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File: ses,  Node: Top,  Next: Sales Pitch,  Prev: (dir),  Up: (dir)

SES: Simple Emacs Spreadsheet

     SES is a major mode for GNU Emacs to edit spreadsheet files, which
     contain a rectangular grid of cells.  The cells' values are specified
     by formulas that can refer to the values of other cells.

   To report bugs, send email to <>.

   This file documents SES: the Simple Emacs Spreadsheet.

   Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free
Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License."

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Sales Pitch::                 Why use SES?
* The Basics::                  Basic spreadsheet commands
* Advanced Features::           Want to know more?
* For Gurus::                   Want to know _even more_?
* Index::                       Concept, Function and Variable Index
* Acknowledgements::            Acknowledgements
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.

File: ses,  Node: Sales Pitch,  Next: The Basics,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Sales Pitch

   * Create and edit simple spreadsheets with a minimum of fuss.

   * Full undo/redo/autosave.

   * Immune to viruses in spreadsheet files.

   * Cell formulas are straight Emacs Lisp.

   * Printer functions for control of cell appearance.

   * Intuitive keystroke commands: C-o = insert row, M-o = insert
     column, etc.

   * "Spillover" of lengthy cell values into following blank cells.

   * Header line shows column letters or a selected row.

   * Completing-read for entering symbols as cell values.

   * Cut, copy, and paste can transfer formulas and printer functions.

   * Import and export of tab-separated values or tab-separated

   * Plaintext, easily-hacked file format.

File: ses,  Node: The Basics,  Next: Advanced Features,  Prev: Sales Pitch,  Up: Top

2 The Basics

To create a new spreadsheet, visit a nonexistent file whose name ends
with ".ses".  For example, `C-x C-f RET'.

   A "cell identifier" is a symbol with a column letter and a row
number.  Cell B7 is the 2nd column of the 7th row.  For very wide
spreadsheets, there are two column letters: cell AB7 is the 28th column
of the 7th row. Super wide spreadsheets get AAA1, etc.

     Moves point to cell, specified by identifier (`ses-jump').

   Point is always at the left edge of a cell, or at the empty endline.
When mark is inactive, the current cell is underlined.  When mark is
active, the range is the highlighted rectangle of cells (SES always
uses transient mark mode).  Drag the mouse from A1 to A3 to create the
range A1-A2.  Many SES commands operate only on single cells, not

     Set mark at point (`set-mark-command').

     Turn off the mark (`keyboard-quit').

     Highlight current row (`ses-mark-row').

     Highlight current column (`ses-mark-column').

`C-x h'
     Highlight all cells (`mark-whole-buffer').

* Menu:

* Formulas::
* Resizing::
* Printer functions::
* Clearing cells::
* Copy/cut/paste::
* Customizing SES::

File: ses,  Node: Formulas,  Next: Resizing,  Prev: The Basics,  Up: The Basics

2.1 Cell formulas

To enter a number into the current cell, just start typing:

     Self-insert a digit (`ses-read-cell').

     Self-insert a negative number (`ses-read-cell').

     Self-insert a fractional number (`ses-read-cell').

     Self-insert a quoted string.  The ending double-quote is inserted
     for you (`ses-read-cell').

     Self-insert an expression.  The right-parenthesis is inserted for
     you (`ses-read-cell').  To access another cell's value, just use
     its identifier in your expression.  Whenever the other cell is
     changed, this cell's formula will be reevaluated.  While typing in
     the expression, you can use `M-<TAB>' to complete symbol names.

`' (apostrophe)'
     Enter a symbol (ses-read-symbol).  SES remembers all symbols that
     have been used as formulas, so you can type just the beginning of
     a symbol and use `<SPC>', `<TAB>', and `?' to complete it.

   To enter something else (e.g., a vector), begin with a digit, then
erase the digit and type whatever you want.

     Edit the existing formula in the current cell (`ses-edit-cell').

`C-c C-c'
     Force recalculation of the current cell or range

`C-c C-l'
     Recalculate the entire spreadsheet (`ses-recalculate-all').

File: ses,  Node: Resizing,  Next: Printer functions,  Prev: Formulas,  Up: The Basics

2.2 Resizing the spreadsheet

Basic commands:






     Moves point to the next rightward cell, or inserts a new column if
     already at last cell on line, or inserts a new row if at endline

     Linefeed inserts below the current row and moves to column A

   Resizing the spreadsheet (unless you're just changing a column width)
relocates all the cell-references in formulas so they still refer to
the same cells.  If a formula mentioned B1 and you insert a new first
row, the formula will now mention B2.

   If you delete a cell that a formula refers to, the cell-symbol is
deleted from the formula, so `(+ A1 B1 C1)' after deleting the third
column becomes `(+ A1 B1)'.  In case this is not what you wanted:

`C-x u'
     Undo previous action (`(undo)').

File: ses,  Node: Printer functions,  Next: Clearing cells,  Prev: Resizing,  Up: The Basics

2.3 Printer functions

Printer functions convert binary cell values into the print forms that
Emacs will display on the screen.

   A printer can be a format string, like `"$%.2f"'.  The result string
is right-aligned within the print cell.  To get left-alignment, use
parentheses: `("$%.2f")'.  A printer can also be a one-argument
function (a symbol or a lambda), whose result is a string
(right-aligned) or list of one string (left-aligned).  While typing in
a lambda, you can use `M-<TAB>' to complete the names of symbols.

   Each cell has a printer.  If `nil', the column-printer for the cell's
column is used.  If that is also `nil', the default-printer for the
spreadsheet is used.

     Enter a printer for current cell or range

     Enter a printer for the current column (`ses-read-column-printer').

`C-c C-p'
     Enter the default printer for the spreadsheet

   The `ses-read-XXX-printer' commands have their own minibuffer
history, which is preloaded with the set of all printers used in this
spreadsheet, plus the standard printers.

   The standard printers are suitable only for cells, not columns or
default, because they format the value using the column-printer (or
default-printer if `nil') and then center the result:

     Just centering.

     Centering with spill-over to following blank cells.

     Centering using dashes (-) instead of spaces.

     Centering with dashes and spill-over.

     Centering with tildes (~) and spill-over.

File: ses,  Node: Clearing cells,  Next: Copy/cut/paste,  Prev: Printer functions,  Up: The Basics

2.4 Clearing cells

These commands set both formula and printer to `nil':

     Clear cell and move left (`ses-clear-cell-backward').

     Clear cell and move right (`ses-clear-cell-forward').

File: ses,  Node: Copy/cut/paste,  Next: Customizing SES,  Prev: Clearing cells,  Up: The Basics

2.5 Copy, cut, and paste

The copy functions work on rectangular regions of cells.  You can paste
the copies into non-SES buffers to export the print text.

     Copy the highlighted cells to kill ring and primary clipboard

     Mark a region and copy it to kill ring and primary clipboard

     Mark a region and copy it to kill ring and secondary clipboard

     The cut functions do not actually delete rows or columns--they copy
     and then clear (`ses-kill-override').

     Paste from kill ring (`yank').  The paste functions behave
     differently depending on the format of the text being inserted:
        * When pasting cells that were cut from a SES buffer, the print
          text is ignored and only the attached formula and printer are
          inserted; cell references in the formula are relocated unless
          you use `C-u'.

        * The pasted text overwrites a rectangle of cells whose top
          left corner is the current cell.  If part of the rectangle is
          beyond the edges of the spreadsheet, you must confirm the
          increase in spreadsheet size.

        * Non-SES text is usually inserted as a replacement formula for
          the current cell.  If the formula would be a symbol, it's
          treated as a string unless you use `C-u'.  Pasted formulas
          with syntax errors are always treated as strings.

     Paste from primary clipboard or kill ring (`clipboard-yank').

     Set point and paste from primary clipboard (`mouse-yank-at-click').

     Set point and paste from secondary clipboard

     Immediately after a paste, you can replace the text with a
     preceding element from the kill ring (`ses-yank-pop').  Unlike the
     standard Emacs yank-pop, the SES version uses `undo' to delete the
     old yank.  This doesn't make any difference?

File: ses,  Node: Customizing SES,  Prev: Copy/cut/paste,  Up: The Basics

2.6 Customizing SES

By default, a newly-created spreadsheet has 1 row and 1 column.  The
column width is 7 and the default printer is `"%.7g"'.  Each of these
can be customized.  Look in group "ses".

   After entering a cell value, point normally moves right to the next
cell.  You can customize `ses-after-entry-functions' to move left or up
or down.  For diagonal movement, select two functions from the list.

   `ses-mode-hook' is a normal mode hook (list of functions to execute
when starting SES mode for a buffer).

   The variable `safe-functions' is a list of possibly-unsafe functions
to be treated as safe when analysing formulas and printers.  *Note
Virus protection::.  Before customizing `safe-functions', think about
how much you trust the person who's suggesting this change.  The value
`t' turns off all anti-virus protection.  A list-of-functions value
might enable a "gee whiz" spreadsheet, but it also creates trapdoors in
your anti-virus armor.  In order for virus protection to work, you must
always press `n' when presented with a virus warning, unless you
understand what the questionable code is trying to do.  Do not listen
to those who tell you to customize `enable-local-eval'--this variable
is for people who don't wear safety belts!

File: ses,  Node: Advanced Features,  Next: For Gurus,  Prev: The Basics,  Up: Top

3 Advanced Features

`C-c M-C-h'
     (`ses-set-header-row').  The header line at the top of the SES
     window normally shows the column letter for each column.  You can
     set it to show a copy of some row, such as a row of column titles,
     so that row will always be visible.  Default is to set the current
     row as the header; use C-u to prompt for header row.  Set the
     header to row 0 to show column letters again.

`[header-line mouse-3]'
     Pops up a menu to set the current row as the header, or revert to
     column letters.

* Menu:

* The print area::
* Ranges in formulas::
* Sorting by column::
* Standard formula functions::
* More on cell printing::
* Import and export::
* Virus protection::
* Spreadsheets with details and summary::

File: ses,  Node: The print area,  Next: Ranges in formulas,  Prev: Advanced Features,  Up: Advanced Features

3.1 The print area

A SES file consists of a print area and a data area.  Normally the
buffer is narrowed to show only the print area.  The print area is
read-only except for special SES commands; it contains cell values
formatted by printer functions.  The data area records the formula and
printer functions, etc.

`C-x n w'
     Show print and data areas (`widen').

`C-c C-n'
     Show only print area (`ses-renarrow-buffer').

     Recreate print area by reevaluating printer functions for all cells

File: ses,  Node: Ranges in formulas,  Next: Sorting by column,  Prev: The print area,  Up: Advanced Features

3.2 Ranges in formulas

A formula like
     (+ A1 A2 A3)
   is the sum of three specific cells.  If you insert a new second row,
the formula becomes
     (+ A1 A3 A4)
   and the new row is not included in the sum.

   The macro `(ses-range FROM TO)' evaluates to a list of the values in
a rectangle of cells.  If your formula is
     (apply '+ (ses-range A1 A3))
   and you insert a new second row, it becomes
     (apply '+ (ses-range A1 A4))
   and the new row is included in the sum.

   While entering or editing a formula in the minibuffer, you can select
a range in the spreadsheet (using mouse or keyboard), then paste a
representation of that range into your formula.  Suppose you select

     Inserts "A1 B1 C1" `(ses-insert-range-click')

`C-c C-r'
     Keyboard version (`ses-insert-range').

     Inserts "(ses-range A1 C1)" (`ses-insert-ses-range-click').

`C-c C-s'
     Keyboard version (`ses-insert-ses-range').

   If you delete the FROM or TO cell for a range, the nearest
still-existing cell is used instead.  If you delete the entire range,
the formula relocator will delete the ses-range from the formula.

   If you insert a new row just beyond the end of a one-column range, or
a new column just beyond a one-row range, the new cell is included in
the range.  New cells inserted just before a range are not included.

File: ses,  Node: Sorting by column,  Next: Standard formula functions,  Prev: Ranges in formulas,  Up: Advanced Features

3.3 Sorting by column

`C-c M-C-s'
     Sort the cells of a range using one of the columns
     (`ses-sort-column').  The rows (or partial rows if the range
     doesn't include all columns) are rearranged so the chosen column
     will be in order.

`[header-line mouse-2]'
     The easiest way to sort is to click mouse-2 on the chosen column's
     header row (`ses-sort-column-click').

   The sort comparison uses `string<', which works well for
right-justified numbers and left-justified strings.

   With prefix arg, sort is in descending order.

   Rows are moved one at a time, with relocation of formulas.  This
works well if formulas refer to other cells in their row, not so well
for formulas that refer to other rows in the range or to cells outside
the range.

File: ses,  Node: Standard formula functions,  Next: More on cell printing,  Prev: Sorting by column,  Up: Advanced Features

3.4 Standard formula functions

Oftentimes you want a calculation to exclude the blank cells.  Here are
some useful functions to call from your formulas:

`(ses-delete-blanks &rest ARGS)'
     Returns a list from which all blank cells (value is either `nil' or
     '*skip*) have been deleted.

`(ses+ &rest ARGS)'
     Sum of non-blank arguments.

`(ses-average LIST)'
     Average of non-blank elements in LIST.  Here the list is passed as
     a single argument, since you'll probably use it with `ses-range'.

File: ses,  Node: More on cell printing,  Next: Import and export,  Prev: Standard formula functions,  Up: Advanced Features

3.5 More on cell printing

Special cell values:
   * nil prints the same as "", but allows previous cell to spill over.

   * '*skip* replaces nil when the previous cell actually does spill
     over; nothing is printed for it.

   * '*error* indicates that the formula signaled an error instead of
     producing a value: the print cell is filled with hash marks (#).

   If the result from the printer function is too wide for the cell and
the following cell is `nil', the result will spill over into the
following cell.  Very wide results can spill over several cells.  If
the result is too wide for the available space (up to the end of the
row or the next non-`nil' cell), the result is truncated if the cell's
value is a string, or replaced with hash marks otherwise.

   SES could get confused by printer results that contain newlines or
tabs, so these are replaced with question marks.

     Confine a cell to its own column (`ses-truncate-cell').  This
     allows you to move point to a rightward cell that would otherwise
     be covered by a spill-over.  If you don't change the rightward
     cell, the confined cell will spill over again the next time it is

     When applied to a single cell, this command displays in the echo
     area any formula error or printer error that occurred during
     recalculation/reprinting (`ses-recalculate-cell').  You can use
     this to undo the effect of `t'.

   When a printer function signals an error, the fallback printer
`"%s"' is substituted.  This is useful when your column printer is
numeric-only and you use a string as a cell value.  Note that the
standard default printer is "%.7g" which is numeric-only, so cells that
are empty of contain strings will use the fallback printer.  `c' on
such cells will display "Format specifier doesn't match argument type".

File: ses,  Node: Import and export,  Next: Virus protection,  Prev: More on cell printing,  Up: Advanced Features

3.6 Import and export

`x t'
     Export a range of cells as tab-separated values (`ses-export-tsv').

`x T'
     Export a range of cells as tab-separated formulas

   The exported text goes to the kill ring -- you can paste it into
another buffer.  Columns are separated by tabs, rows by newlines.

   To import text, use any of the yank commands where the text to paste
contains tabs and/or newlines.  Imported formulas are not relocated.

File: ses,  Node: Virus protection,  Next: Spreadsheets with details and summary,  Prev: Import and export,  Up: Advanced Features

3.7 Virus protection

Whenever a formula or printer is read from a file or is pasted into the
spreadsheet, it receives a "needs safety check" marking.  Later, when
the formula or printer is evaluated for the first time, it is checked
for safety using the `unsafep' predicate; if found to be "possibly
unsafe", the questionable formula or printer is displayed and you must
press Y to approve it or N to use a substitute.  The substitute always
signals an error.

   Formulas or printers that you type in are checked immediately for
safety.  If found to be possibly unsafe and you press N to disapprove,
the action is canceled and the old formula or printer will remain.

   Besides viruses (which try to copy themselves to other files),
`unsafep' can also detect all other kinds of Trojan horses, such as
spreadsheets that delete files, send email, flood Web sites, alter your
Emacs settings, etc.

   Generally, spreadsheet formulas and printers are simple things that
don't need to do any fancy computing, so all potentially-dangerous
parts of the Emacs Lisp environment can be excluded without cramping
your style as a formula-writer.  See the documentation in `unsafep.el'
for more info on how Lisp forms are classified as safe or unsafe.

File: ses,  Node: Spreadsheets with details and summary,  Prev: Virus protection,  Up: Advanced Features

3.8 Spreadsheets with details and summary

A common organization for spreadsheets is to have a bunch of "detail"
rows, each perhaps describing a transaction, and then a set of
"summary" rows that each show reduced data for some subset of the
details.  SES supports this organization via the `ses-select' function.

     Returns a subset of TORANGE.  For each member in FROMRANGE that is
     equal to TEST, the corresponding member of TORANGE is included in
     the result.

   Example of use:
     (ses-average (ses-select (ses-range A1 A5) 'Smith (ses-range B1 B5)))
   This computes the average of the B column values for those rows whose
A column value is the symbol 'Smith.

   Arguably one could specify only FROMRANGE plus TO-ROW-OFFSET and
TO-COLUMN-OFFSET.  The TORANGE is stated explicitly to ensure that the
formula will be recalculated if any cell in either range is changed.

   File `etc/ses-example.el' in the Emacs distribution is an example of
a details-and-summary spreadsheet.

File: ses,  Node: For Gurus,  Next: Index,  Prev: Advanced Features,  Up: Top

4 For Gurus

* Menu:

* Deferred updates::
* Nonrelocatable references::
* The data area::
* Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets::
* Uses of defadvice in SES::

File: ses,  Node: Deferred updates,  Next: Nonrelocatable references,  Prev: For Gurus,  Up: For Gurus

4.1 Deferred updates

To save time by avoiding redundant computations, cells that need
recalculation due to changes in other cells are added to a set.  At the
end of the command, each cell in the set is recalculated once.  This
can create a new set of cells that need recalculation.  The process is
repeated until either the set is empty or it stops changing (due to
circular references among the cells).  In extreme cases, you might see
progress messages of the form "Recalculating... (NNN cells left)".  If
you interrupt the calculation using `C-g', the spreadsheet will be left
in an inconsistent state, so use `C-_' or `C-c C-l' to fix it.

   To save even more time by avoiding redundant writes, cells that have
changes are added to a set instead of being written immediately to the
data area.  Each cell in the set is written once, at the end of the
command.  If you change vast quantities of cells, you might see a
progress message of the form "Writing... (NNN cells left)".  These
deferred cell-writes cannot be interrupted by `C-g', so you'll just
have to wait.

   SES uses `run-with-idle-timer' to move the cell underline when Emacs
will be scrolling the buffer after the end of a command, and also to
narrow and underline after `C-x C-v'.  This is visible as a momentary
glitch after C-x C-v and certain scrolling commands.  You can type
ahead without worrying about the glitch.

File: ses,  Node: Nonrelocatable references,  Next: The data area,  Prev: Deferred updates,  Up: For Gurus

4.2 Nonrelocatable references

`C-y' relocates all cell-references in a pasted formula, while `C-u
C-y' relocates none of the cell-references.  What about mixed cases?

   You can use
     (symbol-value 'B3)
   to make an "absolute reference".  The formula relocator skips over
quoted things, so this will not be relocated when pasted or when
rows/columns are inserted/deleted.  However, B3 will not be recorded as
a dependency of this cell, so this cell will not be updated
automatically when B3 is changed.

   The variables `row' and `col' are dynamically bound while a cell
formula is being evaluated.  You can use
     (ses-cell-value row 0)
   to get the value from the leftmost column in the current row.  This
kind of dependency is also not recorded.

File: ses,  Node: The data area,  Next: Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets,  Prev: Nonrelocatable references,  Up: For Gurus

4.3 The data area

Begins with an 014 character, followed by sets of cell-definition
macros for each row, followed by column-widths, column-printers,
default-printer, and header-row.  Then there's the global parameters
(file-format ID, numrows, numcols) and the local variables (specifying
SES mode for the buffer, etc.)

   When a SES file is loaded, first the numrows and numcols values are
loaded, then the entire data area is `eval'ed, and finally the local
variables are processed.

   You can edit the data area, but don't insert or delete any newlines
except in the local-variables part, since SES locates things by
counting newlines.  Use `C-x C-e' at the end of a line to install your
edits into the spreadsheet data structures (this does not update the
print area, use e.g. `C-c C-l' for that).

   The data area is maintained as an image of spreadsheet data
structures that area stored in buffer-local variables.  If the data
area gets messed up, you can try reconstructing the data area from the
data structures:

`C-c M-C-l'

File: ses,  Node: Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets,  Next: Uses of defadvice in SES,  Prev: The data area,  Up: For Gurus

4.4 Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets

You can add additional local variables to the list at the bottom of the
data area, such as hidden constants you want to refer to in your

   You can override the variable `ses--symbolic-formulas' to be a list
of symbols (as parenthesized strings) to show as completions for the '
command.  This initial completions list is used instead of the actual
set of symbols-as-formulas in the spreadsheet.

   For an example of this, see file `etc/'.

   If (for some reason) you want your formulas or printers to save data
into variables, you must declare these variables as buffer-locals in
order to avoid a virus warning.

   You can define functions by making them values for the fake local
variable `eval'.  Such functions can then be used in your formulas and
printers, but usually each `eval' is presented to the user during file
loading as a potential virus -- this can get annoying.

   You can define functions in your `.emacs' file.  Other people can
still read the print area of your spreadsheet, but they won't be able
to recalculate or reprint anything that depends on your functions.  To
avoid virus warnings, each function used in a formula needs
     (put 'your-function-name 'safe-function t)

File: ses,  Node: Uses of defadvice in SES,  Prev: Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets,  Up: For Gurus

4.5 Uses of defadvice in SES

     Defines a new undo element format (FUN . ARGS), which means "undo
     by applying FUN to ARGS".  For spreadsheet buffers, it allows
     undos in the data area even though that's outside the narrowing.

     When copying from the print area of a spreadsheet, treat the
     region as a rectangle and attach each cell's formula and printer
     as 'ses properties.

     When yanking into the print area of a spreadsheet, first try to
     yank as cells (if the yank text has 'ses properties), then as
     tab-separated formulas, then (if all else fails) as a single
     formula for the current cell.

File: ses,  Node: Index,  Next: Acknowledgements,  Prev: For Gurus,  Up: Top


* Menu:

* *error*:                               Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* *skip*:                                Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* advanced features <1>:                 For Gurus.             (line 6)
* advanced features:                     Advanced Features.     (line 6)
* basic commands:                        The Basics.            (line 6)
* buffer-local variables:                Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets.
                                                                (line 6)
* cell printing, more:                   More on cell printing. (line 6)
* clearing commands:                     Clearing cells.        (line 6)
* clipboard-yank:                        Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* copy:                                  Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* copy-region-as-kill:                   Uses of defadvice in SES.
                                                                (line 6)
* customizing:                           Customizing SES.       (line 6)
* cut:                                   Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* data area:                             The data area.         (line 6)
* defadvice:                             Uses of defadvice in SES.
                                                                (line 6)
* deferred updates:                      Deferred updates.      (line 6)
* details and summary:                   Spreadsheets with details and summary.
                                                                (line 6)
* enable-local-eval:                     Customizing SES.       (line 6)
* export, and import:                    Import and export.     (line 6)
* features:                              Sales Pitch.           (line 6)
* formulas:                              Formulas.              (line 6)
* formulas, entering:                    Formulas.              (line 6)
* from:                                  Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* import and export:                     Import and export.     (line 6)
* keyboard-quit:                         The Basics.            (line 6)
* kill-ring-save:                        Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* mouse-set-region:                      Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* mouse-set-secondary:                   Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* mouse-yank-at-click:                   Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* mouse-yank-at-secondary:               Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* nonrelocatable references:             Nonrelocatable references.
                                                                (line 6)
* paste:                                 Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* print area:                            The print area.        (line 6)
* printer functions:                     Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ranges:                                Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* references, nonrelocatable:            Nonrelocatable references.
                                                                (line 6)
* resizing spreadsheets:                 Resizing.              (line 6)
* run-with-idle-timer:                   Deferred updates.      (line 6)
* safe-functions:                        Customizing SES.       (line 6)
* ses+:                                  Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* ses-append-row-jump-first-column:      Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-average:                           Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* ses-center:                            Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-center-span:                       Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-clear-cell-backward:               Clearing cells.        (line 6)
* ses-clear-cell-forward:                Clearing cells.        (line 6)
* ses-dashfill:                          Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-dashfill-span:                     Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-delete-blanks:                     Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* ses-delete-column:                     Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-delete-row:                        Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-edit-cell:                         Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-export-tsf:                        Import and export.     (line 6)
* ses-export-tsv:                        Import and export.     (line 6)
* ses-forward-or-insert:                 Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-insert-column:                     Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-insert-range:                      Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* ses-insert-range-click:                Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* ses-insert-row:                        Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-insert-ses-range:                  Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* ses-insert-ses-range-click:            Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* ses-jump:                              The Basics.            (line 6)
* ses-kill-override:                     Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* ses-mark-column:                       The Basics.            (line 6)
* ses-mark-row:                          The Basics.            (line 6)
* ses-mark-whole-buffer:                 The Basics.            (line 6)
* ses-mode-hook:                         Customizing SES.       (line 6)
* ses-read-cell:                         Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-read-cell-printer:                 Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-read-column-printer:               Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-read-default-printer:              Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-read-header-row:                   Advanced Features.     (line 6)
* ses-read-symbol:                       Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-recalculate-all:                   Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-recalculate-cell <1>:              More on cell printing. (line 6)
* ses-recalculate-cell:                  Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-reconstruct-all:                   The data area.         (line 6)
* ses-renarrow-buffer:                   The print area.        (line 6)
* ses-reprint-all:                       The print area.        (line 6)
* ses-set-column-width:                  Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-sort-column:                       Sorting by column.     (line 6)
* ses-sort-column-click:                 Sorting by column.     (line 6)
* ses-tildefill-span:                    Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-truncate-cell:                     More on cell printing. (line 6)
* ses-yank-pop:                          Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* set-mark-command:                      The Basics.            (line 6)
* sorting:                               Sorting by column.     (line 6)
* standard formula functions:            Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* summary, and details:                  Spreadsheets with details and summary.
                                                                (line 6)
* to:                                    Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* undo-more:                             Uses of defadvice in SES.
                                                                (line 6)
* updates, deferred:                     Deferred updates.      (line 6)
* variables, buffer-local:               Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets.
                                                                (line 6)
* virus protection:                      Virus protection.      (line 6)
* widen:                                 The print area.        (line 6)
* yank <1>:                              Uses of defadvice in SES.
                                                                (line 6)
* yank:                                  Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)

File: ses,  Node: Acknowledgements,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Index,  Up: Top

5 Acknowledgements

Coding by:

     Jonathan Yavner <>
     Stefan Monnier <>
     Shigeru Fukaya <>

Texinfo manual by:

     Jonathan Yavner <>
     Brad Collins <>

Ideas from:

     Christoph Conrad <>
     CyberBob <>
     Syver Enstad <>
     Ami Fischman <>
     Thomas Gehrlein <>
     Chris F.A. Johnson <>
     Yusong Li <>
     Juri Linkov <>
     Harald Maier <>
     Alan Nash <>
     Franšois Pinard <>
     Pedro Pinto <>
     Stefan Reich÷r <>
     Oliver Scholz <>
     Richard M. Stallman <>
     Luc Teirlinck <>
     J. Otto Tennant <>
     Jean-Philippe Theberge <>

File: ses,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Acknowledgements,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

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