attributes:                        Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-cache-create-filename-human-readable: Disk Caching.      (line 37)
* url-cache-create-filename-using-md5:   Disk Caching.         (line 31)
* url-completion-function:               History.              (line 43)
* url-decode-text-part:                  Dealing with HTTP documents.
                                                               (line 12)
* url-do-setup:                          History.              (line  6)
* url-file:                              Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-full:                              Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-generic-parse-url:                 Parsed URLs.          (line 49)
* url-history-parse-history:             History.              (line 35)
* url-history-save-history:              History.              (line 39)
* url-history-setup-save-timer:          History.              (line 29)
* url-history-update-url:                History.              (line 16)
* url-host:                              Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-http-options:                      HTTP URL Options.     (line 10)
* url-irc-erc:                           irc.                  (line 19)
* url-irc-rcirc:                         irc.                  (line 16)
* url-irc-zenirc:                        irc.                  (line 22)
* url-open-stream:                       Gateways in general.  (line 14)
* url-password:                          Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-port:                              Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-recreate-url:                      Parsed URLs.          (line 52)
* url-retrieve:                          Retrieving URLs.      (line 13)
* url-retrieve-synchronously:            Retrieving URLs.      (line  7)
* url-set-attributes:                    Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-set-file:                          Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-set-full:                          Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-set-host:                          Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-set-password:                      Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-set-port:                          Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-set-target:                        Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-set-type:                          Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-set-user:                          Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-target:                            Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-type:                              Parsed URLs.          (line 41)
* url-user:                              Parsed URLs.          (line 41)

File: url,  Node: Variable Index,  Next: Concept Index,  Prev: Function Index,  Up: Top

Variable Index
**************

[index]
* Menu:

* HTTP_PROXY:                            Proxies.             (line   6)
* mail-user-agent:                       mailto.              (line  10)
* NNTPSERVER:                            news/nntp/snews.     (line  36)
* NO_PROXY:                              Proxies.             (line  20)
* socks-nslookup-program:                Gateways in general. (line 105)
* socks-password:                        Gateways in general. (line  92)
* socks-server:                          Gateways in general. (line  87)
* socks-timeout:                         Gateways in general. (line 101)
* socks-username:                        Gateways in general. (line  97)
* TMPDIR:                                Customization.       (line  13)
* url-automatic-caching:                 Disk Caching.        (line  14)
* url-bad-port-list:                     Customization.       (line  38)
* url-cache-creation-function:           Disk Caching.        (line  23)
* url-cache-directory:                   Disk Caching.        (line  18)
* url-configuration-directory:           Configuration.       (line   7)
* url-confirmation-func:                 Customization.       (line  46)
* url-cookie-confirmation:               Cookies.             (line  11)
* url-cookie-file:                       Cookies.             (line   7)
* url-cookie-multiple-line:              Cookies.             (line  14)
* url-cookie-save-interval:              Cookies.             (line  27)
* url-cookie-trusted-urls:               Cookies.             (line  19)
* url-cookie-untrusted-urls:             Cookies.             (line  23)
* url-debug:                             Customization.       (line  22)
* url-directory-index-file:              file/ftp.            (line  19)
* url-gateway-local-host-regexp:         Gateways in general. (line  19)
* url-gateway-method <1>:                Customization.       (line  52)
* url-gateway-method:                    Gateways in general. (line  24)
* url-gateway-prompt-pattern:            Gateways in general. (line  72)
* url-gateway-rlogin-host:               Gateways in general. (line  75)
* url-gateway-rlogin-parameters:         Gateways in general. (line  78)
* url-gateway-rlogin-user-name:          Gateways in general. (line  81)
* url-gateway-telnet-host:               Gateways in general. (line  50)
* url-gateway-telnet-login-prompt:       Gateways in general. (line  62)
* url-gateway-telnet-parameters:         Gateways in general. (line  54)
* url-gateway-telnet-password:           Gateways in general. (line  69)
* url-gateway-telnet-password-prompt:    Gateways in general. (line  58)
* url-gateway-telnet-user-name:          Gateways in general. (line  66)
* url-gateway-unplugged:                 Suppressing network connections.
                                                              (line  14)
* url-history-file:                      History.             (line  25)
* url-history-hash-table:                History.             (line  11)
* url-history-save-interval:             History.             (line  29)
* url-history-track:                     History.             (line  20)
* url-honor-refresh-requests:            http/https.          (line  19)
* url-irc-function:                      irc.                 (line  10)
* url-mail-command:                      mailto.              (line  10)
* url-max-password-attempts:             Customization.       (line  40)
* url-mime-charset-string:               HTTP language/coding.
                                                              (line  18)
* url-mime-language-string:              HTTP language/coding.
                                                              (line  29)
* url-news-server:                       news/nntp/snews.     (line  34)
* url-nfs-automounter-directory-spec:    nfs.                 (line  13)
* url-passwd-entry-func:                 Customization.       (line  34)
* url-personal-mail-address:             Customization.       (line  28)
* url-privacy-level:                     Customization.       (line  30)
* url-proxy-services:                    Proxies.             (line  35)
* url-show-status:                       Customization.       (line  44)
* url-standalone-mode:                   Customization.       (line  36)
* url-temporary-directory:               Customization.       (line  13)
* url-uncompressor-alist:                Customization.       (line  32)

File: url,  Node: Concept Index,  Prev: Variable Index,  Up: Top

Concept Index
*************

[index]
* Menu:

* automounter:                           nfs.                 (line   6)
* bugs, HTML:                            Suppressing network connections.
                                                              (line   6)
* Cache cleaning:                        Disk Caching.        (line  10)
* Caching:                               Disk Caching.        (line   6)
* character sets:                        HTTP language/coding.
                                                              (line  18)
* Cleaning the cache:                    Disk Caching.        (line  10)
* Clearing the cache:                    Disk Caching.        (line  10)
* coding systems:                        HTTP language/coding.
                                                              (line  18)
* compressed files:                      file/ftp.            (line   6)
* configuration files:                   Configuration.       (line   7)
* Content-ID:                            cid.                 (line   6)
* DASL:                                  HTTP URL Options.    (line  22)
* data URLs:                             data.                (line   6)
* DAV:                                   HTTP URL Options.    (line  18)
* debugging:                             Customization.       (line  22)
* dired:                                 file/ftp.            (line   6)
* Disk Cache:                            Disk Caching.        (line   6)
* email:                                 mailto.              (line   6)
* environment variable:                  news/nntp/snews.     (line  36)
* environment variables <1>:             Customization.       (line   9)
* environment variables:                 Proxies.             (line   6)
* ERC:                                   irc.                 (line   6)
* File Transfer Protocol:                file/ftp.            (line   6)
* files:                                 file/ftp.            (line   6)
* firewalls:                             Gateways in general. (line   6)
* FTP:                                   file/ftp.            (line   6)
* gateways:                              Gateways in general. (line   6)
* HTML `bugs':                           Suppressing network connections.
                                                              (line   6)
* IMAP:                                  imap.                (line   6)
* Info:                                  info.                (line   6)
* Internet Relay Chat:                   irc.                 (line   6)
* IRC:                                   irc.                 (line   6)
* language preferences:                  HTTP language/coding.
                                                              (line  29)
* LDAP:                                  ldap.                (line   6)
* Lightweight Directory Access Protocol: ldap.                (line   6)
* mailto:                                mailto.              (line   6)
* man:                                   man.                 (line   6)
* MD5:                                   Disk Caching.        (line  32)
* network connections, suppressing:      Suppressing network connections.
                                                              (line   6)
* Network File System:                   nfs.                 (line   6)
* network news:                          news/nntp/snews.     (line   6)
* news:                                  news/nntp/snews.     (line   6)
* NFS:                                   nfs.                 (line   6)
* NNTP:                                  news/nntp/snews.     (line   6)
* nslookup:                              Gateways in general. (line 105)
* opening a stream:                      Gateways in general. (line  14)
* P3P:                                   HTTP URL Options.    (line  29)
* parsed URLs:                           Parsed URLs.         (line   6)
* Persistent Cache:                      Disk Caching.        (line   6)
* proxies:                               Proxies.             (line   6)
* proxy servers:                         Proxies.             (line   6)
* rcirc:                                 irc.                 (line   6)
* rlogin <1>:                            Gateways in general. (line  34)
* rlogin:                                rlogin/telnet/tn3270.
                                                              (line   6)
* snews:                                 news/nntp/snews.     (line   6)
* SOCKS:                                 Gateways in general. (line  39)
* SSL:                                   news/nntp/snews.     (line  27)
* stream, opening:                       Gateways in general. (line  14)
* suppressing network connections:       Suppressing network connections.
                                                              (line   6)
* telnet <1>:                            Gateways in general. (line  29)
* telnet:                                rlogin/telnet/tn3270.
                                                              (line   6)
* terminal emulation:                    rlogin/telnet/tn3270.
                                                              (line   6)
* Texinfo:                               info.                (line   6)
* tn3270:                                rlogin/telnet/tn3270.
                                                              (line   6)
* Unix man pages:                        man.                 (line   6)
* unparsing URLs:                        Parsed URLs.         (line  52)
* URIs:                                  Getting Started.     (line   6)
* URLs, definition:                      Getting Started.     (line   6)
* usenet:                                news/nntp/snews.     (line   6)
* ZEN IRC:                               irc.                 (line   6)
* ~/.url:                                Configuration.       (line   7)