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GNU `shar' utilities

This manual documents version 4.7 of the GNU shar utilities.

   Copyright (C) 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
2003, 2004, 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts,
     and with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included
     in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

   GNU `shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files,
preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services, while
`unshar' helps unpacking shell archives after reception.  Other tools
help using `shar' with the electronic mail system, and even allow
synchronization of remote directory trees.  This is release 4.7.

* Menu:

* Introduction::                Introduction to this toolset
* Basic::                       The basic `shar' utilities
* Wrappers::                    Simple wrappers around `shar'
* Remsync::                     Remote synchronisation of directories
* GNU Free Documentation License::     The license for this documentation.

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

The basic `shar' utilities

* shar invocation::             Invoking the `shar' program
* unshar invocation::           Invoking the `unshar' program
* Miscellaneous::               Miscellaneous considerations

Invoking the `shar' program

* Selecting::                   Selecting files
* Splitting::                   Splitting output
* Headers::                     Controlling the shar headers
* Stocking::                    Selecting how files are stocked
* Transmission::                Protecting against transmission
* Kinds::                       Producing different kinds of shar

Simple wrappers around `shar'

* Invoking mailshar::           The `mailshar' command and arguments
* Invoking mail-files::         The `mail-files' command and arguments
* Invoking find-mailer::        The `find-mailer' command and arguments

Remote synchronisation of directories

* Quick start::                 Quick start at using `remsync'
* Invoking remsync::            The `remsync' command and arguments
* Conveniences::                Automatic mechanisms in the `remsync' program
* Commands::                    Commands for `remsync'
* Internals::                   How `remsync' works
* Formats::                     Related file formats
* Xremsync::                    Format of the `.remsync' file
* Package::                     Format of transiting packages
* Alternatives::                Other means to synchronization
* Previous::                    Documentation for obsolete scripts

The `remsync' command and arguments

* Conveniences::                Automatic mechanisms in the `remsync' program
* Commands::                    Commands for `remsync'

Related file formats

* Xremsync::                    Format of the `.remsync' file
* Package::                     Format of transiting packages

Documentation for obsolete scripts

* mailsync::                    mailsync
* resync::                      resync

GNU Free Documentation License

* How to use this License for your documents::

File:,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Basic,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction to this toolset

GNU `uuencode' and `uudecode' have an history which roots are lost in
ages, and we will not even try to trace it.  The current versions were
brought into GNU by Ian Lance Taylor, and later modernized by Ulrich
Drepper.  GNU `shar' surely has a long history, too.  All along this
long road, numerous users contributed various improvements.  The file
`THANKS' in the distribution, as far as we know, contain the names of
all contributors we could identify, and for which email addresses are
seemingly valid.

   Please help us getting the history straight, for the following
information is somewhat approximative.  James Gosling wrote the public
domain `shar 1.x'.  William Davidsen rewrote it as `shar 2.x'.  Warren
Tucker implemented modifications and called it `shar 3.x'.  Richard
Gumpertz maintained it until 1990.  Franc,ois Pinard, from the public
domain `shar 3.49', made `GNU shar 4.x', in 1994.  Some modules and
other code sections were freely borrowed from other GNU distributions,
bringing this `shar' under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

   The few wrapper scripts and the `remsync' program have been
contributed more recently by Franc,ois Pinard, just as an attempt for
making this GNU `sharutils' toolset more useful.

   Your feedback helps us to make a better and more portable product.
Mail suggestions and bug reports (including documentation errors) for
these programs to `'.

File:,  Node: Basic,  Next: Wrappers,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 The basic `shar' utilities

GNU `shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing
them for transmission by electronic mail services.  A "shell archive"
is a collection of files that can be unpacked by `/bin/sh'.  A wide
range of features provide extensive flexibility in manufacturing shars
and in specifying shar _smartness_.  For example, `shar' may compress
files, uuencode binary files, split long files and construct multi-part
mailings, ensure correct unsharing order, and provide simplistic
checksums.  *Note shar invocation::.

   GNU `unshar' scans a set of mail messages looking for the start of
shell archives.  It will automatically strip off the mail headers and
other introductory text.  The archive bodies are then unpacked by a
copy of the shell.  `unshar' may also process files containing
concatenated shell archives.  *Note unshar invocation::.

* Menu:

* shar invocation::             Invoking the `shar' program
* unshar invocation::           Invoking the `unshar' program
* Miscellaneous::               Miscellaneous considerations

File:,  Node: shar invocation,  Next: unshar invocation,  Prev: Basic,  Up: Basic

2.1 Invoking the `shar' program

The format of the `shar' command is one of:

     shar [ OPTION ] ... FILE ...
     shar -S [ OPTION ] ...

   In the first form, the file list is given as command arguments.  In
the second form, the file list is read from standard input.  The
resulting archive is sent to standard output unless the `-o' option is

   Options can be given in any order.  Some options depend on each
other: the `-o' option is required if the `-l' or `-L' option is used.
The `-n' option is required if the `-a' option is used.  Also see `-V'

   Some options are special purpose:

     Print a help summary on standard output, then immediately exits.

     Print the version number of the program on standard output, then
     immediately exits.

     Verbose _off_ at `shar' time.  Messages are usually issued on
     standard error to let the user follow the progress, while making
     the archives.  This option inhibits these messages.

* Menu:

* Selecting::                   Selecting files
* Splitting::                   Splitting output
* Headers::                     Controlling the shar headers
* Stocking::                    Selecting how files are stocked
* Transmission::                Protecting against transmission
* Kinds::                       Producing different kinds of shar

File:,  Node: Selecting,  Next: Splitting,  Prev: shar invocation,  Up: shar invocation

2.1.1 Selecting files

     Allow positional parameter options.  The options `-M', `-B', `-T',
     `-z' and `-Z' may be embedded, and files to the right of the
     option will be processed in the specified mode.  Without the `-p'
     option, embedded options would be interpreted as file names.
     *Note Stocking::.

     Read list of files to be packed from the standard input rather
     than from the command line.  Input must be one file name per line.
     This switch is especially useful when the command line will not
     hold the list of files to be packed.  For example:

          find . -type f -print | \
            shar -S -o /somewhere/big.shar

     If `-p' is specified on the command line, then the options `-M',
     `-B', `-T', `-z' and `-Z' may be included in the standard input
     (on a line separate from file names).  The maximum number of lines
     of standard input, file names and options, may not exceed 1024.

File:,  Node: Splitting,  Next: Headers,  Prev: Selecting,  Up: shar invocation

2.1.2 Splitting output

     Save the archive to files `PREFIX.01' through `PREFIX.NNN' instead
     of standard output.  This option _must_ be used when the `-l' or
     the `-L' switches are used.

     When PREFIX contains any `%' character, PREFIX is then interpreted
     as a `sprintf' format, which should be able to display a single
     decimal number.  When PREFIX does not contain such a `%'
     character, the string `.%02d' is internally appended.

`-l SIZE'
     Limit the output file size to SIZE times 1024 bytes but don't
     split input files.  This allows the recipient of the shell archives
     to unpack them in any order.

     Limit output file size to SIZE times 1024 bytes and split files if
     necessary.  The archives created with this option must be unpacked
     in the correct order.  If the recipient of the shell archives
     wants to put all of them in a single folder, she shall save them
     in the correct order for `unshar', used with option `-e', to
     unpack them all at once.  *Note unshar invocation::.

     For people used to saving all the shell archives into a single mail
     folder, care must be taken to save them in the appropriate order.
     For those having the appropriate tools (like Masanobu Umeda's
     `rmailsort' package for GNU Emacs), shell archives can be saved in
     any order, then sorted by increasing date (or send time) before
     massive unpacking.

File:,  Node: Headers,  Next: Stocking,  Prev: Splitting,  Up: shar invocation

2.1.3 Controlling the shar headers

`-n NAME'
     Name of archive to be included in the header of the shar files.
     Also see the `-a' switch further down.

     The `-s' option allows for overriding the email address for the
     submitter, for when the default is not appropriate.  The
     automatically determined address looks like `USERNAME@HOSTNAME'.

     Allows automatic generation of headers:

          Submitted-by: ADDRESS
          Archive-name: NAME/partNN

     The NAME must be given with the `-n' switch.  If name includes a
     `/', then `/part' isn't used. Thus `-n xyzzy' produces:

     while `-n xyzzy/patch' produces:

     and `-n xyzzy/patch01.' produces:

     Start the shar with a cut line.  A line saying `Cut here' is
     placed at the start of each output file.

     Translate messages in the script.  If you have set the `LANG'
     environment variable, messages printed by `shar' will be in the
     specified language.  The produced script will still be emitted
     using messages in the lingua franca of the computer world:
     English.  This option will cause the script messages to appear in
     the languages specified by the `LANG' environment variable set
     when the script is produced.

File:,  Node: Stocking,  Next: Transmission,  Prev: Headers,  Up: shar invocation

2.1.4 Selecting how files are stocked

     Treat all files as text, regardless of their contents.

     Treat all files as binary, use `uuencode' prior to packing. This
     increases the size of the archive. The recipient must have
     `uudecode' in order to unpack.

          Use of `uuencode' is not appreciated by many on the net, because
          people like to readily see, by mere inspection of a shell archive,
          what it is about.

     Mixed mode.  Automatically determine if the files are text or
     binary and archive correctly.  Files found to be binary are
     uuencoded prior to packing.  This option is selected by default.

     For a file is considered to be a text file, instead of a binary
     file, all the following should be true simultaneously:
       1. The file does not contain any ASCII control character besides
          <BS> (backspace), <HT> (horizontal tab), <LF> (new line) or
          <FF> (form feed).

       2. The file does not contains a <DEL> (delete).

       3. The file contains no character with its eighth-bit set.

       4. The file, unless totally empty, terminates with a <LF>

       5. No line in the file contains more than 200 characters.  For
          counting purpose, lines are separated by a <LF> (newline).

     Use `gzip' and `uuencode' on all files prior to packing.  The
     recipient must have `uudecode' and `gzip' (used with `-d') in
     order to unpack.

     Usage of `-z' in net shars will cause you to be flamed off the

`-g LEVEL'
     When doing compression, use `-LEVEL' as a parameter to `gzip'.
     The `-g' option turns on the `-z' option by default.  The default
     value is 9, that is, maximum compression.

     Use `bzip2' and `uuencode' on all files prior to packing.  The
     recipient must have `uudecode' and `bzip2' (used with `-d') in
     order to unpack.

     Usage of `-j' in net shars will cause you to be flamed off to hell.

     Use `compress' and `uuencode' on all files prior to packing.  The
     recipient must have `uudecode' and `compress' (used with `-d') in
     order to unpack.  Option `-C' is a synonymous for `-Z', but is

     Usage of `-Z' in net shars will cause you to be flamed off the

`-b BITS'
     When doing compression, use `-bX' as a parameter to `compress'.
     The `-b' option turns on the `-Z' option by default.  The default
     value is 12, foreseeing the memory limitations of some `compress'
     programs on smallish systems, at `unshar' time.

File:,  Node: Transmission,  Next: Kinds,  Prev: Stocking,  Up: shar invocation

2.1.5 Protecting against transmission errors

Transmission of shell archives is not always free of errors.  So one
should make consistency checks on the receiving site.  A very simple
(and unreliable) method is running the UNIX `wc' tool on the output
file.  This can report the number of characters in the file.

   As one can guess this does not catch all errors.  Especially
changing of a character value does not change the computed check sum.
To achieve this goal better method were invented and standardized.  One
very strong is MD5 (MD = message digests).  This is standardized in RFC
1321.  The produced shell scripts do not force the `md5sum' program to
be installed on the system.  This is necessary because it is not yet
part of every UNIX.  The program is however not necessary for producing
the shell archive.

     Do _not_ check with `wc -c' after unpack.  The default is to check.

     Do _not_ check with `md5sum' after unpack.  The default is to

     Prepend the prefix character to every line even if not required.
     This option may slightly increase the size of the archive,
     especially if `-B' or `-Z' is used.  Normally, the prefix character
     is `X'.  If the parameter to the `-d' option starts with `X', then
     the prefix character becomes `Y'.

     Use STRING to delimit the files in the shar instead of `SHAR_EOF'.
     This is for those who want to personalize their shar files.

File:,  Node: Kinds,  Prev: Transmission,  Up: shar invocation

2.1.6 Producing different kinds of shars

     This option produces "vanilla" shars which rely only upon the
     existence of `echo', `test' and `sed' in the unpacking environment.

     The `-V' disables options offensive to the "network cop" (or
     "brown shirt").  It also changes the default from mixed mode `-M'
     to text mode `-T'.  Warnings are produced if option `-B', `-z',
     `-j', `-Z', `-p' or `-M' is specified (any of which does or might
     require `uudecode', `gzip', `bzip2' or `compress' in the unpacking

     In the shar file, use a temporary file to hold the file to
     `uudecode', instead of using pipes.  This option is mandatory when
     you know the unpacking `uudecode' is unwilling to merely read its
     standard input.  Richard Marks wrote what is certainly the most
     (in)famous of these, for MSDOS :-).

     (Here is a side note from the maintainer.  Why isnt't this option
     the default?  In the past history of `shar', it was decided that
     piping was better, surely because it is less demanding on disk
     space, and people seem to be happy with this.  Besides, I think
     that the `uudecode' from Richard Marks, on MSDOS, is wrong in
     refusing to handle `stdin'.  So far that I remember, he has the
     strong opinion that a program without any parameters should give
     its `--help' output.  Besides that, should I say, his `uuencode'
     and `uudecode' programs are full-featured, one of the most
     complete set I ever saw.  But Richard will not release his
     sources, he wants to stay in control.)

     Overwrite existing files without checking.  If neither `-x' nor
     `-X' is specified, when unpacking itself, the shell archive will
     check for and not overwrite existing files (unless `-c' is passed
     as a parameter to the script when unpacking).

     Interactively overwrite existing files.

     Use of `-X' produces shars which _will_ cause problems with some
     `unshar'-style procedures, particularily when used together with
     vanilla mode (`-V').  Use this feature mainly for archives to be
     passed among agreeable parties.  Certainly, `-X' is _not_ for
     shell archives which are to be submitted to Usenet or other public

     The problem is that `unshar' programs or procedures often feed
     `/bin/sh' from its standard input, thus putting `/bin/sh' and the
     shell archive script in competition for input lines.  As an
     attempt to alleviate this problem, `shar' will try to detect if
     `/dev/tty' exists at the receiving site and will use it to read
     user replies.  But this does not work in all cases, it may happen
     that the receiving user will have to avoid using `unshar' programs
     or procedures, and call `/bin/sh' directly.  In vanilla mode,
     using `/dev/tty' is not even attempted.

     Avoid generating `touch' commands to restore the file modification
     dates when unpacking files from the archive.

     When the timestamp relationship is not preserved, some files like
     `configure' or `*.info' may be uselessly remade after unpacking.
     This is why, when this option is not used, a special effort is
     made to restore timestamps,

     Verbose _off_ at `unshar' time.  Disables the inclusion of
     comments to be output when the archive is unpacked.

     Use only the last file name component of each input file name,
     ignoring any prefix directories.  This is sometimes useful when
     building a shar from several directories, or another directory.
     If a directory name is passed to `shar', the substructure of that
     directory will be restored whether `-f' is specified or not.

File:,  Node: unshar invocation,  Next: Miscellaneous,  Prev: shar invocation,  Up: Basic

2.2 Invoking the `unshar' program

The format of the `unshar' command is:

     unshar [ OPTION ] ... [ FILE ... ]

   Each FILE is processed in turn, as a shell archive or a collection
of shell archives.  If no files are given, then standard input is
processed instead.


     Print the version number of the program on standard output, then
     immediately exits.

     Print an help summary on standard output, then immediately exits.

     Change directory to DIRECTORY before unpacking any files.


     Passed as an option to the shar file.  Many shell archive scripts
     (including those produced by `shar' 3.40 and newer) accepts a `-c'
     argument to indicate that existing files should be overwritten.

     The option `-f' is provided for a more unique interface.  Many
     programs (such as `cp' and `mv') use this option to trigger the
     very same action.

     This option exists mainly for people who collect many shell
     archives into a single mail folder.  With this option, `unshar'
     isolates each different shell archive from the others which have
     been put in the same file, unpacking each in turn, from the
     beginning of the file towards its end.  Its proper operation
     relies on the fact that many shar files are terminated by a
     `exit 0' at the beginning of a line.

     Option `-e' is internally equivalent to `-E "exit 0"'.

     This option works like `-e', but it allows you to specify the
     string that separates archives if `exit 0' isn't appropriate.

     For example, noticing that most `.signatures' have a `--' on a
     line right before them, one can sometimes use `--split-at=--' for
     splitting shell archives which lack the `exit 0' line at end.  The
     signature will then be skipped altogether with the headers of the
     following message.

File:,  Node: Miscellaneous,  Prev: unshar invocation,  Up: Basic

2.3 Miscellaneous considerations

Here is a place-holder for many considerations which do not fit
elsewhere, while not worth a section for themselves.

   Be careful that the output file(s) are not included in the inputs or
`shar' may loop until the disk fills up.  Be particularly careful when
a directory is passed to `shar' that the output files are not in that
directory (or a subdirectory of that directory).

   When a directory is passed to `shar', it may be scanned more than
once, to conserve memory.  Therefore, one should be careful to not
change the directory contents while `shar' is running.

   No attempt is made to restore the protection and modification dates
for directories, even if this is done by default for files.  Thus, if a
directory is given to `shar', the protection and modification dates of
corresponding unpacked directory may not match those of the original.

   Use of the `-M' or `-B' options will slow down the archive process.
Use of the `-z' or `-Z' options may slow the archive process

   Let us conclude by a showing a few examples of `shar' usage:

     shar *.c > cprog.shar
     shar -Q *.[ch] > cprog.shar
     shar -B -l28 *.arc
     shar -f /lcl/src/u*.c >

The first shows how to make a shell archive out of all C program
sources.  The second produces a shell archive with all `.c' and `.h'
files, which unpacks silently.  The third gives a shell archive of all
uuencoded `.arc' files, into files `' through to `'.
The last example gives a shell archive which will use only the file
names at unpack time.

File:,  Node: Wrappers,  Next: Remsync,  Prev: Basic,  Up: Top

3 Simple wrappers around `shar'

* Menu:

* Invoking mailshar::           The `mailshar' command and arguments
* Invoking mail-files::         The `mail-files' command and arguments
* Invoking find-mailer::        The `find-mailer' command and arguments

File:,  Node: Invoking mailshar,  Next: Invoking mail-files,  Prev: Wrappers,  Up: Wrappers

3.1 The `mailshar' command and arguments

File:,  Node: Invoking mail-files,  Next: Invoking find-mailer,  Prev: Invoking mailshar,  Up: Wrappers

3.2 The `mail-files' command and arguments

File:,  Node: Invoking find-mailer,  Prev: Invoking mail-files,  Up: Wrappers

3.3 The `find-mailer' command and arguments

File:,  Node: Remsync,  Prev: Wrappers,  Up: Top

4 Remote synchronisation of directories

For using the `remsync' facility, besides `sharutils' of course, you
also need `perl', GNU `tar', GNU `findutils' and `gzip', all installed.
You also need a `sum' program which is BSD-compatible, for example the
one from GNU `textutils'.

   The `remsync' program tries to maintain up-to-date copies of whole
hierarchy of files over many loosely connected sites, provided there is
at least some slow electronic mail between them.  It prepares and sends
out specially packaged files called "synchronization packages", and is
able to processes them after reception.

   There is no _master_ site, each site has an equal opportunity to
modify files, and modified files are propagated.  Among many other
commands, the `broadcast' command prepares and sends a synchronization
package from the current site to all others, while the `process'
command is used to apply synchronization packages locally after
reception from remote sites.  `remsync' will never send a file to
another site without being asked to with the `broadcast' command, and
besides the project synchronization state files (always named
`.remsync'), it will never modify a file locally without being asked to
with the `process' command.

   The unit of transmission is a file, whatever its size may be.
Nothing less than whole files are being transmitted.  People deciding
to cooperate in keeping a synchronized set of files must have trust
each other, as each participant has the power of modifying the contents
of files at other sites.  When `remsync' is used by a single individual
travelling between many sites, as it is often the case, this confidence
problem should be easier to resolve :-).

   The `process' command will modify a file without asking
confirmation, as long as there is no reason to believe that the file
has been modified at more than one place.  When some confusion arises
from the fact many people independently modified a single file, the
receiving user of conflicting files will have the duty of resolving
them into a merged version.  So, the merging has to be done at the site
where the discrepancy is observed, from where it is propagated again to
others participants.  There is no locking mechanism, so people should
use other means, like electronic mail, for telling each other what they
do, and which part of a project they are working on.

* Menu:

* Quick start::                 Quick start at using `remsync'
* Invoking remsync::            The `remsync' command and arguments
* Conveniences::                Automatic mechanisms in the `remsync' program
* Commands::                    Commands for `remsync'
* Internals::                   How `remsync' works
* Formats::                     Related file formats
* Xremsync::                    Format of the `.remsync' file
* Package::                     Format of transiting packages
* Alternatives::                Other means to synchronization
* Previous::                    Documentation for obsolete scripts

File:,  Node: Quick start,  Next: Invoking remsync,  Prev: Remsync,  Up: Remsync

4.1 Quick start at using `remsync'

If you are in a real hurry, you can follow the recipe given here, and
postpone studying this manual further.  However, we will consider only
a simple case.  In any case, it is good to read the full example, as it
gives a good picture of the overall usage of `remsync'.

   For any sizeable project, it might not be convenient to start with
one site having it all and the other site having nothing, because this
would cause the first synchronization to be huge.  It is more practical
to move over a copy of the project by other means, might it be
diskettes, tapes, or `mailshar'.  So let's presume both sites have a
copy of the project, not necessarily identical, but close.

   For the following example, we presume that under the same domain
`', there are two machines named `spirou' and
`fantasio'.  Further, the participating user on
`' has `spirou' for a login name, and
similarily, the participating user on `' has
`fantasio' for a login name.  On the `spirou' machine, user `spirou'
keeps the project under his home, in directory `spirou-copy', while on
the `fantasio' machine, user `fantasio' keeps the project under his
home, in directory `fantasio-copy'.  Of course, user names might be the
same, as well as the directories containing the project.  We use
different names here just to make the example clearer.

   Here is a full transcript of the initialization session, normally
executed only once, and slightly edited to make it more suitable for
this manual.  The example is broken down in little parts, allowing
explanations and comments.

     % cd ~/spirou-copy
     % remsync
     remsync (format *.*) - GNU sharutils *.*

     >> mode init

     init>> remote ~/fantasio-copy
     * Directory `~/spirou-copy is not ready for synchronization
     Should I prepare it for its first time (y/n)? [y]
     Please enter a short project description: Zorglub project
     What is your full email address, here? []

These commands prepare the `~/spirou-copy' hierarchy for
synchronization.  You should be located at the top directory of the
hierarchy at the time the command `remsync' is called.

   The `mode init' command instructs `remsync' that no files should be
sent in the synchronization package, only their checksum.  The goal
here is to inform the other site of what we have, and what we don't,
somewhat disregarding the fact the other site still looks like it has
nothing yet.

   The `remote' command is the key in establishing a synchronization
link.  It has two parameters, the first being the email address of the
partner at the other site (as seen from here, if this matters), the
second being the location of the directory where the package should
reside on the remote site (as seen from there).

   Because there is no `.remsync' file in the project's top-level
directory,  `remsync' concludes this is a first synchronization, and
so, ask a few questions, often telling in square brackets what answer
would be implied by a mere <Return> or <Enter>.  If the default reply
seems inappropriate, just give the correct information.

     init>> broadcast

       Broadcasting to address `'
       Studying local files for their signature
       Registering file `file1'
       Registering file `file2'
       Registering file `file3'
     * There were new registrations, please check them
     Should I resume the current command (y/n)? [y]
     Mailing shar to
     Message queued
       Command `broadcast' done

     init>> quit


   The `broadcast' command produces an inventory of the project's files
at this end, and mail it to the other partners.  But before doing so,
because some new files were registered into the synchronization, the
user is given the opportunity of interrupting the command, if it is
felt that some registered file should really not be there.

   The `quit' command exits `remsync', but only once it created the
`.remsync' file on disk.

   _Then_, on `', user `fantasio' will receive
the synchronization package, easily recognizable by the fact the string
`.remsync.tar.gz' appears in the `Subject' header of the message.
Let's assume `fantasio' saves the whole message as file
`/tmp/synchro-message'.  Then, `fantasio' might use the following

     % cd /tmp
     % unshar synchro-message
     uudecoding file .remsync.tar.gz
     % remsync process
       Exploding archive `/tmp/.remsync.tar.gz'

       Package being received:
         from address `'
         for project `Zorglub project'
       Visiting directory `~/fantasio-copy', remote was `~/spirou-copy'
       Initializing file `.remsync' from received information
       Studying local files for their signature
       Command `process' done

   In that `remsync process' call, the `process' command is being given
non-interactively, so `remsync' avoids unneeded interactions and exits
right away once the command is done.  But equivalently, `remsync' might
be called without arguments, the `process' command given interactively,
and a `quit' command later required to get out of `remsync'.

   When receiving a synchronization package, `remsync' should be
executed in the directory where the file `.remsync.tar.gz' has been
unpacked, which might be quite unrelated to the project itself.  Here,
`fantasio' executed `remsync' in `/tmp/', while the project resides in
`~/fantasio-project'.  The synchronization package itself contains
enough information for `remsync' to automatically visit the proper

   After this operation, `' has a `.remsync'
file in `~/fantasio-copy', and the remote synchronization
initialization is completed.  Either `spirou' or `fantasio' may then
modify files on their respective machine.  If `spirou' modifies `file2'
in the project, `spirou' may execute:

     % cd ~/spirou-copy
     % remsync broadcast
       Reading configuration for project `Zorglub project'

       Broadcasting to address `'
       Studying local files for their signature
       Packaging file `file2'
     shar: Saving file2 (gzipped)
     Mailing shar to
     Message queued
       Command `broadcast' done

   In fact, any time a participant later feel like sending modified
files to all partners, s/he just have to change the directory to the
top of the project hierarchy, then call `remsync broadcast'.  Any time a
synchronization package is later received, at either end, the receiving
user should apply `unshar' to related electronic messages for
reconstructing the synchronization package `.remsync.tar.gz', then call
`remsync process' in the directory containing this package.

File:,  Node: Invoking remsync,  Next: Conveniences,  Prev: Quick start,  Up: Remsync

4.2 The `remsync' command and arguments

At the shell prompt, calling the command `remsync' without any
parameters initiates an interactive dialog, in which the user types
commands and receives feedback from the program.

   The command `remsync', given at the shell prompt, may have
arguments, in which case these arguments taken together form one
`remsync' interactive command.  However, `--help' and `--version'
options are interpreted especially, with their usual effect in GNU.
Once this command has been executed, no more commands are taken from
the user and `remsync' terminates execution.  This allows for using
`remsync' in some kind of batch mode.  It is unwise to redirect
`remsync' standard input, because user interactions might often be
needed in ways difficult to predict in advance.

   The two most common usages of `remsync' are the commands:

     remsync b
     remsync p

   The first example executes the `broadcast' command, which sends
synchronization packages to all connected remote sites for the current
local directory tree.

   The second example executes the `process' command, which studies and
complies with a synchronisation package saved in the current directory
(not necessarily into the synchronized directory tree), under the usual
file name `remsync.tar.gz'.

* Menu:

* Conveniences::                Automatic mechanisms in the `remsync' program
* Commands::                    Commands for `remsync'

File:,  Node: Conveniences,  Next: Commands,  Prev: Invoking remsync,  Up: Remsync

4.3 Automatic mechanisms in the `remsync' program

The following points apply to many of the `remsync' commands.  We
describe them here once and for all.

   * The file `.remsync' describes the various properties for the
     current synchronization.  It is kept right in the top directory of
     a synchronized directory tree.  Some commands may be executed
     without any need for this file.  The program waits as far as
     possible before reading it.

   * If the `.remsync' file is not found when required, and only then,
     the user is interactively asked to fill a questionnaire about it.

   * If the `.remsync' file has been logically modified after having
     been read, or if it just has been created, the program will save
     it back on disk.  But it will do so only before reading another
     `.remsync' file, or just before exit.  A preexisting `.remsync'
     will be renamed to `.remsync.bak' before it is rewritten, when
     this is done, any previous `.remsync.bak' file is discarded.

   * Many commands refer to previously entered information by repeating
     this information.  For example, one can refer to a particular
     `scan' statement by entering the wildcard to be scanned by this
     statement.  An alternative method of specifying a statement
     consists in using the decimal number which appears between square
     brackets in the result of a `list' command.

   * Whenever a site list must be given, it is a space separated list of
     remote sites.  If the list is preceeded by a bang (<!>), the list
     is complemented, that is, the sites that will be operated upon are
     all those _not_ appearing in the list.  As a special case, if the
     site list is completely empty, then all sites are selected.

File:,  Node: Commands,  Next: Internals,  Prev: Conveniences,  Up: Remsync

4.4 Commands for `remsync'

Program commands to `remsync' may be given interactively by the user
sitten at a terminal.  They can come from the arguments of the
`remsync' call at the shell level.  Internally, the `process' command
might obey many sub-commands found in a received synchronization

   Program commands are given one per line.  Lines beginning with a
sharp (<#>) and white lines are ignored, they are meant to increase
clarity or to introduce user comments.  With only a few exceptions,
commands are introduced by a keyword and often contains other keywords.
In all cases, the keywords specific to `remsync' may be abbreviated to
their first letter.  When there are many keywords in succession, the
space separating them may be omitted.  So the following commands are
all equivalent:

     list remote
     l remote
     list r
     l r

while the following are not legal:

     l rem

   Below, for clarity, keywords are written in full and separated by
spaces.  Commands often accept parameters, which are then separated by
spaces.  All available commands are given in the table.  The first few
commands do not pre-require the file `.remsync'.  The last three
commands are almost never used interactively, but rather automatically
triggered while `process''ing received synchronization packages.

     Display a quick help summary of available commands.

     If SHELL-COMMAND has been given, execute it right now as a shell
     command.  When not given, rather start an interactive shell.
     Exiting from the shell will return to this program.  The started
     shell is taken from the `SHELL' environment variable if set, else
     `sh' is used.

     Leave the program normally and return to the shell.

     Leave the program with a nonzero exit status and return to the
     shell.  No attempt is made to save a logically modified `.remsync'

     Select another synchronized directory tree for any subsequent
     operation.  DIRECTORY is the top directory of the synchronized
     directory tree.

`process' [ FILE ]

`list' [ TYPE ]
     List all known statements about some information TYPE.  Allowable
     keywords for TYPE are `local', `remote', `scan', `ignore' and
     `files'.  The keyword `files' asks for all empty statements (see
     later).  If TYPE is omitted, then list all known statements for
     all types, except those given by `files'.

[ `create' ] TYPE VALUE
     Create a new statement introducing a VALUE for a given TYPE.
     Allowable keywords for TYPE are `remote', `scan' and `ignore'.
     The `create' keyword may be omitted.

     For `create' `ignore', when the pattern is preceeded by a bang
     (<!>), the condition is reversed.  That is, only those files which
     do match the pattern will be kept for synchronization.

`delete' TYPE VALUE
     Delete an existing statement supporting some VALUE for a given
     TYPE.  Allowable keywords for TYPE are `remote', `scan' and

     Modify the electronic mail address associated with some REMOTE
     site, giving it a new VALUE.  The special `local' keyword for
     REMOTE may be used to modify the local electronic mail address.

     Modify the top directory of the synchronized directory tree
     associated with some REMOTE site, giving it a new VALUE.  The
     special `local' keyword for REMOTE may be used to modify the local
     top directory.

`broadcast' SITE_LIST
     Send by electronic mail an update package to all sites from
     SITE_LIST, containing for each site all and only those files which
     are known to be different between the remote site and here.

`version' VERSION
     This command is not meant for interactive use.  It establishes the
     `remsync' version needed to process the incoming commands.

`from' SITE_LIST
     This command is not really meant for interactive use.  The first
     site from the SITE_LIST is the remote site which originated the
     synchronization package.  All the others are all the sites,
     including here, which were meant to be synchronized by the
     `broadcast' command that was issued at the originating remote site.

     This command is not really meant for interactive use.  It declares
     the CHECKSUM value of a particular FILE at the originating remote
     site.  Also, if at least one `sum' command is received, then it is
     guaranteed that the originating remote site sent one `sum' command
     for each and every file to be synchronized, so any found local
     file which was not subject of any `sum' command does not exist

     This command is not really meant for interactive use.  It directs
     the `remsync' program to check if a local FILE has a given
     CHECKSUM.  If the checksum agrees, then the local file will be
     replaced by the PACKAGED file, as found in the received
     synchronization invoice.

File:,  Node: Internals,  Next: Formats,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Remsync

4.5 How `remsync' works

How does `remsync' keep track of what is in sync, and what isn't?
*Note Xremsync::, for a the documentation on the `.remsync' file
format.  I understand that a mere description of the format does not
replace an explanation, but in the meantime, you might guess from the
format how the program works.

   All files are summarized by a checksum, computed by the `sum'
program.  There are a few variants of `sum' computing checksums in
incompatible ways, under the control of options.  `remsync' attempts to
retrieve on each site a compatible way to do it, and complains if it

   `remsync' does not compare dates or sizes.  Experience shown that the
best version of a file is not necessarily the one with the latest
timestamp.  The best version for a site is the current version on this
site, as decided by its maintainer there, and this is this version that
will be propagated.

   Each site has an idea of the checksum of a file for all other sites.
These checksums are not necessarily identical, for sites do not
necessarily propagate to all others, and the propagation network maybe
incomplete or asymmetrical in various ways.

   Propagation is never done unattended.  The user on a site has to call
`remsync broadcast' to issue synchronization packages for other sites.
If this is never done, the local modifications will never leave the
site.  The user also has to call `remsync process' to apply received
synchronization packages.  Applying a package does not automatically
broadcast it further (maybe this could change?).

   If a site A propagates some files to sites B and D, but not C, site
B is informed that site D also received these files, and site D is
informed that site B also received these files, so they will not
propagate again the same files to one another.  However, both site B
and D are susceptible to propagate further the same files to site C.

   It may happen that a site refuses to update a file, or modifies a
file after having been received, or merges versions, or whatever.  So,
sites may have a wrong opinion of the file contents on other sites.
These differences level down after a few exchanges, and it is very
unlikely that a file would not be propagated when it should have.

   This scheme works only when the various people handling the various
files have confidence in one each other.  If site B modifies a file
after having received it from site A, the file will eventually be
propagated back to site A.  If the original file stayed undisturbed on
site A, that is, if `remsync' proves that site B correctly knew the
checksum of the original file, then the file will be replaced on site A
without any user confirmation.  So, the user on site A has to trust the
changes made by the user on site B.

   If the original file on site A had been modified after having been
sent in a synchronization package, than it is the responsibility of the
user on site A to correctly merge the local modifications with the
modifications observed in the file as received from site B.  This
responsibility is real, since the merged file will later be propagated
to the other sites in an authoritative way.

File:,  Node: Formats,  Next: Xremsync,  Prev: Internals,  Up: Remsync

4.6 Related file formats

* Menu:

* Xremsync::                    Format of the `.remsync' file
* Package::                     Format of transiting packages

File:,  Node: Xremsync,  Next: Package,  Prev: Formats,  Up: Remsync

4.7 Format of the `.remsync' file

The `.remsync' file saves all the information a site needs for properly
synchronizing a directory tree with remote sites.  Even if it is meant
to be editable using any ASCII editor, it has a very precise format and
one should be very careful while modifying it directly, if ever.  The
`.remsync' file is better handled through the `remsync' program and

   The `.remsync' file is made up of statements, one per line.  Each
line begins with a statement keyword followed by a single <TAB>, then
by one or more parameters.  The keyword may be omitted, in this case,
the keyword is said to be _empty_, and the line begins immediately with
the <TAB>.  After the <TAB>, if there are two parameters or more, they
should all be separated with a single space.  There should not be any
space between the last parameter and the end of line (unless there are
explicit empty parameters).

   The following table gives the possible keywords.  Their order of
presentation in the table is also the order of appearance in the
`.remsync' file.

     This statement identifies the `.remsync' format.  The only
     parameter states the file format version.

     This statement should appear exactly once, and has exactly two
     parameters.  The first parameter gives the electronic mail address
     the other sites should use for sending synchronization packages
     here.  The second parameter gives the name of the local directory
     tree to synchronize, in absolute notation.

     This statement may appear zero, one or more times.  Each occurrence
     connects the synchronized directory tree to another tree on a
     remote site.  The first parameter gives one electronic mail
     address where to send remote synchronization packages.  The second
     parameter gives the name of the corresponding directory tree for
     this remote electronic mail address, in absolute notation.

     This statement may appear zero, one or more times.  When it does
     not appear at all, the whole local directory tree will always be
     scanned, searching for files to synchronize.  When the statement
     appears at least once, the whole local directory tree will not be
     scanned, but only those files or directories appearing in one of
     these statements.  Each `scan' statement has exactly one
     parameter, giving one file or directory to be studied.  These are
     usually given relative to top directory of the local
     synchronization directory tree.  Shell wildcards are acceptable.

     This statement may appear zero, one or more times.  Each
     occurrence has one parameter giving a regular expression,
     according to Perl syntax for regular expressions.  These REGEXPs
     are applied against each file resulting from the scan.  If any of
     the `ignore' expression matches one of resulting file, the file is
     discarded and is not subject to remote synchronization.

   After all the statements beginning by the previous keywords, the
`.remsync' file usually contains many statements having the empty
keyword.  The empty keyword statement may appear zero, one or more
times.  Each occurrence list one file being remotely synchronized.  The
first parameter gives an explicit file name, usually given relative to
the top directory of the local synchronized directory tree.  Shell
wildcards are _not_ acceptable.

   Besides the file name parameter, there are supplementary parameters
to each empty keyword statement, each corresponding to one remote
statement in the `.remsync' file.  The second parameter corresponds to
the first remote, the third parameter corresponds to the second remote,
etc.  If there are more remote statements than supplementary parameters,
missing parameters are considered to be empty.

   Each supplementary parameter usually gives the last known checksum
value for this particular file, as computed on its corresponding
_remote_ site.  The parameter contains a dash `-' while the remote
checksum is unknown.  The checksum value for the _local_ copy of the
file is never kept anywhere in the `.remsync' file.  The special value
`666' indicates a checksum from hell, used when the remote file is
known to exist, but for which contradictory information has been
received from various sources.

File:,  Node: Package,  Next: Alternatives,  Prev: Xremsync,  Up: Remsync

4.8 Format of synchronisation packages

Each synchronisation package is transmitted as a file named
`.remsync.tar.gz', which has the format of a `tar' archive, further
compressed with the `gzip' program.  This archive always contains a
file named `.remsync-work/orders', and zero or more files named
`.remsync-work/1', `.remsync-work/2', etc.  It contains no other files.
Each numbered file is actually a full, non-modified file pertaining to
the hierarchy of the project, as sent from the remote site.

   The `.remsync-work/orders' file drives the processing of the
received synchronization package.  This ASCII file format quite closely
resembles the `.remsync' format, which we do not explain again here.
Only the keywords and their associated parameters are different, and
there is no empty keyword.  The following table gives the possible
keywords, in the order where they normally appear.

     All those keywords are used exactly the same way as within the
     `.remsync' file, and their format is not explained again here.
     They state the file format, project title, local and possibly many
     remote identifications and directories, zero or more ignores, zero
     or more scans; all of these exactly as known to the remote site who
     created the synchronization package.  In particular, the `here'
     line states the originating site of the package rather than the
     receiving one; the receiving site should still be described by one
     of the `remote' lines.

     This statement appears exactly once, and has one numeric parameter.
     It specifies the zero-based index in the list of remote lines
     above.  The index identifies the receiving site, that is, the site
     to which this package was sent.

     This statement appears exactly once, and has one or more numeric
     parameters.  Each specifies a zero-based index in the list of
     remote lines above.  All indices specify the set of all sites who
     where broadcasted simultaneously, at the time this synchronization
     package was issued.  The index specified by the `visit' line
     should also be one of the indices of the `copy' lines.  The order
     in which the indices are given is important, as it also
     establishes the order in which file signatures are listed on the
     `check' lines below.

     This statement may appear zero, one or more times.  Each occurrence
     describes one file known to the project at the originating site,
     and there is exactly one occurrence for each known file in the
     project.  Each `check' line has exactly N+2 parameters, where N is
     the number of parameters of the `copy' command.  The first
     parameter gives a file name, relative to the top directory.  The
     second parameter gives the file signature for this file, as
     computed at the originating site.  For each remote site presented
     in the `copy' command, and exactly in the same order, each
     supplementary parameter gives the originator's idea of the
     signature for the said file at this remote site.  A dash (`-')
     replaces the signature for a file known _not_ to exist.

     This statement may appear zero, one or more times.  Each occurrence
     describes what to do with one of the `.remsync-work/N' files,
     distributed within the synchronization package.  In fact, there
     should be exactly as many `update' lines that there are numbered
     files in the synchronization package.  Usually, each `update' line
     immediately follows the corresponding `check' line, and has
     exactly three parameters.  The first parameter gives a file name
     in the project, relative to the top level directory of the
     hierarchy.  The second parameter gives a file signature which the
     said file should have at the receiving site, for it to be replaced
     safely, with no questions asked (this is the originator's idea of
     what the file signature _was_, on the receiving site, prior to its
     replacement).  A dash (`-') replaces this signature for a file
     known _not_ to exist.  The third parameter is the number N, which
     indicates the file `.remsync-work/N' in the synchronization
     package distribution which should replace the corresponding
     project file at the receiving site.

File:,  Node: Alternatives,  Next: Previous,  Prev: Package,  Up: Remsync

4.9 Other means to synchronization

One correspondent thinks that perhaps the news distribution mechanism
could be pressed into service for this job.  I could have started from
C-news, say, instead of from scratch, and have progressively bent
C-news to behave like I wanted.

   My feeling is that the route was shorter as I did it, from scratch,
that it would have been from C-news.  Of course, I could have removed
the heavy administrative details of C-news: the history and `expire',
the daemons, the `cron' entries, etc., then added the interactive
features and specialized behaviors, but all this clean up would
certainly have took energies.  Right now, non counting the subsidiary
scripts and shar/unshar sources, the heart of the result is a single
(1200 lines) script written in Perl, which I find fairly more smaller
and maintainable than a patched C-news distribution would have been.

File:,  Node: Previous,  Prev: Alternatives,  Up: Remsync

4.10 Documentation for obsolete scripts

This is merely a place holder for previous documentation, waiting that I
clean it up.  You have no interest in reading further down.

* Menu:

* mailsync::                    mailsync
* resync::                      resync

File:,  Node: mailsync,  Next: resync,  Prev: Previous,  Up: Previous

4.10.1 mailsync

     Usage: mailsync [ OPTION ] ... [ EMAIL_ADDRESS ] [ DIRECTORY ]
        or: mailsync [ OPTION ] ... SYNC_DIRECTORY

   Option -i simply sends a `ihave' package, with no bulk files.
Option -n inhibits any destructive operation and mailing.

   In the first form of the call, find a synchronisation directory in
DIRECTORY aimed towards some EMAIL_ADDRESS, then proceed with this
synchronisation directory.  EMAIL_ADDRESS may be the name of a file
containing a distribution list.  If EMAIL_ADDRESS is not specified, all
the synchronisation directories at the top level in DIRECTORY are
processed in turn.  If DIRECTORY is not specified, the current
directory is used.

   In the second form of the call, proceed only with the given
synchronisation directory SYNC_DIRECTORY.

   For proceeding with a synchronisation directory, whatever the form of
the call was, this script reads the `ident' files it contains to set
the local user and directory and the remote user and directory.  Then,
selected files under the local directory which are modified in regard
to the corresponding files in the remote directory are turned into a
synchronisation package which is mailed to the remote user.

   The list of selected files or directories to synchronize from the
local directory are given in the `list' file in the synchronisation
directory.  If this `list' file is missing, all files under the local
directory are synchronized.

   What I usually do is to `cd' at the top of the directory tree to be
synchronized, then to type `mailsync' without parameters.  This will
automatically prepare as many synchronisation packages as there are
mirror systems, then email multipart shars to each of them.  Note that
the synchronisation package is not identical for each mirror system,
because they do not usually have the same state of synchronisation.

   `mailsync' will refuse to work if anything needs to be hand cleaned
from a previous execution of `mailsync' or `resync'.  Check for some
remaining `_syncbulk' or `_synctemp' directory, or for a `_syncrm'

     - interrogate the user if `ident' file missing.
     - automatically construct the local user address.
     - create the synchronisation directory on the fly.
     - avoid duplicating work as far as possible for multiple sends.
     - have a quicker mode, depending on stamps, not on checksums.
     - never send core, executables, backups, `.nsf*', `*/_synctemp/*', etc.

File:,  Node: resync,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: mailsync,  Up: Previous

4.10.2 resync

     Usage: resync [ OPTION ]... TAR_FILE
        or: resync [ OPTION ]... UNTARED_DIRECTORY

   Given a tar file produced by mailsync at some remote end and already
reconstructed on this end using unshar, or a directory containing the
already untared invoice, apply the synchronization package locally.

   Option -n inhibits destroying or creating files, but does everything
else.  It will in particular create a synchronization directory if
necessary, produce the `_syncbulk' directory and the `_syncrm' script.

   The synchronization directory for the package is automatically
retrieved or, if not found, created and initialized.  `resync' keeps
telling you what it is doing.

   There are a few cases when a resync should not complete without
manual intervention.  The common case is that several sites update the
very same files differently since they were last resync'ed, and then
mailsync to each other.  The prerequisite checksum will then fail, and
the files are then kept into the `_syncbulk' tree, which has a shape
similar to the directory tree in which the files where supposed to go.
For GNU Emacs users, a very handy package, called emerge, written by
Dale Worley <>, helps reconciling two files
interactiveley.  The `_syncbulk' tree should be explicitely deleted
after the hand synchronisation.

   Another case of human intervention is when files are deleted at the
mailsync'ing site.  By choice, all deletions on the receiving side are
accumulated in a `_syncrm' script, which is not executed automatically.
Explicitely executed, `_syncrm' will remove any file in the receiving
tree which does not exist anymore on the sender system.  I often edit
`_syncrm' before executing it, to remove the unwanted deletions (beware
the double negation :-).  The script removes itself.

   All the temporary files, while resynchronizing, are held in
`_synctemp', which is deleted afterwards; if something goes wrong, this
directory should also be cleaned out by hand.  `resync' will refuse to
work if anything remains to be hand cleaned.

     - interrogates the user if missing receiving directory in `ident'.
     - allow `remote.sum' to be empty or non-existent.

File:,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: resync,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

                        Version 1.1, March 2000
* Menu:

* How to use this License for your documents::

     Copyright (C) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
     the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
     modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.  Secondarily,
     this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
     credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
     modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.


     This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
     notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
     under the terms of this License.  The "Document", below, refers to
     any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a licensee,
     and is addressed as "you".

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter
     section of the Document that deals exclusively with the
     relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the
     Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains
     nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
     (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of
     mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.)
     The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with
     the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
     philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly
     and straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
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     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
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     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup has been designed
     to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not
     Transparent.  A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
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     standard-conforming simple HTML designed for human modification.
     Opaque formats include PostScript, PDF, proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
     or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
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     processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.


     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.


     If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than
     100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you
     must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly,
     all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible
     computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy
     of the Document, free of added material, which the general
     network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
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     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.


     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

     A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
     distinct    from that of the Document, and from those of previous
     versions    (which should, if there were any, be listed in the
     History section    of the Document).  You may use the same title
     as a previous version    if the original publisher of that version
     gives permission.
     B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
     entities    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the
     Modified    Version, together with at least five of the principal
     authors of the    Document (all of its principal authors, if it
     has less than five).
     C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
     Modified Version, as the publisher.
     D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
     E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
     adjacent to the other copyright notices.
     F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
     notice    giving the public permission to use the Modified Version
     under the    terms of this License, in the form shown in the
     Addendum below.
     G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
     Sections    and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
     license notice.
     H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
     I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add
     to    it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
       publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.
     If    there is no section entitled "History" in the Document,
     create one    stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of
     the Document as    given on its Title Page, then add an item
     describing the Modified    Version as stated in the previous
     J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
       public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
     likewise    the network locations given in the Document for
     previous versions    it was based on.  These may be placed in the
     "History" section.     You may omit a network location for a work
     that was published at    least four years before the Document
     itself, or if the original    publisher of the version it refers
     to gives permission.
     K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
     preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
      substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
     and/or dedications given therein.
     L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
     unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
     or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
     M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
     may not be included in the Modified Version.
     N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements"    or to
     conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties-for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
     been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition
     of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."


     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.


     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a
     Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation
     copyright is claimed for the compilation.  Such a compilation is
     called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the
     other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on
     account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves
     derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one
     quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be
     placed on covers that surround only the Document within the
     aggregate.  Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole


     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License provided that you also include the
     original English version of this License.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original English
     version of this License, the original English version will prevail.


     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.


     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.

File:,  Node: How to use this License for your documents,  Up: GNU Free Documentation License

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
       Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
       A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.
If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant
Sections" instead of saying which ones are invariant.  If you have no
Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover
Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.