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GNU Readline Library
********************

This document describes the end user interface of the GNU Readline
Library, a utility which aids in the consistency of user interface
across discrete programs which provide a command line interface.

* Menu:

* Command Line Editing::	   GNU Readline User's Manual.
* GNU Free Documentation License::	License for copying this manual.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Command Line Editing,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Command Line Editing
**********************

This chapter describes the basic features of the GNU command line
editing interface.

* Menu:

* Introduction and Notation::	Notation used in this text.
* Readline Interaction::	The minimum set of commands for editing a line.
* Readline Init File::		Customizing Readline from a user's view.
* Bindable Readline Commands::	A description of most of the Readline commands
				available for binding
* Readline vi Mode::		A short description of how to make Readline
				behave like the vi editor.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Introduction and Notation,  Next: Readline Interaction,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.1 Introduction to Line Editing
================================

The following paragraphs describe the notation used to represent
keystrokes.

   The text `C-k' is read as `Control-K' and describes the character
produced when the <k> key is pressed while the Control key is depressed.

   The text `M-k' is read as `Meta-K' and describes the character
produced when the Meta key (if you have one) is depressed, and the <k>
key is pressed.  The Meta key is labeled <ALT> on many keyboards.  On
keyboards with two keys labeled <ALT> (usually to either side of the
space bar), the <ALT> on the left side is generally set to work as a
Meta key.  The <ALT> key on the right may also be configured to work as
a Meta key or may be configured as some other modifier, such as a
Compose key for typing accented characters.

   If you do not have a Meta or <ALT> key, or another key working as a
Meta key, the identical keystroke can be generated by typing <ESC>
_first_, and then typing <k>.  Either process is known as "metafying"
the <k> key.

   The text `M-C-k' is read as `Meta-Control-k' and describes the
character produced by "metafying" `C-k'.

   In addition, several keys have their own names.  Specifically,
<DEL>, <ESC>, <LFD>, <SPC>, <RET>, and <TAB> all stand for themselves
when seen in this text, or in an init file (*note Readline Init File::).
If your keyboard lacks a <LFD> key, typing <C-j> will produce the
desired character.  The <RET> key may be labeled <Return> or <Enter> on
some keyboards.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Interaction,  Next: Readline Init File,  Prev: Introduction and Notation,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.2 Readline Interaction
========================

Often during an interactive session you type in a long line of text,
only to notice that the first word on the line is misspelled.  The
Readline library gives you a set of commands for manipulating the text
as you type it in, allowing you to just fix your typo, and not forcing
you to retype the majority of the line.  Using these editing commands,
you move the cursor to the place that needs correction, and delete or
insert the text of the corrections.  Then, when you are satisfied with
the line, you simply press <RET>.  You do not have to be at the end of
the line to press <RET>; the entire line is accepted regardless of the
location of the cursor within the line.

* Menu:

* Readline Bare Essentials::	The least you need to know about Readline.
* Readline Movement Commands::	Moving about the input line.
* Readline Killing Commands::	How to delete text, and how to get it back!
* Readline Arguments::		Giving numeric arguments to commands.
* Searching::			Searching through previous lines.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Bare Essentials,  Next: Readline Movement Commands,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.1 Readline Bare Essentials
------------------------------

In order to enter characters into the line, simply type them.  The typed
character appears where the cursor was, and then the cursor moves one
space to the right.  If you mistype a character, you can use your erase
character to back up and delete the mistyped character.

   Sometimes you may mistype a character, and not notice the error
until you have typed several other characters.  In that case, you can
type `C-b' to move the cursor to the left, and then correct your
mistake.  Afterwards, you can move the cursor to the right with `C-f'.

   When you add text in the middle of a line, you will notice that
characters to the right of the cursor are `pushed over' to make room
for the text that you have inserted.  Likewise, when you delete text
behind the cursor, characters to the right of the cursor are `pulled
back' to fill in the blank space created by the removal of the text.  A
list of the bare essentials for editing the text of an input line
follows.

`C-b'
     Move back one character.

`C-f'
     Move forward one character.

<DEL> or <Backspace>
     Delete the character to the left of the cursor.

`C-d'
     Delete the character underneath the cursor.

Printing characters
     Insert the character into the line at the cursor.

`C-_' or `C-x C-u'
     Undo the last editing command.  You can undo all the way back to an
     empty line.

(Depending on your configuration, the <Backspace> key be set to delete
the character to the left of the cursor and the <DEL> key set to delete
the character underneath the cursor, like `C-d', rather than the
character to the left of the cursor.)

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Movement Commands,  Next: Readline Killing Commands,  Prev: Readline Bare Essentials,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.2 Readline Movement Commands
--------------------------------

The above table describes the most basic keystrokes that you need in
order to do editing of the input line.  For your convenience, many
other commands have been added in addition to `C-b', `C-f', `C-d', and
<DEL>.  Here are some commands for moving more rapidly about the line.

`C-a'
     Move to the start of the line.

`C-e'
     Move to the end of the line.

`M-f'
     Move forward a word, where a word is composed of letters and
     digits.

`M-b'
     Move backward a word.

`C-l'
     Clear the screen, reprinting the current line at the top.

   Notice how `C-f' moves forward a character, while `M-f' moves
forward a word.  It is a loose convention that control keystrokes
operate on characters while meta keystrokes operate on words.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Killing Commands,  Next: Readline Arguments,  Prev: Readline Movement Commands,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.3 Readline Killing Commands
-------------------------------

"Killing" text means to delete the text from the line, but to save it
away for later use, usually by "yanking" (re-inserting) it back into
the line.  (`Cut' and `paste' are more recent jargon for `kill' and
`yank'.)

   If the description for a command says that it `kills' text, then you
can be sure that you can get the text back in a different (or the same)
place later.

   When you use a kill command, the text is saved in a "kill-ring".
Any number of consecutive kills save all of the killed text together, so
that when you yank it back, you get it all.  The kill ring is not line
specific; the text that you killed on a previously typed line is
available to be yanked back later, when you are typing another line.

   Here is the list of commands for killing text.

`C-k'
     Kill the text from the current cursor position to the end of the
     line.

`M-d'
     Kill from the cursor to the end of the current word, or, if between
     words, to the end of the next word.  Word boundaries are the same
     as those used by `M-f'.

`M-<DEL>'
     Kill from the cursor the start of the current word, or, if between
     words, to the start of the previous word.  Word boundaries are the
     same as those used by `M-b'.

`C-w'
     Kill from the cursor to the previous whitespace.  This is
     different than `M-<DEL>' because the word boundaries differ.


   Here is how to "yank" the text back into the line.  Yanking means to
copy the most-recently-killed text from the kill buffer.

`C-y'
     Yank the most recently killed text back into the buffer at the
     cursor.

`M-y'
     Rotate the kill-ring, and yank the new top.  You can only do this
     if the prior command is `C-y' or `M-y'.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Arguments,  Next: Searching,  Prev: Readline Killing Commands,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.4 Readline Arguments
------------------------

You can pass numeric arguments to Readline commands.  Sometimes the
argument acts as a repeat count, other times it is the sign of the
argument that is significant.  If you pass a negative argument to a
command which normally acts in a forward direction, that command will
act in a backward direction.  For example, to kill text back to the
start of the line, you might type `M-- C-k'.

   The general way to pass numeric arguments to a command is to type
meta digits before the command.  If the first `digit' typed is a minus
sign (`-'), then the sign of the argument will be negative.  Once you
have typed one meta digit to get the argument started, you can type the
remainder of the digits, and then the command.  For example, to give
the `C-d' command an argument of 10, you could type `M-1 0 C-d', which
will delete the next ten characters on the input line.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Searching,  Prev: Readline Arguments,  Up: Readline Interaction

1.2.5 Searching for Commands in the History
-------------------------------------------

Readline provides commands for searching through the command history
for lines containing a specified string.  There are two search modes:
"incremental" and "non-incremental".

   Incremental searches begin before the user has finished typing the
search string.  As each character of the search string is typed,
Readline displays the next entry from the history matching the string
typed so far.  An incremental search requires only as many characters
as needed to find the desired history entry.  To search backward in the
history for a particular string, type `C-r'.  Typing `C-s' searches
forward through the history.  The characters present in the value of
the `isearch-terminators' variable are used to terminate an incremental
search.  If that variable has not been assigned a value, the <ESC> and
`C-J' characters will terminate an incremental search.  `C-g' will
abort an incremental search and restore the original line.  When the
search is terminated, the history entry containing the search string
becomes the current line.

   To find other matching entries in the history list, type `C-r' or
`C-s' as appropriate.  This will search backward or forward in the
history for the next entry matching the search string typed so far.
Any other key sequence bound to a Readline command will terminate the
search and execute that command.  For instance, a <RET> will terminate
the search and accept the line, thereby executing the command from the
history list.  A movement command will terminate the search, make the
last line found the current line, and begin editing.

   Readline remembers the last incremental search string.  If two
`C-r's are typed without any intervening characters defining a new
search string, any remembered search string is used.

   Non-incremental searches read the entire search string before
starting to search for matching history lines.  The search string may be
typed by the user or be part of the contents of the current line.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Init File,  Next: Bindable Readline Commands,  Prev: Readline Interaction,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.3 Readline Init File
======================

Although the Readline library comes with a set of Emacs-like
keybindings installed by default, it is possible to use a different set
of keybindings.  Any user can customize programs that use Readline by
putting commands in an "inputrc" file, conventionally in his home
directory.  The name of this file is taken from the value of the
environment variable `INPUTRC'.  If that variable is unset, the default
is `~/.inputrc'.  If that file does not exist or cannot be read, the
ultimate default is `/etc/inputrc'.

   When a program which uses the Readline library starts up, the init
file is read, and the key bindings are set.

   In addition, the `C-x C-r' command re-reads this init file, thus
incorporating any changes that you might have made to it.

* Menu:

* Readline Init File Syntax::	Syntax for the commands in the inputrc file.

* Conditional Init Constructs::	Conditional key bindings in the inputrc file.

* Sample Init File::		An example inputrc file.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline Init File Syntax,  Next: Conditional Init Constructs,  Up: Readline Init File

1.3.1 Readline Init File Syntax
-------------------------------

There are only a few basic constructs allowed in the Readline init
file.  Blank lines are ignored.  Lines beginning with a `#' are
comments.  Lines beginning with a `$' indicate conditional constructs
(*note Conditional Init Constructs::).  Other lines denote variable
settings and key bindings.

Variable Settings
     You can modify the run-time behavior of Readline by altering the
     values of variables in Readline using the `set' command within the
     init file.  The syntax is simple:

          set VARIABLE VALUE

     Here, for example, is how to change from the default Emacs-like
     key binding to use `vi' line editing commands:

          set editing-mode vi

     Variable names and values, where appropriate, are recognized
     without regard to case.  Unrecognized variable names are ignored.

     Boolean variables (those that can be set to on or off) are set to
     on if the value is null or empty, ON (case-insensitive), or 1.
     Any other value results in the variable being set to off.

     A great deal of run-time behavior is changeable with the following
     variables.

    `bell-style'
          Controls what happens when Readline wants to ring the
          terminal bell.  If set to `none', Readline never rings the
          bell.  If set to `visible', Readline uses a visible bell if
          one is available.  If set to `audible' (the default),
          Readline attempts to ring the terminal's bell.

    `bind-tty-special-chars'
          If set to `on', Readline attempts to bind the control
          characters treated specially by the kernel's terminal driver
          to their Readline equivalents.

    `comment-begin'
          The string to insert at the beginning of the line when the
          `insert-comment' command is executed.  The default value is
          `"#"'.

    `completion-ignore-case'
          If set to `on', Readline performs filename matching and
          completion in a case-insensitive fashion.  The default value
          is `off'.

    `completion-prefix-display-length'
          The length in characters of the common prefix of a list of
          possible completions that is displayed without modification.
          When set to a value greater than zero, common prefixes longer
          than this value are replaced with an ellipsis when displaying
          possible completions.

    `completion-query-items'
          The number of possible completions that determines when the
          user is asked whether the list of possibilities should be
          displayed.  If the number of possible completions is greater
          than this value, Readline will ask the user whether or not he
          wishes to view them; otherwise, they are simply listed.  This
          variable must be set to an integer value greater than or
          equal to 0.  A negative value means Readline should never ask.
          The default limit is `100'.

    `convert-meta'
          If set to `on', Readline will convert characters with the
          eighth bit set to an ASCII key sequence by stripping the
          eighth bit and prefixing an <ESC> character, converting them
          to a meta-prefixed key sequence.  The default value is `on'.

    `disable-completion'
          If set to `On', Readline will inhibit word completion.
          Completion  characters will be inserted into the line as if
          they had been mapped to `self-insert'.  The default is `off'.

    `editing-mode'
          The `editing-mode' variable controls which default set of key
          bindings is used.  By default, Readline starts up in Emacs
          editing mode, where the keystrokes are most similar to Emacs.
          This variable can be set to either `emacs' or `vi'.

    `enable-keypad'
          When set to `on', Readline will try to enable the application
          keypad when it is called.  Some systems need this to enable
          the arrow keys.  The default is `off'.

    `expand-tilde'
          If set to `on', tilde expansion is performed when Readline
          attempts word completion.  The default is `off'.

    `history-preserve-point'
          If set to `on', the history code attempts to place the point
          (the current cursor position) at the same location on each
          history line retrieved with `previous-history' or
          `next-history'.  The default is `off'.

    `history-size'
          Set the maximum number of history entries saved in the
          history list.  If set to zero, the number of entries in the
          history list is not limited.

    `horizontal-scroll-mode'
          This variable can be set to either `on' or `off'.  Setting it
          to `on' means that the text of the lines being edited will
          scroll horizontally on a single screen line when they are
          longer than the width of the screen, instead of wrapping onto
          a new screen line.  By default, this variable is set to `off'.

    `input-meta'
          If set to `on', Readline will enable eight-bit input (it will
          not clear the eighth bit in the characters it reads),
          regardless of what the terminal claims it can support.  The
          default value is `off'.  The name `meta-flag' is a synonym
          for this variable.

    `isearch-terminators'
          The string of characters that should terminate an incremental
          search without subsequently executing the character as a
          command (*note Searching::).  If this variable has not been
          given a value, the characters <ESC> and `C-J' will terminate
          an incremental search.

    `keymap'
          Sets Readline's idea of the current keymap for key binding
          commands.  Acceptable `keymap' names are `emacs',
          `emacs-standard', `emacs-meta', `emacs-ctlx', `vi', `vi-move',
          `vi-command', and `vi-insert'.  `vi' is equivalent to
          `vi-command'; `emacs' is equivalent to `emacs-standard'.  The
          default value is `emacs'.  The value of the `editing-mode'
          variable also affects the default keymap.

    `mark-directories'
          If set to `on', completed directory names have a slash
          appended.  The default is `on'.

    `mark-modified-lines'
          This variable, when set to `on', causes Readline to display an
          asterisk (`*') at the start of history lines which have been
          modified.  This variable is `off' by default.

    `mark-symlinked-directories'
          If set to `on', completed names which are symbolic links to
          directories have a slash appended (subject to the value of
          `mark-directories').  The default is `off'.

    `match-hidden-files'
          This variable, when set to `on', causes Readline to match
          files whose names begin with a `.' (hidden files) when
          performing filename completion, unless the leading `.' is
          supplied by the user in the filename to be completed.  This
          variable is `on' by default.

    `output-meta'
          If set to `on', Readline will display characters with the
          eighth bit set directly rather than as a meta-prefixed escape
          sequence.  The default is `off'.

    `page-completions'
          If set to `on', Readline uses an internal `more'-like pager
          to display a screenful of possible completions at a time.
          This variable is `on' by default.

    `print-completions-horizontally'
          If set to `on', Readline will display completions with matches
          sorted horizontally in alphabetical order, rather than down
          the screen.  The default is `off'.

    `revert-all-at-newline'
          If set to `on', Readline will undo all changes to history
          lines before returning when `accept-line' is executed.  By
          default, history lines may be modified and retain individual
          undo lists across calls to `readline'.  The default is `off'.

    `show-all-if-ambiguous'
          This alters the default behavior of the completion functions.
          If set to `on', words which have more than one possible
          completion cause the matches to be listed immediately instead
          of ringing the bell.  The default value is `off'.

    `show-all-if-unmodified'
          This alters the default behavior of the completion functions
          in a fashion similar to SHOW-ALL-IF-AMBIGUOUS.  If set to
          `on', words which have more than one possible completion
          without any possible partial completion (the possible
          completions don't share a common prefix) cause the matches to
          be listed immediately instead of ringing the bell.  The
          default value is `off'.

    `visible-stats'
          If set to `on', a character denoting a file's type is
          appended to the filename when listing possible completions.
          The default is `off'.


Key Bindings
     The syntax for controlling key bindings in the init file is
     simple.  First you need to find the name of the command that you
     want to change.  The following sections contain tables of the
     command name, the default keybinding, if any, and a short
     description of what the command does.

     Once you know the name of the command, simply place on a line in
     the init file the name of the key you wish to bind the command to,
     a colon, and then the name of the command.  There can be no space
     between the key name and the colon - that will be interpreted as
     part of the key name.  The name of the key can be expressed in
     different ways, depending on what you find most comfortable.

     In addition to command names, readline allows keys to be bound to
     a string that is inserted when the key is pressed (a MACRO).

    KEYNAME: FUNCTION-NAME or MACRO
          KEYNAME is the name of a key spelled out in English.  For
          example:
               Control-u: universal-argument
               Meta-Rubout: backward-kill-word
               Control-o: "> output"

          In the above example, `C-u' is bound to the function
          `universal-argument', `M-DEL' is bound to the function
          `backward-kill-word', and `C-o' is bound to run the macro
          expressed on the right hand side (that is, to insert the text
          `> output' into the line).

          A number of symbolic character names are recognized while
          processing this key binding syntax: DEL, ESC, ESCAPE, LFD,
          NEWLINE, RET, RETURN, RUBOUT, SPACE, SPC, and TAB.

    "KEYSEQ": FUNCTION-NAME or MACRO
          KEYSEQ differs from KEYNAME above in that strings denoting an
          entire key sequence can be specified, by placing the key
          sequence in double quotes.  Some GNU Emacs style key escapes
          can be used, as in the following example, but the special
          character names are not recognized.

               "\C-u": universal-argument
               "\C-x\C-r": re-read-init-file
               "\e[11~": "Function Key 1"

          In the above example, `C-u' is again bound to the function
          `universal-argument' (just as it was in the first example),
          `C-x C-r' is bound to the function `re-read-init-file', and
          `<ESC> <[> <1> <1> <~>' is bound to insert the text `Function
          Key 1'.


     The following GNU Emacs style escape sequences are available when
     specifying key sequences:

    `\C-'
          control prefix

    `\M-'
          meta prefix

    `\e'
          an escape character

    `\\'
          backslash

    `\"'
          <">, a double quotation mark

    `\''
          <'>, a single quote or apostrophe

     In addition to the GNU Emacs style escape sequences, a second set
     of backslash escapes is available:

    `\a'
          alert (bell)

    `\b'
          backspace

    `\d'
          delete

    `\f'
          form feed

    `\n'
          newline

    `\r'
          carriage return

    `\t'
          horizontal tab

    `\v'
          vertical tab

    `\NNN'
          the eight-bit character whose value is the octal value NNN
          (one to three digits)

    `\xHH'
          the eight-bit character whose value is the hexadecimal value
          HH (one or two hex digits)

     When entering the text of a macro, single or double quotes must be
     used to indicate a macro definition.  Unquoted text is assumed to
     be a function name.  In the macro body, the backslash escapes
     described above are expanded.  Backslash will quote any other
     character in the macro text, including `"' and `''.  For example,
     the following binding will make `C-x \' insert a single `\' into
     the line:
          "\C-x\\": "\\"


File: rluserman.info,  Node: Conditional Init Constructs,  Next: Sample Init File,  Prev: Readline Init File Syntax,  Up: Readline Init File

1.3.2 Conditional Init Constructs
---------------------------------

Readline implements a facility similar in spirit to the conditional
compilation features of the C preprocessor which allows key bindings
and variable settings to be performed as the result of tests.  There
are four parser directives used.

`$if'
     The `$if' construct allows bindings to be made based on the
     editing mode, the terminal being used, or the application using
     Readline.  The text of the test extends to the end of the line; no
     characters are required to isolate it.

    `mode'
          The `mode=' form of the `$if' directive is used to test
          whether Readline is in `emacs' or `vi' mode.  This may be
          used in conjunction with the `set keymap' command, for
          instance, to set bindings in the `emacs-standard' and
          `emacs-ctlx' keymaps only if Readline is starting out in
          `emacs' mode.

    `term'
          The `term=' form may be used to include terminal-specific key
          bindings, perhaps to bind the key sequences output by the
          terminal's function keys.  The word on the right side of the
          `=' is tested against both the full name of the terminal and
          the portion of the terminal name before the first `-'.  This
          allows `sun' to match both `sun' and `sun-cmd', for instance.

    `application'
          The APPLICATION construct is used to include
          application-specific settings.  Each program using the
          Readline library sets the APPLICATION NAME, and you can test
          for a particular value.  This could be used to bind key
          sequences to functions useful for a specific program.  For
          instance, the following command adds a key sequence that
          quotes the current or previous word in Bash:
               $if Bash
               # Quote the current or previous word
               "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
               $endif

`$endif'
     This command, as seen in the previous example, terminates an `$if'
     command.

`$else'
     Commands in this branch of the `$if' directive are executed if the
     test fails.

`$include'
     This directive takes a single filename as an argument and reads
     commands and bindings from that file.  For example, the following
     directive reads from `/etc/inputrc':
          $include /etc/inputrc

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Sample Init File,  Prev: Conditional Init Constructs,  Up: Readline Init File

1.3.3 Sample Init File
----------------------

Here is an example of an INPUTRC file.  This illustrates key binding,
variable assignment, and conditional syntax.


     # This file controls the behaviour of line input editing for
     # programs that use the GNU Readline library.  Existing
     # programs include FTP, Bash, and GDB.
     #
     # You can re-read the inputrc file with C-x C-r.
     # Lines beginning with '#' are comments.
     #
     # First, include any systemwide bindings and variable
     # assignments from /etc/Inputrc
     $include /etc/Inputrc

     #
     # Set various bindings for emacs mode.

     set editing-mode emacs

     $if mode=emacs

     Meta-Control-h:	backward-kill-word	Text after the function name is ignored

     #
     # Arrow keys in keypad mode
     #
     #"\M-OD":        backward-char
     #"\M-OC":        forward-char
     #"\M-OA":        previous-history
     #"\M-OB":        next-history
     #
     # Arrow keys in ANSI mode
     #
     "\M-[D":        backward-char
     "\M-[C":        forward-char
     "\M-[A":        previous-history
     "\M-[B":        next-history
     #
     # Arrow keys in 8 bit keypad mode
     #
     #"\M-\C-OD":       backward-char
     #"\M-\C-OC":       forward-char
     #"\M-\C-OA":       previous-history
     #"\M-\C-OB":       next-history
     #
     # Arrow keys in 8 bit ANSI mode
     #
     #"\M-\C-[D":       backward-char
     #"\M-\C-[C":       forward-char
     #"\M-\C-[A":       previous-history
     #"\M-\C-[B":       next-history

     C-q: quoted-insert

     $endif

     # An old-style binding.  This happens to be the default.
     TAB: complete

     # Macros that are convenient for shell interaction
     $if Bash
     # edit the path
     "\C-xp": "PATH=${PATH}\e\C-e\C-a\ef\C-f"
     # prepare to type a quoted word --
     # insert open and close double quotes
     # and move to just after the open quote
     "\C-x\"": "\"\"\C-b"
     # insert a backslash (testing backslash escapes
     # in sequences and macros)
     "\C-x\\": "\\"
     # Quote the current or previous word
     "\C-xq": "\eb\"\ef\""
     # Add a binding to refresh the line, which is unbound
     "\C-xr": redraw-current-line
     # Edit variable on current line.
     "\M-\C-v": "\C-a\C-k$\C-y\M-\C-e\C-a\C-y="
     $endif

     # use a visible bell if one is available
     set bell-style visible

     # don't strip characters to 7 bits when reading
     set input-meta on

     # allow iso-latin1 characters to be inserted rather
     # than converted to prefix-meta sequences
     set convert-meta off

     # display characters with the eighth bit set directly
     # rather than as meta-prefixed characters
     set output-meta on

     # if there are more than 150 possible completions for
     # a word, ask the user if he wants to see all of them
     set completion-query-items 150

     # For FTP
     $if Ftp
     "\C-xg": "get \M-?"
     "\C-xt": "put \M-?"
     "\M-.": yank-last-arg
     $endif

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Bindable Readline Commands,  Next: Readline vi Mode,  Prev: Readline Init File,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.4 Bindable Readline Commands
==============================

* Menu:

* Commands For Moving::		Moving about the line.
* Commands For History::	Getting at previous lines.
* Commands For Text::		Commands for changing text.
* Commands For Killing::	Commands for killing and yanking.
* Numeric Arguments::		Specifying numeric arguments, repeat counts.
* Commands For Completion::	Getting Readline to do the typing for you.
* Keyboard Macros::		Saving and re-executing typed characters
* Miscellaneous Commands::	Other miscellaneous commands.

   This section describes Readline commands that may be bound to key
sequences.  Command names without an accompanying key sequence are
unbound by default.

   In the following descriptions, "point" refers to the current cursor
position, and "mark" refers to a cursor position saved by the
`set-mark' command.  The text between the point and mark is referred to
as the "region".

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For Moving,  Next: Commands For History,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.1 Commands For Moving
-------------------------

`beginning-of-line (C-a)'
     Move to the start of the current line.

`end-of-line (C-e)'
     Move to the end of the line.

`forward-char (C-f)'
     Move forward a character.

`backward-char (C-b)'
     Move back a character.

`forward-word (M-f)'
     Move forward to the end of the next word.  Words are composed of
     letters and digits.

`backward-word (M-b)'
     Move back to the start of the current or previous word.  Words are
     composed of letters and digits.

`clear-screen (C-l)'
     Clear the screen and redraw the current line, leaving the current
     line at the top of the screen.

`redraw-current-line ()'
     Refresh the current line.  By default, this is unbound.


File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For History,  Next: Commands For Text,  Prev: Commands For Moving,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.2 Commands For Manipulating The History
-------------------------------------------

`accept-line (Newline or Return)'
     Accept the line regardless of where the cursor is.  If this line is
     non-empty, it may be added to the history list for future recall
     with `add_history()'.  If this line is a modified history line,
     the history line is restored to its original state.

`previous-history (C-p)'
     Move `back' through the history list, fetching the previous
     command.

`next-history (C-n)'
     Move `forward' through the history list, fetching the next command.

`beginning-of-history (M-<)'
     Move to the first line in the history.

`end-of-history (M->)'
     Move to the end of the input history, i.e., the line currently
     being entered.

`reverse-search-history (C-r)'
     Search backward starting at the current line and moving `up'
     through the history as necessary.  This is an incremental search.

`forward-search-history (C-s)'
     Search forward starting at the current line and moving `down'
     through the the history as necessary.  This is an incremental
     search.

`non-incremental-reverse-search-history (M-p)'
     Search backward starting at the current line and moving `up'
     through the history as necessary using a non-incremental search
     for a string supplied by the user.

`non-incremental-forward-search-history (M-n)'
     Search forward starting at the current line and moving `down'
     through the the history as necessary using a non-incremental search
     for a string supplied by the user.

`history-search-forward ()'
     Search forward through the history for the string of characters
     between the start of the current line and the point.  This is a
     non-incremental search.  By default, this command is unbound.

`history-search-backward ()'
     Search backward through the history for the string of characters
     between the start of the current line and the point.  This is a
     non-incremental search.  By default, this command is unbound.

`yank-nth-arg (M-C-y)'
     Insert the first argument to the previous command (usually the
     second word on the previous line) at point.  With an argument N,
     insert the Nth word from the previous command (the words in the
     previous command begin with word 0).  A negative argument inserts
     the Nth word from the end of the previous command.  Once the
     argument N is computed, the argument is extracted as if the `!N'
     history expansion had been specified.

`yank-last-arg (M-. or M-_)'
     Insert last argument to the previous command (the last word of the
     previous history entry).  With an argument, behave exactly like
     `yank-nth-arg'.  Successive calls to `yank-last-arg' move back
     through the history list, inserting the last argument of each line
     in turn.  The history expansion facilities are used to extract the
     last argument, as if the `!$' history expansion had been specified.


File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For Text,  Next: Commands For Killing,  Prev: Commands For History,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.3 Commands For Changing Text
--------------------------------

`delete-char (C-d)'
     Delete the character at point.  If point is at the beginning of
     the line, there are no characters in the line, and the last
     character typed was not bound to `delete-char', then return EOF.

`backward-delete-char (Rubout)'
     Delete the character behind the cursor.  A numeric argument means
     to kill the characters instead of deleting them.

`forward-backward-delete-char ()'
     Delete the character under the cursor, unless the cursor is at the
     end of the line, in which case the character behind the cursor is
     deleted.  By default, this is not bound to a key.

`quoted-insert (C-q or C-v)'
     Add the next character typed to the line verbatim.  This is how to
     insert key sequences like `C-q', for example.

`tab-insert (M-<TAB>)'
     Insert a tab character.

`self-insert (a, b, A, 1, !, ...)'
     Insert yourself.

`transpose-chars (C-t)'
     Drag the character before the cursor forward over the character at
     the cursor, moving the cursor forward as well.  If the insertion
     point is at the end of the line, then this transposes the last two
     characters of the line.  Negative arguments have no effect.

`transpose-words (M-t)'
     Drag the word before point past the word after point, moving point
     past that word as well.  If the insertion point is at the end of
     the line, this transposes the last two words on the line.

`upcase-word (M-u)'
     Uppercase the current (or following) word.  With a negative
     argument, uppercase the previous word, but do not move the cursor.

`downcase-word (M-l)'
     Lowercase the current (or following) word.  With a negative
     argument, lowercase the previous word, but do not move the cursor.

`capitalize-word (M-c)'
     Capitalize the current (or following) word.  With a negative
     argument, capitalize the previous word, but do not move the cursor.

`overwrite-mode ()'
     Toggle overwrite mode.  With an explicit positive numeric argument,
     switches to overwrite mode.  With an explicit non-positive numeric
     argument, switches to insert mode.  This command affects only
     `emacs' mode; `vi' mode does overwrite differently.  Each call to
     `readline()' starts in insert mode.

     In overwrite mode, characters bound to `self-insert' replace the
     text at point rather than pushing the text to the right.
     Characters bound to `backward-delete-char' replace the character
     before point with a space.

     By default, this command is unbound.


File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For Killing,  Next: Numeric Arguments,  Prev: Commands For Text,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.4 Killing And Yanking
-------------------------

`kill-line (C-k)'
     Kill the text from point to the end of the line.

`backward-kill-line (C-x Rubout)'
     Kill backward to the beginning of the line.

`unix-line-discard (C-u)'
     Kill backward from the cursor to the beginning of the current line.

`kill-whole-line ()'
     Kill all characters on the current line, no matter where point is.
     By default, this is unbound.

`kill-word (M-d)'
     Kill from point to the end of the current word, or if between
     words, to the end of the next word.  Word boundaries are the same
     as `forward-word'.

`backward-kill-word (M-<DEL>)'
     Kill the word behind point.  Word boundaries are the same as
     `backward-word'.

`unix-word-rubout (C-w)'
     Kill the word behind point, using white space as a word boundary.
     The killed text is saved on the kill-ring.

`unix-filename-rubout ()'
     Kill the word behind point, using white space and the slash
     character as the word boundaries.  The killed text is saved on the
     kill-ring.

`delete-horizontal-space ()'
     Delete all spaces and tabs around point.  By default, this is
     unbound.

`kill-region ()'
     Kill the text in the current region.  By default, this command is
     unbound.

`copy-region-as-kill ()'
     Copy the text in the region to the kill buffer, so it can be yanked
     right away.  By default, this command is unbound.

`copy-backward-word ()'
     Copy the word before point to the kill buffer.  The word
     boundaries are the same as `backward-word'.  By default, this
     command is unbound.

`copy-forward-word ()'
     Copy the word following point to the kill buffer.  The word
     boundaries are the same as `forward-word'.  By default, this
     command is unbound.

`yank (C-y)'
     Yank the top of the kill ring into the buffer at point.

`yank-pop (M-y)'
     Rotate the kill-ring, and yank the new top.  You can only do this
     if the prior command is `yank' or `yank-pop'.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Numeric Arguments,  Next: Commands For Completion,  Prev: Commands For Killing,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.5 Specifying Numeric Arguments
----------------------------------

`digit-argument (M-0, M-1, ... M--)'
     Add this digit to the argument already accumulating, or start a new
     argument.  `M--' starts a negative argument.

`universal-argument ()'
     This is another way to specify an argument.  If this command is
     followed by one or more digits, optionally with a leading minus
     sign, those digits define the argument.  If the command is
     followed by digits, executing `universal-argument' again ends the
     numeric argument, but is otherwise ignored.  As a special case, if
     this command is immediately followed by a character that is
     neither a digit or minus sign, the argument count for the next
     command is multiplied by four.  The argument count is initially
     one, so executing this function the first time makes the argument
     count four, a second time makes the argument count sixteen, and so
     on.  By default, this is not bound to a key.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: Commands For Completion,  Next: Keyboard Macros,  Prev: Numeric Arguments,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.6 Letting Readline Type For You
-----------------------------------

`complete (<TAB>)'
     Attempt to perform completion on the text before point.  The
     actual completion performed is application-specific.  The default
     is filename completion.

`possible-completions (M-?)'
     List the possible completions of the text before point.

`insert-completions (M-*)'
     Insert all completions of the text before point that would have
     been generated by `possible-completions'.

`menu-complete ()'
     Similar to `complete', but replaces the word to be completed with
     a single match from the list of possible completions.  Repeated
     execution of `menu-complete' steps through the list of possible
     completions, inserting each match in turn.  At the end of the list
     of completions, the bell is rung (subject to the setting of
     `bell-style') and the original text is restored.  An argument of N
     moves N positions forward in the list of matches; a negative
     argument may be used to move backward through the list.  This
     command is intended to be bound to <TAB>, but is unbound by
     default.

`delete-char-or-list ()'
     Deletes the character under the cursor if not at the beginning or
     end of the line (like `delete-char').  If at the end of the line,
     behaves identically to `possible-completions'.  This command is
     unbound by default.


File: rluserman.info,  Node: Keyboard Macros,  Next: Miscellaneous Commands,  Prev: Commands For Completion,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.7 Keyboard Macros
---------------------

`start-kbd-macro (C-x ()'
     Begin saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro.

`end-kbd-macro (C-x ))'
     Stop saving the characters typed into the current keyboard macro
     and save the definition.

`call-last-kbd-macro (C-x e)'
     Re-execute the last keyboard macro defined, by making the
     characters in the macro appear as if typed at the keyboard.


File: rluserman.info,  Node: Miscellaneous Commands,  Prev: Keyboard Macros,  Up: Bindable Readline Commands

1.4.8 Some Miscellaneous Commands
---------------------------------

`re-read-init-file (C-x C-r)'
     Read in the contents of the INPUTRC file, and incorporate any
     bindings or variable assignments found there.

`abort (C-g)'
     Abort the current editing command and ring the terminal's bell
     (subject to the setting of `bell-style').

`do-uppercase-version (M-a, M-b, M-X, ...)'
     If the metafied character X is lowercase, run the command that is
     bound to the corresponding uppercase character.

`prefix-meta (<ESC>)'
     Metafy the next character typed.  This is for keyboards without a
     meta key.  Typing `<ESC> f' is equivalent to typing `M-f'.

`undo (C-_ or C-x C-u)'
     Incremental undo, separately remembered for each line.

`revert-line (M-r)'
     Undo all changes made to this line.  This is like executing the
     `undo' command enough times to get back to the beginning.

`tilde-expand (M-~)'
     Perform tilde expansion on the current word.

`set-mark (C-@)'
     Set the mark to the point.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the
     mark is set to that position.

`exchange-point-and-mark (C-x C-x)'
     Swap the point with the mark.  The current cursor position is set
     to the saved position, and the old cursor position is saved as the
     mark.

`character-search (C-])'
     A character is read and point is moved to the next occurrence of
     that character.  A negative count searches for previous
     occurrences.

`character-search-backward (M-C-])'
     A character is read and point is moved to the previous occurrence
     of that character.  A negative count searches for subsequent
     occurrences.

`insert-comment (M-#)'
     Without a numeric argument, the value of the `comment-begin'
     variable is inserted at the beginning of the current line.  If a
     numeric argument is supplied, this command acts as a toggle:  if
     the characters at the beginning of the line do not match the value
     of `comment-begin', the value is inserted, otherwise the
     characters in `comment-begin' are deleted from the beginning of
     the line.  In either case, the line is accepted as if a newline
     had been typed.

`dump-functions ()'
     Print all of the functions and their key bindings to the Readline
     output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the output is
     formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an INPUTRC
     file.  This command is unbound by default.

`dump-variables ()'
     Print all of the settable variables and their values to the
     Readline output stream.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the
     output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an
     INPUTRC file.  This command is unbound by default.

`dump-macros ()'
     Print all of the Readline key sequences bound to macros and the
     strings they output.  If a numeric argument is supplied, the
     output is formatted in such a way that it can be made part of an
     INPUTRC file.  This command is unbound by default.

`emacs-editing-mode (C-e)'
     When in `vi' command mode, this causes a switch to `emacs' editing
     mode.

`vi-editing-mode (M-C-j)'
     When in `emacs' editing mode, this causes a switch to `vi' editing
     mode.


File: rluserman.info,  Node: Readline vi Mode,  Prev: Bindable Readline Commands,  Up: Command Line Editing

1.5 Readline vi Mode
====================

While the Readline library does not have a full set of `vi' editing
functions, it does contain enough to allow simple editing of the line.
The Readline `vi' mode behaves as specified in the POSIX 1003.2
standard.

   In order to switch interactively between `emacs' and `vi' editing
modes, use the command `M-C-j' (bound to emacs-editing-mode when in
`vi' mode and to vi-editing-mode in `emacs' mode).  The Readline
default is `emacs' mode.

   When you enter a line in `vi' mode, you are already placed in
`insertion' mode, as if you had typed an `i'.  Pressing <ESC> switches
you into `command' mode, where you can edit the text of the line with
the standard `vi' movement keys, move to previous history lines with
`k' and subsequent lines with `j', and so forth.

File: rluserman.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Command Line Editing,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                      Version 1.2, November 2002

     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
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     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
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  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
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  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

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  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
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       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.