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SES: Simple Emacs Spreadsheet
*****************************

     SES is a major mode for GNU Emacs to edit spreadsheet files, which
     contain a rectangular grid of cells.  The cells' values are specified
     by formulas that can refer to the values of other cells.

   To report bugs, send email to <jyavnerATmember.org>.

   This file documents SES: the Simple Emacs Spreadsheet.

   Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free
Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License."

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Sales Pitch::                 Why use SES?
* The Basics::                  Basic spreadsheet commands
* Advanced Features::           Want to know more?
* For Gurus::                   Want to know _even more_?
* Index::                       Concept, Function and Variable Index
* Acknowledgements::            Acknowledgements
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.

File: ses,  Node: Sales Pitch,  Next: The Basics,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Sales Pitch
*************

   * Create and edit simple spreadsheets with a minimum of fuss.

   * Full undo/redo/autosave.

   * Immune to viruses in spreadsheet files.

   * Cell formulas are straight Emacs Lisp.

   * Printer functions for control of cell appearance.

   * Intuitive keystroke commands: C-o = insert row, M-o = insert
     column, etc.

   * "Spillover" of lengthy cell values into following blank cells.

   * Header line shows column letters or a selected row.

   * Completing-read for entering symbols as cell values.

   * Cut, copy, and paste can transfer formulas and printer functions.

   * Import and export of tab-separated values or tab-separated
     formulas.

   * Plaintext, easily-hacked file format.

File: ses,  Node: The Basics,  Next: Advanced Features,  Prev: Sales Pitch,  Up: Top

2 The Basics
************

To create a new spreadsheet, visit a nonexistent file whose name ends
with ".ses".  For example, `C-x C-f test.ses RET'.

   A "cell identifier" is a symbol with a column letter and a row
number.  Cell B7 is the 2nd column of the 7th row.  For very wide
spreadsheets, there are two column letters: cell AB7 is the 28th column
of the 7th row. Super wide spreadsheets get AAA1, etc.

`j'
     Moves point to cell, specified by identifier (`ses-jump').

   Point is always at the left edge of a cell, or at the empty endline.
When mark is inactive, the current cell is underlined.  When mark is
active, the range is the highlighted rectangle of cells (SES always
uses transient mark mode).  Drag the mouse from A1 to A3 to create the
range A1-A2.  Many SES commands operate only on single cells, not
ranges.

`C-SPC'
`C-@'
     Set mark at point (`set-mark-command').

`C-g'
     Turn off the mark (`keyboard-quit').

`M-h'
     Highlight current row (`ses-mark-row').

`S-M-h'
     Highlight current column (`ses-mark-column').

`C-x h'
     Highlight all cells (`mark-whole-buffer').

* Menu:

* Formulas::
* Resizing::
* Printer functions::
* Clearing cells::
* Copy/cut/paste::
* Customizing SES::

File: ses,  Node: Formulas,  Next: Resizing,  Prev: The Basics,  Up: The Basics

2.1 Cell formulas
=================

To enter a number into the current cell, just start typing:

`0..9'
     Self-insert a digit (`ses-read-cell').

`-'
     Self-insert a negative number (`ses-read-cell').

`.'
     Self-insert a fractional number (`ses-read-cell').

`"'
     Self-insert a quoted string.  The ending double-quote is inserted
     for you (`ses-read-cell').

`('
     Self-insert an expression.  The right-parenthesis is inserted for
     you (`ses-read-cell').  To access another cell's value, just use
     its identifier in your expression.  Whenever the other cell is
     changed, this cell's formula will be reevaluated.  While typing in
     the expression, you can use `M-<TAB>' to complete symbol names.

`' (apostrophe)'
     Enter a symbol (ses-read-symbol).  SES remembers all symbols that
     have been used as formulas, so you can type just the beginning of
     a symbol and use `<SPC>', `<TAB>', and `?' to complete it.

   To enter something else (e.g., a vector), begin with a digit, then
erase the digit and type whatever you want.

`RET'
     Edit the existing formula in the current cell (`ses-edit-cell').

`C-c C-c'
     Force recalculation of the current cell or range
     (`ses-recalculate-cell').

`C-c C-l'
     Recalculate the entire spreadsheet (`ses-recalculate-all').

File: ses,  Node: Resizing,  Next: Printer functions,  Prev: Formulas,  Up: The Basics

2.2 Resizing the spreadsheet
============================

Basic commands:

`C-o'
     (`ses-insert-row')

`M-o'
     (`ses-insert-column')

`C-k'
     (`ses-delete-row')

`M-k'
     (`ses-delete-column')

`w'
     (`ses-set-column-width')

`TAB'
     Moves point to the next rightward cell, or inserts a new column if
     already at last cell on line, or inserts a new row if at endline
     (`ses-forward-or-insert').

`C-j'
     Linefeed inserts below the current row and moves to column A
     (`ses-append-row-jump-first-column').

   Resizing the spreadsheet (unless you're just changing a column width)
relocates all the cell-references in formulas so they still refer to
the same cells.  If a formula mentioned B1 and you insert a new first
row, the formula will now mention B2.

   If you delete a cell that a formula refers to, the cell-symbol is
deleted from the formula, so `(+ A1 B1 C1)' after deleting the third
column becomes `(+ A1 B1)'.  In case this is not what you wanted:

`C-_'
`C-x u'
     Undo previous action (`(undo)').

File: ses,  Node: Printer functions,  Next: Clearing cells,  Prev: Resizing,  Up: The Basics

2.3 Printer functions
=====================

Printer functions convert binary cell values into the print forms that
Emacs will display on the screen.

   A printer can be a format string, like `"$%.2f"'.  The result string
is right-aligned within the print cell.  To get left-alignment, use
parentheses: `("$%.2f")'.  A printer can also be a one-argument
function (a symbol or a lambda), whose result is a string
(right-aligned) or list of one string (left-aligned).  While typing in
a lambda, you can use `M-<TAB>' to complete the names of symbols.

   Each cell has a printer.  If `nil', the column-printer for the cell's
column is used.  If that is also `nil', the default-printer for the
spreadsheet is used.

`p'
     Enter a printer for current cell or range
     (`ses-read-cell-printer').

`M-p'
     Enter a printer for the current column (`ses-read-column-printer').

`C-c C-p'
     Enter the default printer for the spreadsheet
     (`ses-read-default-printer').

   The `ses-read-XXX-printer' commands have their own minibuffer
history, which is preloaded with the set of all printers used in this
spreadsheet, plus the standard printers.

   The standard printers are suitable only for cells, not columns or
default, because they format the value using the column-printer (or
default-printer if `nil') and then center the result:

`ses-center'
     Just centering.

`ses-center-span'
     Centering with spill-over to following blank cells.

`ses-dashfill'
     Centering using dashes (-) instead of spaces.

`ses-dashfill-span'
     Centering with dashes and spill-over.

`ses-tildefill-span'
     Centering with tildes (~) and spill-over.

File: ses,  Node: Clearing cells,  Next: Copy/cut/paste,  Prev: Printer functions,  Up: The Basics

2.4 Clearing cells
==================

These commands set both formula and printer to `nil':

`DEL'
     Clear cell and move left (`ses-clear-cell-backward').

`C-d'
     Clear cell and move right (`ses-clear-cell-forward').

File: ses,  Node: Copy/cut/paste,  Next: Customizing SES,  Prev: Clearing cells,  Up: The Basics

2.5 Copy, cut, and paste
========================

The copy functions work on rectangular regions of cells.  You can paste
the copies into non-SES buffers to export the print text.

`M-w'
`[copy]'
`[C-insert]'
     Copy the highlighted cells to kill ring and primary clipboard
     (`kill-ring-save').

`[drag-mouse-1]'
     Mark a region and copy it to kill ring and primary clipboard
     (`mouse-set-region').

`[M-drag-mouse-1]'
     Mark a region and copy it to kill ring and secondary clipboard
     (`mouse-set-secondary').

`C-w'
`[cut]'
`[S-delete]'
     The cut functions do not actually delete rows or columns--they copy
     and then clear (`ses-kill-override').

`C-y'
`[S-insert]'
     Paste from kill ring (`yank').  The paste functions behave
     differently depending on the format of the text being inserted:
        * When pasting cells that were cut from a SES buffer, the print
          text is ignored and only the attached formula and printer are
          inserted; cell references in the formula are relocated unless
          you use `C-u'.

        * The pasted text overwrites a rectangle of cells whose top
          left corner is the current cell.  If part of the rectangle is
          beyond the edges of the spreadsheet, you must confirm the
          increase in spreadsheet size.

        * Non-SES text is usually inserted as a replacement formula for
          the current cell.  If the formula would be a symbol, it's
          treated as a string unless you use `C-u'.  Pasted formulas
          with syntax errors are always treated as strings.

`[paste]'
     Paste from primary clipboard or kill ring (`clipboard-yank').

`[mouse-2]'
     Set point and paste from primary clipboard (`mouse-yank-at-click').

`[M-mouse-2]'
     Set point and paste from secondary clipboard
     (`mouse-yank-secondary').

`M-y'
     Immediately after a paste, you can replace the text with a
     preceding element from the kill ring (`ses-yank-pop').  Unlike the
     standard Emacs yank-pop, the SES version uses `undo' to delete the
     old yank.  This doesn't make any difference?

File: ses,  Node: Customizing SES,  Prev: Copy/cut/paste,  Up: The Basics

2.6 Customizing SES
===================

By default, a newly-created spreadsheet has 1 row and 1 column.  The
column width is 7 and the default printer is `"%.7g"'.  Each of these
can be customized.  Look in group "ses".

   After entering a cell value, point normally moves right to the next
cell.  You can customize `ses-after-entry-functions' to move left or up
or down.  For diagonal movement, select two functions from the list.

   `ses-mode-hook' is a normal mode hook (list of functions to execute
when starting SES mode for a buffer).

   The variable `safe-functions' is a list of possibly-unsafe functions
to be treated as safe when analysing formulas and printers.  *Note
Virus protection::.  Before customizing `safe-functions', think about
how much you trust the person who's suggesting this change.  The value
`t' turns off all anti-virus protection.  A list-of-functions value
might enable a "gee whiz" spreadsheet, but it also creates trapdoors in
your anti-virus armor.  In order for virus protection to work, you must
always press `n' when presented with a virus warning, unless you
understand what the questionable code is trying to do.  Do not listen
to those who tell you to customize `enable-local-eval'--this variable
is for people who don't wear safety belts!

File: ses,  Node: Advanced Features,  Next: For Gurus,  Prev: The Basics,  Up: Top

3 Advanced Features
*******************

`C-c M-C-h'
     (`ses-set-header-row').  The header line at the top of the SES
     window normally shows the column letter for each column.  You can
     set it to show a copy of some row, such as a row of column titles,
     so that row will always be visible.  Default is to set the current
     row as the header; use C-u to prompt for header row.  Set the
     header to row 0 to show column letters again.

`[header-line mouse-3]'
     Pops up a menu to set the current row as the header, or revert to
     column letters.

* Menu:

* The print area::
* Ranges in formulas::
* Sorting by column::
* Standard formula functions::
* More on cell printing::
* Import and export::
* Virus protection::
* Spreadsheets with details and summary::

File: ses,  Node: The print area,  Next: Ranges in formulas,  Prev: Advanced Features,  Up: Advanced Features

3.1 The print area
==================

A SES file consists of a print area and a data area.  Normally the
buffer is narrowed to show only the print area.  The print area is
read-only except for special SES commands; it contains cell values
formatted by printer functions.  The data area records the formula and
printer functions, etc.

`C-x n w'
     Show print and data areas (`widen').

`C-c C-n'
     Show only print area (`ses-renarrow-buffer').

`S-C-l'
`M-C-l'
     Recreate print area by reevaluating printer functions for all cells
     (`ses-reprint-all').

File: ses,  Node: Ranges in formulas,  Next: Sorting by column,  Prev: The print area,  Up: Advanced Features

3.2 Ranges in formulas
======================

A formula like
     (+ A1 A2 A3)
   is the sum of three specific cells.  If you insert a new second row,
the formula becomes
     (+ A1 A3 A4)
   and the new row is not included in the sum.

   The macro `(ses-range FROM TO)' evaluates to a list of the values in
a rectangle of cells.  If your formula is
     (apply '+ (ses-range A1 A3))
   and you insert a new second row, it becomes
     (apply '+ (ses-range A1 A4))
   and the new row is included in the sum.

   While entering or editing a formula in the minibuffer, you can select
a range in the spreadsheet (using mouse or keyboard), then paste a
representation of that range into your formula.  Suppose you select
A1-C1:

`[S-mouse-3]'
     Inserts "A1 B1 C1" `(ses-insert-range-click')

`C-c C-r'
     Keyboard version (`ses-insert-range').

`[C-S-mouse-3]'
     Inserts "(ses-range A1 C1)" (`ses-insert-ses-range-click').

`C-c C-s'
     Keyboard version (`ses-insert-ses-range').

   If you delete the FROM or TO cell for a range, the nearest
still-existing cell is used instead.  If you delete the entire range,
the formula relocator will delete the ses-range from the formula.

   If you insert a new row just beyond the end of a one-column range, or
a new column just beyond a one-row range, the new cell is included in
the range.  New cells inserted just before a range are not included.

File: ses,  Node: Sorting by column,  Next: Standard formula functions,  Prev: Ranges in formulas,  Up: Advanced Features

3.3 Sorting by column
=====================

`C-c M-C-s'
     Sort the cells of a range using one of the columns
     (`ses-sort-column').  The rows (or partial rows if the range
     doesn't include all columns) are rearranged so the chosen column
     will be in order.

`[header-line mouse-2]'
     The easiest way to sort is to click mouse-2 on the chosen column's
     header row (`ses-sort-column-click').

   The sort comparison uses `string<', which works well for
right-justified numbers and left-justified strings.

   With prefix arg, sort is in descending order.

   Rows are moved one at a time, with relocation of formulas.  This
works well if formulas refer to other cells in their row, not so well
for formulas that refer to other rows in the range or to cells outside
the range.

File: ses,  Node: Standard formula functions,  Next: More on cell printing,  Prev: Sorting by column,  Up: Advanced Features

3.4 Standard formula functions
==============================

Oftentimes you want a calculation to exclude the blank cells.  Here are
some useful functions to call from your formulas:

`(ses-delete-blanks &rest ARGS)'
     Returns a list from which all blank cells (value is either `nil' or
     '*skip*) have been deleted.

`(ses+ &rest ARGS)'
     Sum of non-blank arguments.

`(ses-average LIST)'
     Average of non-blank elements in LIST.  Here the list is passed as
     a single argument, since you'll probably use it with `ses-range'.

File: ses,  Node: More on cell printing,  Next: Import and export,  Prev: Standard formula functions,  Up: Advanced Features

3.5 More on cell printing
=========================

Special cell values:
   * nil prints the same as "", but allows previous cell to spill over.

   * '*skip* replaces nil when the previous cell actually does spill
     over; nothing is printed for it.

   * '*error* indicates that the formula signaled an error instead of
     producing a value: the print cell is filled with hash marks (#).

   If the result from the printer function is too wide for the cell and
the following cell is `nil', the result will spill over into the
following cell.  Very wide results can spill over several cells.  If
the result is too wide for the available space (up to the end of the
row or the next non-`nil' cell), the result is truncated if the cell's
value is a string, or replaced with hash marks otherwise.

   SES could get confused by printer results that contain newlines or
tabs, so these are replaced with question marks.

`t'
     Confine a cell to its own column (`ses-truncate-cell').  This
     allows you to move point to a rightward cell that would otherwise
     be covered by a spill-over.  If you don't change the rightward
     cell, the confined cell will spill over again the next time it is
     reprinted.

`c'
     When applied to a single cell, this command displays in the echo
     area any formula error or printer error that occurred during
     recalculation/reprinting (`ses-recalculate-cell').  You can use
     this to undo the effect of `t'.

   When a printer function signals an error, the fallback printer
`"%s"' is substituted.  This is useful when your column printer is
numeric-only and you use a string as a cell value.  Note that the
standard default printer is "%.7g" which is numeric-only, so cells that
are empty of contain strings will use the fallback printer.  `c' on
such cells will display "Format specifier doesn't match argument type".

File: ses,  Node: Import and export,  Next: Virus protection,  Prev: More on cell printing,  Up: Advanced Features

3.6 Import and export
=====================

`x t'
     Export a range of cells as tab-separated values (`ses-export-tsv').

`x T'
     Export a range of cells as tab-separated formulas
     (`ses-export-tsf').

   The exported text goes to the kill ring -- you can paste it into
another buffer.  Columns are separated by tabs, rows by newlines.

   To import text, use any of the yank commands where the text to paste
contains tabs and/or newlines.  Imported formulas are not relocated.

File: ses,  Node: Virus protection,  Next: Spreadsheets with details and summary,  Prev: Import and export,  Up: Advanced Features

3.7 Virus protection
====================

Whenever a formula or printer is read from a file or is pasted into the
spreadsheet, it receives a "needs safety check" marking.  Later, when
the formula or printer is evaluated for the first time, it is checked
for safety using the `unsafep' predicate; if found to be "possibly
unsafe", the questionable formula or printer is displayed and you must
press Y to approve it or N to use a substitute.  The substitute always
signals an error.

   Formulas or printers that you type in are checked immediately for
safety.  If found to be possibly unsafe and you press N to disapprove,
the action is canceled and the old formula or printer will remain.

   Besides viruses (which try to copy themselves to other files),
`unsafep' can also detect all other kinds of Trojan horses, such as
spreadsheets that delete files, send email, flood Web sites, alter your
Emacs settings, etc.

   Generally, spreadsheet formulas and printers are simple things that
don't need to do any fancy computing, so all potentially-dangerous
parts of the Emacs Lisp environment can be excluded without cramping
your style as a formula-writer.  See the documentation in `unsafep.el'
for more info on how Lisp forms are classified as safe or unsafe.

File: ses,  Node: Spreadsheets with details and summary,  Prev: Virus protection,  Up: Advanced Features

3.8 Spreadsheets with details and summary
=========================================

A common organization for spreadsheets is to have a bunch of "detail"
rows, each perhaps describing a transaction, and then a set of
"summary" rows that each show reduced data for some subset of the
details.  SES supports this organization via the `ses-select' function.

`(ses-select FROMRANGE TEST TORANGE)'
     Returns a subset of TORANGE.  For each member in FROMRANGE that is
     equal to TEST, the corresponding member of TORANGE is included in
     the result.

   Example of use:
     (ses-average (ses-select (ses-range A1 A5) 'Smith (ses-range B1 B5)))
   This computes the average of the B column values for those rows whose
A column value is the symbol 'Smith.

   Arguably one could specify only FROMRANGE plus TO-ROW-OFFSET and
TO-COLUMN-OFFSET.  The TORANGE is stated explicitly to ensure that the
formula will be recalculated if any cell in either range is changed.

   File `etc/ses-example.el' in the Emacs distribution is an example of
a details-and-summary spreadsheet.

File: ses,  Node: For Gurus,  Next: Index,  Prev: Advanced Features,  Up: Top

4 For Gurus
***********

* Menu:

* Deferred updates::
* Nonrelocatable references::
* The data area::
* Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets::
* Uses of defadvice in SES::

File: ses,  Node: Deferred updates,  Next: Nonrelocatable references,  Prev: For Gurus,  Up: For Gurus

4.1 Deferred updates
====================

To save time by avoiding redundant computations, cells that need
recalculation due to changes in other cells are added to a set.  At the
end of the command, each cell in the set is recalculated once.  This
can create a new set of cells that need recalculation.  The process is
repeated until either the set is empty or it stops changing (due to
circular references among the cells).  In extreme cases, you might see
progress messages of the form "Recalculating... (NNN cells left)".  If
you interrupt the calculation using `C-g', the spreadsheet will be left
in an inconsistent state, so use `C-_' or `C-c C-l' to fix it.

   To save even more time by avoiding redundant writes, cells that have
changes are added to a set instead of being written immediately to the
data area.  Each cell in the set is written once, at the end of the
command.  If you change vast quantities of cells, you might see a
progress message of the form "Writing... (NNN cells left)".  These
deferred cell-writes cannot be interrupted by `C-g', so you'll just
have to wait.

   SES uses `run-with-idle-timer' to move the cell underline when Emacs
will be scrolling the buffer after the end of a command, and also to
narrow and underline after `C-x C-v'.  This is visible as a momentary
glitch after C-x C-v and certain scrolling commands.  You can type
ahead without worrying about the glitch.

File: ses,  Node: Nonrelocatable references,  Next: The data area,  Prev: Deferred updates,  Up: For Gurus

4.2 Nonrelocatable references
=============================

`C-y' relocates all cell-references in a pasted formula, while `C-u
C-y' relocates none of the cell-references.  What about mixed cases?

   You can use
     (symbol-value 'B3)
   to make an "absolute reference".  The formula relocator skips over
quoted things, so this will not be relocated when pasted or when
rows/columns are inserted/deleted.  However, B3 will not be recorded as
a dependency of this cell, so this cell will not be updated
automatically when B3 is changed.

   The variables `row' and `col' are dynamically bound while a cell
formula is being evaluated.  You can use
     (ses-cell-value row 0)
   to get the value from the leftmost column in the current row.  This
kind of dependency is also not recorded.

File: ses,  Node: The data area,  Next: Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets,  Prev: Nonrelocatable references,  Up: For Gurus

4.3 The data area
=================

Begins with an 014 character, followed by sets of cell-definition
macros for each row, followed by column-widths, column-printers,
default-printer, and header-row.  Then there's the global parameters
(file-format ID, numrows, numcols) and the local variables (specifying
SES mode for the buffer, etc.)

   When a SES file is loaded, first the numrows and numcols values are
loaded, then the entire data area is `eval'ed, and finally the local
variables are processed.

   You can edit the data area, but don't insert or delete any newlines
except in the local-variables part, since SES locates things by
counting newlines.  Use `C-x C-e' at the end of a line to install your
edits into the spreadsheet data structures (this does not update the
print area, use e.g. `C-c C-l' for that).

   The data area is maintained as an image of spreadsheet data
structures that area stored in buffer-local variables.  If the data
area gets messed up, you can try reconstructing the data area from the
data structures:

`C-c M-C-l'
     (`ses-reconstruct-all').

File: ses,  Node: Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets,  Next: Uses of defadvice in SES,  Prev: The data area,  Up: For Gurus

4.4 Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets
==========================================

You can add additional local variables to the list at the bottom of the
data area, such as hidden constants you want to refer to in your
formulas.

   You can override the variable `ses--symbolic-formulas' to be a list
of symbols (as parenthesized strings) to show as completions for the '
command.  This initial completions list is used instead of the actual
set of symbols-as-formulas in the spreadsheet.

   For an example of this, see file `etc/ses-example.ses'.

   If (for some reason) you want your formulas or printers to save data
into variables, you must declare these variables as buffer-locals in
order to avoid a virus warning.

   You can define functions by making them values for the fake local
variable `eval'.  Such functions can then be used in your formulas and
printers, but usually each `eval' is presented to the user during file
loading as a potential virus -- this can get annoying.

   You can define functions in your `.emacs' file.  Other people can
still read the print area of your spreadsheet, but they won't be able
to recalculate or reprint anything that depends on your functions.  To
avoid virus warnings, each function used in a formula needs
     (put 'your-function-name 'safe-function t)

File: ses,  Node: Uses of defadvice in SES,  Prev: Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets,  Up: For Gurus

4.5 Uses of defadvice in SES
============================

`undo-more'
     Defines a new undo element format (FUN . ARGS), which means "undo
     by applying FUN to ARGS".  For spreadsheet buffers, it allows
     undos in the data area even though that's outside the narrowing.

`copy-region-as-kill'
     When copying from the print area of a spreadsheet, treat the
     region as a rectangle and attach each cell's formula and printer
     as 'ses properties.

`yank'
     When yanking into the print area of a spreadsheet, first try to
     yank as cells (if the yank text has 'ses properties), then as
     tab-separated formulas, then (if all else fails) as a single
     formula for the current cell.

File: ses,  Node: Index,  Next: Acknowledgements,  Prev: For Gurus,  Up: Top

Index
*****

[index]
* Menu:

* *error*:                               Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* *skip*:                                Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* advanced features <1>:                 For Gurus.             (line 6)
* advanced features:                     Advanced Features.     (line 6)
* basic commands:                        The Basics.            (line 6)
* buffer-local variables:                Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets.
                                                                (line 6)
* cell printing, more:                   More on cell printing. (line 6)
* clearing commands:                     Clearing cells.        (line 6)
* clipboard-yank:                        Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* copy:                                  Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* copy-region-as-kill:                   Uses of defadvice in SES.
                                                                (line 6)
* customizing:                           Customizing SES.       (line 6)
* cut:                                   Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* data area:                             The data area.         (line 6)
* defadvice:                             Uses of defadvice in SES.
                                                                (line 6)
* deferred updates:                      Deferred updates.      (line 6)
* details and summary:                   Spreadsheets with details and summary.
                                                                (line 6)
* enable-local-eval:                     Customizing SES.       (line 6)
* export, and import:                    Import and export.     (line 6)
* features:                              Sales Pitch.           (line 6)
* formulas:                              Formulas.              (line 6)
* formulas, entering:                    Formulas.              (line 6)
* from:                                  Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* import and export:                     Import and export.     (line 6)
* keyboard-quit:                         The Basics.            (line 6)
* kill-ring-save:                        Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* mouse-set-region:                      Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* mouse-set-secondary:                   Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* mouse-yank-at-click:                   Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* mouse-yank-at-secondary:               Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* nonrelocatable references:             Nonrelocatable references.
                                                                (line 6)
* paste:                                 Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* print area:                            The print area.        (line 6)
* printer functions:                     Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ranges:                                Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* references, nonrelocatable:            Nonrelocatable references.
                                                                (line 6)
* resizing spreadsheets:                 Resizing.              (line 6)
* run-with-idle-timer:                   Deferred updates.      (line 6)
* safe-functions:                        Customizing SES.       (line 6)
* ses+:                                  Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* ses-append-row-jump-first-column:      Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-average:                           Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* ses-center:                            Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-center-span:                       Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-clear-cell-backward:               Clearing cells.        (line 6)
* ses-clear-cell-forward:                Clearing cells.        (line 6)
* ses-dashfill:                          Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-dashfill-span:                     Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-delete-blanks:                     Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* ses-delete-column:                     Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-delete-row:                        Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-edit-cell:                         Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-export-tsf:                        Import and export.     (line 6)
* ses-export-tsv:                        Import and export.     (line 6)
* ses-forward-or-insert:                 Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-insert-column:                     Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-insert-range:                      Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* ses-insert-range-click:                Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* ses-insert-row:                        Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-insert-ses-range:                  Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* ses-insert-ses-range-click:            Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* ses-jump:                              The Basics.            (line 6)
* ses-kill-override:                     Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* ses-mark-column:                       The Basics.            (line 6)
* ses-mark-row:                          The Basics.            (line 6)
* ses-mark-whole-buffer:                 The Basics.            (line 6)
* ses-mode-hook:                         Customizing SES.       (line 6)
* ses-read-cell:                         Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-read-cell-printer:                 Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-read-column-printer:               Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-read-default-printer:              Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-read-header-row:                   Advanced Features.     (line 6)
* ses-read-symbol:                       Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-recalculate-all:                   Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-recalculate-cell <1>:              More on cell printing. (line 6)
* ses-recalculate-cell:                  Formulas.              (line 6)
* ses-reconstruct-all:                   The data area.         (line 6)
* ses-renarrow-buffer:                   The print area.        (line 6)
* ses-reprint-all:                       The print area.        (line 6)
* ses-set-column-width:                  Resizing.              (line 6)
* ses-sort-column:                       Sorting by column.     (line 6)
* ses-sort-column-click:                 Sorting by column.     (line 6)
* ses-tildefill-span:                    Printer functions.     (line 6)
* ses-truncate-cell:                     More on cell printing. (line 6)
* ses-yank-pop:                          Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)
* set-mark-command:                      The Basics.            (line 6)
* sorting:                               Sorting by column.     (line 6)
* standard formula functions:            Standard formula functions.
                                                                (line 6)
* summary, and details:                  Spreadsheets with details and summary.
                                                                (line 6)
* to:                                    Ranges in formulas.    (line 6)
* undo-more:                             Uses of defadvice in SES.
                                                                (line 6)
* updates, deferred:                     Deferred updates.      (line 6)
* variables, buffer-local:               Buffer-local variables in spreadsheets.
                                                                (line 6)
* virus protection:                      Virus protection.      (line 6)
* widen:                                 The print area.        (line 6)
* yank <1>:                              Uses of defadvice in SES.
                                                                (line 6)
* yank:                                  Copy/cut/paste.        (line 6)

File: ses,  Node: Acknowledgements,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Index,  Up: Top

5 Acknowledgements
******************

Coding by:

     Jonathan Yavner <jyavnerATmember.org>
     Stefan Monnier <monnierATgnu.org>
     Shigeru Fukaya <shigeru.fukayaATgmail.com>

Texinfo manual by:

     Jonathan Yavner <jyavnerATmember.org>
     Brad Collins <bradATchenla.org>

Ideas from:

     Christoph Conrad <christoph.conradATgmx.de>
     CyberBob <cyberbobATredneck.org>
     Syver Enstad <syver-enATonline.no>
     Ami Fischman <fischmanATzion.com>
     Thomas Gehrlein <Thomas.GehrleinATt-online.de>
     Chris F.A. Johnson <c.f.a.johnsonATrogers.com>
     Yusong Li <lyusongAThotmail.com>
     Juri Linkov <juriATjurta.org>
     Harald Maier <maierhATmyself.com>
     Alan Nash <anashATsan.com>
     Franšois Pinard <pinardATiro.ca>
     Pedro Pinto <ppintoATcs.edu>
     Stefan Reich÷r <xsteveATriic.at>
     Oliver Scholz <epameinondasATgmx.de>
     Richard M. Stallman <rmsATgnu.org>
     Luc Teirlinck <teirllmATdms.edu>
     J. Otto Tennant <jottoATpobox.com>
     Jean-Philippe Theberge <jphilATacs.fr>

File: ses,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Acknowledgements,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

 11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.


ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.