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`recode'
********

   This recoding library converts files between various coded character
sets and surface encodings.  When this cannot be achieved exactly, it
may get rid of the offending characters or fall back on approximations.
The library recognises or produces more than 300 different character
sets and is able to convert files between almost any pair.  Most
RFC 1345 character sets, and all `libiconv' character sets, are
supported.  The `recode' program is a handy front-end to the library.

   The current `recode' release is 3.6.

* Menu:

* Tutorial::            Quick Tutorial
* Introduction::        Terminology and purpose
* Invoking recode::     How to use this program
* Library::             A recoding library
* Universal::           The universal charset
* libiconv::            The `iconv' library
* Tabular::             Tabular sources (RFC 1345)
* ASCII misc::          ASCII and some derivatives
* IBM and MS::          Some IBM or Microsoft charsets
* CDC::                 Charsets for CDC machines
* Micros::              Other micro-computer charsets
* Miscellaneous::       Various other charsets
* Surfaces::            All about surfaces
* Internals::           Internal aspects
* Concept Index::       Concept Index
* Option Index::        Option Index
* Library Index::       Library Index
* Charset and Surface Index::  Charset and Surface Index

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Terminology and purpose

* Charset overview::    Overview of charsets
* Surface overview::    Overview of surfaces
* Contributing::        Contributions and bug reports

How to use this program

* Synopsis::            Synopsis of `recode' call
* Requests::            The REQUEST parameter
* Listings::            Asking for various lists
* Recoding::            Controlling how files are recoded
* Reversibility::       Reversibility issues
* Sequencing::          Selecting sequencing methods
* Mixed::               Using mixed charset input
* Emacs::               Using `recode' within Emacs
* Debugging::           Debugging considerations

A recoding library

* Outer level::         Outer level functions
* Request level::       Request level functions
* Task level::          Task level functions
* Charset level::       Charset level functions
* Errors::              Handling errors

The universal charset

* UCS-2::               Universal Character Set, 2 bytes
* UCS-4::               Universal Character Set, 4 bytes
* UTF-7::               Universal Transformation Format, 7 bits
* UTF-8::               Universal Transformation Format, 8 bits
* UTF-16::              Universal Transformation Format, 16 bits
* count-characters::    Frequency count of characters
* dump-with-names::     Fully interpreted UCS dump

ASCII and some derivatives

* ASCII::               Usual ASCII
* ISO 8859::            ASCII extended by Latin Alphabets
* ASCII-BS::            ASCII 7-bits, BS to overstrike
* flat::                ASCII without diacritics nor underline

Some IBM or Microsoft charsets

* EBCDIC::              EBCDIC codes
* IBM-PC::              IBM's PC code
* Icon-QNX::            Unisys' Icon code

Charsets for CDC machines

* Display Code::        Control Data's Display Code
* CDC-NOS::             ASCII 6/12 from NOS
* Bang-Bang::           ASCII ``bang bang''

Other micro-computer charsets

* Apple-Mac::           Apple's Macintosh code
* AtariST::             Atari ST code

Various other charsets

* HTML::                World Wide Web representations
* LaTeX::               LaTeX macro calls
* Texinfo::             GNU project documentation files
* Vietnamese::          Vietnamese charsets
* African::             African charsets
* Others::              Cyrillic and other charsets
* Texte::               Easy French conventions
* Mule::                Mule as a multiplexed charset

All about surfaces

* Permutations::        Permuting groups of bytes
* End lines::           Representation for end of lines
* MIME::                MIME contents encodings
* Dump::                Interpreted character dumps
* Test::                Artificial data for testing

Internal aspects

* Main flow::           Overall organisation
* New charsets::        Adding new charsets
* New surfaces::        Adding new surfaces
* Design::              Comments on the library design

File: recode.info,  Node: Tutorial,  Next: Introduction,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

Quick Tutorial
**************

   So, really, you just are in a hurry to use `recode', and do not feel
like studying this manual?  Even reading this paragraph slows you down?
We might have a problem, as you will have to do some guess work, and
might not become very proficient unless you have a very solid
intuition....

   Let me use here, as a quick tutorial, an actual reply of mine to a
`recode' user, who writes:

     My situation is this--I occasionally get email with special
     characters in it.  Sometimes this mail is from a user using IBM
     software and sometimes it is a user using Mac software.  I myself
     am on a SPARC Solaris machine.

   Your situation is similar to mine, except that I _often_ receive
email needing recoding, that is, much more than _occasionally_!  The
usual recodings I do are Mac to Latin-1, IBM page codes to Latin-1,
Easy-French to Latin-1, remove Quoted-Printable, remove Base64.  These
are so frequent that I made myself a few two-keystroke Emacs commands
to filter the Emacs region.  This is very convenient for me.  I also
resort to many other email conversions, yet more rarely than the
frequent cases above.

     It _seems_ like this should be doable using `recode'.  However,
     when I try something like `grecode mac macfile.txt' I get nothing
     out--no error, no output, nothing.

   Presuming you are using some recent version of `recode', the command:

     recode mac macfile.txt

is a request for recoding `macfile.txt' over itself, overwriting the
original, from Macintosh usual character code and Macintosh end of
lines, to Latin-1 and Unix end of lines.  This is overwrite mode.  If
you want to use `recode' as a filter, which is probably what you need,
rather do:

     recode mac

and give your Macintosh file as standard input, you'll get the Latin-1
file on standard output.  The above command is an abbreviation for any
of:

     recode mac..
     recode mac..l1
     recode mac..Latin-1
     recode mac/CR..Latin-1/
     recode Macintosh..ISO_8859-1
     recode Macintosh/CR..ISO_8859-1/

   That is, a `CR' surface, encoding newlines with ASCII <CR>, is first
to be removed (this is a default surface for `mac'), then the Macintosh
charset is converted to Latin-1 and no surface is added to the result
(there is no default surface for `l1').  If you want `mac' code
converted, but you know that newlines are already coded the Unix way,
just do:

     recode mac/

the slash then overriding the default surface with empty, that is, none.
Here are other easy recipes:

     recode pc          to filter IBM-PC code and CR-LF (default) to Latin-1
     recode pc/         to filter IBM-PC code to Latin-1
     recode 850         to filter code page 850 and CR-LF (default) to Latin-1
     recode 850/        to filter code page 850 to Latin-1
     recode /qp         to remove quoted printable

   The last one is indeed equivalent to any of:

     recode /qp..
     recode l1/qp..l1/
     recode ISO_8859-1/Quoted-Printable..ISO_8859-1/

   Here are some reverse recipes:

     recode ..mac       to filter Latin-1 to Macintosh code and CR (default)
     recode ..mac/      to filter Latin-1 to Macintosh code
     recode ..pc        to filter Latin-1 to IBM-PC code and CR-LF (default)
     recode ..pc/       to filter Latin-1 to IBM-PC code
     recode ..850       to filter Latin-1 to code page 850 and CR-LF (default)
     recode ..850/      to filter Latin-1 to code page 850
     recode ../qp       to force quoted printable

   In all the above calls, replace `recode' by `recode -f' if you want
to proceed despite recoding errors.  If you do not use `-f' and there
is an error, the recoding output will be interrupted after first error
in filter mode, or the file will not be replaced by a recoded copy in
overwrite mode.

   You may use `recode -l' to get a list of available charsets and
surfaces, and `recode --help' to get a quick summary of options.  The
above output is meant for those having already read this manual, so let
me dare a suggestion: why could not you find a few more minutes in your
schedule to peek further down, right into the following chapters!

File: recode.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Invoking recode,  Prev: Tutorial,  Up: Top

Terminology and purpose
***********************

   A few terms are used over and over in this manual, our wise reader
will learn their meaning right away.  Both ISO (International
Organization for Standardisation) and IETF (Internet Engineering Task
Force) have their own terminology, this document does not try to stick
to either one in a strict way, while it does not want to throw more
confusion in the field.  On the other hand, it would not be efficient
using paraphrases all the time, so `recode' coins a few short words,
which are explained below.

   A "charset", in the context of `recode', is a particular association
between computer codes on one side, and a repertoire of intended
characters on the other side.  Codes are usually taken from a set of
consecutive small integers, starting at 0.  Some characters have a
graphical appearance (glyph) or displayable effect, others have special
uses like, for example, to control devices or to interact with
neighbouring codes to specify them more precisely.  So, a _charset_ is
roughly one of those tables, giving a meaning to each of the codes from
the set of allowable values.  MIME also uses the term charset with
approximately the same meaning.  It does _not_ exactly corresponds to
what ISO calls a "coded character set", that is, a set of characters
with an encoding for them.  An coded character set does not necessarily
use all available code positions, while a MIME charset usually tries to
specify them all.  A MIME charset might be the union of a few disjoint
coded character sets.

   A "surface" is a term used in `recode' only, and is a short for
surface transformation of a charset stream.  This is any kind of
mapping, usually reversible, which associates physical bits in some
medium for a stream of characters taken from one or more charsets
(usually one).  A surface is a kind of varnish added over a charset so
it fits in actual bits and bytes.  How end of lines are exactly encoded
is not really pertinent to the charset, and so, there is surface for
end of lines.  `Base64' is also a surface, as we may encode any charset
in it.  Other examples would `DES' enciphering, or `gzip' compression
(even if `recode' does not offer them currently): these are ways to give
a real life to theoretical charsets.  The "trivial" surface consists
into putting characters into fixed width little chunks of bits, usually
eight such bits per character.  But things are not always that simple.

   This `recode' library, and the program by that name, have the purpose
of converting files between various charsets and surfaces.  When this
cannot be done in exact ways, as it is often the case, the program may
get rid of the offending characters or fall back on approximations.
This library recognises or produces around 175 such charsets under 500
names, and handle a dozen surfaces.  Since it can convert each charset
to almost any other one, many thousands of different conversions are
possible.

   The `recode' program and library do not usually know how to split and
sort out textual and non-textual information which may be mixed in a
single input file.  For example, there is no surface which currently
addresses the problem of how lines are blocked into physical records,
when the blocking information is added as binary markers or counters
within files.  So, `recode' should be given textual streams which are
rather _pure_.

   This tool pays special attention to superimposition of diacritics for
some French representations.  This orientation is mostly historical, it
does not impair the usefulness, generality or extensibility of the
program.  `recode' is both a French and English word.  For those who
pay attention to those things, the proper pronunciation is French (that
is, `racud', with `a' like in `above', and `u' like in `cut').

   The program `recode' has been written by Franc,ois Pinard.  With
time, it got to reuse works from other contributors, and notably, those
of Keld Simonsen and Bruno Haible.

* Menu:

* Charset overview::    Overview of charsets
* Surface overview::    Overview of surfaces
* Contributing::        Contributions and bug reports

File: recode.info,  Node: Charset overview,  Next: Surface overview,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Introduction

Overview of charsets
====================

   Recoding is currently possible between many charsets, the bulk of
which is described by RFC 1345 tables or available in the `iconv'
library.  *Note Tabular::, and *note libiconv::.  The `recode' library
also handles some charsets in some specialised ways.  These are:

   * 6-bit charsets based on CDC display code: 6/12 code from NOS;
     bang-bang code from Universite' de Montre'al;

   * 7-bit ASCII: without any diacritics, or else: using backspace for
     overstriking; Unisys' Icon convention; TeX/LaTeX coding; easy
     French conventions for electronic mail;

   * 8-bit extensions to ASCII: ISO Latin-1, Atari ST code, IBM's code
     for the PC, Apple's code for the Macintosh;

   * 8-bit non-ASCII codes: three flavours of EBCDIC;

   * 16-bit or 31-bit universal characters, and their transfer
     encodings.

   The introduction of RFC 1345 in `recode' has brought with it a few
charsets having the functionality of older ones, but yet being different
in subtle ways.  The effects have not been fully investigated yet, so
for now, clashes are avoided, the old and new charsets are kept well
separate.

   Conversion is possible between almost any pair of charsets.  Here is
a list of the exceptions.  One may not recode _from_ the `flat',
`count-characters' or `dump-with-names' charsets, nor _from_ or _to_
the `data', `tree' or `:libiconv:' charsets.  Also, if we except the
`data' and `tree' pseudo-charsets, charsets and surfaces live in
disjoint recoding spaces, one cannot really transform a surface into a
charset or vice-versa, as surfaces are only meant to be applied over
charsets, or removed from them.

File: recode.info,  Node: Surface overview,  Next: Contributing,  Prev: Charset overview,  Up: Introduction

Overview of surfaces
====================

   For various practical considerations, it sometimes happens that the
codes making up a text, written in a particular charset, cannot simply
be put out in a file one after another without creating problems or
breaking other things.  Sometimes, 8-bit codes cannot be written on a
7-bit medium, variable length codes need kind of envelopes, newlines
require special treatment, etc.  We sometimes have to apply "surfaces"
to a stream of codes, which surfaces are kind of tricks used to fit the
charset into those practical constraints.  Moreover, similar surfaces
or tricks may be useful for many unrelated charsets, and many surfaces
can be used at once over a single charset.

   So, `recode' has machinery to describe a combination of a charset
with surfaces used over it in a file.  We would use the expression "pure
charset" for referring to a charset free of any surface, that is, the
conceptual association between integer codes and character intents.

   It is not always clear if some transformation will yield a charset
or a surface, especially for those transformations which are only
meaningful over a single charset.  The `recode' library is not overly
picky as identifying surfaces as such: when it is practical to consider
a specialised surface as if it were a charset, this is preferred, and
done.

File: recode.info,  Node: Contributing,  Prev: Surface overview,  Up: Introduction

Contributions and bug reports
=============================

   Even being the `recode' author and current maintainer, I am no
specialist in charset standards.  I only made `recode' along the years
to solve my own needs, but felt it was applicable for the needs of
others.  Some FSF people liked the program structure and suggested to
make it more widely available.  I often rely on `recode' users
suggestions to decide what is best to be done next.

   Properly protecting `recode' about possible copyright fights is a
pain for me and for contributors, but we cannot avoid addressing the
issue in the long run.  Besides, the Free Software Foundation, which
mandates the GNU project, is very sensible to this matter.  GNU
standards suggest that we stay cautious before looking at copyrighted
code.  The safest and simplest way for me is to gather ideas and
reprogram them anew, even if this might slow me down considerably.  For
contributions going beyond a few lines of code here and there, the FSF
definitely requires employer disclaimers and copyright assignments in
writing.

   When you contribute something to `recode', _please_ explain what it
is about.  Do not take for granted that I know those charsets which are
familiar to you.  Once again, I'm no expert, and you have to help me.
Your explanations could well find their way into this documentation,
too.  Also, for contributing new charsets or new surfaces, as much as
possible, please provide good, solid, verifiable references for the
tables you used(1).

   Many users contributed to `recode' already, I am grateful to them for
their interest and involvement.  Some suggestions can be integrated
quickly while some others have to be delayed, I have to draw a line
somewhere when time comes to make a new release, about what would go in
it and what would go in the next.

   Please send suggestions, documentation errors and bug reports to
<recode-bugsATiro.ca> or, if you prefer, directly to
<pinardATiro.ca>, Franc,ois Pinard.  Do not be afraid to
report details, because this program is the mere aggregation of
hundreds of details.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) I'm not prone at accepting a charset you just invented, and
which nobody uses yet: convince your friends and community first!

File: recode.info,  Node: Invoking recode,  Next: Library,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

How to use this program
***********************

   With the synopsis of the `recode' call, we stress the difference
between using this program as a file filter, or recoding many files at
once.  The first parameter of any call states the recoding request, and
this deserves a section on its own.  Options are then presented, but
somewhat grouped according to the related functionalities they control.

* Menu:

* Synopsis::            Synopsis of `recode' call
* Requests::            The REQUEST parameter
* Listings::            Asking for various lists
* Recoding::            Controlling how files are recoded
* Reversibility::       Reversibility issues
* Sequencing::          Selecting sequencing methods
* Mixed::               Using mixed charset input
* Emacs::               Using `recode' within Emacs
* Debugging::           Debugging considerations

File: recode.info,  Node: Synopsis,  Next: Requests,  Prev: Invoking recode,  Up: Invoking recode

Synopsis of `recode' call
=========================

   The general format of the program call is one of:

     recode [OPTION]... [CHARSET | REQUEST [FILE]... ]

   Some calls are used only to obtain lists produced by `recode' itself,
without actually recoding any file.  They are recognised through the
usage of listing options, and these options decide what meaning should
be given to an optional CHARSET parameter.  *Note Listings::.

   In other calls, the first parameter (REQUEST) always explains which
transformations are expected on the files.  There are many variations to
the aspect of this parameter.  We will discuss more complex situations
later (*note Requests::), but for many simple cases, this parameter
merely looks like this(1):

     BEFORE..AFTER

where BEFORE and AFTER each gives the name of a charset.  Each FILE
will be read assuming it is coded with charset BEFORE, it will be
recoded over itself so to use the charset AFTER.  If there is no FILE
on the `recode' command, the program rather acts as a Unix filter and
transforms standard input onto standard output.

   The capability of recoding many files at once is very convenient.
For example, one could easily prepare a distribution from Latin-1 to
MSDOS, this way:

     mkdir package
     cp -p Makefile *.[ch] package
     recode Latin-1..MSDOS package/*
     zoo ah package.zoo package/*
     rm -rf package

(In this example, the non-mandatory `-p' option to `cp' is for
preserving timestamps, and the `zoo' program is an archiver from Rahul
Dhesi which once was quite popular.)

   The filter operation is especially useful when the input files should
not be altered.  Let us make an example to illustrate this point.
Suppose that someone has a file named `datum.txt', which is almost a
TeX file, except that diacriticised characters are written using
Latin-1.  To complete the recoding of the diacriticised characters
_only_ and produce a file `datum.tex', without destroying the original,
one could do:

     cp -p datum.txt datum.tex
     recode -d l1..tex datum.tex

   However, using `recode' as a filter will achieve the same goal more
neatly:

     recode -d l1..tex <datum.txt >datum.tex

   This example also shows that `l1' could be used instead of
`Latin-1'; charset names often have such aliases.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) In previous versions or `recode', a single colon `:' was used
instead of the two dots `..' for separating charsets, but this was
creating problems because colons are allowed in official charset names.
The old request syntax is still recognised for compatibility purposes,
but is deprecated.

File: recode.info,  Node: Requests,  Next: Listings,  Prev: Synopsis,  Up: Invoking recode

The REQUEST parameter
=====================

   In the case where the REQUEST is merely written as BEFORE..AFTER,
then BEFORE and AFTER specify the start charset and the goal charset
for the recoding.

   For `recode', charset names may contain any character, besides a
comma, a forward slash, or two periods in a row.  But in practice,
charset names are currently limited to alphabetic letters (upper or
lower case), digits, hyphens, underlines, periods, colons or round
parentheses.

   The complete syntax for a valid REQUEST allows for unusual things,
which might surprise at first.  (Do not pay too much attention to these
facilities on first reading.)  For example, REQUEST may also contain
intermediate charsets, like in the following example:

     BEFORE..INTERIM1..INTERIM2..AFTER

meaning that `recode' should internally produce the INTERIM1 charset
from the start charset, then work out of this INTERIM1 charset to
internally produce INTERIM2, and from there towards the goal charset.
In fact, `recode' internally combines recipes and automatically uses
interim charsets, when there is no direct recipe for transforming
BEFORE into AFTER.  But there might be many ways to do it.  When many
routes are possible, the above "chaining" syntax may be used to more
precisely force the program towards a particular route, which it might
not have naturally selected otherwise.  On the other hand, because
`recode' tries to choose good routes, chaining is only needed to
achieve some rare, unusual effects.

   Moreover, many such requests (sub-requests, more precisely) may be
separated with commas (but no spaces at all), indicating a sequence of
recodings, where the output of one has to serve as the input of the
following one.  For example, the two following requests are equivalent:

     BEFORE..INTERIM1..INTERIM2..AFTER
     BEFORE..INTERIM1,INTERIM1..INTERIM2,INTERIM2..AFTER

In this example, the charset input for any recoding sub-request is
identical to the charset output by the preceding sub-request.  But it
does not have to be so in the general case.  One might wonder what
would be the meaning of declaring the charset input for a recoding
sub-request of being of different nature than the charset output by a
preceding sub-request, when recodings are chained in this way.  Such a
strange usage might have a meaning and be useful for the `recode'
expert, but they are quite uncommon in practice.

   More useful is the distinction between the concept of charset, and
the concept of surfaces.  An encoded charset is represented by:

     PURE-CHARSET/SURFACE1/SURFACE2...

using slashes to introduce surfaces, if any.  The order of application
of surfaces is usually important, they cannot be freely commuted.  In
the given example, SURFACE1 is first applied over the PURE-CHARSET,
then SURFACE2 is applied over the result.  Given this request:

     BEFORE/SURFACE1/SURFACE2..AFTER/SURFACE3

the `recode' program will understand that the input files should have
SURFACE2 removed first (because it was applied last), then SURFACE1
should be removed.  The next step will be to translate the codes from
charset BEFORE to charset AFTER, prior to applying SURFACE3 over the
result.

   Some charsets have one or more _implied_ surfaces.  In this case, the
implied surfaces are automatically handled merely by naming the charset,
without any explicit surface to qualify it.  Let's take an example to
illustrate this feature.  The request `pc..l1' will indeed decode MS-DOS
end of lines prior to converting IBM-PC codes to Latin-1, because `pc'
is the name of a charset(1) which has `CR-LF' for its usual surface.
The request `pc/..l1' will _not_ decode end of lines, since the slash
introduces surfaces, and even if the surface list is empty, it
effectively defeats the automatic removal of surfaces for this charset.
So, empty surfaces are useful, indeed!

   Both charsets and surfaces may have predefined alternate names, or
aliases.  However, and this is rather important to understand, implied
surfaces are attached to individual aliases rather than on genuine
charsets.  Consequently, the official charset name and all of its
aliases do not necessarily share the same implied surfaces.  The
charset and all its aliases may each have its own different set of
implied surfaces.

   Charset names, surface names, or their aliases may always be
abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.  Internally in `recode',
disambiguating tables are kept separate for charset names and surface
names.

   While recognising a charset name or a surface name (or aliases
thereof), `recode' ignores all characters besides letters and digits,
so for example, the hyphens and underlines being part of an official
charset name may safely be omitted (no need to un-confuse them!).
There is also no distinction between upper and lower case for charset
or surface names.

   One of the BEFORE or AFTER keywords may be omitted.  If the double
dot separator is omitted too, then the charset is interpreted as the
BEFORE charset.(2)

   When a charset name is omitted or left empty, the value of the
`DEFAULT_CHARSET' variable in the environment is used instead.  If this
variable is not defined, the `recode' library uses the current locale's
encoding. On POSIX compliant systems, this depends on the first
non-empty value among the environment variables LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG,
and can be determined through the command `locale charmap'.

   If the charset name is omitted but followed by surfaces, the surfaces
then qualify the usual or default charset.  For example, the request
`../x' is sufficient for applying an hexadecimal surface to the input
text(3).

   The allowable values for BEFORE or AFTER charsets, and various
surfaces, are described in the remainder of this document.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) More precisely, `pc' is an alias for the charset `IBM-PC'.

   (2) Both BEFORE and AFTER may be omitted, in which case the double
dot separator is mandatory.  This is not very useful, as the recoding
reduces to a mere copy in that case.

   (3) MS-DOS is one of those systems for which the default charset has
implied surfaces, `CR-LF' here.  Such surfaces are automatically
removed or applied whenever the default charset is read or written,
exactly as it would go for any other charset.  In the example above, on
such systems, the hexadecimal surface would then _replace_ the implied
surfaces.  For _adding_ an hexadecimal surface without removing any,
one should write the request as `/../x'.

File: recode.info,  Node: Listings,  Next: Recoding,  Prev: Requests,  Up: Invoking recode

Asking for various lists
========================

   Many options control listing output generated by `recode' itself,
they are not meant to accompany actual file recodings.  These options
are:

`--version'
     The program merely prints its version numbers on standard output,
     and exits without doing anything else.

`--help'
     The program merely prints a page of help on standard output, and
     exits without doing any recoding.

`-C'
`--copyright'
     Given this option, all other parameters and options are ignored.
     The program prints briefly the copyright and copying conditions.
     See the file `COPYING' in the distribution for full statement of
     the Copyright and copying conditions.

`-h[LANGUAGE/][NAME]'
`--header[=[LANGUAGE/][NAME]]'
     Instead of recoding files, `recode' writes a LANGUAGE source file
     on standard output and exits.  This source is meant to be included
     in a regular program written in the same programming LANGUAGE: its
     purpose is to declare and initialise an array, named NAME, which
     represents the requested recoding.  The only acceptable values for
     LANGUAGE are `c' or `perl', and may may be abbreviated.  If
     LANGUAGE is not specified, `c' is assumed.  If NAME is not
     specified, then it defaults to `BEFORE_AFTER'.  Strings BEFORE and
     AFTER are cleaned before being used according to the syntax of
     LANGUAGE.

     Even if `recode' tries its best, this option does not always
     succeed in producing the requested source table.  It will however,
     provided the recoding can be internally represented by only one
     step after the optimisation phase, and if this merged step conveys
     a one-to-one or a one-to-many explicit table.  Also, when
     attempting to produce sources tables, `recode' relaxes its
     checking a tiny bit: it ignores the algorithmic part of some
     tabular recodings, it also avoids the processing of implied
     surfaces.  But this is all fairly technical.  Better try and see!

     Beware that other options might affect the produced source tables,
     these are: `-d', `-g' and, particularly, `-s'.

`-k PAIRS'
`--known=PAIRS'
     This particular option is meant to help identifying an unknown
     charset, using as hints some already identified characters of the
     charset.  Some examples will help introducing the idea.

     Let's presume here that `recode' is run in an ISO-8859-1 locale,
     and that `DEFAULT_CHARSET' is unset in the environment.  Suppose
     you have guessed that code 130 (decimal) of the unknown charset
     represents a lower case `e' with an acute accent.  That is to say
     that this code should map to code 233 (decimal) in the usual
     charset.  By executing:

          recode -k 130:233

     you should obtain a listing similar to:

          AtariST atarist
          CWI cphu cwi cwi2
          IBM437 437 cp437 ibm437
          IBM850 850 cp850 ibm850
          IBM851 851 cp851 ibm851
          IBM852 852 cp852 ibm852
          IBM857 857 cp857 ibm857
          IBM860 860 cp860 ibm860
          IBM861 861 cp861 cpis ibm861
          IBM863 863 cp863 ibm863
          IBM865 865 cp865 ibm865

     You can give more than one clue at once, to restrict the list
     further.  Suppose you have _also_ guessed that code 211 of the
     unknown charset represents an upper case `E' with diaeresis, that
     is, code 203 in the usual charset.  By requesting:

          recode -k 130:233,211:203

     you should obtain:

          IBM850 850 cp850 ibm850
          IBM852 852 cp852 ibm852
          IBM857 857 cp857 ibm857

     The usual charset may be overridden by specifying one non-option
     argument.  For example, to request the list of charsets for which
     code 130 maps to code 142 for the Macintosh, you may ask:

          recode -k 130:142 mac

     and get:

          AtariST atarist
          CWI cphu cwi cwi2
          IBM437 437 cp437 ibm437
          IBM850 850 cp850 ibm850
          IBM851 851 cp851 ibm851
          IBM852 852 cp852 ibm852
          IBM857 857 cp857 ibm857
          IBM860 860 cp860 ibm860
          IBM861 861 cp861 cpis ibm861
          IBM863 863 cp863 ibm863
          IBM865 865 cp865 ibm865

     which, of course, is identical to the result of the first example,
     since the code 142 for the Macintosh is a small `e' with acute.

     More formally, option `-k' lists all possible _before_ charsets
     for the _after_ charset given as the sole non-option argument to
     `recode', but subject to restrictions given in PAIRS.  If there is
     no non-option argument, the _after_ charset is taken to be the
     default charset for this `recode'.

     The restrictions are given as a comma separated list of pairs,
     each pair consisting of two numbers separated by a colon.  The
     numbers are taken as decimal when the initial digit is between `1'
     and `9'; `0x' starts an hexadecimal number, or else `0' starts an
     octal number.  The first number is a code in any _before_ charset,
     while the second number is a code in the specified _after_ charset.
     If the first number would not be transformed into the second
     number by recoding from some _before_ charset to the _after_
     charset, then this _before_ charset is rejected.  A _before_
     charset is listed only if it is not rejected by any pair.  The
     program will only test those _before_ charsets having a tabular
     style internal description (*note Tabular::), so should be the
     selected _after_ charset.

     The produced list is in fact a subset of the list produced by the
     option `-l'.  As for option `-l', the non-option argument is
     interpreted as a charset name, possibly abbreviated to any non
     ambiguous prefix.

`-l[FORMAT]'
`--list[=FORMAT]'
     This option asks for information about all charsets, or about one
     particular charset.  No file will be recoded.

     If there is no non-option arguments, `recode' ignores the FORMAT
     value of the option, it writes a sorted list of charset names on
     standard output, one per line.  When a charset name have aliases
     or synonyms, they follow the true charset name on its line, sorted
     from left to right.  Each charset or alias is followed by its
     implied surfaces, if any.  This list is over two hundred lines.
     It is best used with `grep -i', as in:

          recode -l | grep -i greek

     There might be one non-option argument, in which case it is
     interpreted as a charset name, possibly abbreviated to any non
     ambiguous prefix.  This particular usage of the `-l' option is
     obeyed _only_ for charsets having a tabular style internal
     description (*note Tabular::).  Even if most charsets have this
     property, some do not, and the option `-l' cannot be used to
     detail these particular charsets.  For knowing if a particular
     charset can be listed this way, you should merely try and see if
     this works.  The FORMAT value of the option is a keyword from the
     following list.  Keywords may be abbreviated by dropping suffix
     letters, and even reduced to the first letter only:

    `decimal'
          This format asks for the production on standard output of a
          concise tabular display of the charset, in which character
          code values are expressed in decimal.

    `octal'
          This format uses octal instead of decimal in the concise
          tabular display of the charset.

    `hexadecimal'
          This format uses hexadecimal instead of decimal in the
          concise tabular display of the charset.

    `full'
          This format requests an extensive display of the charset on
          standard output, using one line per character showing its
          decimal, hexadecimal, octal and `UCS-2' code values, and also
          a descriptive comment which should be the 10646 name for the
          character.

          The descriptive comment is given in English and ASCII, yet if
          the English description is not available but a French one is,
          then the French description is given instead, using Latin-1.
          However, if the `LANGUAGE' or `LANG' environment variable
          begins with the letters `fr', then listing preference goes to
          French when both descriptions are available.

     When option `-l' is used together with a CHARSET argument, the
     FORMAT defaults to `decimal'.

`-T'
`--find-subsets'
     This option is a maintainer tool for evaluating the redundancy of
     those charsets, in `recode', which are internally represented by
     an `UCS-2' data table.  After the listing has been produced, the
     program exits without doing any recoding.  The output is meant to
     be sorted, like this: `recode -T | sort'.  The option triggers
     `recode' into comparing all pairs of charsets, seeking those which
     are subsets of others.  The concept and results are better
     explained through a few examples.  Consider these three sample
     lines from `-T' output:

          [  0] IBM891 == IBM903
          [  1] IBM1004 < CP1252
          [ 12] INVARIANT < CSA_Z243.4-1985-1

     The first line means that `IBM891' and `IBM903' are completely
     identical as far as `recode' is concerned, so one is fully
     redundant to the other.  The second line says that `IBM1004' is
     wholly contained within `CP1252', yet there is a single character
     which is in `CP1252' without being in `IBM1004'.  The third line
     says that `INVARIANT' is wholly contained within
     `CSA_Z243.4-1985-1', but twelve characters are in
     `CSA_Z243.4-1985-1' without being in `INVARIANT'.  The whole
     output might most probably be reduced and made more significant
     through a transitivity study.

File: recode.info,  Node: Recoding,  Next: Reversibility,  Prev: Listings,  Up: Invoking recode

Controlling how files are recoded
=================================

   The following options have the purpose of giving the user some fine
grain control over the recoding operation themselves.

`-c'
`--colons'
     With `Texte' Easy French conventions, use the column `:' instead
     of the double-quote `"' for marking diaeresis.  *Note Texte::.

`-g'
`--graphics'
     This option is only meaningful while getting _out_ of the `IBM-PC'
     charset.  In this charset, characters 176 to 223 are used for
     constructing rulers and boxes, using simple or double horizontal or
     vertical lines.  This option forces the automatic selection of
     ASCII characters for approximating these rulers and boxes, at cost
     of making the transformation irreversible.  Option `-g' implies
     `-f'.

`-t'
`--touch'
     The _touch_ option is meaningful only when files are recoded over
     themselves.  Without it, the time-stamps associated with files are
     preserved, to reflect the fact that changing the code of a file
     does not really alter its informational contents.  When the user
     wants the recoded files to be time-stamped at the recoding time,
     this option inhibits the automatic protection of the time-stamps.

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Before doing any recoding, the program will first print on the
     `stderr' stream the list of all intermediate charsets planned for
     recoding, starting with the BEFORE charset and ending with the
     AFTER charset.  It also prints an indication of the recoding
     quality, as one of the word `reversible', `one to one', `one to
     many', `many to one' or `many to many'.

     This information will appear once or twice.  It is shown a second
     time only when the optimisation and step merging phase succeeds in
     replacing many single steps by a new one.

     This option also has a second effect.  The program will print on
     `stderr' one message per recoded FILE, so as to keep the user
     informed of the progress of its command.

     An easy way to know beforehand the sequence or quality of a
     recoding is by using the command such as:

          recode -v BEFORE..AFTER < /dev/null

     using the fact that, in `recode', an empty input file produces an
     empty output file.

`-x CHARSET'
`--ignore=CHARSET'
     This option tells the program to ignore any recoding path through
     the specified CHARSET, so disabling any single step using this
     charset as a start or end point.  This may be used when the user
     wants to force `recode' into using an alternate recoding path (yet
     using chained requests offers a finer control, *note Requests::).

     CHARSET may be abbreviated to any unambiguous prefix.

File: recode.info,  Node: Reversibility,  Next: Sequencing,  Prev: Recoding,  Up: Invoking recode

Reversibility issues
====================

   The following options are somewhat related to reversibility issues:

`-f'
`--force'
     With this option, irreversible or otherwise erroneous recodings
     are run to completion, and `recode' does not exit with a non-zero
     status if it would be only because irreversibility matters.  *Note
     Reversibility::.

     Without this option, `recode' tries to protect you against recoding
     a file irreversibly over itself(1).  Whenever an irreversible
     recoding is met, or any other recoding error, `recode' produces a
     warning on standard error.  The current input file does not get
     replaced by its recoded version, and `recode' then proceeds with
     the recoding of the next file.

     When the program is merely used as a filter, standard output will
     have received a partially recoded copy of standard input, up to
     the first error point.  After all recodings have been done or
     attempted, and if some recoding has been aborted, `recode' exits
     with a non-zero status.

     In releases of `recode' prior to version 3.5, this option was
     always selected, so it was rather meaningless.  Nevertheless,
     users were invited to start using `-f' right away in scripts
     calling `recode' whenever convenient, in preparation for the
     current behaviour.

`-q'
`--quiet'
`--silent'
     This option has the sole purpose of inhibiting warning messages
     about irreversible recodings, and other such diagnostics.  It has
     no other effect, in particular, it does _not_ prevent recodings to
     be aborted or `recode' to return a non-zero exit status when
     irreversible recodings are met.

     This option is set automatically for the children processes, when
     recode splits itself in many collaborating copies.  Doing so, the
     diagnostic is issued only once by the parent.  See option `-p'.

`-s'
`--strict'
     By using this option, the user requests that `recode' be very
     strict while recoding a file, merely losing in the transformation
     any character which is not explicitly mapped from a charset to
     another.  Such a loss is not reversible and so, will bring
     `recode' to fail, unless the option `-f' is also given as a kind
     of counter-measure.

     Using `-s' without `-f' might render the `recode' program very
     susceptible to the slighest file abnormalities.  Despite the fact
     that it might be irritating to some users, such paranoia is
     sometimes wanted and useful.

   Even if `recode' tries hard to keep the recodings reversible, you
should not develop an unconditional confidence in its ability to do so.
You _ought_ to keep only reasonable expectations about reverse
recodings.  In particular, consider:

   * Most transformations are fully reversible for all inputs, but lose
     this property whenever `-s' is specified.

   * A few transformations are not meant to be reversible, by design.

   * Reversibility sometimes depends on actual file contents and cannot
     be ascertained beforehand, without reading the file.

   * Reversibility is never absolute across successive versions of this
     program.  Even correcting a small bug in a mapping could induce
     slight discrepancies later.

   * Reversibility is easily lost by merging.  This is best explained
     through an example.  If you reversibly recode a file from charset
     A to charset B, then you reversibly recode the result from charset
     B to charset C, you cannot expect to recover the original file by
     merely recoding from charset C directly to charset A.  You will
     instead have to recode from charset C back to charset B, and only
     then from charset B to charset A.

   * Faulty files create a particular problem.  Consider an example,
     recoding from `IBM-PC' to `Latin-1'.  End of lines are represented
     as `\r\n' in `IBM-PC' and as `\n' in `Latin-1'.  There is no way
     by which a faulty `IBM-PC' file containing a `\n' not preceded by
     `\r' be translated into a `Latin-1' file, and then back.

   * There is another difficulty arising from code equivalences.  For
     example, in a `LaTeX' charset file, the string `\^\i{}' could be
     recoded back and forth through another charset and become
     `\^{\i}'.  Even if the resulting file is equivalent to the
     original one, it is not identical.

   Unless option `-s' is used, `recode' automatically tries to fill
mappings with invented correspondences, often making them fully
reversible.  This filling is not made at random.  The algorithm tries to
stick to the identity mapping and, when this is not possible, it prefers
generating many small permutation cycles, each involving only a few
codes.

   For example, here is how `IBM-PC' code 186 gets translated to
`control-U' in `Latin-1'.  `Control-U' is 21.  Code 21 is the `IBM-PC'
section sign, which is 167 in `Latin-1'.  `recode' cannot reciprocate
167 to 21, because 167 is the masculine ordinal indicator within
`IBM-PC', which is 186 in `Latin-1'.  Code 186 within `IBM-PC' has no
`Latin-1' equivalent; by assigning it back to 21, `recode' closes this
short permutation loop.

   As a consequence of this map filling, `recode' may sometimes produce
_funny_ characters.  They may look annoying, they are nevertheless
helpful when one changes his (her) mind and wants to revert to the prior
recoding.  If you cannot stand these, use option `-s', which asks for a
very strict recoding.

   This map filling sometimes has a few surprising consequences, which
some users wrongly interpreted as bugs.  Here are two examples.

  1. In some cases, `recode' seems to copy a file without recoding it.
     But in fact, it does.  Consider a request:

          recode l1..us < File-Latin1 > File-ASCII
          cmp File-Latin1 File-ASCII

     then `cmp' will not report any difference.  This is quite normal.
     `Latin-1' gets correctly recoded to ASCII for charsets
     commonalities (which are the first 128 characters, in this case).
     The remaining last 128 `Latin-1' characters have no ASCII
     correspondent.  Instead of losing them, `recode' elects to map
     them to unspecified characters of ASCII, so making the recoding
     reversible.  The simplest way of achieving this is merely to keep
     those last 128 characters unchanged.  The overall effect is
     copying the file verbatim.

     If you feel this behaviour is too generous and if you do not wish
     to care about reversibility, simply use option `-s'.  By doing so,
     `recode' will strictly map only those `Latin-1' characters which
     have an ASCII equivalent, and will merely drop those which do not.
     Then, there is more chance that you will observe a difference
     between the input and the output file.

  2. Recoding the wrong way could sometimes give the false impression
     that recoding has _almost_ been done properly.  Consider the
     requests:

          recode 437..l1 < File-Latin1 > Temp1
          recode 437..l1 < Temp1 > Temp2

     so declaring wrongly `File-Latin1' to be an IBM-PC file, and
     recoding to `Latin-1'.  This is surely ill defined and not
     meaningful.  Yet, if you repeat this step a second time, you might
     notice that many (not all) characters in `Temp2' are identical to
     those in `File-Latin1'.  Sometimes, people try to discover how
     `recode' works by experimenting a little at random, rather than
     reading and understanding the documentation; results such as this
     are surely confusing, as they provide those people with a false
     feeling that they understood something.

     Reversible codings have this property that, if applied several
     times in the same direction, they will eventually bring any
     character back to its original value.  Since `recode' seeks small
     permutation cycles when creating reversible codings, besides
     characters unchanged by the recoding, most permutation cycles will
     be of length 2, and fewer of length 3, etc.  So, it is just
     expectable that applying the recoding twice in the same direction
     will recover most characters, but will fail to recover those
     participating in permutation cycles of length 3.  On the other
     end, recoding six times in the same direction would recover all
     characters in cycles of length 1, 2, 3 or 6.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) There are still some cases of ambiguous output which are rather
difficult to detect, and for which the protection is not active.

File: recode.info,  Node: Sequencing,  Next: Mixed,  Prev: Reversibility,  Up: Invoking recode

Selecting sequencing methods
============================

   This program uses a few techniques when it is discovered that many
passes are needed to comply with the REQUEST.  For example, suppose
that four elementary steps were selected at recoding path optimisation
time.  Then `recode' will split itself into four different
interconnected tasks, logically equivalent to:

     STEP1 <INPUT | STEP2 | STEP3 | STEP4 >OUTPUT

   The splitting into subtasks is often done using Unix pipes.  But the
splitting may also be completely avoided, and rather simulated by using
memory buffer, or intermediate files.  The various
`--sequence=STRATEGY' options gives you control over the flow methods,
by replacing STRATEGY with `memory', `pipe' or `files'.  So, these
options may be used to override the default behaviour, which is also
explained below.

`--sequence=memory'
     When the recoding requires a combination of two or more elementary
     recoding steps, this option forces many passes over the data, using
     in-memory buffers to hold all intermediary results.

`-i'
`--sequence=files'
     When the recoding requires a combination of two or more elementary
     recoding steps, this option forces many passes over the data, using
     intermediate files between passes.  This is the default behaviour
     when files are recoded over themselves.  If this option is
     selected in filter mode, that is, when the program reads standard
     input and writes standard output, it might take longer for
     programs further down the pipe chain to start receiving some
     recoded data.

`-p'
`--sequence=pipe'
     When the recoding requires a combination of two or more elementary
     recoding steps, this option forces the program to fork itself into
     a few copies interconnected with pipes, using the `pipe(2)' system
     call.  All copies of the program operate in parallel.  This is the
     default behaviour in filter mode.  If this option is used when
     files are recoded over themselves, this should also save disk
     space because some temporary files might not be needed, at the
     cost of more system overhead.

     If, at installation time, the `pipe(2)' call is said to be
     unavailable, selecting option `-p' is equivalent to selecting
     option `-i'.  (This happens, for example, on MS-DOS systems.)

File: recode.info,  Node: Mixed,  Next: Emacs,  Prev: Sequencing,  Up: Invoking recode

Using mixed charset input
=========================

   In real life and practice, textual files are often made up of many
charsets at once.  Some parts of the file encode one charset, while
other parts encode another charset, and so forth.  Usually, a file does
not toggle between more than two or three charsets.  The means to
distinguish which charsets are encoded at various places is not always
available.  The `recode' program is able to handle only a few simple
cases of mixed input.

   The default `recode' behaviour is to expect pure charset files, to
be recoded as other pure charset files.  However, the following options
allow for a few precise kinds of mixed charset files.

`-d'
`--diacritics'
     While converting to or from one of `HTML' or `LaTeX' charset,
     limit conversion to some subset of all characters.  For `HTML',
     limit conversion to the subset of all non-ASCII characters.  For
     `LaTeX', limit conversion to the subset of all non-English
     letters.  This is particularly useful, for example, when people
     create what would be valid `HTML', TeX or LaTeX files, if only
     they were using provided sequences for applying diacritics instead
     of using the diacriticised characters directly from the underlying
     character set.

     While converting to `HTML' or `LaTeX' charset, this option assumes
     that characters not in the said subset are properly coded or
     protected already, `recode' then transmit them literally.  While
     converting the other way, this option prevents translating back
     coded or protected versions of characters not in the said subset.
     *Note HTML::.  *Note LaTeX::.

`-S[LANGUAGE]'
`--source[=LANGUAGE]'
     The bulk of the input file is expected to be written in `ASCII',
     except for parts, like comments and string constants, which are
     written using another charset than `ASCII'.  When LANGUAGE is `c',
     the recoding will proceed only with the contents of comments or
     strings, while everything else will be copied without recoding.
     When LANGUAGE is `po', the recoding will proceed only within
     translator comments (those having whitespace immediately following
     the initial `#') and with the contents of `msgstr' strings.

     For the above things to work, the non-`ASCII' encoding of the
     comment or string should be such that an `ASCII' scan will
     successfully find where the comment or string ends.

     Even if `ASCII' is the usual charset for writing programs, some
     compilers are able to directly read other charsets, like `UTF-8',
     say.  There is currently no provision in `recode' for reading
     mixed charset sources which are not based on `ASCII'.  It is
     probable that the need for mixed recoding is not as pressing in
     such cases.

     For example, after one does:

          recode -Spo pc/..u8 < INPUT.po > OUTPUT.po

     file `OUTPUT.po' holds a copy of `INPUT.po' in which _only_
     translator comments and the contents of `msgstr' strings have been
     recoded from the `IBM-PC' charset to pure `UTF-8', without
     attempting conversion of end-of-lines.  Machine generated comments
     and original `msgid' strings are not to be touched by this
     recoding.

     If LANGUAGE is not specified, `c' is assumed.

File: recode.info,  Node: Emacs,  Next: Debugging,  Prev: Mixed,  Up: Invoking recode

Using `recode' within Emacs
===========================

   The fact `recode' is a filter makes it quite easy to use from within
GNU Emacs.  For example, recoding the whole buffer from the `IBM-PC'
charset to current charset (`Latin-1' on Unix) is easily done with:

     C-x h C-u M-| recode ibmpc RET

`C-x h' selects the whole buffer, and `C-u M-|' filters and replaces
the current region through the given shell command.  Here is another
example, binding the keys `C-c T' to the recoding of the current region
from Easy French to `Latin-1' (on Unix) and the key `C-u C-c T' from
`Latin-1' (on Unix) to Easy French:

     (global-set-key "\C-cT" 'recode-texte)

     (defun recode-texte (flag)
       (interactive "P")
       (shell-command-on-region
        (region-beginning) (region-end)
        (concat "recode " (if flag "..txte" "txte")) t)
       (exchange-point-and-mark))

File: recode.info,  Node: Debugging,  Prev: Emacs,  Up: Invoking recode

Debugging considerations
========================

   It is our experience that when `recode' does not provide satisfying
results, either `recode' was not called properly, correct results
raised some doubts nevertheless, or files to recode were somewhat
mangled.  Genuine bugs are surely possible.

   Unless you already are a `recode' expert, it might be a good idea to
quickly revisit the tutorial (*note Tutorial::) or the prior sections
in this chapter, to make sure that you properly formatted your recoding
request.  In the case you intended to use `recode' as a filter, make
sure that you did not forget to redirect your standard input (through
using the `<' symbol in the shell, say).  Some `recode' false mysteries
are also easily explained, *Note Reversibility::.

   For the other cases, some investigation is needed.  To illustrate
how to proceed, let's presume that you want to recode the `nicepage'
file, coded `UTF-8', into `HTML'.  The problem is that the command
`recode u8..h nicepage' yields:

     recode: Invalid input in step `UTF-8..ISO-10646-UCS-2'

   One good trick is to use `recode' in filter mode instead of in file
replacement mode, *Note Synopsis::.  Another good trick is to use the
`-v' option asking for a verbose description of the recoding steps.  We
could rewrite our recoding call as `recode -v u8..h <nicepage', to get
something like:

     Request: UTF-8..:libiconv:..ISO-10646-UCS-2..HTML_4.0
     Shrunk to: UTF-8..ISO-10646-UCS-2..HTML_4.0
     [...SOME OUTPUT...]
     recode: Invalid input in step `UTF-8..ISO-10646-UCS-2'

   This might help you to better understand what the diagnostic means.
The recoding request is achieved in two steps, the first recodes `UTF-8'
into `UCS-2', the second recodes `UCS-2' into `HTML'.  The problem
occurs within the first of these two steps, and since, the input of
this step is the input file given to `recode', this is this overall
input file which seems to be invalid.  Also, when used in filter mode,
`recode' processes as much input as possible before the error occurs
and sends the result of this processing to standard output.  Since the
standard output has not been redirected to a file, it is merely
displayed on the user screen.  By inspecting near the end of the
resulting `HTML' output, that is, what was recoding a bit before the
recoding was interrupted, you may infer about where the error stands in
the real `UTF-8' input file.

   If you have the proper tools to examine the intermediate recoding
data, you might also prefer to reduce the problem to a single step to
better study it.  This is what I usually do.  For example, the last
`recode' call above is more or less equivalent to:

     recode -v UTF-8..ISO_10646-UCS-2 <nicepage >temporary
     recode -v ISO_10646-UCS-2..HTML_4.0 <temporary
     rm temporary

   If you know that the problem is within the first step, you might
prefer to concentrate on using the first `recode' line.  If you know
that the problem is within the second step, you might execute the first
`recode' line once and for all, and then play with the second `recode'
call, repeatedly using the `temporary' file created once by the first
call.

   Note that the `-f' switch may be used to force the production of
`HTML' output despite invalid input, it might be satisfying enough for
you, and easier than repairing the input file.  That depends on how
strict you would like to be about the precision of the recoding process.

   If you later see that your HTML file begins with `@lt;html@gt;' when
you expected `<html>', then `recode' might have done a bit more that
you wanted.  In this case, your input file was half-`UTF-8',
half-`HTML' already, that is, a mixed file (*note Mixed::).  There is a
special `-d' switch for this case.  So, your might be end up calling
`recode -fd nicepage'.  Until you are quite sure that you accept
overwriting your input file whatever what, I recommend that you stick
with filter mode.

   If, after such experiments, you seriously think that the `recode'
program does not behave properly, there might be a genuine bug in the
program itself, in which case I invite you to to contribute a bug
report, *Note Contributing::.

File: recode.info,  Node: Library,  Next: Universal,  Prev: Invoking recode,  Up: Top

A recoding library
******************

   The program named `recode' is just an application of its recoding
library.  The recoding library is available separately for other C
programs.  A good way to acquire some familiarity with the recoding
library is to get acquainted with the `recode' program itself.

   To use the recoding library once it is installed, a C program needs
to have a line:

     #include <recode.h>

near its beginning, and the user should have `-lrecode' on the linking
call, so modules from the recoding library are found.

   The library is still under development.  As it stands, it contains
four identifiable sets of routines: the outer level functions, the
request level functions, the task level functions and the charset level
functions.  There are discussed in separate sections.

   For effectively using the recoding library in most applications, it
should be rarely needed to study anything beyond the main
initialisation function at outer level, and then, various functions at
request level.

* Menu:

* Outer level::         Outer level functions
* Request level::       Request level functions
* Task level::          Task level functions
* Charset level::       Charset level functions
* Errors::              Handling errors

File: recode.info,  Node: Outer level,  Next: Request level,  Prev: Library,  Up: Library

Outer level functions
=====================

   The outer level functions mainly prepare the whole recoding library
for use, or do actions which are unrelated to specific recodings.  Here
is an example of a program which does not really make anything useful.

     #include <stdbool.h>
     #include <recode.h>

     const char *program_name;

     int
     main (int argc, char *const *argv)
     {
       program_name = argv[0];
       RECODE_OUTER outer = recode_new_outer (true);

       recode_delete_outer (outer);
       exit (0);
     }

   The header file `<recode.h>' declares an opaque `RECODE_OUTER'
structure, which the programmer should use for allocating a variable in
his program (let's assume the programmer is a male, here, no prejudice
intended).  This `outer' variable is given as a first argument to all
outer level functions.

   The `<recode.h>' header file uses the Boolean type setup by the
system header file `<stdbool.h>'.  But this header file is still fairly
new in C standards, and likely does not exist everywhere.  If you
system does not offer this system header file yet, the proper
compilation of the `<recode.h>' file could be guaranteed through the
replacement of the inclusion line by:

     typedef enum {false = 0, true = 1} bool;

   People wanting wider portability, or Autoconf lovers, might arrange
their `configure.in' for being able to write something more general,
like:

     #if STDC_HEADERS
     # include <stdlib.h>
     #endif

     /* Some systems do not define EXIT_*, even with STDC_HEADERS.  */
     #ifndef EXIT_SUCCESS
     # define EXIT_SUCCESS 0
     #endif
     #ifndef EXIT_FAILURE
     # define EXIT_FAILURE 1
     #endif
     /* The following test is to work around the gross typo in systems like Sony
        NEWS-OS Release 4.0C, whereby EXIT_FAILURE is defined to 0, not 1.  */
     #if !EXIT_FAILURE
     # undef EXIT_FAILURE
     # define EXIT_FAILURE 1
     #endif

     #if HAVE_STDBOOL_H
     # include <stdbool.h>
     #else
     typedef enum {false = 0, true = 1} bool;
     #endif

     #include <recode.h>

     const char *program_name;

     int
     main (int argc, char *const *argv)
     {
       program_name = argv[0];
       RECODE_OUTER outer = recode_new_outer (true);

       recode_term_outer (outer);
       exit (EXIT_SUCCESS);
     }

but we will not insist on such details in the examples to come.

   * Initialisation functions

          RECODE_OUTER recode_new_outer (AUTO_ABORT);
          bool recode_delete_outer (OUTER);

     The recoding library absolutely needs to be initialised before
     being used, and `recode_new_outer' has to be called once, first.
     Besides the OUTER it is meant to initialise, the function accepts
     a Boolean argument whether or not the library should automatically
     issue diagnostics on standard and abort the whole program on
     errors.  When AUTO_ABORT is `true', the library later conveniently
     issues diagnostics itself, and aborts the calling program on
     errors.  This is merely a convenience, because if this parameter
     was `false', the calling program should always take care of
     checking the return value of all other calls to the recoding
     library functions, and when any error is detected, issue a
     diagnostic and abort processing itself.

     Regardless of the setting of AUTO_ABORT, all recoding library
     functions return a success status.  Most functions are geared for
     returning `false' for an error, and `true' if everything went fine.
     Functions returning structures or strings return `NULL' instead of
     the result, when the result cannot be produced.  If AUTO_ABORT is
     selected, functions either return `true', or do not return at all.

     As in the example above, `recode_new_outer' is called only once in
     most cases.  Calling `recode_new_outer' implies some overhead, so
     calling it more than once should preferably be avoided.

     The termination function `recode_delete_outer' reclaims the memory
     allocated by `recode_new_outer' for a given OUTER variable.
     Calling `recode_delete_outer' prior to program termination is more
     aesthetic then useful, as all memory resources are automatically
     reclaimed when the program ends.  You may spare this terminating
     call if you prefer.

   * The `program_name' declaration

     As we just explained, the user may set the `recode' library so
     that, in case of problems error, it issues the diagnostic itself
     and aborts the whole processing.  This capability may be quite
     convenient.  When this feature is used, the aborting routine
     includes the name of the running program in the diagnostic.  On
     the other hand, when this feature is not used, the library merely
     return error codes, giving the library user fuller control over
     all this.  This behaviour is more like what usual libraries do:
     they return codes and never abort.  However, I would rather not
     force library users to necessarily check all return codes
     themselves, by leaving no other choice.  In most simple
     applications, letting the library diagnose and abort is much
     easier, and quite welcome.  This is precisely because both
     possibilities exist that the `program_name' variable is needed: it
     may be used by the library _when_ the user sets it to diagnose
     itself.

File: recode.info,  Node: Request level,  Next: Task level,  Prev: Outer level,  Up: Library

Request level functions
=======================

   The request level functions are meant to cover most recoding needs
programmers may have; they should provide all usual functionality.
Their API is almost stable by now.  To get started with request level
functions, here is a full example of a program which sole job is to
filter `ibmpc' code on its standard input into `latin1' code on its
standard output.

     #include <stdio.h>
     #include <stdbool.h>
     #include <recode.h>

     const char *program_name;

     int
     main (int argc, char *const *argv)
     {
       program_name = argv[0];
       RECODE_OUTER outer = recode_new_outer (true);
       RECODE_REQUEST request = recode_new_request (outer);
       bool success;

       recode_scan_request (request, "ibmpc..latin1");

       success = recode_file_to_file (request, stdin, stdout);

       recode_delete_request (request);
       recode_delete_outer (outer);

       exit (success ? 0 : 1);
     }

   The header file `<recode.h>' declares a `RECODE_REQUEST' structure,
which the programmer should use for allocating a variable in his
program.  This REQUEST variable is given as a first argument to all
request level functions, and in most cases, may be considered as opaque.

   * Initialisation functions

          RECODE_REQUEST recode_new_request (OUTER);
          bool recode_delete_request (REQUEST);

     No REQUEST variable may not be used in other request level
     functions of the recoding library before having been initialised by
     `recode_new_request'.  There may be many such REQUEST variables,
     in which case, they are independent of one another and they all
     need to be initialised separately.  To avoid memory leaks, a
     REQUEST variable should not be initialised a second time without
     calling `recode_delete_request' to "un-initialise" it.

     Like for `recode_delete_outer', calling `recode_delete_request'
     prior to program termination, in the example above, may be left
     out.

   * Fields of `struct recode_request'

     Here are the fields of a `struct recode_request' which may be
     meaningfully changed, once a REQUEST has been initialised by
     `recode_new_request', but before it gets used.  It is not very
     frequent, in practice, that these fields need to be changed.  To
     access the fields, you need to include `recodext.h' _instead_ of
     `recode.h', in which case there also is a greater chance that you
     need to recompile your programs if a new version of the recoding
     library gets installed.

    `verbose_flag'
          This field is initially `false'.  When set to `true', the
          library will echo to stderr the sequence of elementary
          recoding steps needed to achieve the requested recoding.

    `diaeresis_char'
          This field is initially the ASCII value of a double quote `"',
          but it may also be the ASCII value of a colon `:'.  In `texte'
          charset, some countries use double quotes to mark diaeresis,
          while other countries prefer colons.  This field contains the
          diaeresis character for the `texte' charset.

    `make_header_flag'
          This field is initially `false'.  When set to `true', it
          indicates that the program is merely trying to produce a
          recoding table in source form rather than completing any
          actual recoding.  In such a case, the optimisation of step
          sequence can be attempted much more aggressively.  If the
          step sequence cannot be reduced to a single step, table
          production will fail.

    `diacritics_only'
          This field is initially `false'.  For `HTML' and `LaTeX'
          charset, it is often convenient to recode the diacriticized
          characters only, while just not recoding other HTML code
          using ampersands or angular brackets, or LaTeX code using
          backslashes.  Set the field to `true' for getting this
          behaviour.  In the other charset, one can edit text as well
          as HTML or LaTeX directives.

    `ascii_graphics'
          This field is initially `false', and relate to characters 176
          to 223 in the `ibmpc' charset, which are use to draw boxes.
          When set to `true', while getting out of `ibmpc', ASCII
          characters are selected so to graphically approximate these
          boxes.

   * Study of request strings

          bool recode_scan_request (REQUEST, "STRING");

     The main role of a REQUEST variable is to describe a set of
     recoding transformations.  Function `recode_scan_request' studies
     the given STRING, and stores an internal representation of it into
     REQUEST.  Note that STRING may be a full-fledged `recode' request,
     possibly including surfaces specifications, intermediary charsets,
     sequences, aliases or abbreviations (*note Requests::).

     The internal representation automatically receives some
     pre-conditioning and optimisation, so the REQUEST may then later
     be used many times to achieve many actual recodings.  It would not
     be efficient calling `recode_scan_request' many times with the
     same STRING, it is better having many REQUEST variables instead.

   * Actual recoding jobs

     Once the REQUEST variable holds the description of a recoding
     transformation, a few functions use it for achieving an actual
     recoding.  Either input or output of a recoding may be string, an
     in-memory buffer, or a file.

     Functions with names like `recode_INPUT-TYPE_to_OUTPUT-TYPE'
     request an actual recoding, and are described below.  It is easy
     to remember which arguments each function accepts, once grasped
     some simple principles for each possible TYPE.  However, one of
     the recoding function escapes these principles and is discussed
     separately, first.

          recode_string (REQUEST, STRING);

     The function `recode_string' recodes STRING according to REQUEST,
     and directly returns the resulting recoded string freshly
     allocated, or `NULL' if the recoding could not succeed for some
     reason.  When this function is used, it is the responsibility of
     the programmer to ensure that the memory used by the returned
     string is later reclaimed.

          char *recode_string_to_buffer (REQUEST,
            INPUT_STRING,
            &OUTPUT_BUFFER, &OUTPUT_LENGTH, &OUTPUT_ALLOCATED);
          bool recode_string_to_file (REQUEST,
            INPUT_FILE,
            OUTPUT_FILE);
          bool recode_buffer_to_buffer (REQUEST,
            INPUT_BUFFER, INPUT_LENGTH,
            &OUTPUT_BUFFER, &OUTPUT_LENGTH, &OUTPUT_ALLOCATED);
          bool recode_buffer_to_file (REQUEST,
            INPUT_BUFFER, INPUT_LENGTH,
            OUTPUT_FILE);
          bool recode_file_to_buffer (REQUEST,
            INPUT_FILE,
            &OUTPUT_BUFFER, &OUTPUT_LENGTH, &OUTPUT_ALLOCATED);
          bool recode_file_to_file (REQUEST,
            INPUT_FILE,
            OUTPUT_FILE);

     All these functions return a `bool' result, `false' meaning that
     the recoding was not successful, often because of reversibility
     issues.  The name of the function well indicates on which types it
     reads and which type it produces.  Let's discuss these three types
     in turn.

    string
          A string is merely an in-memory buffer which is terminated by
          a `NUL' character (using as many bytes as needed), instead of
          being described by a byte length.  For input, a pointer to
          the buffer is given through one argument.

          It is notable that there is no `to_string' functions.  Only
          one function recodes into a string, and it is
          `recode_string', which has already been discussed separately,
          above.

    buffer
          A buffer is a sequence of bytes held in computer memory.  For
          input, two arguments provide a pointer to the start of the
          buffer and its byte size.  Note that for charsets using many
          bytes per character, the size is given in bytes, not in
          characters.

          For output, three arguments provide the address of three
          variables, which will receive the buffer pointer, the used
          buffer size in bytes, and the allocated buffer size in bytes.
          If at the time of the call, the buffer pointer is `NULL',
          then the allocated buffer size should also be zero, and the
          buffer will be allocated afresh by the recoding functions.
          However, if the buffer pointer is not `NULL', it should be
          already allocated, the allocated buffer size then gives its
          size.  If the allocated size gets exceeded while the recoding
          goes, the buffer will be automatically reallocated bigger,
          probably elsewhere, and the allocated buffer size will be
          adjusted accordingly.

          The second variable, giving the in-memory buffer size, will
          receive the exact byte size which was needed for the
          recoding.  A `NUL' character is guaranteed at the end of the
          produced buffer, but is not counted in the byte size of the
          recoding.  Beyond that `NUL', there might be some extra space
          after the recoded data, extending to the allocated buffer
          size.

    file
          A file is a sequence of bytes held outside computer memory,
          but buffered through it.  For input, one argument provides a
          pointer to a file already opened for read.  The file is then
          read and recoded from its current position until the end of
          the file, effectively swallowing it in memory if the
          destination of the recoding is a buffer.  For reading a file
          filtered through the recoding library, but only a little bit
          at a time, one should rather use `recode_filter_open' and
          `recode_filter_close' (these two functions are not yet
          available).

          For output, one argument provides a pointer to a file already
          opened for write.  The result of the recoding is written to
          that file starting at its current position.

   The following special function is still subject to change:

     void recode_format_table (REQUEST, LANGUAGE, "NAME");

and is not documented anymore for now.

File: recode.info,  Node: Task level,  Next: Charset level,  Prev: Request level,  Up: Library

Task level functions
====================

   The task level functions are used internally by the request level
functions, they allow more explicit control over files and memory
buffers holding input and output to recoding processes.  The interface
specification of task level functions is still subject to change a bit.

   To get started with task level functions, here is a full example of a
program which sole job is to filter `ibmpc' code on its standard input
into `latin1' code on its standard output.  That is, this program has
the same goal as the one from the previous section, but does its things
a bit differently.

     #include <stdio.h>
     #include <stdbool.h>
     #include <recodext.h>

     const char *program_name;

     int
     main (int argc, char *const *argv)
     {
       program_name = argv[0];
       RECODE_OUTER outer = recode_new_outer (false);
       RECODE_REQUEST request = recode_new_request (outer);
       RECODE_TASK task;
       bool success;

       recode_scan_request (request, "ibmpc..latin1");

       task = recode_new_task (request);
       task->input.file = "";
       task->output.file = "";
       success = recode_perform_task (task);

       recode_delete_task (task);
       recode_delete_request (request);
       recode_delete_outer (outer);

       exit (success ? 0 : 1);
     }

   The header file `<recode.h>' declares a `RECODE_TASK' structure,
which the programmer should use for allocating a variable in his
program.  This `task' variable is given as a first argument to all task
level functions.  The programmer ought to change and possibly consult a
few fields in this structure, using special functions.

   * Initialisation functions

          RECODE_TASK recode_new_task (REQUEST);
          bool recode_delete_task (TASK);

     No TASK variable may be used in other task level functions of the
     recoding library without having first been initialised with
     `recode_new_task'.  There may be many such TASK variables, in
     which case, they are independent of one another and they all need
     to be initialised separately.  To avoid memory leaks, a TASK
     variable should not be initialised a second time without calling
     `recode_delete_task' to "un-initialise" it.  This function also
     accepts a REQUEST argument and associates the request to the task.
     In fact, a task is essentially a set of recoding transformations
     with the specification for its current input and its current
     output.

     The REQUEST variable may be scanned before or after the call to
     `recode_new_task', it does not matter so far.  Immediately after
     initialisation, before further changes, the TASK variable
     associates REQUEST empty in-memory buffers for both input and
     output.  The output buffer will later get allocated automatically
     on the fly, as needed, by various task processors.

     Even if a call to `recode_delete_task' is not strictly mandatory
     before ending the program, it is cleaner to always include it.
     Moreover, in some future version of the recoding library, it might
     become required.

   * Fields of `struct task_request'

     Here are the fields of a `struct task_request' which may be
     meaningfully changed, once a TASK has been initialised by
     `recode_new_task'.  In fact, fields are expected to change.  Once
     again, to access the fields, you need to include `recodext.h'
     _instead_ of `recode.h', in which case there also is a greater
     chance that you need to recompile your programs if a new version
     of the recoding library gets installed.

    `request'
          The field `request' points to the current recoding request,
          but may be changed as needed between recoding calls, for
          example when there is a need to achieve the construction of a
          resulting text made up of many pieces, each being recoded
          differently.

    `input.name'
    `input.file'
          If `input.name' is not `NULL' at start of a recoding, this is
          a request that a file by that name be first opened for
          reading and later automatically closed once the whole file
          has been read. If the file name is not `NULL' but an empty
          string, it means that standard input is to be used.  The
          opened file pointer is then held into `input.file'.

          If `input.name' is `NULL' and `input.file' is not, than
          `input.file' should point to a file already opened for read,
          which is meant to be recoded.

    `input.buffer'
    `input.cursor'
    `input.limit'
          When both `input.name' and `input.file' are `NULL', three
          pointers describe an in-memory buffer containing the text to
          be recoded.  The buffer extends from `input.buffer' to
          `input.limit', yet the text to be recoded only extends from
          `input.cursor' to `input.limit'.  In most situations,
          `input.cursor' starts with the value that `input.buffer' has.
          (Its value will internally advance as the recoding goes,
          until it reaches the value of `input.limit'.)

    `output.name'
    `output.file'
          If `output.name' is not `NULL' at start of a recoding, this
          is a request that a file by that name be opened for write and
          later automatically closed after the recoding is done.  If
          the file name is not `NULL' but an empty string, it means
          that standard output is to be used.  The opened file pointer
          is then held into `output.file'.  If several passes with
          intermediate files are needed to produce the recoding, the
          `output.name' file is opened only for the final pass.

          If `output.name' is `NULL' and `output.file' is not, then
          `output.file' should point to a file already opened for
          write, which will receive the result of the recoding.

    `output.buffer'
    `output.cursor'
    `output.limit'
          When both `output.name' and `output.file' are `NULL', three
          pointers describe an in-memory buffer meant to receive the
          text, once it is recoded.  The buffer is already allocated
          from `output.buffer' to `output.limit'.  In most situations,
          `output.cursor' starts with the value that `output.buffer'
          has.  Once the recoding is done, `output.cursor' will point
          at the next free byte in the buffer, just after the recoded
          text, so another recoding could be called without changing
          any of these three pointers, for appending new information to
          it.  The number of recoded bytes in the buffer is the
          difference between `output.cursor' and `output.buffer'.

          Each time `output.cursor' reaches `output.limit', the buffer
          is reallocated bigger, possibly at a different location in
          memory, always held up-to-date in `output.buffer'.  It is
          still possible to call a task level function with no output
          buffer at all to start with, in which case all three fields
          should have `NULL' as a value.  This is the situation
          immediately after a call to `recode_new_task'.

    `strategy'
          This field, which is of type `enum recode_sequence_strategy',
          tells how various recoding steps (passes) will be
          interconnected.  Its initial value is
          `RECODE_STRATEGY_UNDECIDED', which is a constant defined in
          the header file `<recodext.h>'.  Other possible values are:

         `RECODE_SEQUENCE_IN_MEMORY'
               Keep intermediate recodings in memory.

         `RECODE_SEQUENCE_WITH_FILES'
               Do not fork, use intermediate files.

         `RECODE_SEQUENCE_WITH_PIPE'
               Fork processes connected with `pipe(2)'.

          The best for now is to leave this field alone, and let the
          recoding library decide its strategy, as many combinations
          have not been tested yet.

    `byte_order_mark'
          This field, which is preset to `true', indicates that a byte
          order mark is to be expected at the beginning of any
          canonical `UCS-2' or `UTF-16' text, and that such a byte
          order mark should be also produced for these charsets.

    `fail_level'
          This field, which is of type `enum recode_error' (*note
          Errors::), sets the error level at which task level functions
          should report a failure.  If an error being detected is equal
          or greater than `fail_level', the function will eventually
          return `false' instead of `true'.  The preset value for this
          field is `RECODE_NOT_CANONICAL', that means that if not reset
          to another value, the library will report failure on _any_
          error.

    `abort_level'
          This field, which is of type `enum recode_error' (*note
          Errors::), sets the error level at which task level functions
          should immediately interrupt their processing.  If an error
          being detected is equal or greater than `abort_level', the
          function returns immediately, but the returned value (`true'
          or `false') is still is decided from the setting of
          `fail_level', not `abort_level'.  The preset value for this
          field is `RECODE_MAXIMUM_ERROR', that means that is not reset
          to another value, the library will never interrupt a recoding
          task.

    `error_so_far'
          This field, which is of type `enum recode_error' (*note
          Errors::), maintains the maximum error level met so far while
          the recoding task was proceeding.  The preset value is
          `RECODE_NO_ERROR'.

   * Task execution

          recode_perform_task (TASK);
          recode_filter_open (TASK, FILE);
          recode_filter_close (TASK);

     The function `recode_perform_task' reads as much input as possible,
     and recode all of it on prescribed output, given a properly
     initialised TASK.

     Functions `recode_filter_open' and `recode_filter_close' are only
     planned for now.  They are meant to read input in piecemeal ways.
     Even if functionality already exists informally in the library, it
     has not been made available yet through such interface functions.

File: recode.info,  Node: Charset level,  Next: Errors,  Prev: Task level,  Up: Library

Charset level functions
=======================

   Many functions are internal to the recoding library.  Some of them
have been made external and available, for the `recode' program had to
retain all its previous functionality while being transformed into a
mere application of the recoding library.  These functions are not
really documented here for the time being, as we hope that many of them
will vanish over time.  When this set of routines will stabilise, it
would be convenient to document them as an API for handling charset
names and contents.

     RECODE_CHARSET find_charset (NAME, CLEANING-TYPE);
     bool list_all_charsets (CHARSET);
     bool list_concise_charset (CHARSET, LIST-FORMAT);
     bool list_full_charset (CHARSET);

File: recode.info,  Node: Errors,  Prev: Charset level,  Up: Library

Handling errors
===============

   The `recode' program, while using the `recode' library, needs to
control whether recoding problems are reported or not, and then reflect
these in the exit status.  The program should also instruct the library
whether the recoding should be abruptly interrupted when an error is
met (so sparing processing when it is known in advance that a wrong
result would be discarded anyway), or if it should proceed nevertheless.
Here is how the library groups errors into levels, listed here in order
of increasing severity.

`RECODE_NO_ERROR'
     No error was met on previous library calls.

`RECODE_NOT_CANONICAL'
     The input text was using one of the many alternative codings for
     some phenomenon, but not the one `recode' would have canonically
     generated.  So, if the reverse recoding is later attempted, it
     would produce a text having the same _meaning_ as the original
     text, yet not being byte identical.

     For example, a `Base64' block in which end-of-lines appear
     elsewhere that at every 76 characters is not canonical.  An
     e-circumflex in TeX which is coded as `\^{e}' instead of `\^e' is
     not canonical.

`RECODE_AMBIGUOUS_OUTPUT'
     It has been discovered that if the reverse recoding was attempted
     on the text output by this recoding, we would not obtain the
     original text, only because an ambiguity was generated by accident
     in the output text.  This ambiguity would then cause the wrong
     interpretation to be taken.

     Here are a few examples.  If the `Latin-1' sequence `e^' is
     converted to Easy French and back, the result will be interpreted
     as e-circumflex and so, will not reflect the intent of the
     original two characters.  Recoding an `IBM-PC' text to `Latin-1'
     and back, where the input text contained an isolated `LF', will
     have a spurious `CR' inserted before the `LF'.

     Currently, there are many cases in the library where the
     production of ambiguous output is not properly detected, as it is
     sometimes a difficult problem to accomplish this detection, or to
     do it speedily.

`RECODE_UNTRANSLATABLE'
     One or more input character could not be recoded, because there is
     just no representation for this character in the output charset.

     Here are a few examples.  Non-strict mode often allows `recode' to
     compute on-the-fly mappings for unrepresentable characters, but
     strict mode prohibits such attribution of reversible translations:
     so strict mode might often trigger such an error.  Most `UCS-2'
     codes used to represent Asian characters cannot be expressed in
     various Latin charsets.

`RECODE_INVALID_INPUT'
     The input text does not comply with the coding it is declared to
     hold.  So, there is no way by which a reverse recoding would
     reproduce this text, because `recode' should never produce invalid
     output.

     Here are a few examples.  In strict mode, `ASCII' text is not
     allowed to contain characters with the eight bit set.  `UTF-8'
     encodings ought to be minimal(1).

`RECODE_SYSTEM_ERROR'
     The underlying system reported an error while the recoding was
     going on, likely an input/output error.  (This error symbol is
     currently unused in the library.)

`RECODE_USER_ERROR'
     The programmer or user requested something the recoding library is
     unable to provide, or used the API wrongly.  (This error symbol is
     currently unused in the library.)

`RECODE_INTERNAL_ERROR'
     Something really wrong, which should normally never happen, was
     detected within the recoding library.  This might be due to
     genuine bugs in the library, or maybe due to un-initialised or
     overwritten arguments to the API.  (This error symbol is currently
     unused in the library.)

`RECODE_MAXIMUM_ERROR'
     This error code should never be returned, it is only internally
     used as a sentinel for the list of all possible error codes.

   One should be able to set the error level threshold for returning
failure at end of recoding, and also the threshold for immediate
interruption.  If many errors occur while the recoding proceed, which
are not severe enough to interrupt the recoding, then the most severe
error is retained, while others are forgotten(2).  So, in case of an
error, the possible actions currently are:

   * do nothing and let go, returning success at end of recoding,

   * just let go for now, but return failure at end of recoding,

   * interrupt recoding right away and return failure now.

*Note Task level::, and particularly the description of the fields
`fail_level', `abort_level' and `error_so_far', for more information
about how errors are handled.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The minimality of an `UTF-8' encoding is guaranteed on output,
but currently, it is not checked on input.

   (2) Another approach would have been to define the level symbols as
masks instead, and to give masks to threshold setting routines, and to
retain all errors--yet I never met myself such a need in practice, and
so I fear it would be overkill.  On the other hand, it might be
interesting to maintain counters about how many times each kind of
error occurred.

File: recode.info,  Node: Universal,  Next: libiconv,  Prev: Library,  Up: Top

The universal charset
*********************

   Standard ISO 10646 defines a universal character set, intended to
encompass in the long run all languages written on this planet.  It is
based on wide characters, and offer possibilities for two billion
characters (2^31).

   This charset was to become available in `recode' under the name
`UCS', with many external surfaces for it.  But in the current version,
only surfaces of `UCS' are offered, each presented as a genuine charset
rather than a surface.  Such surfaces are only meaningful for the `UCS'
charset, so it is not that useful to draw a line between the surfaces
and the only charset to which they may apply.

   `UCS' stands for Universal Character Set.  `UCS-2' and `UCS-4' are
fixed length encodings, using two or four bytes per character
respectively.  `UTF' stands for `UCS' Transformation Format, and are
variable length encodings dedicated to `UCS'.  `UTF-1' was based on
ISO 2022, it did not succeed(1).  `UTF-2' replaced it, it has been
called `UTF-FSS' (File System Safe) in Unicode or Plan9 context, but is
better known today as `UTF-8'.  To complete the picture, there is
`UTF-16' based on 16 bits bytes, and `UTF-7' which is meant for
transmissions limited to 7-bit bytes.  Most often, one might see
`UTF-8' used for external storage, and `UCS-2' used for internal
storage.

   When `recode' is producing any representation of `UCS', it uses the
replacement character `U+FFFD' for any _valid_ character which is not
representable in the goal charset(2).  This happens, for example, when
`UCS-2' is not capable to echo a wide `UCS-4' character, or for a
similar reason, an `UTF-8' sequence using more than three bytes.  The
replacement character is meant to represent an existing character.  So,
it is never produced to represent an invalid sequence or ill-formed
character in the input text.  In such cases, `recode' just gets rid of
the noise, while taking note of the error in its usual ways.

   Even if `UTF-8' is an encoding, really, it is the encoding of a
single character set, and nothing else.  It is useful to distinguish
between an encoding (a _surface_ within `recode') and a charset, but
only when the surface may be applied to several charsets.  Specifying a
charset is a bit simpler than specifying a surface in a `recode'
request.  There would not be a practical advantage at imposing a more
complex syntax to `recode' users, when it is simple to assimilate
`UTF-8' to a charset.  Similar considerations apply for `UCS-2',
`UCS-4', `UTF-16' and `UTF-7'.  These are all considered to be charsets.

* Menu:

* UCS-2::               Universal Character Set, 2 bytes
* UCS-4::               Universal Character Set, 4 bytes
* UTF-7::               Universal Transformation Format, 7 bits
* UTF-8::               Universal Transformation Format, 8 bits
* UTF-16::              Universal Transformation Format, 16 bits
* count-characters::    Frequency count of characters
* dump-with-names::     Fully interpreted UCS dump

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) It is not probable that `recode' will ever support `UTF-1'.

   (2) This is when the goal charset allows for 16-bits.  For shorter
charsets, the `--strict' (`-s') option decides what happens: either the
character is dropped, or a reversible mapping is produced on the fly.

File: recode.info,  Node: UCS-2,  Next: UCS-4,  Prev: Universal,  Up: Universal

Universal Character Set, 2 bytes
================================

   One surface of `UCS' is usable for the subset defined by its first
sixty thousand characters (in fact, 31 * 2^11 codes), and uses exactly
two bytes per character.  It is a mere dump of the internal memory
representation which is _natural_ for this subset and as such, conveys
with it endianness problems.

   A non-empty `UCS-2' file normally begins with a so called "byte
order mark", having value `0xFEFF'.  The value `0xFFFE' is not an `UCS'
character, so if this value is seen at the beginning of a file,
`recode' reacts by swapping all pairs of bytes.  The library also
properly reacts to other occurrences of `0xFEFF' or `0xFFFE' elsewhere
than at the beginning, because concatenation of `UCS-2' files should
stay a simple matter, but it might trigger a diagnostic about non
canonical input.

   By default, when producing an `UCS-2' file, `recode' always outputs
the high order byte before the low order byte.  But this could be
easily overridden through the `21-Permutation' surface (*note
Permutations::).  For example, the command:

     recode u8..u2/21 < INPUT > OUTPUT

asks for an `UTF-8' to `UCS-2' conversion, with swapped byte output.

   Use `UCS-2' as a genuine charset.  This charset is available in
`recode' under the name `ISO-10646-UCS-2'.  Accepted aliases are
`UCS-2', `BMP', `rune' and `u2'.

   The `recode' library is able to combine `UCS-2' some sequences of
codes into single code characters, to represent a few diacriticized
characters, ligatures or diphtongs which have been included to ease
mapping with other existing charsets.  It is also able to explode such
single code characters into the corresponding sequence of codes.  The
request syntax for triggering such operations is rudimentary and
temporary.  The `combined-UCS-2' pseudo character set is a special form
of `UCS-2' in which known combinings have been replaced by the simpler
code.  Using `combined-UCS-2' instead of `UCS-2' in an _after_ position
of a request forces a combining step, while using `combined-UCS-2'
instead of `UCS-2' in a _before_ position of a request forces an
exploding step.  For the time being, one has to resort to advanced
request syntax to achieve other effects.  For example:

     recode u8..co,u2..u8 < INPUT > OUTPUT

copies an `UTF-8' INPUT over OUTPUT, still to be in `UTF-8', yet
merging combining characters into single codes whenever possible.

File: recode.info,  Node: UCS-4,  Next: UTF-7,  Prev: UCS-2,  Up: Universal

Universal Character Set, 4 bytes
================================

   Another surface of `UCS' uses exactly four bytes per character, and
is a mere dump of the internal memory representation which is _natural_
for the whole charset and as such, conveys with it endianness problems.

   Use it as a genuine charset.  This charset is available in `recode'
under the name `ISO-10646-UCS-4'.  Accepted aliases are `UCS', `UCS-4',
`ISO_10646', `10646' and `u4'.

File: recode.info,  Node: UTF-7,  Next: UTF-8,  Prev: UCS-4,  Up: Universal

Universal Transformation Format, 7 bits
=======================================

   `UTF-7' comes from IETF rather than ISO, and is described by
RFC 2152, in the MIME series.  The `UTF-7' encoding is meant to fit
`UCS-2' over channels limited to seven bits per byte.  It proceeds from
a mix between the spirit of `Quoted-Printable' and methods of `Base64',
adapted to Unicode contexts.

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name
`UNICODE-1-1-UTF-7'.  Accepted aliases are `UTF-7', `TF-7' and `u7'.

File: recode.info,  Node: UTF-8,  Next: UTF-16,  Prev: UTF-7,  Up: Universal

Universal Transformation Format, 8 bits
=======================================

   Even if `UTF-8' does not originally come from IETF, there is now
RFC 2279 to describe it.  In letters sent on 1995-01-21 and 1995-04-20,
Markus Kuhn writes:

     `UTF-8' is an `ASCII' compatible multi-byte encoding of the
     ISO 10646 universal character set (`UCS').  `UCS' is a 31-bit
     superset of all other character set standards.  The first 256
     characters of `UCS' are identical to those of ISO 8859-1
     (Latin-1).  The `UCS-2' encoding of UCS is a sequence of bigendian
     16-bit words, the `UCS-4' encoding is a sequence of bigendian
     32-bit words.  The `UCS-2' subset of ISO 10646 is also known as
     "Unicode".  As both `UCS-2' and `UCS-4' require heavy
     modifications to traditional `ASCII' oriented system designs (e.g.
     Unix), the `UTF-8' encoding has been designed for these
     applications.

     In `UTF-8', only `ASCII' characters are encoded using bytes below
     128.  All other non-ASCII characters are encoded as multi-byte
     sequences consisting only of bytes in the range 128-253.  This
     avoids critical bytes like `NUL' and `/' in `UTF-8' strings, which
     makes the `UTF-8' encoding suitable for being handled by the
     standard C string library and being used in Unix file names.
     Other properties include the preserved lexical sorting order and
     that `UTF-8' allows easy self-synchronisation of software
     receiving `UTF-8' strings.

   `UTF-8' is the most common external surface of `UCS', each character
uses from one to six bytes, and is able to encode all 2^31 characters
of the `UCS'.  It is implemented as a charset, with the following
properties:

   * Strict 7-bit `ASCII' is completely invariant under `UTF-8', and
     those are the only one-byte characters.  `UCS' values and `ASCII'
     values coincide.  No multi-byte characters ever contain bytes less
     than 128.  `NUL' _is_ `NUL'.  A multi-byte character always starts
     with a byte of 192 or more, and is always followed by a number of
     bytes between 128 to 191.  That means that you may read at random
     on disk or memory, and easily discover the start of the current,
     next or previous character.  You can count, skip or extract
     characters with this only knowledge.

   * If you read the first byte of a multi-byte character in binary, it
     contains many `1' bits in successions starting with the most
     significant one (from the left), at least two.  The length of this
     `1' sequence equals the byte size of the character.  All
     succeeding bytes start by `10'.  This is a lot of redundancy,
     making it fairly easy to guess that a file is valid `UTF-8', or to
     safely state that it is not.

   * In a multi-byte character, if you remove all leading `1' bits of
     the first byte of a multi-byte character, and the initial `10'
     bits of all remaining bytes (so keeping 6 bits per byte for
     those), the remaining bits concatenated are the UCS value.

These properties also have a few nice consequences:

   * Conversion to/from values is algorithmically simple, and
     reasonably speedy.

   * A sequence of N bytes can hold characters needing up to 2 + 5N
     bits in their `UCS' representation.  Here, N is a number between 1
     and 6.  So, `UTF-8' is most economical when mapping ASCII (1 byte),
     followed by `UCS-2' (1 to 3 bytes) and `UCS-4' (1 to 6 bytes).

   * The lexicographic sorting order of `UCS' strings is preserved.

   * Bytes with value 254 or 255 never appear, and because of that,
     these are sometimes used when escape mechanisms are needed.

   In some case, when little processing is done on a lot of strings,
one may choose for efficiency reasons to handle `UTF-8' strings
directly even if variable length, as it is easy to get start of
characters.  Character insertion or replacement might require moving
the remainder of the string in either direction.  In most cases, it is
faster and easier to convert from `UTF-8' to `UCS-2' or `UCS-4' prior
to processing.

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `UTF-8'.
Accepted aliases are `UTF-2', `UTF-FSS', `FSS_UTF', `TF-8' and `u8'.

File: recode.info,  Node: UTF-16,  Next: count-characters,  Prev: UTF-8,  Up: Universal

Universal Transformation Format, 16 bits
========================================

   Another external surface of `UCS' is also variable length, each
character using either two or four bytes.  It is usable for the subset
defined by the first million characters (17 * 2^16) of `UCS'.

   Martin J. Du"rst writes (to `comp.std.internat', on 1995-03-28):

     `UTF-16' is another method that reserves two times 1024 codepoints
     in Unicode and uses them to index around one million additional
     characters.  `UTF-16' is a little bit like former multibyte codes,
     but quite not so, as both the first and the second 16-bit code
     clearly show what they are.  The idea is that one million
     codepoints should be enough for all the rare Chinese ideograms and
     historical scripts that do not fit into the Base Multilingual
     Plane of ISO 10646 (with just about 63,000 positions available,
     now that 2,000 are gone).

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `UTF-16'.
Accepted aliases are `Unicode', `TF-16' and `u6'.

File: recode.info,  Node: count-characters,  Next: dump-with-names,  Prev: UTF-16,  Up: Universal

Frequency count of characters
=============================

   A device may be used to obtain a list of characters in a file, and
how many times each character appears.  Each count is followed by the
`UCS-2' value of the character and, when known, the RFC 1345 mnemonic
for that character.

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name
`count-characters'.

   This `count' feature has been implemented as a charset.  This may
change in some later version, as it would sometimes be convenient to
count original bytes, instead of their `UCS-2' equivalent.

File: recode.info,  Node: dump-with-names,  Prev: count-characters,  Up: Universal

Fully interpreted UCS dump
==========================

   Another device may be used to get fully interpreted dumps of an
`UCS-2' stream of characters, with one `UCS-2' character displayed on a
full output line.  Each line receives the RFC 1345 mnemonic for the
character if it exists, the `UCS-2' value of the character, and a
descriptive comment for that character.  As each input character
produces its own output line, beware that the output file from this
conversion may be much, much bigger than the input file.

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name
`dump-with-names'.

   This `dump-with-names' feature has been implemented as a charset
rather than a surface.  This is surely debatable.  The current
implementation allows for dumping charsets other than `UCS-2'.  For
example, the command `recode l2..full < INPUT' implies a necessary
conversion from `Latin-2' to `UCS-2', as `dump-with-names' is only
connected out from `UCS-2'.  In such cases, `recode' does not display
the original `Latin-2' codes in the dump, only the corresponding
`UCS-2' values.  To give a simpler example, the command

     echo 'Hello, world!' | recode us..dump

produces the following output:

     UCS2   Mne   Description

     0048   H     latin capital letter h
     0065   e     latin small letter e
     006C   l     latin small letter l
     006C   l     latin small letter l
     006F   o     latin small letter o
     002C   ,     comma
     0020   SP    space
     0077   w     latin small letter w
     006F   o     latin small letter o
     0072   r     latin small letter r
     006C   l     latin small letter l
     0064   d     latin small letter d
     0021   !     exclamation mark
     000A   LF    line feed (lf)

   The descriptive comment is given in English and `ASCII', yet if the
English description is not available but a French one is, then the
French description is given instead, using `Latin-1'.  However, if the
`LANGUAGE' or `LANG' environment variable begins with the letters `fr',
then listing preference goes to French when both descriptions are
available.

   Here is another example.  To get the long description of the code
237 in Latin-5 table, one may use the following command.

     echo -n 237 | recode l5/d..dump

If your `echo' does not grok `-n', use `echo 237\c' instead.  Here is
how to see what Unicode `U+03C6' means, while getting rid of the title
lines.

     echo -n 0x03C6 | recode u2/x2..dump | tail +3

File: recode.info,  Node: libiconv,  Next: Tabular,  Prev: Universal,  Up: Top

The `iconv' library
*******************

   The `recode' library itself contains most code and tables from the
portable `iconv' library, written by Bruno Haible.  In fact, many
capabilities of the `recode' library are duplicated because of this
merging, as the older `recode' and `iconv' libraries share many
charsets.  We discuss, here, the issues related to this duplication, and
other peculiarities specific to the `iconv' library.  The plan is to
remove duplications and better merge specificities, as `recode' evolves.

   As implemented, if a recoding request can be satisfied by the
`recode' library both with and without its `iconv' library part, it is
likely that the `iconv' library will be used.  To sort out if the
`iconv' is indeed used of not, just use the `-v' or `--verbose' option,
*note Recoding::.

   The `:libiconv:' charset represents a conceptual pivot charset
within the `iconv' part of the `recode' library (in fact, this pivot
exists, but is not directly reachable).  This charset has a mere `:' (a
colon) for an alias.  It is not allowed to recode from or to this
charset directly.  But when this charset is selected as an
intermediate, usually by automatic means, then the `iconv' part of the
`recode' library is called to handle the transformations.  By using an
`--ignore=:libiconv:' option on the `recode' call or equivalently, but
more simply, `-x:', `recode' is instructed to fully avoid this charset
as an intermediate, with the consequence that the `iconv' part of the
library is defeated.  Consider these two calls:

     recode l1..1250 < INPUT > OUTPUT
     recode -x: l1..1250 < INPUT > OUTPUT

Both should transform INPUT from `ISO-8859-1' to `CP1250' on OUTPUT.
The first call uses the `iconv' part of the library, while the second
call avoids it.  Whatever the path used, the results should normally be
identical.  However, there might be observable differences.  Most of
them might result from reversibility issues, as the `iconv' engine,
which the `recode' library directly uses for the time being, does not
address reversibility.  Even if much less likely, some differences
might result from slight errors in the tables used, such differences
should then be reported as bugs.

   Other irregularities might be seen in the area of error detection and
recovery.  The `recode' library usually tries to detect canonicity
errors in input, and production of ambiguous output, but the `iconv'
part of the library currently does not.  Input is always validated,
however.  The `recode' library may not always react properly when its
`iconv' part has no translation for a given character.

   Within a collection of names for a single charset, the `recode'
library distinguishes one of them as being the genuine charset name,
while the others are said to be aliases.  When `recode' lists all
charsets, for example with the `-l' or `--list' option, the list
integrates all `iconv' library charsets.  The selection of one of the
aliases as the genuine charset name is an artifact added by `recode',
it does not come from `iconv'.  Moreover, the `recode' library
dynamically resolves some conflicts when it initialises itself at
runtime.  This might explain some discrepancies in the table below, as
for what is the genuine charset name.

   * General character sets
    `US-ASCII'
          `ASCII', `ISO646-US', `ISO_646.IRV:1991', `ISO-IR-6',
          `ANSI_X3.4-1968', `CP367', `IBM367', `US', `csASCII' and
          `ISO646.1991-IRV' are aliases for this charset.

   * General multi-byte encodings
    `UTF-8'
          `UTF8' is an alias for this charset.

    `UCS-2'
          `ISO-10646-UCS-2' and `csUnicode' are aliases for this
          charset.

    `UCS-2BE'
          `UNICODEBIG', `UNICODE-1-1' and `csUnicode11' are aliases for
          this charset.

    `UCS-2LE'
          `UNICODELITTLE' is an alias for this charset.

    `UCS-4'
          `ISO-10646-UCS-4' and `csUCS4' are aliases for this charset.

    `UCS-4BE'

    `UCS-4LE'

    `UTF-16'

    `UTF-16BE'

    `UTF-16LE'

    `UTF-7'
          `UNICODE-1-1-UTF-7' and `csUnicode11UTF7' are aliases for
          this charset.

    `UCS-2-INTERNAL'

    `UCS-2-SWAPPED'

    `UCS-4-INTERNAL'

    `UCS-4-SWAPPED'

    `JAVA'
   * Standard 8-bit encodings
    `ISO-8859-1'
          `ISO_8859-1', `ISO_8859-1:1987', `ISO-IR-100', `CP819',
          `IBM819', `LATIN1', `L1', `csISOLatin1', `ISO8859-1' and
          `ISO8859_1' are aliases for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-2'
          `ISO_8859-2', `ISO_8859-2:1987', `ISO-IR-101', `LATIN2',
          `L2', `csISOLatin2', `ISO8859-2' and `ISO8859_2' are aliases
          for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-3'
          `ISO_8859-3', `ISO_8859-3:1988', `ISO-IR-109', `LATIN3',
          `L3', `csISOLatin3', `ISO8859-3' and `ISO8859_3' are aliases
          for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-4'
          `ISO_8859-4', `ISO_8859-4:1988', `ISO-IR-110', `LATIN4',
          `L4', `csISOLatin4', `ISO8859-4' and `ISO8859_4' are aliases
          for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-5'
          `ISO_8859-5', `ISO_8859-5:1988', `ISO-IR-144', `CYRILLIC',
          `csISOLatinCyrillic', `ISO8859-5' and `ISO8859_5' are aliases
          for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-6'
          `ISO_8859-6', `ISO_8859-6:1987', `ISO-IR-127', `ECMA-114',
          `ASMO-708', `ARABIC', `csISOLatinArabic', `ISO8859-6' and
          `ISO8859_6' are aliases for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-7'
          `ISO_8859-7', `ISO_8859-7:1987', `ISO-IR-126', `ECMA-118',
          `ELOT_928', `GREEK8', `GREEK', `csISOLatinGreek', `ISO8859-7'
          and `ISO8859_7' are aliases for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-8'
          `ISO_8859-8', `ISO_8859-8:1988', `ISO-IR-138', `HEBREW',
          `csISOLatinHebrew', `ISO8859-8' and `ISO8859_8' are aliases
          for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-9'
          `ISO_8859-9', `ISO_8859-9:1989', `ISO-IR-148', `LATIN5',
          `L5', `csISOLatin5', `ISO8859-9' and `ISO8859_9' are aliases
          for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-10'
          `ISO_8859-10', `ISO_8859-10:1992', `ISO-IR-157', `LATIN6',
          `L6', `csISOLatin6' and `ISO8859-10' are aliases for this
          charset.

    `ISO-8859-13'
          `ISO_8859-13', `ISO-IR-179', `LATIN7' and `L7' are aliases
          for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-14'
          `ISO_8859-14', `ISO_8859-14:1998', `ISO-IR-199', `LATIN8' and
          `L8' are aliases for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-15'
          `ISO_8859-15', `ISO_8859-15:1998' and `ISO-IR-203' are
          aliases for this charset.

    `ISO-8859-16'
          `ISO_8859-16', `ISO_8859-16:2000' and `ISO-IR-226' are
          aliases for this charset.

    `KOI8-R'
          `csKOI8R' is an alias for this charset.

    `KOI8-U'

    `KOI8-RU'
   * Windows 8-bit encodings
    `CP1250'
          `WINDOWS-1250' and `MS-EE' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP1251'
          `WINDOWS-1251' and `MS-CYRL' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP1252'
          `WINDOWS-1252' and `MS-ANSI' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP1253'
          `WINDOWS-1253' and `MS-GREEK' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP1254'
          `WINDOWS-1254' and `MS-TURK' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP1255'
          `WINDOWS-1255' and `MS-HEBR' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP1256'
          `WINDOWS-1256' and `MS-ARAB' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP1257'
          `WINDOWS-1257' and `WINBALTRIM' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP1258'
          `WINDOWS-1258' is an alias for this charset.

   * DOS 8-bit encodings
    `CP850'
          `IBM850', `850' and `csPC850Multilingual' are aliases for
          this charset.

    `CP866'
          `IBM866', `866' and `csIBM866' are aliases for this charset.

   * Macintosh 8-bit encodings
    `MacRoman'
          `Macintosh', `MAC' and `csMacintosh' are aliases for this
          charset.

    `MacCentralEurope'

    `MacIceland'

    `MacCroatian'

    `MacRomania'

    `MacCyrillic'

    `MacUkraine'

    `MacGreek'

    `MacTurkish'

    `MacHebrew'

    `MacArabic'

    `MacThai'
   * Other platform specific 8-bit encodings
    `HP-ROMAN8'
          `ROMAN8', `R8' and `csHPRoman8' are aliases for this charset.

    `NEXTSTEP'
   * Regional 8-bit encodings used for a single language
    `ARMSCII-8'

    `Georgian-Academy'

    `Georgian-PS'

    `MuleLao-1'

    `CP1133'
          `IBM-CP1133' is an alias for this charset.

    `TIS-620'
          `TIS620', `TIS620-0', `TIS620.2529-1', `TIS620.2533-0',
          `TIS620.2533-1' and `ISO-IR-166' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP874'
          `WINDOWS-874' is an alias for this charset.

    `VISCII'
          `VISCII1.1-1' and `csVISCII' are aliases for this charset.

    `TCVN'
          `TCVN-5712', `TCVN5712-1' and `TCVN5712-1:1993' are aliases
          for this charset.

   * CJK character sets (not documented)
    `JIS_C6220-1969-RO'
          `ISO646-JP', `ISO-IR-14', `JP' and `csISO14JISC6220ro' are
          aliases for this charset.

    `JIS_X0201'
          `JISX0201-1976', `X0201', `csHalfWidthKatakana',
          `JISX0201.1976-0' and `JIS0201' are aliases for this charset.

    `JIS_X0208'
          `JIS_X0208-1983', `JIS_X0208-1990', `JIS0208', `X0208',
          `ISO-IR-87', `csISO87JISX0208', `JISX0208.1983-0',
          `JISX0208.1990-0' and `JIS0208' are aliases for this charset.

    `JIS_X0212'
          `JIS_X0212.1990-0', `JIS_X0212-1990', `X0212', `ISO-IR-159',
          `csISO159JISX02121990', `JISX0212.1990-0' and `JIS0212' are
          aliases for this charset.

    `GB_1988-80'
          `ISO646-CN', `ISO-IR-57', `CN' and `csISO57GB1988' are
          aliases for this charset.

    `GB_2312-80'
          `ISO-IR-58', `csISO58GB231280', `CHINESE' and `GB2312.1980-0'
          are aliases for this charset.

    `ISO-IR-165'
          `CN-GB-ISOIR165' is an alias for this charset.

    `KSC_5601'
          `KS_C_5601-1987', `KS_C_5601-1989', `ISO-IR-149',
          `csKSC56011987', `KOREAN', `KSC5601.1987-0' and
          `KSX1001:1992' are aliases for this charset.

   * CJK encodings
    `EUC-JP'
          `EUCJP', `Extended_UNIX_Code_Packed_Format_for_Japanese',
          `csEUCPkdFmtJapanese' and `EUC_JP' are aliases for this
          charset.

    `SJIS'
          `SHIFT_JIS', `SHIFT-JIS', `MS_KANJI' and `csShiftJIS' are
          aliases for this charset.

    `CP932'

    `ISO-2022-JP'
          `csISO2022JP' and `ISO2022JP' are aliases for this charset.

    `ISO-2022-JP-1'

    `ISO-2022-JP-2'
          `csISO2022JP2' is an alias for this charset.

    `EUC-CN'
          `EUCCN', `GB2312', `CN-GB', `csGB2312' and `EUC_CN' are
          aliases for this charset.

    `GBK'
          `CP936' is an alias for this charset.

    `GB18030'

    `ISO-2022-CN'
          `csISO2022CN' and `ISO2022CN' are aliases for this charset.

    `ISO-2022-CN-EXT'

    `HZ'
          `HZ-GB-2312' is an alias for this charset.

    `EUC-TW'
          `EUCTW', `csEUCTW' and `EUC_TW' are aliases for this charset.

    `BIG5'
          `BIG-5', `BIG-FIVE', `BIGFIVE', `CN-BIG5' and `csBig5' are
          aliases for this charset.

    `CP950'

    `BIG5HKSCS'

    `EUC-KR'
          `EUCKR', `csEUCKR' and `EUC_KR' are aliases for this charset.

    `CP949'
          `UHC' is an alias for this charset.

    `JOHAB'
          `CP1361' is an alias for this charset.

    `ISO-2022-KR'
          `csISO2022KR' and `ISO2022KR' are aliases for this charset.

    `CHAR'

    `WCHAR_T'

File: recode.info,  Node: Tabular,  Next: ASCII misc,  Prev: libiconv,  Up: Top

Tabular sources (RFC 1345)
**************************

   An important part of the tabular charset knowledge in `recode' comes
from RFC 1345 or, alternatively, from the `chset' tools, both
maintained by Keld Simonsen.  The RFC 1345 document:

     "Character Mnemonics & Character Sets", K. Simonsen, Request for
     Comments no. 1345, Network Working Group, June 1992.

defines many character mnemonics and character sets.  The `recode'
library implements most of RFC 1345, however:

   * It does not recognise those charsets which overload character
     positions: `dk-us' and `us-dk'.  However, *Note Mixed::.

   * It does not recognise those charsets which combine two characters
     for representing a third: `ANSI_X3.110-1983', `ISO_6937-2-add',
     `T.101-G2', `T.61-8bit', `iso-ir-90' and `videotex-suppl'.

   * It does not recognise 16-bits charsets: `GB_2312-80',
     `JIS_C6226-1978', `JIS_C6226-1983', `JIS_X0212-1990' and
     `KS_C_5601-1987'.

   * It interprets the charset `isoir91' as `NATS-DANO' (alias
     `iso-ir-9-1'), _not_ as `JIS_C6229-1984-a' (alias `iso-ir-91').
     It also interprets the charset `isoir92' as `NATS-DANO-ADD' (alias
     `iso-ir-9-2'), _not_ as `JIS_C6229-1984-b' (alias `iso-ir-92').
     It might be better just avoiding these two alias names.

   Keld Simonsen <keldATdkuug.dk> did most of RFC 1345 himself, with
some funding from Danish Standards and Nordic standards (INSTA) project.
He also did the character set design work, with substantial input from
Olle Jaernefors.  Keld typed in almost all of the tables, some have been
contributed.  A number of people have checked the tables in various
ways.  The RFC lists a number of people who helped.

   Keld and the `recode' maintainer have an arrangement by which any new
discovered information submitted by `recode' users, about tabular
charsets, is forwarded to Keld, eventually merged into Keld's work, and
only then, reimported into `recode'.  Neither the `recode' program nor
its library try to compete, nor even establish themselves as an
alternate or diverging reference: RFC 1345 and its new drafts stay the
genuine source for most tabular information conveyed by `recode'.  Keld
has been more than collaborative so far, so there is no reason that we
act otherwise.  In a word, `recode' should be perceived as the
application of external references, but not as a reference in itself.

   Internally, RFC 1345 associates which each character an unambiguous
mnemonic of a few characters, taken from ISO 646, which is a minimal
ASCII subset of 83 characters.  The charset made up by these mnemonics
is available in `recode' under the name `RFC1345'.  It has `mnemonic'
and `1345' for aliases.  As implemened, this charset exactly
corresponds to `mnemonic+ascii+38', using RFC 1345 nomenclature.
Roughly said, ISO 646 characters represent themselves, except for the
ampersand (`&') which appears doubled.  A prefix of a single ampersand
introduces a mnemonic.  For mnemonics using two characters, the prefix
is immediately by the mnemonic.  For longer mnemonics, the prefix is
followed by an underline (`_'), the mmemonic, and another underline.
Conversions to this charset are usually reversible.

   Currently, `recode' does not offer any of the many other possible
variations of this family of representations.  They will likely be
implemented in some future version, however.

`ANSI_X3.4-1968'
     `367', `ANSI_X3.4-1986', `ASCII', `CP367', `IBM367', `ISO646-US',
     `ISO_646.irv:1991', `US-ASCII', `iso-ir-6' and `us' are aliases
     for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ASMO_449'
     `ISO_9036', `arabic7' and `iso-ir-89' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`BS_4730'
     `ISO646-GB', `gb', `iso-ir-4' and `uk' are aliases for this
     charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`BS_viewdata'
     `iso-ir-47' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`CP1250'
     `1250', `ms-ee' and `windows-1250' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`CP1251'
     `1251', `ms-cyrl' and `windows-1251' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`CP1252'
     `1252', `ms-ansi' and `windows-1252' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`CP1253'
     `1253', `ms-greek' and `windows-1253' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`CP1254'
     `1254', `ms-turk' and `windows-1254' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`CP1255'
     `1255', `ms-hebr' and `windows-1255' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`CP1256'
     `1256', `ms-arab' and `windows-1256' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`CP1257'
     `1257', `WinBaltRim' and `windows-1257' are aliases for this
     charset.  Source: CEN/TC304 N283.

`CSA_Z243.4-1985-1'
     `ISO646-CA', `ca', `csa7-1' and `iso-ir-121' are aliases for this
     charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`CSA_Z243.4-1985-2'
     `ISO646-CA2', `csa7-2' and `iso-ir-122' are aliases for this
     charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`CSA_Z243.4-1985-gr'
     `iso-ir-123' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`CSN_369103'
     `KOI-8_L2', `iso-ir-139' and `koi8l2' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`CWI'
     `CWI-2' and `cp-hu' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     Computerworld Sza'mita'stechnika vol 3 issue 13 1988-06-29.

`DEC-MCS'
     `dec' is an alias for this charset.  VAX/VMS User's Manual, Order
     Number: AI-Y517A-TE, April 1986.

`DIN_66003'
     `ISO646-DE', `de' and `iso-ir-21' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`DS_2089'
     `DS2089', `ISO646-DK' and `dk' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: Danish Standard, DS 2089, February 1974.

`EBCDIC-AT-DE'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-AT-DE-A'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-CA-FR'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-DK-NO'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-DK-NO-A'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-ES'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-ES-A'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-ES-S'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-FI-SE'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-FI-SE-A'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-FR'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-IS-FRISS'
     `friss' is an alias for this charset.  Source: Skyrsuvelar
     Rikisins og Reykjavikurborgar, feb 1982.

`EBCDIC-IT'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-PT'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-UK'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`EBCDIC-US'
     Source: IBM 3270 Char Set Ref Ch 10, GA27-2837-9, April 1987.

`ECMA-cyrillic'
     `ECMA-113', `ECMA-113:1986' and `iso-ir-111' are aliases for this
     charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ES'
     `ISO646-ES' and `iso-ir-17' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     ISO 2375 registry.

`ES2'
     `ISO646-ES2' and `iso-ir-85' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`GB_1988-80'
     `ISO646-CN', `cn' and `iso-ir-57' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`GOST_19768-87'
     `ST_SEV_358-88' and `iso-ir-153' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`IBM037'
     `037', `CP037', `ebcdic-cp-ca', `ebcdic-cp-nl', `ebcdic-cp-us' and
     `ebcdic-cp-wt' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS RM
     Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM038'
     `038', `CP038' and `EBCDIC-INT' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990.

`IBM1004'
     `1004', `CP1004' and `os2latin1' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: CEN/TC304 N283, 1994-02-04.

`IBM1026'
     `1026' and `CP1026' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM1047'
     `1047' and `CP1047' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM
     Character Data Representation Architecture.  Registry SC09-1391-00
     p 150.

`IBM256'
     `256', `CP256' and `EBCDIC-INT1' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM Registry C-H 3-3220-050.

`IBM273'
     `273' and `CP273' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM274'
     `274', `CP274' and `EBCDIC-BE' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990.

`IBM275'
     `275', `CP275' and `EBCDIC-BR' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM277'
     `EBCDIC-CP-DK' and `EBCDIC-CP-NO' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM278'
     `278', `CP278', `ebcdic-cp-fi' and `ebcdic-cp-se' are aliases for
     this charset.  Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM280'
     `280', `CP280' and `ebcdic-cp-it' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM281'
     `281', `CP281' and `EBCDIC-JP-E' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990.

`IBM284'
     `284', `CP284' and `ebcdic-cp-es' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM285'
     `285', `CP285' and `ebcdic-cp-gb' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM290'
     `290', `CP290' and `EBCDIC-JP-kana' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990.

`IBM297'
     `297', `CP297' and `ebcdic-cp-fr' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM420'
     `420', `CP420' and `ebcdic-cp-ar1' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.  IBM NLS RM p
     11-11.

`IBM423'
     `423', `CP423' and `ebcdic-cp-gr' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM424'
     `424', `CP424' and `ebcdic-cp-he' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM437'
     `437' and `CP437' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM500'
     `500', `500V1', `CP500', `ebcdic-cp-be' and `ebcdic-cp-ch' are
     aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01,
     March 1990.

`IBM850'
     `850' and `CP850' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.  Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`IBM851'
     `851' and `CP851' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM852'
     `852', `CP852', `pcl2' and `pclatin2' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM855'
     `855' and `CP855' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM857'
     `857' and `CP857' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM860'
     `860' and `CP860' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM861'
     `861', `CP861' and `cp-is' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM862'
     `862' and `CP862' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM863'
     `863' and `CP863' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM
     Keyboard layouts and code pages, PN 07G4586 June 1991.

`IBM864'
     `864' and `CP864' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM
     Keyboard layouts and code pages, PN 07G4586 June 1991.

`IBM865'
     `865' and `CP865' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM DOS
     3.3 Ref (Abridged), 94X9575 (Feb 1987).

`IBM868'
     `868', `CP868' and `cp-ar' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM869'
     `869', `CP869' and `cp-gr' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     IBM Keyboard layouts and code pages, PN 07G4586 June 1991.

`IBM870'
     `870', `CP870', `ebcdic-cp-roece' and `ebcdic-cp-yu' are aliases
     for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March
     1990.

`IBM871'
     `871', `CP871' and `ebcdic-cp-is' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM875'
     `875', `CP875' and `EBCDIC-Greek' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: UNICODE 1.0.

`IBM880'
     `880', `CP880' and `EBCDIC-Cyrillic' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM891'
     `891' and `CP891' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM903'
     `903' and `CP903' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM904'
     `904' and `CP904' are aliases for this charset.  Source: IBM NLS
     RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IBM905'
     `905', `CP905' and `ebcdic-cp-tr' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM 3174 Character Set Ref, GA27-3831-02, March 1990.

`IBM918'
     `918', `CP918' and `ebcdic-cp-ar2' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: IBM NLS RM Vol2 SE09-8002-01, March 1990.

`IEC_P27-1'
     `iso-ir-143' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`INIS'
     `iso-ir-49' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`INIS-8'
     `iso-ir-50' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`INIS-cyrillic'
     `iso-ir-51' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`INVARIANT'
     `iso-ir-170' is an alias for this charset.

`ISO-8859-1'
     `819', `CP819', `IBM819', `ISO8859-1', `ISO_8859-1',
     `ISO_8859-1:1987', `iso-ir-100', `l1' and `latin1' are aliases for
     this charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO-8859-10'
     `ISO8859-10', `ISO_8859-10', `ISO_8859-10:1993', `L6',
     `iso-ir-157' and `latin6' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO-8859-13'
     `ISO8859-13', `ISO_8859-13', `ISO_8859-13:1998', `iso-baltic',
     `iso-ir-179a', `l7' and `latin7' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO-8859-14'
     `ISO8859-14', `ISO_8859-14', `ISO_8859-14:1998', `iso-celtic',
     `iso-ir-199', `l8' and `latin8' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO-8859-15'
     `ISO8859-15', `ISO_8859-15', `ISO_8859-15:1998', `iso-ir-203',
     `l9' and `latin9' are aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO-8859-2'
     `912', `CP912', `IBM912', `ISO8859-2', `ISO_8859-2',
     `ISO_8859-2:1987', `iso-ir-101', `l2' and `latin2' are aliases for
     this charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO-8859-3'
     `ISO8859-3', `ISO_8859-3', `ISO_8859-3:1988', `iso-ir-109', `l3'
     and `latin3' are aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO-8859-4'
     `ISO8859-4', `ISO_8859-4', `ISO_8859-4:1988', `iso-ir-110', `l4'
     and `latin4' are aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO-8859-5'
     `ISO8859-5', `ISO_8859-5', `ISO_8859-5:1988', `cyrillic' and
     `iso-ir-144' are aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO-8859-6'
     `ASMO-708', `ECMA-114', `ISO8859-6', `ISO_8859-6',
     `ISO_8859-6:1987', `arabic' and `iso-ir-127' are aliases for this
     charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO-8859-7'
     `ECMA-118', `ELOT_928', `ISO8859-7', `ISO_8859-7',
     `ISO_8859-7:1987', `greek', `greek8' and `iso-ir-126' are aliases
     for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO-8859-8'
     `ISO8859-8', `ISO_8859-8', `ISO_8859-8:1988', `hebrew' and
     `iso-ir-138' are aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO-8859-9'
     `ISO8859-9', `ISO_8859-9', `ISO_8859-9:1989', `iso-ir-148', `l5'
     and `latin5' are aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO_10367-box'
     `iso-ir-155' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO_2033-1983'
     `e13b' and `iso-ir-98' are aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO
     2375 registry.

`ISO_5427'
     `iso-ir-37' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO_5427-ext'
     `ISO_5427:1981' and `iso-ir-54' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO_5428'
     `ISO_5428:1980' and `iso-ir-55' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO_646.basic'
     `ISO_646.basic:1983' and `ref' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO_646.irv'
     `ISO_646.irv:1983', `irv' and `iso-ir-2' are aliases for this
     charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`ISO_6937-2-25'
     `iso-ir-152' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`ISO_8859-supp'
     `iso-ir-154' and `latin1-2-5' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`IT'
     `ISO646-IT' and `iso-ir-15' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     ISO 2375 registry.

`JIS_C6220-1969-jp'
     `JIS_C6220-1969', `iso-ir-13', `katakana' and `x0201-7' are
     aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`JIS_C6220-1969-ro'
     `ISO646-JP', `iso-ir-14' and `jp' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`JIS_C6229-1984-a'
     `jp-ocr-a' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`JIS_C6229-1984-b'
     `ISO646-JP-OCR-B' and `jp-ocr-b' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`JIS_C6229-1984-b-add'
     `iso-ir-93' and `jp-ocr-b-add' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`JIS_C6229-1984-hand'
     `iso-ir-94' and `jp-ocr-hand' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`JIS_C6229-1984-hand-add'
     `iso-ir-95' and `jp-ocr-hand-add' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`JIS_C6229-1984-kana'
     `iso-ir-96' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`JIS_X0201'
     `X0201' is an alias for this charset.

`JUS_I.B1.002'
     `ISO646-YU', `iso-ir-141', `js' and `yu' are aliases for this
     charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`JUS_I.B1.003-mac'
     `iso-ir-147' and `macedonian' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`JUS_I.B1.003-serb'
     `iso-ir-146' and `serbian' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     ISO 2375 registry.

`KOI-7'
     Source: Andrey A. Chernov <acheATnagual.ru>.

`KOI-8'
     `GOST_19768-74' is an alias for this charset.  Source: Andrey A.
     Chernov <acheATnagual.ru>.

`KOI8-R'
     Source: RFC1489 via Gabor Kiss <kissgATsztaki.hu>.  And Andrey A.
     Chernov <acheATnagual.ru>.

`KOI8-RU'
     Source: http://cad.ntu-kpi.kiev.ua/multiling/koi8-ru/.

`KOI8-U'
     Source: RFC 2319.  Mibenum: 2088.  Source:
     http://www.net.ua/KOI8-U/.

`KSC5636'
     `ISO646-KR' is an alias for this charset.

`Latin-greek-1'
     `iso-ir-27' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`MSZ_7795.3'
     `ISO646-HU', `hu' and `iso-ir-86' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`NATS-DANO'
     `iso-ir-9-1' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`NATS-DANO-ADD'
     `iso-ir-9-2' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`NATS-SEFI'
     `iso-ir-8-1' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`NATS-SEFI-ADD'
     `iso-ir-8-2' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`NC_NC00-10'
     `ISO646-CU', `NC_NC00-10:81', `cuba' and `iso-ir-151' are aliases
     for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`NF_Z_62-010'
     `ISO646-FR', `fr' and `iso-ir-69' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`NF_Z_62-010_(1973)'
     `ISO646-FR1' and `iso-ir-25' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`NS_4551-1'
     `ISO646-NO', `iso-ir-60' and `no' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`NS_4551-2'
     `ISO646-NO2', `iso-ir-61' and `no2' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`NeXTSTEP'
     `next' is an alias for this charset.  Source: Peter Svanberg -
     psvATnada.se.

`PT'
     `ISO646-PT' and `iso-ir-16' are aliases for this charset.  Source:
     ISO 2375 registry.

`PT2'
     `ISO646-PT2' and `iso-ir-84' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`SEN_850200_B'
     `FI', `ISO646-FI', `ISO646-SE', `SS636127', `iso-ir-10' and `se'
     are aliases for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`SEN_850200_C'
     `ISO646-SE2', `iso-ir-11' and `se2' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

`T.61-7bit'
     `iso-ir-102' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`baltic'
     `iso-ir-179' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.  &g1esc x2d56 &g2esc x2e56 &g3esc x2f56.

`greek-ccitt'
     `iso-ir-150' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`greek7'
     `iso-ir-88' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`greek7-old'
     `iso-ir-18' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`hp-roman8'
     `r8' and `roman8' are aliases for this charset.  Source: LaserJet
     IIP Printer User's Manual,.  HP part no 33471-90901,
     Hewlet-Packard, June 1989.

`latin-greek'
     `iso-ir-19' is an alias for this charset.  Source: ISO 2375
     registry.

`mac-is'

`macintosh'
     `mac' is an alias for this charset.  Source: The Unicode Standard
     ver 1.0, ISBN 0-201-56788-1, Oct 1991.

`macintosh_ce'
     `macce' is an alias for this charset.  Source: Macintosh CE fonts.

`sami'
     `iso-ir-158', `lap' and `latin-lap' are aliases for this charset.
     Source: ISO 2375 registry.

File: recode.info,  Node: ASCII misc,  Next: IBM and MS,  Prev: Tabular,  Up: Top

ASCII and some derivatives
**************************

* Menu:

* ASCII::               Usual ASCII
* ISO 8859::            ASCII extended by Latin Alphabets
* ASCII-BS::            ASCII 7-bits, BS to overstrike
* flat::                ASCII without diacritics nor underline

File: recode.info,  Node: ASCII,  Next: ISO 8859,  Prev: ASCII misc,  Up: ASCII misc

Usual ASCII
===========

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `ASCII'.  In
fact, it's true name is `ANSI_X3.4-1968' as per RFC 1345, accepted
aliases being `ANSI_X3.4-1986', `ASCII', `IBM367', `ISO646-US',
`ISO_646.irv:1991', `US-ASCII', `cp367', `iso-ir-6' and `us'.  The
shortest way of specifying it in `recode' is `us'.

   This documentation used to include ASCII tables.  They have been
removed since the `recode' program can now recreate these easily:

     recode -lf us                   for commented ASCII
     recode -ld us                   for concise decimal table
     recode -lo us                   for concise octal table
     recode -lh us                   for concise hexadecimal table

File: recode.info,  Node: ISO 8859,  Next: ASCII-BS,  Prev: ASCII,  Up: ASCII misc

ASCII extended by Latin Alphabets
=================================

   There are many Latin charsets.  The following has been written by Tim
Lasko <laskoATvideo.com>, a long while ago:

     ISO Latin-1, or more completely ISO Latin Alphabet No 1, is now an
     international standard as of February 1987 (IS 8859, Part 1).  For
     those American USEnet'rs that care, the 8-bit ASCII standard,
     which is essentially the same code, is going through the final
     administrative processes prior to publication.  ISO Latin-1 (IS
     8859/1) is actually one of an entire family of eight-bit one-byte
     character sets, all having ASCII on the left hand side, and with
     varying repertoires on the right hand side:

        * Latin Alphabet No 1 (caters to Western Europe - now approved).

        * Latin Alphabet No 2 (caters to Eastern Europe - now approved).

        * Latin Alphabet No 3 (caters to SE Europe + others - in draft
          ballot).

        * Latin Alphabet No 4 (caters to Northern Europe - in draft
          ballot).

        * Latin-Cyrillic alphabet (right half all Cyrillic - processing
          currently suspended pending USSR input).

        * Latin-Arabic alphabet (right half all Arabic - now approved).

        * Latin-Greek alphabet (right half Greek + symbols - in draft
          ballot).

        * Latin-Hebrew alphabet (right half Hebrew + symbols -
          proposed).

   The ISO Latin Alphabet 1 is available as a charset in `recode' under
the name `Latin-1'.  In fact, it's true name is `ISO_8859-1:1987' as
per RFC 1345, accepted aliases being `CP819', `IBM819', `ISO-8859-1',
`ISO_8859-1', `iso-ir-100', `l1' and `Latin-1'.  The shortest way of
specifying it in `recode' is `l1'.

   It is an eight-bit code which coincides with ASCII for the lower
half.  This documentation used to include Latin-1 tables.  They have
been removed since the `recode' program can now recreate these easily:

     recode -lf l1                   for commented ISO Latin-1
     recode -ld l1                   for concise decimal table
     recode -lo l1                   for concise octal table
     recode -lh l1                   for concise hexadecimal table

File: recode.info,  Node: ASCII-BS,  Next: flat,  Prev: ISO 8859,  Up: ASCII misc

ASCII 7-bits, `BS' to overstrike
================================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `ASCII-BS',
with `BS' as an acceptable alias.

   The file is straight ASCII, seven bits only.  According to the
definition of ASCII, diacritics are applied by a sequence of three
characters: the letter, one `BS', the diacritic mark.  We deviate
slightly from this by exchanging the diacritic mark and the letter so,
on a screen device, the diacritic will disappear and let the letter
alone.  At recognition time, both methods are acceptable.

   The French quotes are coded by the sequences: `< BS "' or `" BS <'
for the opening quote and `> BS "' or `" BS >' for the closing quote.
This artificial convention was inherited in straight `ASCII-BS' from
habits around `Bang-Bang' entry, and is not well known.  But we decided
to stick to it so that `ASCII-BS' charset will not lose French quotes.

   The `ASCII-BS' charset is independent of `ASCII', and different.
The following examples demonstrate this, knowing at advance that `!2'
is the `Bang-Bang' way of representing an `e' with an acute accent.
Compare:

     % echo \!2 | recode -v bang..l1/d
     Request: Bang-Bang..ISO-8859-1/Decimal-1
     233,  10

with:

     % echo \!2 | recode -v bang..bs/d
     Request: Bang-Bang..ISO-8859-1..ASCII-BS/Decimal-1
      39,   8, 101,  10

   In the first case, the `e' with an acute accent is merely
transmitted by the `Latin-1..ASCII' mapping, not having a special
recoding rule for it.  In the `Latin-1..ASCII-BS' case, the acute
accent is applied over the `e' with a backspace: diacriticised
characters have special rules.  For the `ASCII-BS' charset,
reversibility is still possible, but there might be difficult cases.

File: recode.info,  Node: flat,  Prev: ASCII-BS,  Up: ASCII misc

ASCII without diacritics nor underline
======================================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `flat'.

   This code is ASCII expunged of all diacritics and underlines, as
long as they are applied using three character sequences, with `BS' in
the middle.  Also, despite slightly unrelated, each control character is
represented by a sequence of two or three graphic characters.  The
newline character, however, keeps its functionality and is not
represented.

   Note that charset `flat' is a terminal charset.  We can convert _to_
`flat', but not _from_ it.

File: recode.info,  Node: IBM and MS,  Next: CDC,  Prev: ASCII misc,  Up: Top

Some IBM or Microsoft charsets
******************************

   The `recode' program provides various IBM or Microsoft code pages
(*note Tabular::).  An easy way to find them all at once out of the
`recode' program itself is through the command:

     recode -l | egrep -i '(CP|IBM)[0-9]'

But also, see few special charsets presented in the incoming sections.

* Menu:

* EBCDIC::              EBCDIC codes
* IBM-PC::              IBM's PC code
* Icon-QNX::            Unisys' Icon code

File: recode.info,  Node: EBCDIC,  Next: IBM-PC,  Prev: IBM and MS,  Up: IBM and MS

EBCDIC code
===========

   This charset is the IBM's External Binary Coded Decimal for
Interchange Coding.  This is an eight bits code.  The following three
variants were implemented in `recode' independently of RFC 1345:

`EBCDIC'
     In `recode', the `us..ebcdic' conversion is identical to `dd
     conv=ebcdic' conversion, and `recode' `ebcdic..us' conversion is
     identical to `dd conv=ascii' conversion.  This charset also
     represents the way Control Data Corporation relates EBCDIC to
     8-bits ASCII.

`EBCDIC-CCC'
     In `recode', the `us..ebcdic-ccc' or `ebcdic-ccc..us' conversions
     represent the way Concurrent Computer Corporation (formerly Perkin
     Elmer) relates EBCDIC to 8-bits ASCII.

`EBCDIC-IBM'
     In `recode', the `us..ebcdic-ibm' conversion is _almost_ identical
     to the GNU `dd conv=ibm' conversion.  Given the exact `dd
     conv=ibm' conversion table, `recode' once said:

          Codes  91 and 213 both recode to 173
          Codes  93 and 229 both recode to 189
          No character recodes to  74
          No character recodes to 106

     So I arbitrarily chose to recode 213 by 74 and 229 by 106.  This
     makes the `EBCDIC-IBM' recoding reversible, but this is not
     necessarily the best correction.  In any case, I think that GNU
     `dd' should be amended.  `dd' and `recode' should ideally agree on
     the same correction.  So, this table might change once again.

   RFC 1345 brings into `recode' 15 other EBCDIC charsets, and 21 other
charsets having EBCDIC in at least one of their alias names.  You can
get a list of all these by executing:

     recode -l | grep -i ebcdic

   Note that `recode' may convert a pure stream of EBCDIC characters,
but it does not know how to handle binary data between records which is
sometimes used to delimit them and build physical blocks.  If end of
lines are not marked, fixed record size may produce something readable,
but `VB' or `VBS' blocking is likely to yield some garbage in the
converted results.

File: recode.info,  Node: IBM-PC,  Next: Icon-QNX,  Prev: EBCDIC,  Up: IBM and MS

IBM's PC code
=============

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `IBM-PC', with
`dos', `MSDOS' and `pc' as acceptable aliases.  The shortest way of
specifying it in `recode' is `pc'.

   The charset is aimed towards a PC microcomputer from IBM or any
compatible.  This is an eight-bit code.  This charset is fairly old in
`recode', its tables were produced a long while ago by mere inspection
of a printed chart of the IBM-PC codes and glyph.

   It has `CR-LF' as its implied surface.  This means that, if the
original end of lines have to be preserved while going out of `IBM-PC',
they should currently be added back through the usage of a surface on
the other charset, or better, just never removed.  Here are examples
for both cases:

     recode pc..l2/cl < INPUT > OUTPUT
     recode pc/..l2 < INPUT > OUTPUT

   RFC 1345 brings into `recode' 44 `IBM' charsets or code pages, and
also 8 other code pages.  You can get a list of these all these by
executing:(1)

     recode -l | egrep -i '(CP|IBM)[0-9]'

All charset or aliases beginning with letters `CP' or `IBM' also have
`CR-LF' as their implied surface.  The same is true for a purely
numeric alias in the same family.  For example, all of `819', `CP819'
and `IBM819' imply `CR-LF' as a surface.  Note that `ISO-8859-1' does
_not_ imply a surface, despite it shares the same tabular data as `819'.

   There are a few discrepancies between this `IBM-PC' charset and the
very similar RFC 1345 charset `ibm437', which have not been analysed
yet, so the charsets are being kept separate for now.  This might
change in the future, and the `IBM-PC' charset might disappear.
Wizards would be interested in comparing the output of these two
commands:

     recode -vh IBM-PC..Latin-1
     recode -vh IBM437..Latin-1

The first command uses the charset prior to RFC 1345 introduction.
Both methods give different recodings.  These differences are annoying,
the fuzziness will have to be explained and settle down one day.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) On DOS/Windows, stock shells do not know that apostrophes quote
special characters like `|', so one need to use double quotes instead
of apostrophes.

File: recode.info,  Node: Icon-QNX,  Prev: IBM-PC,  Up: IBM and MS

Unisys' Icon code
=================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `Icon-QNX',
with `QNX' as an acceptable alias.

   The file is using Unisys' Icon way to represent diacritics with code
25 escape sequences, under the system QNX.  This is a seven-bit code,
even if eight-bit codes can flow through as part of IBM-PC charset.

File: recode.info,  Node: CDC,  Next: Micros,  Prev: IBM and MS,  Up: Top

Charsets for CDC machines
*************************

   What is now `recode' evolved out, through many transformations
really, from a set of programs which were originally written in
"COMPASS", Control Data Corporation's assembler, with bits in FORTRAN,
and later rewritten in CDC 6000 Pascal.  The CDC heritage shows by the
fact some old CDC charsets are still supported.

   The `recode' author used to be familiar with CDC Scope-NOS/BE and
Kronos-NOS, and many CDC formats.  Reading CDC tapes directly on other
machines is often a challenge, and `recode' does not always solve it.
It helps having tapes created in coded mode instead of binary mode, and
using `S' (Stranger) tapes instead of `I' (Internal) tapes.  ANSI
labels and multi-file tapes might be the source of trouble.  There are
ways to handle a few Cyber Record Manager formats, but some of them
might be quite difficult to decode properly after the transfer is done.

   The `recode' program is usable only for a small subset of NOS text
formats, and surely not with binary textual formats, like `UPDATE' or
`MODIFY' sources, for example.  `recode' is not especially suited for
reading 8/12 or 56/60 packing, yet this could easily arranged if there
was a demand for it.  It does not have the ability to translate Display
Code directly, as the ASCII conversion implied by tape drivers or FTP
does the initial approximation.  `recode' can decode 6/12 caret
notation over Display Code already mapped to ASCII.

* Menu:

* Display Code::        Control Data's Display Code
* CDC-NOS::             ASCII 6/12 from NOS
* Bang-Bang::           ASCII ``bang bang''

File: recode.info,  Node: Display Code,  Next: CDC-NOS,  Prev: CDC,  Up: CDC

Control Data's Display Code
===========================

   This code is not available in `recode', but repeated here for
reference.  This is a 6-bit code used on CDC mainframes.

     Octal display code to graphic       Octal display code to octal ASCII

     00  :    20  P    40  5   60  #     00 072  20 120  40 065  60 043
     01  A    21  Q    41  6   61  [     01 101  21 121  41 066  61 133
     02  B    22  R    42  7   62  ]     02 102  22 122  42 067  62 135
     03  C    23  S    43  8   63  %     03 103  23 123  43 070  63 045
     04  D    24  T    44  9   64  "     04 104  24 124  44 071  64 042
     05  E    25  U    45  +   65  _     05 105  25 125  45 053  65 137
     06  F    26  V    46  -   66  !     06 106  26 126  46 055  66 041
     07  G    27  W    47  *   67  &     07 107  27 127  47 052  67 046
     10  H    30  X    50  /   70  '     10 110  30 130  50 057  70 047
     11  I    31  Y    51  (   71  ?     11 111  31 131  51 050  71 077
     12  J    32  Z    52  )   72  <     12 112  32 132  52 051  72 074
     13  K    33  0    53  $   73  >     13 113  33 060  53 044  73 076
     14  L    34  1    54  =   74  @     14 114  34 061  54 075  74 100
     15  M    35  2    55      75  \     15 115  35 062  55 040  75 134
     16  N    36  3    56  ,   76  ^     16 116  36 063  56 054  76 136
     17  O    37  4    57  .   77  ;     17 117  37 064  57 056  77 073

   In older times, `:' used octal 63, and octal 0 was not a character.
The table above shows the ASCII glyph interpretation of codes 60 to 77,
yet these 16 codes were once defined differently.

   There is no explicit end of line in Display Code, and the Cyber
Record Manager introduced many new ways to represent them, the
traditional end of lines being reachable by setting `RT' to `Z'.  If
6-bit bytes in a file are sequentially counted from 1, a traditional
end of line does exist if bytes 10*N+9 and 10N+10 are both zero for a
given N, in which case these two bytes are not to be interpreted as
`::'.  Also, up to 9 immediately preceeding zero bytes, going backward,
are to be considered as part of the end of line and not interpreted as
`:'(1).

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This convention replaced an older one saying that up to 4
immediately preceeding _pairs_ of zero bytes, going backward, are to be
considered as part of the end of line and not interpreted as `::'.

File: recode.info,  Node: CDC-NOS,  Next: Bang-Bang,  Prev: Display Code,  Up: CDC

ASCII 6/12 from NOS
===================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `CDC-NOS', with
`NOS' as an acceptable alias.

   This is one of the charsets in use on CDC Cyber NOS systems to
represent ASCII, sometimes named "NOS 6/12" code for coding ASCII.
This code is also known as "caret ASCII".  It is based on a six bits
character set in which small letters and control characters are coded
using a `^' escape and, sometimes, a `@' escape.

   The routines given here presume that the six bits code is already
expressed in ASCII by the communication channel, with embedded ASCII
`^' and `@' escapes.

   Here is a table showing which characters are being used to encode
each ASCII character.

     000  ^5  020  ^#  040     060  0  100 @A  120  P  140  @G  160  ^P
     001  ^6  021  ^[  041  !  061  1  101  A  121  Q  141  ^A  161  ^Q
     002  ^7  022  ^]  042  "  062  2  102  B  122  R  142  ^B  162  ^R
     003  ^8  023  ^%  043  #  063  3  103  C  123  S  143  ^C  163  ^S
     004  ^9  024  ^"  044  $  064  4  104  D  124  T  144  ^D  164  ^T
     005  ^+  025  ^_  045  %  065  5  105  E  125  U  145  ^E  165  ^U
     006  ^-  026  ^!  046  &  066  6  106  F  126  V  146  ^F  166  ^V
     007  ^*  027  ^&  047  '  067  7  107  G  127  W  147  ^G  167  ^W
     010  ^/  030  ^'  050  (  070  8  110  H  130  X  150  ^H  170  ^X
     011  ^(  031  ^?  051  )  071  9  111  I  131  Y  151  ^I  171  ^Y
     012  ^)  032  ^<  052  *  072 @D  112  J  132  Z  152  ^J  172  ^Z
     013  ^$  033  ^>  053  +  073  ;  113  K  133  [  153  ^K  173  ^0
     014  ^=  034  ^@  054  ,  074  <  114  L  134  \  154  ^L  174  ^1
     015  ^   035  ^\  055  -  075  =  115  M  135  ]  155  ^M  175  ^2
     016  ^,  036  ^^  056  .  076  >  116  N  136 @B  156  ^N  176  ^3
     017  ^.  037  ^;  057  /  077  ?  117  O  137  _  157  ^O  177  ^4

File: recode.info,  Node: Bang-Bang,  Prev: CDC-NOS,  Up: CDC

ASCII "bang bang"
=================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `Bang-Bang'.

   This code, in use on Cybers at Universite' de Montre'al mainly,
served to code a lot of French texts.  The original name of this
charset is "ASCII code' Display".  This code is also known as
"Bang-bang".  It is based on a six bits character set in which
capitals, French diacritics and a few others are coded using an `!'
escape followed by a single character, and control characters using a
double `!' escape followed by a single character.

   The routines given here presume that the six bits code is already
expressed in ASCII by the communication channel, with embedded ASCII `!'
escapes.

   Here is a table showing which characters are being used to encode
each ASCII character.

     000 !!@  020 !!P  040    060 0  100 @   120 !P  140 !@ 160 P
     001 !!A  021 !!Q  041 !" 061 1  101 !A  121 !Q  141 A  161 Q
     002 !!B  022 !!R  042 "  062 2  102 !B  122 !R  142 B  162 R
     003 !!C  023 !!S  043 #  063 3  103 !C  123 !S  143 C  163 S
     004 !!D  024 !!T  044 $  064 4  104 !D  124 !T  144 D  164 T
     005 !!E  025 !!U  045 %  065 5  105 !E  125 !U  145 E  165 U
     006 !!F  026 !!V  046 &  066 6  106 !F  126 !V  146 F  166 V
     007 !!G  027 !!W  047 '  067 7  107 !G  127 !W  147 G  167 W
     010 !!H  030 !!X  050 (  070 8  110 !H  130 !X  150 H  170 X
     011 !!I  031 !!Y  051 )  071 9  111 !I  131 !Y  151 I  171 Y
     012 !!J  032 !!Z  052 *  072 :  112 !J  132 !Z  152 J  172 Z
     013 !!K  033 !![  053 +  073 ;  113 !K  133 [   153 K  173 ![
     014 !!L  034 !!\  054 ,  074 <  114 !L  134 \   154 L  174 !\
     015 !!M  035 !!]  055 -  075 =  115 !M  135 ]   155 M  175 !]
     016 !!N  036 !!^  056 .  076 >  116 !N  136 ^   156 N  176 !^
     017 !!O  037 !!_  057 /  077 ?  117 !O  137 _   157 O  177 !_

File: recode.info,  Node: Micros,  Next: Miscellaneous,  Prev: CDC,  Up: Top

Other micro-computer charsets
*****************************

   The `NeXT' charset, which used to be especially provided in releases
of `recode' before 3.5, has been integrated since as one RFC 1345 table.

* Menu:

* Apple-Mac::           Apple's Macintosh code
* AtariST::             Atari ST code

File: recode.info,  Node: Apple-Mac,  Next: AtariST,  Prev: Micros,  Up: Micros

Apple's Macintosh code
======================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `Apple-Mac'.
The shortest way of specifying it in `recode' is `ap'.

   The charset is aimed towards a Macintosh micro-computer from Apple.
This is an eight bit code.  The file is the data fork only.  This
charset is fairly old in `recode', its tables were produced a long
while ago by mere inspection of a printed chart of the Macintosh codes
and glyph.

   It has `CR' as its implied surface.  This means that, if the original
end of lines have to be preserved while going out of `Apple-Mac', they
should currently be added back through the usage of a surface on the
other charset, or better, just never removed.  Here are examples for
both cases:

     recode ap..l2/cr < INPUT > OUTPUT
     recode ap/..l2 < INPUT > OUTPUT

   RFC 1345 brings into `recode' 2 other Macintosh charsets.  You can
discover them by using `grep' over the output of `recode -l':

     recode -l | grep -i mac

Charsets `macintosh' and `macintosh_ce', as well as their aliases `mac'
and `macce' also have `CR' as their implied surface.

   There are a few discrepancies between the `Apple-Mac' charset and
the very similar RFC 1345 charset `macintosh', which have not been
analysed yet, so the charsets are being kept separate for now.  This
might change in the future, and the `Apple-Mac' charset might disappear.
Wizards would be interested in comparing the output of these two
commands:

     recode -vh Apple-Mac..Latin-1
     recode -vh macintosh..Latin-1

The first command use the charset prior to RFC 1345 introduction.  Both
methods give different recodings.  These differences are annoying, the
fuzziness will have to be explained and settle down one day.

   As a side note, some people ask if there is a Macintosh port of the
`recode' program.  I'm not aware of any.  I presume that if the tool
fills a need for Macintosh users, someone will port it one of these
days?

File: recode.info,  Node: AtariST,  Prev: Apple-Mac,  Up: Micros

Atari ST code
=============

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `AtariST'.

   This is the character set used on the Atari ST/TT/Falcon.  This is
similar to `IBM-PC', but differs in some details: it includes some more
accented characters, the graphic characters are mostly replaced by
Hebrew characters, and there is a true German `sharp s' different from
Greek `beta'.

   About the end-of-line conversions: the canonical end-of-line on the
Atari is `\r\n', but unlike `IBM-PC', the OS makes no difference
between text and binary input/output; it is up to the application how
to interpret the data.  In fact, most of the libraries that come with
compilers can grok both `\r\n' and `\n' as end of lines.  Many of the
users who also have access to Unix systems prefer `\n' to ease porting
Unix utilities.  So, for easing reversibility, `recode' tries to let
`\r' undisturbed through recodings.

File: recode.info,  Node: Miscellaneous,  Next: Surfaces,  Prev: Micros,  Up: Top

Various other charsets
**********************

   Even if these charsets were originally added to `recode' for
handling texts written in French, they find other uses.  We did use them
a lot for writing French diacriticised texts in the past, so `recode'
knows how to handle these particularly well for French texts.

* Menu:

* HTML::                World Wide Web representations
* LaTeX::               LaTeX macro calls
* Texinfo::             GNU project documentation files
* Vietnamese::
* African::             African charsets
* Others::
* Texte::               Easy French conventions
* Mule::                Mule as a multiplexed charset

File: recode.info,  Node: HTML,  Next: LaTeX,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Miscellaneous

World Wide Web representations
==============================

   Character entities have been introduced by SGML and made widely
popular through HTML, the markup language in use for the World Wide
Web, or Web or WWW for short.  For representing _unusual_ characters,
HTML texts use special sequences, beginning with an ampersand `&' and
ending with a semicolon `;'.  The sequence may itself start with a
number sigh `#' and be followed by digits, so forming a "numeric
character reference", or else be an alphabetic identifier, so forming a
"character entity reference".

   The HTML standards have been revised into different HTML levels over
time, and the list of allowable character entities differ in them.  The
later XML, meant to simplify many things, has an option
(`standalone=yes') which much restricts that list.  The `recode'
library is able to convert character references between their mnemonic
form and their numeric form, depending on aimed HTML standard level.
It also can, of course, convert between HTML and various other charsets.

   Here is a list of those HTML variants which `recode' supports.  Some
notes have been provided by François Yergeau <yergeauATalis.com>.

`XML-standalone'
     This charset is available in `recode' under the name
     `XML-standalone', with `h0' as an acceptable alias.  It is
     documented in section 4.1 of `http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml'.  It
     only knows `&amp;', `&gt;', `&lt;', `&quot;' and `&apos;'.

`HTML_1.1'
     This charset is available in `recode' under the name `HTML_1.1',
     with `h1' as an acceptable alias.  HTML 1.0 was never really
     documented.

`HTML_2.0'
     This charset is available in `recode' under the name `HTML_2.0',
     and has `RFC1866', `1866' and `h2' for aliases.  HTML 2.0 entities
     are listed in RFC 1866.  Basically, there is an entity for each
     _alphabetical_ character in the right part of ISO 8859-1.  In
     addition, there are four entities for syntax-significant ASCII
     characters: `&amp;', `&gt;', `&lt;' and `&quot;'.

`HTML-i18n'
     This charset is available in `recode' under the name `HTML-i18n',
     and has `RFC2070' and `2070' for aliases.  RFC 2070 added entities
     to cover the whole right part of ISO 8859-1.  The list is
     conveniently accessible at
     `http://www.alis.com:8085/ietf/html/html-latin1.sgml'.  In
     addition, four i18n-related entities were added: `&zwnj;'
     (`&#8204;'), `&zwj;' (`&#8205;'), `&lrm;' (`&#8206') and `&rlm;'
     (`&#8207;').

`HTML_3.2'
     This charset is available in `recode' under the name `HTML_3.2',
     with `h3' as an acceptable alias.  HTML 3.2
     (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html32.html) took up the full Latin-1
     list but not the i18n-related entities from RFC 2070.

`HTML_4.0'
     This charset is available in `recode' under the name `HTML_4.0',
     and has `h4' and `h' for aliases.  Beware that the particular
     alias `h' is not _tied_ to HTML 4.0, but to the highest HTML level
     supported by `recode'; so it might later represent HTML level 5 if
     this is ever created.  HTML 4.0 (http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/)
     has the whole Latin-1 list, a set of entities for symbols,
     mathematical symbols, and Greek letters, and another set for
     markup-significant and internationalization characters comprising
     the 4 ASCII entities, the 4 i18n-related from RFC 2070 plus some
     more.  See `http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/sgml/entities.html'.

   Printable characters from Latin-1 may be used directly in an HTML
text.  However, partly because people have deficient keyboards, partly
because people want to transmit HTML texts over non 8-bit clean
channels while not using MIME, it is common (yet debatable) to use
character entity references even for Latin-1 characters, when they fall
outside ASCII (that is, when they have the 8th bit set).

   When you recode from another charset to `HTML', beware that all
occurrences of double quotes, ampersands, and left or right angle
brackets are translated into special sequences.  However, in practice,
people often use ampersands and angle brackets in the other charset for
introducing HTML commands, compromising it: it is not pure HTML, not it
is pure other charset.  These particular translations can be rather
inconvenient, they may be specifically inhibited through the command
option `-d' (*note Mixed::).

   Codes not having a mnemonic entity are output by `recode' using the
`&#NNN;' notation, where NNN is a decimal representation of the UCS
code value.  When there is an entity name for a character, it is always
preferred over a numeric character reference.  ASCII printable
characters are always generated directly.  So is the newline.  While
reading HTML, `recode' supports numeric character reference as alternate
writings, even when written as hexadecimal numbers, as in `&#xfffd'.
This is documented in:

     http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/intro/sgmltut.html#h-3.2.3

   When `recode' translates to HTML, the translation occurs according to
the HTML level as selected by the goal charset.  When translating _from_
HTML, `recode' not only accepts the character entity references known at
that level, but also those of all other levels, as well as a few
alternative special sequences, to be forgiving to files using other
HTML standards.

   The `recode' program can be used to _normalise_ an HTML file using
oldish conventions.  For example, it accepts `&AE;', as this once was a
valid writing, somewhere.  However, it should always produce `&AElig;'
instead of `&AE;'.  Yet, this is not completely true.  If one does:

     recode h3..h3 < INPUT

the operation will be optimised into a mere copy, and you can get `&AE;'
this way, if you had some in your input file.  But if you explicitly
defeat the optimisation, like this maybe:

     recode h3..u2,u2..h3 < INPUT

then `&AE;' should be normalised into `&AElig;' by the operation.

File: recode.info,  Node: LaTeX,  Next: Texinfo,  Prev: HTML,  Up: Miscellaneous

LaTeX macro calls
=================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `LaTeX' and has
`ltex' as an alias.  It is used for ASCII files coded to be read by
LaTeX or, in certain cases, by TeX.

   Whenever you recode from another charset to `LaTeX', beware that all
occurrences of backslashes `\' are translated into the string
`\backslash{}'.  However, in practice, people often use backslashes in
the other charset for introducing TeX commands, compromising it: it is
not pure TeX, nor it is pure other charset.  This translation of
backslashes into `\backslash{}' can be rather inconvenient, it may be
inhibited through the command option `-d' (*note Mixed::).

File: recode.info,  Node: Texinfo,  Next: Vietnamese,  Prev: LaTeX,  Up: Miscellaneous

GNU project documentation files
===============================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `Texinfo' and
has `texi' and `ti' for aliases.  It is used by the GNU project for its
documentation.  Texinfo files may be converted into Info files by the
`makeinfo' program and into nice printed manuals by the TeX system.

   Even if `recode' may transform other charsets to Texinfo, it may not
read Texinfo files yet.  In these times, usages are also changing
between versions of Texinfo, and `recode' only partially succeeds in
correctly following these changes.  So, for now, Texinfo support in
`recode' should be considered as work still in progress (!).

File: recode.info,  Node: Vietnamese,  Next: African,  Prev: Texinfo,  Up: Miscellaneous

Vietnamese charsets
===================

   We are currently experimenting the implementation, in `recode', of a
few character sets and transliterated forms to handle the Vietnamese
language.  They are quite briefly summarised, here.

`TCVN'
     The TCVN charset has an incomplete name.  It might be one of the
     three charset `VN1', `VN2' or `VN3'.  Yes `VN2' might be a second
     version of `VISCII'.  To be clarified.

`VISCII'
     This is an 8-bit character set which seems to be rather popular for
     writing Vietnamese.

`VPS'
     This is an 8-bit character set for Vietnamese.  No much reference.

`VIQR'
     The VIQR convention is a 7-bit, `ASCII' transliteration for
     Vietnamese.

`VNI'
     The VNI convention is a 8-bit, `Latin-1' transliteration for
     Vietnamese.

   Still lacking for Vietnamese in `recode', are the charsets `CP1129'
and `CP1258'.

File: recode.info,  Node: African,  Next: Others,  Prev: Vietnamese,  Up: Miscellaneous

African charsets
================

   Some African character sets are available for a few languages, when
these are heavily used in countries where French is also currently
spoken.

   One African charset is usable for Bambara, Ewondo and Fulfude, as
well as for French.  This charset is available in `recode' under the
name `AFRFUL-102-BPI_OCIL'.  Accepted aliases are `bambara', `bra',
`ewondo' and `fulfude'.  Transliterated forms of the same are available
under the name `AFRFUL-103-BPI_OCIL'.  Accepted aliases are
`t-bambara', `t-bra', `t-ewondo' and `t-fulfude'.

   Another African charset is usable for Lingala, Sango and Wolof, as
well as for French.  This charset is available in `recode' under the
name `AFRLIN-104-BPI_OCIL'.  Accepted aliases are `lingala', `lin',
`sango' and `wolof'.  Transliterated forms of the same are available
under the name `AFRLIN-105-BPI_OCIL'.  Accepted aliases are
`t-lingala', `t-lin', `t-sango' and `t-wolof'.

   To ease exchange with `ISO-8859-1', there is a charset conveying
transliterated forms for Latin-1 in a way which is compatible with the
other African charsets in this series.  This charset is available in
`recode' under the name `AFRL1-101-BPI_OCIL'.  Accepted aliases are
`t-fra' and `t-francais'.

File: recode.info,  Node: Others,  Next: Texte,  Prev: African,  Up: Miscellaneous

Cyrillic and other charsets
===========================

   The following Cyrillic charsets are already available in `recode'
through RFC 1345 tables: `CP1251' with aliases `1251', ` ms-cyrl' and
`windows-1251'; `CSN_369103' with aliases `ISO-IR-139' and `KOI8_L2';
`ECMA-cyrillic' with aliases `ECMA-113', `ECMA-113:1986' and
`iso-ir-111', `IBM880' with aliases `880', `CP880' and
`EBCDIC-Cyrillic'; `INIS-cyrillic' with alias `iso-ir-51'; `ISO-8859-5'
with aliases `cyrillic', ` ISO-8859-5:1988' and `iso-ir-144'; `KOI-7';
`KOI-8' with alias `GOST_19768-74'; `KOI8-R'; `KOI8-RU' and finally
`KOI8-U'.

   There seems to remain some confusion in Roman charsets for Cyrillic
languages, and because a few users requested it repeatedly, `recode'
now offers special services in that area.  Consider these charsets as
experimental and debatable, as the extraneous tables describing them are
still a bit fuzzy or non-standard.  Hopefully, in the long run, these
charsets will be covered in Keld Simonsen's works to the satisfaction of
everybody, and this section will merely disappear.

`KEYBCS2'
     This charset is available under the name `KEYBCS2', with
     `Kamenicky' as an accepted alias.

`CORK'
     This charset is available under the name `CORK', with `T1' as an
     accepted alias.

`KOI-8_CS2'
     This charset is available under the name `KOI-8_CS2'.

File: recode.info,  Node: Texte,  Next: Mule,  Prev: Others,  Up: Miscellaneous

Easy French conventions
=======================

   This charset is available in `recode' under the name `Texte' and has
`txte' for an alias.  It is a seven bits code, identical to `ASCII-BS',
save for French diacritics which are noted using a slightly different
convention.

   At text entry time, these conventions provide a little speed up.  At
read time, they slightly improve the readability over a few alternate
ways of coding diacritics.  Of course, it would better to have a
specialised keyboard to make direct eight bits entries and fonts for
immediately displaying eight bit ISO Latin-1 characters.  But not
everybody is so fortunate.  In a few mailing environments, and sadly
enough, it still happens that the eight bit is often willing-fully
destroyed.

   Easy French has been in use in France for a while.  I only slightly
adapted it (the diaeresis option) to make it more comfortable to several
usages in Que'bec originating from Universite' de Montre'al.  In fact,
the main problem for me was not to necessarily to invent Easy French,
but to recognise the "best" convention to use, (best is not being
defined, here) and to try to solve the main pitfalls associated with
the selected convention.  Shortly said, we have:

`e''
     for `e' (and some other vowels) with an acute accent,

`e`'
     for `e' (and some other vowels) with a grave accent,

`e^'
     for `e' (and some other vowels) with a circumflex accent,

`e"'
     for `e' (and some other vowels) with a diaeresis,

`c,'
     for `c' with a cedilla.

There is no attempt at expressing the `ae' and `oe' diphthongs.  French
also uses tildes over `n' and `a', but seldomly, and this is not
represented either.  In some countries, `:' is used instead of `"' to
mark diaeresis.  `recode' supports only one convention per call,
depending on the `-c' option of the `recode' command.  French quotes
(sometimes called "angle quotes") are noted the same way English quotes
are noted in TeX, _id est_ by ```' and `'''.  No effort has been put to
preserve Latin ligatures (`ae', `oe') which are representable in
several other charsets.  So, these ligatures may be lost through Easy
French conventions.

   The convention is prone to losing information, because the diacritic
meaning overloads some characters that already have other uses.  To
alleviate this, some knowledge of the French language is boosted into
the recognition routines.  So, the following subtleties are
systematically obeyed by the various recognisers.

  1. A comma which follows a `c' is interpreted as a cedilla only if it
     is followed by one of the vowels `a', `o' or `u'.

  2. A single quote which follows a `e' does not necessarily means an
     acute accent if it is followed by a single other one.  For example:

    `e''
          will give an `e' with an acute accent.

    `e'''
          will give a simple `e', with a closing quotation mark.

    `e''''
          will give an `e' with an acute accent, followed by a closing
          quotation mark.

     There is a problem induced by this convention if there are English
     quotations with a French text.  In sentences like:

          There's a meeting at Archie's restaurant.

     the single quotes will be mistaken twice for acute accents.  So
     English contractions and suffix possessives could be mangled.

  3. A double quote or colon, depending on `-c' option, which follows a
     vowel is interpreted as diaeresis only if it is followed by
     another letter.  But there are in French several words that _end_
     with a diaeresis, and the `recode' library is aware of them.
     There are words ending in "igue", either feminine words without a
     relative masculine (besaigue" and cigue"), or feminine words with
     a relative masculine(1) (aigue", ambigue", contigue", exigue",
     subaigue" and suraigue").  There are also words not ending in
     "igue", but instead, either ending by "i"(2) (ai", congai", goi",
     hai"kai", inoui", sai", samurai", thai" and tokai"), ending by "e"
     (canoe") or ending by "u"(3) (Esau").

     Just to complete this topic, note that it would be wrong to make a
     rule for all words ending in "igue" as needing a diaerisis, as
     there are counter-examples (becfigue, be`sigue, bigue, bordigue,
     bourdigue, brigue, contre-digue, digue, d'intrigue, fatigue,
     figue, garrigue, gigue, igue, intrigue, ligue, prodigue, sarigue
     and zigue).

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) There are supposed to be seven words in this case.  So, one is
missing.

   (2) Look at one of the following sentences (the second has to be
interpreted with the `-c' option):

     "Ai"e!  Voici le proble`me que j'ai"
     Ai:e!  Voici le proble`me que j'ai:

   There is an ambiguity between an ai", the small animal, and the
indicative future of _avoir_ (first person singular), when followed by
what could be a diaeresis mark.  Hopefully, the case is solved by the
fact that an apostrophe always precedes the verb and almost never the
animal.

   (3) I did not pay attention to proper nouns, but this one showed up
as being fairly evident.

File: recode.info,  Node: Mule,  Prev: Texte,  Up: Miscellaneous

Mule as a multiplexed charset
=============================

   This version of `recode' barely starts supporting multiplexed or
super-charsets, that is, those encoding methods by which a single text
stream may contain a combination of more than one constituent charset.
The only multiplexed charset in `recode' is `Mule', and even then, it
is only very partially implemented: the only correspondence available
is with `Latin-1'.  The author fastly implemented this only because he
needed this for himself.  However, it is intended that Mule support to
become more real in subsequent releases of `recode'.

   Multiplexed charsets are not to be confused with mixed charset texts
(*note Mixed::).  For mixed charset input, the rules allowing to
distinguish which charset is current, at any given place, are kind of
informal, and driven from the semantics of what the file contains.  On
the other side, multiplexed charsets are _designed_ to be interpreted
fairly precisely, and quite independently of any informational context.

   The spelling `Mule' originally stands for `_mul_tilingual
_e_nhancement to GNU Emacs', it is the result of a collective effort
orchestrated by Handa Ken'ichi since 1993.  When `Mule' got rewritten
in the main development stream of GNU Emacs 20, the FSF renamed it
`MULE', meaning `_mul_tilingual _e_nvironment in GNU Emacs'.  Even if
the charset `Mule' is meant to stay internal to GNU Emacs, it sometimes
breaks loose in external files, and as a consequence, a recoding tool
is sometimes needed.  Within Emacs, `Mule' comes with `Leim', which
stands for `_l_ibraries of _e_macs _i_nput _m_ethods'.  One of these
libraries is named `quail'(1).

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Usually, quail means quail egg in Japanese, while egg alone is
usually chicken egg.  Both quail egg and chicken egg are popular food
in Japan.  The `quail' input system has been named because it is
smaller that the previous `EGG' system.  As for `EGG', it is the
translation of `TAMAGO'.  This word comes from the Japanese sentence
`_ta_kusan _ma_tasete _go_mennasai', meaning `sorry to have let you
wait so long'.  Of course, the publication of `EGG' has been delayed
many times...  (Story by Takahashi Naoto)

File: recode.info,  Node: Surfaces,  Next: Internals,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Top

All about surfaces
******************

   The "trivial surface" consists of using a fixed number of bits
(often eight) for each character, the bits together hold the integer
value of the index for the character in its charset table.  There are
many kinds of surfaces, beyond the trivial one, all having the purpose
of increasing selected qualities for the storage or transmission.  For
example, surfaces might increase the resistance to channel limits
(`Base64'), the transmission speed (`gzip'), the information privacy
(`DES'), the conformance to operating system conventions (`CR-LF'), the
blocking into records (`VB'), and surely other things as well(1).  Many
surfaces may be applied to a stream of characters from a charset, the
order of application of surfaces is important, and surfaces should be
removed in the reverse order of their application.

   Even if surfaces may generally be applied to various charsets, some
surfaces were specifically designed for a particular charset, and would
not make much sense if applied to other charsets.  In such cases, these
conceptual surfaces have been implemented as `recode' charsets, instead
of as surfaces.  This choice yields to cleaner syntax and usage.  *Note
Universal::.

   Surfaces are implemented within `recode' as special charsets which
may only transform to or from the `data' or `tree' special charsets.
Clever users may use this knowledge for writing surface names in
requests exactly as if they were pure charsets, when the only need is
to change surfaces without any kind of recoding between real charsets.
In such contexts, either `data' or `tree' may also be used as if it
were some kind of generic, anonymous charset: the request
`data..SURFACE' merely adds the given SURFACE, while the request
`SURFACE..data' removes it.

   The `recode' library distinguishes between mere data surfaces, and
structural surfaces, also called tree surfaces for short.  Structural
surfaces might allow, in the long run, transformations between a few
specialised representations of structural information like MIME parts,
Perl or Python initialisers, LISP S-expressions, XML, Emacs outlines,
etc.

   We are still experimenting with surfaces in `recode'.  The concept
opens the doors to many avenues; it is not clear yet which ones are
worth pursuing, and which should be abandoned.  In particular,
implementation of structural surfaces is barely starting, there is not
even a commitment that tree surfaces will stay in `recode', if they do
prove to be more cumbersome than useful.  This chapter presents all
surfaces currently available.

* Menu:

* Permutations::        Permuting groups of bytes
* End lines::           Representation for end of lines
* MIME::                MIME contents encodings
* Dump::                Interpreted character dumps
* Test::                Artificial data for testing

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) These are mere examples to explain the concept, `recode' only
has `Base64' and `CR-LF', actually.

File: recode.info,  Node: Permutations,  Next: End lines,  Prev: Surfaces,  Up: Surfaces

Permuting groups of bytes
=========================

   A permutation is a surface transformation which reorders groups of
eight-bit bytes.  A _21_ permutation exchanges pairs of successive
bytes.  If the text contains an odd number of bytes, the last byte is
merely copied.  An _4321_ permutation inverts the order of quadruples
of bytes.  If the text does not contains a multiple of four bytes, the
remaining bytes are nevertheless permuted as _321_ if there are three
bytes, _21_ if there are two bytes, or merely copied otherwise.

`21'
     This surface is available in `recode' under the name
     `21-Permutation' and has `swabytes' for an alias.

`4321'
     This surface is available in `recode' under the name
     `4321-Permutation'.

File: recode.info,  Node: End lines,  Next: MIME,  Prev: Permutations,  Up: Surfaces

Representation for end of lines
===============================

   The same charset might slightly differ, from one system to another,
for the single fact that end of lines are not represented identically
on all systems.  The representation for an end of line within `recode'
is the `ASCII' or `UCS' code with value 10, or `LF'.  Other conventions
for representing end of lines are available through surfaces.

`CR'
     This convention is popular on Apple's Macintosh machines.  When
     this surface is applied, each line is terminated by `CR', which has
     `ASCII' value 13.  Unless the library is operating in strict mode,
     adding or removing the surface will in fact _exchange_ `CR' and
     `LF', for better reversibility.  However, in strict mode, the
     exchange does not happen, any `CR' will be copied verbatim while
     applying the surface, and any `LF' will be copied verbatim while
     removing it.

     This surface is available in `recode' under the name `CR', it does
     not have any aliases.  This is the implied surface for the Apple
     Macintosh related charsets.

`CR-LF'
     This convention is popular on Microsoft systems running on IBM PCs
     and compatible.  When this surface is applied, each line is
     terminated by a sequence of two characters: one `CR' followed by
     one `LF', in that order.

     For compatibility with oldish MS-DOS systems, removing a `CR-LF'
     surface will discard the first encountered `C-z', which has
     `ASCII' value 26, and everything following it in the text.  Adding
     this surface will not, however, append a `C-z' to the result.

     This surface is available in `recode' under the name `CR-LF' and
     has `cl' for an alias.  This is the implied surface for the IBM or
     Microsoft related charsets or code pages.

   Some other charsets might have their own representation for an end of
line, which is different from `LF'.  For example, this is the case of
various `EBCDIC' charsets, or `Icon-QNX'.  The recoding of end of lines
is intimately tied into such charsets, it is not available separately
as surfaces.

File: recode.info,  Node: MIME,  Next: Dump,  Prev: End lines,  Up: Surfaces

MIME contents encodings
=======================

   RFC 2045 defines two 7-bit surfaces, meant to prepare 8-bit messages
for transmission.  Base64 is especially usable for binary entities,
while Quoted-Printable is especially usable for text entities, in those
case the lower 128 characters of the underlying charset coincide with
ASCII.

`Base64'
     This surface is available in `recode' under the name `Base64',
     with `b64' and `64' as acceptable aliases.

`Quoted-Printable'
     This surface is available in `recode' under the name
     `Quoted-Printable', with `quote-printable' and `QP' as acceptable
     aliases.

   Note that `UTF-7', which may be also considered as a MIME surface,
is provided as a genuine charset instead, as it necessary relates to
`UCS-2' and nothing else.  *Note UTF-7::.

   A little historical note, also showing the three levels of
acceptance of Internet standards.  MIME changed from a "Proposed
Standard" (RFC 1341-1344, 1992) to a "Draft Standard" (RFC 1521-1523)
in 1993, and was _recycled_ as a "Draft Standard" in 1996-11.  It is
not yet a "Full Standard".

File: recode.info,  Node: Dump,  Next: Test,  Prev: MIME,  Up: Surfaces

Interpreted character dumps
===========================

   Dumps are surfaces meant to express, in ways which are a bit more
readable, the bit patterns used to represent characters.  They allow
the inspection or debugging of character streams, but also, they may
assist a bit the production of C source code which, once compiled,
would hold in memory a copy of the original coding.  However, `recode'
does not attempt, in any way, to produce complete C source files in
dumps.  User hand editing or `Makefile' trickery is still needed for
adding missing lines.  Dumps may be given in decimal, hexadecimal and
octal, and be based over chunks of either one, two or four eight-bit
bytes.  Formatting has been chosen to respect the C language syntax for
number constants, with commas and newlines inserted appropriately.

   However, when dumping two or four byte chunks, the last chunk may be
incomplete.  This is observable through the usage of narrower expression
for that last chunk only.  Such a shorter chunk would not be compiled
properly within a C initialiser, as all members of an array share a
single type, and so, have identical sizes.

`Octal-1'
     This surface corresponds to an octal expression of each input byte.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Octal-1', with `o1'
     and `o' as acceptable aliases.

`Octal-2'
     This surface corresponds to an octal expression of each pair of
     input bytes, except for the last pair, which may be short.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Octal-2' and has `o2'
     for an alias.

`Octal-4'
     This surface corresponds to an octal expression of each quadruple
     of input bytes, except for the last quadruple, which may be short.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Octal-4' and has `o4'
     for an alias.

`Decimal-1'
     This surface corresponds to an decimal expression of each input
     byte.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Decimal-1', with `d1'
     and `d' as acceptable aliases.

`Decimal-2'
     This surface corresponds to an decimal expression of each pair of
     input bytes, except for the last pair, which may be short.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Decimal-2' and has
     `d2' for an alias.

`Decimal-4'
     This surface corresponds to an decimal expression of each
     quadruple of input bytes, except for the last quadruple, which may
     be short.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Decimal-4' and has
     `d4' for an alias.

`Hexadecimal-1'
     This surface corresponds to an hexadecimal expression of each
     input byte.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Hexadecimal-1', with
     `x1' and `x' as acceptable aliases.

`Hexadecimal-2'
     This surface corresponds to an hexadecimal expression of each pair
     of input bytes, except for the last pair, which may be short.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Hexadecimal-2', with
     `x2' for an alias.

`Hexadecimal-4'
     This surface corresponds to an hexadecimal expression of each
     quadruple of input bytes, except for the last quadruple, which may
     be short.

     It is available in `recode' under the name `Hexadecimal-4', with
     `x4' for an alias.

   When removing a dump surface, that is, when reading a dump results
back into a sequence of bytes, the narrower expression for a short last
chunk is recognised, so dumping is a fully reversible operation.
However, in case you want to produce dumps by other means than through
`recode', beware that for decimal dumps, the library has to rely on the
number of spaces to establish the original byte size of the chunk.

   Although the library might report reversibility errors, removing a
dump surface is a rather forgiving process: one may mix bases, group a
variable number of data per source line, or use shorter chunks in
places other than at the far end.  Also, source lines not beginning
with a number are skipped.  So, `recode' should often be able to read a
whole C header file, wrapping the results of a previous dump, and
regenerate the original byte string.

File: recode.info,  Node: Test,  Prev: Dump,  Up: Surfaces

Artificial data for testing
===========================

   A few pseudo-surfaces exist to generate debugging data out of thin
air.  These surfaces are only meant for the expert `recode' user, and
are only useful in a few contexts, like for generating binary
permutations from the recoding or acting on them.

   Debugging surfaces, _when removed_, insert their generated data at
the beginning of the output stream, and copy all the input stream after
the generated data, unchanged.  This strange removal constraint comes
from the fact that debugging surfaces are usually specified in the
_before_ position instead of the _after_ position within a request.
With debugging surfaces, one often recodes file `/dev/null' in filter
mode.  Specifying many debugging surfaces at once has an accumulation
effect on the output, and since surfaces are removed from right to left,
each generating its data at the beginning of previous output, the net
effect is an _impression_ that debugging surfaces are generated from
left to right, each appending to the result of the previous.  In any
case, any real input data gets appended after what was generated.

`test7'
     When removed, this surface produces 128 single bytes, the first
     having value 0, the second having value 1, and so forth until all
     128 values have been generated.

`test8'
     When removed, this surface produces 256 single bytes, the first
     having value 0, the second having value 1, and so forth until all
     256 values have been generated.

`test15'
     When removed, this surface produces 64509 double bytes, the first
     having value 0, the second having value 1, and so forth until all
     values have been generated, but excluding risky `UCS-2' values,
     like all codes from the surrogate `UCS-2' area (for `UTF-16'), the
     byte order mark, and values known as invalid `UCS-2'.

`test16'
     When removed, this surface produces 65536 double bytes, the first
     having value 0, the second having value 1, and so forth until all
     65536 values have been generated.

   As an example, the command `recode l5/test8..dump < /dev/null' is a
convoluted way to produce an output similar to `recode -lf l5'.  It says
to generate all possible 256 bytes and interpret them as `ISO-8859-9'
codes, while converting them to `UCS-2'.  Resulting `UCS-2' characters
are dumped one per line, accompanied with their explicative name.

File: recode.info,  Node: Internals,  Next: Concept Index,  Prev: Surfaces,  Up: Top

Internal aspects
****************

   The incoming explanations of the internals of `recode' should help
people who want to dive into `recode' sources for adding new charsets.
Adding new charsets does not require much knowledge about the overall
organisation of `recode'.  You can rather concentrate of your new
charset, letting the remainder of the `recode' mechanics take care of
interconnecting it with all others charsets.

   If you intend to play seriously at modifying `recode', beware that
you may need some other GNU tools which were not required when you first
installing `recode'.  If you modify or create any `.l' file, then you
need Flex, and some better `awk' like `mawk', GNU `awk', or `nawk'.  If
you modify the documentation (and you should!), you need `makeinfo'.
If you are really audacious, you may also want Perl for modifying
tabular processing, then `m4', Autoconf, Automake and `libtool' for
adjusting configuration matters.

* Menu:

* Main flow::           Overall organisation
* New charsets::        Adding new charsets
* New surfaces::        Adding new surfaces
* Design::              Comments on the library design

File: recode.info,  Node: Main flow,  Next: New charsets,  Prev: Internals,  Up: Internals

Overall organisation
====================

   The `recode' mechanics slowly evolved for many years, and it would
be tedious to explain all problems I met and mistakes I did all along,
yielding the current behaviour.  Surely, one of the key choices was to
stop trying to do all conversions in memory, one line or one buffer at
a time.  It has been fruitful to use the character stream paradigm, and
the elementary recoding steps now convert a whole stream to another.
Most of the control complexity in `recode' exists so that each
elementary recoding step stays simple, making easier to add new ones.
The whole point of `recode', as I see it, is providing a comfortable
nest for growing new charset conversions.

   The main `recode' driver constructs, while initialising all
conversion modules, a table giving all the conversion routines
available ("single step"s) and for each, the starting charset and the
ending charset.  If we consider these charsets as being the nodes of a
directed graph, each single step may be considered as oriented arc from
one node to the other.  A cost is attributed to each arc: for example,
a high penalty is given to single steps which are prone to losing
characters, a lower penalty is given to those which need studying more
than one input character for producing an output character, etc.

   Given a starting code and a goal code, `recode' computes the most
economical route through the elementary recodings, that is, the best
sequence of conversions that will transform the input charset into the
final charset.  To speed up execution, `recode' looks for subsequences
of conversions which are simple enough to be merged, and then
dynamically creates new single steps to represent these mergings.

   A "double step" in `recode' is a special concept representing a
sequence of two single steps, the output of the first single step being
the special charset `UCS-2', the input of the second single step being
also `UCS-2'.  Special `recode' machinery dynamically produces
efficient, reversible, merge-able single steps out of these double
steps.

   I made some statistics about how many internal recoding steps are
required between any two charsets chosen at random.  The initial
recoding layout, before optimisation, always uses between 1 and 5
steps.  Optimisation could sometimes produce mere copies, which are
counted as no steps at all.  In other cases, optimisation is unable to
save any step.  The number of steps after optimisation is currently
between 0 and 5 steps.  Of course, the _expected_ number of steps is
affected by optimisation: it drops from 2.8 to 1.8.  This means that
`recode' uses a theoretical average of a bit less than one step per
recoding job.  This looks good.  This was computed using reversible
recodings.  In strict mode, optimisation might be defeated somewhat.
Number of steps run between 1 and 6, both before and after
optimisation, and the expected number of steps decreases by a lesser
amount, going from 2.2 to 1.3.  This is still manageable.

File: recode.info,  Node: New charsets,  Next: New surfaces,  Prev: Main flow,  Up: Internals

Adding new charsets
===================

   The main part of `recode' is written in C, as are most single steps.
A few single steps need to recognise sequences of multiple characters,
they are often better written in Flex.  It is easy for a programmer to
add a new charset to `recode'.  All it requires is making a few
functions kept in a single `.c' file, adjusting `Makefile.am' and
remaking `recode'.

   One of the function should convert from any previous charset to the
new one.  Any previous charset will do, but try to select it so you will
not lose too much information while converting.  The other function
should convert from the new charset to any older one.  You do not have
to select the same old charset than what you selected for the previous
routine.  Once again, select any charset for which you will not lose
too much information while converting.

   If, for any of these two functions, you have to read multiple bytes
of the old charset before recognising the character to produce, you
might prefer programming it in Flex in a separate `.l' file.  Prototype
your C or Flex files after one of those which exist already, so to keep
the sources uniform.  Besides, at `make' time, all `.l' files are
automatically merged into a single big one by the script `mergelex.awk'.

   There are a few hidden rules about how to write new `recode'
modules, for allowing the automatic creation of `decsteps.h' and
`initsteps.h' at `make' time, or the proper merging of all Flex files.
Mimetism is a simple approach which relieves me of explaining all these
rules!  Start with a module closely resembling what you intend to do.
Here is some advice for picking up a model.  First decide if your new
charset module is to be be driven by algorithms rather than by tables.
For algorithmic recodings, see `iconqnx.c' for C code, or `txtelat1.l'
for Flex code.  For table driven recodings, see `ebcdic.c' for
one-to-one style recodings, `lat1html.c' for one-to-many style
recodings, or `atarist.c' for double-step style recodings.  Just select
an example from the style that better fits your application.

   Each of your source files should have its own initialisation
function, named `module_CHARSET', which is meant to be executed
_quickly_ once, prior to any recoding.  It should declare the name of
your charsets and the single steps (or elementary recodings) you
provide, by calling `declare_step' one or more times.  Besides the
charset names, `declare_step' expects a description of the recoding
quality (see `recodext.h') and two functions you also provide.

   The first such function has the purpose of allocating structures,
pre-conditioning conversion tables, etc.  It is also the way of further
modifying the `STEP' structure.  This function is executed if and only
if the single step is retained in an actual recoding sequence.  If you
do not need such delayed initialisation, merely use `NULL' for the
function argument.

   The second function executes the elementary recoding on a whole file.
There are a few cases when you can spare writing this function:

   * Some single steps do nothing else than a pure copy of the input
     onto the output, in this case, you can use the predefined function
     `file_one_to_one', while having a delayed initialisation for
     presetting the `STEP' field `one_to_one' to the predefined value
     `one_to_same'.

   * Some single steps are driven by a table which recodes one
     character into another; if the recoding does nothing else, you can
     use the predefined function `file_one_to_one', while having a
     delayed initialisation for presetting the `STEP' field
     `one_to_one' with your table.

   * Some single steps are driven by a table which recodes one
     character into a string; if the recoding does nothing else, you
     can use the predefined function `file_one_to_many', while having a
     delayed initialisation for presetting the `STEP' field
     `one_to_many' with your table.

   If you have a recoding table handy in a suitable format but do not
use one of the predefined recoding functions, it is still a good idea
to use a delayed initialisation to save it anyway, because `recode'
option `-h' will take advantage of this information when available.

   Finally, edit `Makefile.am' to add the source file name of your
routines to the `C_STEPS' or `L_STEPS' macro definition, depending on
the fact your routines is written in C or in Flex.

File: recode.info,  Node: New surfaces,  Next: Design,  Prev: New charsets,  Up: Internals

Adding new surfaces
===================

   Adding a new surface is technically quite similar to adding a new
charset.  *Note New charsets::.  A surface is provided as a set of two
transformations: one from the predefined special charset `data' or
`tree' to the new surface, meant to apply the surface, the other from
the new surface to the predefined special charset `data' or `tree',
meant to remove the surface.

   Internally in `recode', function `declare_step' especially
recognises when a charset is so related to `data' or `tree', and then
takes appropriate actions so that charset gets indeed installed as a
surface.

File: recode.info,  Node: Design,  Prev: New surfaces,  Up: Internals

Comments on the library design
==============================

   * Why a shared library?

     There are many different approaches to reduce system requirements
     to handle all tables needed in the `recode' library.  One of them
     is to have the tables in an external format and only read them in
     on demand.  After having pondered this for a while, I finally
     decided against it, mainly because it involves its own kind of
     installation complexity, and it is not clear to me that it would
     be as interesting as I first imagined.

     It looks more efficient to see all tables and algorithms already
     mapped into virtual memory from the start of the execution, yet
     not loaded in actual memory, than to go through many disk accesses
     for opening various data files once the program is already
     started, as this would be needed with other solutions.  Using a
     shared library also has the indirect effect of making various
     algorithms handily available, right in the same modules providing
     the tables.  This alleviates much the burden of the maintenance.

     Of course, I would like to later make an exception for only a few
     tables, built locally by users for their own particular needs once
     `recode' is installed.  `recode' should just go and fetch them.
     But I do not perceive this as very urgent, yet useful enough to be
     worth implementing.

     Currently, all tables needed for recoding are precompiled into
     binaries, and all these binaries are then made into a shared
     library.  As an initial step, I turned `recode' into a main
     program and a non-shared library, this allowed me to tidy up the
     API, get rid of all global variables, etc.  It required a
     surprising amount of program source massaging.  But once this
     cleaned enough, it was easy to use Gordon Matzigkeit's `libtool'
     package, and take advantage of the Automake interface to neatly
     turn the non-shared library into a shared one.

     Sites linking with the `recode' library, whose system does not
     support any form of shared libraries, might end up with bulky
     executables.  Surely, the `recode' library will have to be used
     statically, and might not very nicely usable on such systems.  It
     seems that progress has a price for those being slow at it.

     There is a locality problem I did not address yet.  Currently, the
     `recode' library takes many cycles to initialise itself, calling
     each module in turn for it to set up associated knowledge about
     charsets, aliases, elementary steps, recoding weights, etc.
     _Then_, the recoding sequence is decided out of the command given.
     I would not be surprised if initialisation was taking a
     perceivable fraction of a second on slower machines.  One thing to
     do, most probably not right in version 3.5, but the version after,
     would have `recode' to pre-load all tables and dump them at
     installation time.  The result would then be compiled and added to
     the library.  This would spare many initialisation cycles, but more
     importantly, would avoid calling all library modules, scattered
     through the virtual memory, and so, possibly causing many spurious
     page exceptions each time the initialisation is requested, at
     least once per program execution.

   * Why not a central charset?

     It would be simpler, and I would like, if something like ISO 10646
     was used as a turning template for all charsets in `recode'.  Even
     if I think it could help to a certain extent, I'm still not fully
     sure it would be sufficient in all cases.  Moreover, some people
     disagree about using ISO 10646 as the central charset, to the
     point I cannot totally ignore them, and surely, `recode' is not a
     mean for me to force my own opinions on people.  I would like that
     `recode' be practical more than dogmatic, and reflect usage more
     than religions.

     Currently, if you ask `recode' to go from CHARSET1 to CHARSET2
     chosen at random, it is highly probable that the best path will be
     quickly found as:

          CHARSET1..`UCS-2'..CHARSET2

     That is, it will almost always use the `UCS' as a trampoline
     between charsets.  However, `UCS-2' will be immediately be
     optimised out, and CHARSET1..CHARSET2 will often be performed in a
     single step through a permutation table generated on the fly for
     the circumstance (1).

     In those few cases where `UCS-2' is not selected as a conceptual
     intermediate, I plan to study if it could be made so.  But I guess
     some cases will remain where `UCS-2' is not a proper choice.  Even
     if `UCS' is often the good choice, I do not intend to forcefully
     restrain `recode' around `UCS-2' (nor `UCS-4') for now.  We might
     come to that one day, but it will come out of the natural
     evolution of `recode'.  It will then reflect a fact, rather than a
     preset dogma.

   * Why not `iconv'?

     The `iconv' routine and library allows for converting characters
     from an input buffer to an input buffer, synchronously advancing
     both buffer cursors.  If the output buffer is not big enough to
     receive all of the conversion, the routine returns with the input
     cursor set at the position where the conversion could later be
     resumed, and the output cursor set to indicate until where the
     output buffer has been filled.  Despite this scheme is simple and
     nice, the `recode' library does not offer it currently.  Why not?

     When long sequences of decodings, stepwise recodings, and
     re-encodings are involved, as it happens in true life,
     synchronising the input buffer back to where it should have
     stopped, when the output buffer becomes full, is a difficult
     problem.  Oh, we could make it simpler at the expense of loosing
     space or speed: by inserting markers between each input character
     and counting them at the output end; by processing only one
     character in a time through the whole sequence; by repeatedly
     attempting to recode various subsets of the input buffer, binary
     searching on their length until the output just fits.  The
     overhead of such solutions looks fully prohibitive to me, and the
     gain very minimal.  I do not see a real advantage, nowadays,
     imposing a fixed length to an output buffer.  It makes things so
     much simpler and efficient to just let the output buffer size
     float a bit.

     Of course, if the above problem was solved, the `iconv' library
     should be easily emulated, given that `recode' has similar
     knowledge about charsets, of course.  This either solved or not,
     the `iconv' program remains trivial (given similar knowledge about
     charsets).  I also presume that the `genxlt' program would be easy
     too, but I do not have enough detailed specifications of it to be
     sure.

     A lot of years ago, `recode' was using a similar scheme, and I
     found it rather hard to manage for some cases.  I rethought the
     overall structure of `recode' for getting away from that scheme,
     and never regretted it.  I perceive `iconv' as an artificial
     solution which surely has some elegances and virtues, but I do not
     find it really useful as it stands: one always has to wrap `iconv'
     into something more refined, extending it for real cases.  From
     past experience, I think it is unduly hard to fully implement this
     scheme.  It would be awkward that we do contortions for the sole
     purpose of implementing exactly its specification, without real,
     fairly sounded reasons (other then the fact some people once
     thought it was worth standardising).  It is much better to
     immediately aim for the refinement we need, without uselessly
     forcing us into the dubious detour `iconv' represents.

     Some may argue that if `recode' was using a comprehensive charset
     as a turning template, as discussed in a previous point, this
     would make `iconv' easier to implement.  Some may be tempted to
     say that the cases which are hard to handle are not really needed,
     nor interesting, anyway.  I feel and fear a bit some pressure
     wanting that `recode' be split into the part that well fits the
     `iconv' model, and the part that does not fit, considering this
     second part less important, with the idea of dropping it one of
     these days, maybe.  My guess is that users of the `recode'
     library, whatever its form, would not like to have such arbitrary
     limitations.  In the long run, we should not have to explain to
     our users that some recodings may not be made available just
     because they do not fit the simple model we had in mind when we
     did it.  Instead, we should try to stay opened to the difficulties
     of real life.  There is still a lot of complex needs for Asian
     people, say, that `recode' does not currently address, while it
     should.  Not only the doors should stay open, but we should force
     them wider!

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) If strict mapping is requested, another efficient device will be
used instead of a permutation.

File: recode.info,  Node: Concept Index,  Next: Option Index,  Prev: Internals,  Up: Top

Concept Index
*************

* Menu:

* abbreviated names for charsets and surfaces: Requests.
* adding new charsets:                   New charsets.
* adding new surfaces:                   New surfaces.
* African charsets:                      African.
* aliases:                               Requests.
* alternate names for charsets and surfaces: Requests.
* ambiguous output, error message:       Errors.
* ASCII table, recreating with recode:   ASCII.
* average number of recoding steps:      Main flow.
* bool data type:                        Outer level.
* box-drawing characters:                Recoding.
* bug reports, where to send:            Contributing.
* byte order mark:                       UCS-2.
* byte order swapping:                   Permutations.
* caret ASCII code:                      CDC-NOS.
* CDC charsets:                          CDC.
* CDC Display Code, a table:             Display Code.
* chaining of charsets in a request:     Requests.
* character entities:                    HTML.
* character entity references:           HTML.
* character mnemonics, documentation:    Tabular.
* character streams, description:        dump-with-names.
* charset level functions:               Charset level.
* charset names, valid characters:       Requests.
* charset, default:                      Requests.
* charset, pure:                         Surface overview.
* charset, what it is:                   Introduction.
* charsets for CDC machines:             CDC.
* charsets, aliases:                     Requests.
* charsets, chaining in a request:       Requests.
* charsets, guessing:                    Listings.
* charsets, overview:                    Charset overview.
* chset tools:                           Tabular.
* codepages:                             IBM and MS.
* combining characters:                  UCS-2.
* commutativity of surfaces:             Requests.
* contributing charsets:                 Contributing.
* conversions, unavailable:              Charset overview.
* convert a subset of characters:        Mixed.
* convert strings and comments:          Mixed.
* copyright conditions, printing:        Listings.
* counting characters:                   count-characters.
* CR surface, in Macintosh charsets:     Apple-Mac.
* CR-LF surface, in IBM-PC charsets:     IBM-PC.
* Ctrl-Z, discarding:                    End lines.
* Cyrillic charsets:                     Others.
* debugging surfaces:                    Test.
* default charset:                       Requests.
* description of individual characters:  dump-with-names.
* details about recoding:                Recoding.
* deviations from RFC 1345:              Tabular.
* diacritics and underlines, removing:   flat.
* diacritics, with ASCII-BS charset:     ASCII-BS.
* diaeresis:                             Recoding.
* disable map filling:                   Reversibility.
* double step:                           Main flow.
* dumping characters:                    Dump.
* dumping characters, with description:  dump-with-names.
* Easy French:                           Texte.
* EBCDIC charsets:                       EBCDIC.
* end of line format:                    End lines.
* endiannes, changing:                   Permutations.
* entities:                              HTML.
* error handling:                        Errors.
* error level threshold:                 Errors.
* error messages:                        Errors.
* error messages, suppressing:           Reversibility.
* exceptions to available conversions:   Charset overview.
* file sequencing:                       Sequencing.
* file time stamps:                      Recoding.
* filter operation:                      Synopsis.
* force recoding:                        Reversibility.
* French description of charsets:        Listings.
* guessing charsets:                     Listings.
* Haible, Bruno:                         libiconv.
* handling errors:                       Errors.
* help page, printing:                   Listings.
* HTML:                                  HTML.
* HTML normalization:                    HTML.
* IBM codepages:                         IBM and MS.
* IBM graphics characters:               Recoding.
* iconv:                                 Design.
* iconv library:                         libiconv.
* identifying subsets in charsets:       Listings.
* ignore charsets:                       Recoding.
* implied surfaces:                      Requests.
* impossible conversions:                Charset overview.
* information about charsets:            Listings.
* initialisation functions, outer:       Outer level.
* initialisation functions, request:     Request level.
* initialisation functions, task:        Task level.
* interface, with iconv library:         libiconv.
* intermediate charsets:                 Requests.
* internal functions:                    Charset level.
* internal recoding bug, error message:  Errors.
* internals:                             Internals.
* invalid input, error message:          Errors.
* invocation of recode, synopsis:        Synopsis.
* irreversible recoding:                 Reversibility.
* ISO 10646:                             Universal.
* languages, programming:                Listings.
* LaTeX files:                           LaTeX.
* Latin charsets:                        ISO 8859.
* Latin-1 table, recreating with recode: ISO 8859.
* letter case, in charset and surface names: Requests.
* libiconv:                              libiconv.
* library, iconv:                        libiconv.
* listing charsets:                      Listings.
* Macintosh charset:                     Apple-Mac.
* map filling:                           Reversibility.
* map filling, disable:                  Reversibility.
* markup language:                       HTML.
* memory sequencing:                     Sequencing.
* MIME encodings:                        MIME.
* misuse of recoding library, error message: Errors.
* MS-DOS charsets:                       IBM-PC.
* MULE, in Emacs:                        Mule.
* multiplexed charsets:                  Mule.
* names of charsets and surfaces, abbreviation: Requests.
* new charsets, how to add:              New charsets.
* new surfaces, how to add:              New surfaces.
* NeXT charsets:                         Micros.
* non canonical input, error message:    Errors.
* normilise an HTML file:                HTML.
* NOS 6/12 code:                         CDC-NOS.
* numeric character references:          HTML.
* outer level functions:                 Outer level.
* partial conversion:                    Mixed.
* permutations of groups of bytes:       Permutations.
* pipe sequencing:                       Sequencing.
* program_name variable:                 Outer level.
* programming language support:          Listings.
* pseudo-charsets:                       Charset overview.
* pure charset:                          Surface overview.
* quality of recoding:                   Recoding.
* recode internals:                      Internals.
* recode request syntax:                 Requests.
* recode use, a tutorial:                Tutorial.
* recode version, printing:              Listings.
* recode, a Macintosh port:              Apple-Mac.
* recode, and RFC 1345:                  Tabular.
* recode, main flow of operation:        Main flow.
* recode, operation as filter:           Synopsis.
* recode, synopsis of invocation:        Synopsis.
* recoding details:                      Recoding.
* recoding library:                      Library.
* recoding path, rejection:              Recoding.
* recoding steps, statistics:            Main flow.
* removing diacritics and underlines:    flat.
* reporting bugs:                        Contributing.
* request level functions:               Request level.
* request, syntax:                       Requests.
* reversibility of recoding:             Reversibility.
* RFC 1345:                              Tabular.
* RFC 2045:                              MIME.
* sequencing:                            Sequencing.
* SGML:                                  HTML.
* shared library implementation:         Design.
* silent operation:                      Reversibility.
* single step:                           Main flow.
* source file generation:                Listings.
* stdbool.h header:                      Outer level.
* strict operation:                      Reversibility.
* string and comments conversion:        Mixed.
* structural surfaces:                   Surfaces.
* subsets in charsets:                   Listings.
* super-charsets:                        Mule.
* supported programming languages:       Listings.
* suppressing diagnostic messages:       Reversibility.
* surface, what it is <1>:               Surfaces.
* surface, what it is:                   Introduction.
* surfaces, aliases:                     Requests.
* surfaces, commutativity:               Requests.
* surfaces, implementation in recode:    Surfaces.
* surfaces, implied:                     Requests.
* surfaces, overview:                    Surface overview.
* surfaces, structural:                  Surfaces.
* surfaces, syntax:                      Requests.
* surfaces, trees:                       Surfaces.
* system detected problem, error message: Errors.
* task execution:                        Task level.
* task level functions:                  Task level.
* TeX files:                             LaTeX.
* Texinfo files:                         Texinfo.
* threshold for error reporting:         Errors.
* time stamps of files:                  Recoding.
* trivial surface:                       Surfaces.
* tutorial:                              Tutorial.
* unavailable conversions:               Charset overview.
* Unicode:                               UCS-2.
* unknown charsets:                      Listings.
* unreachable charsets:                  Charset overview.
* untranslatable input, error message:   Errors.
* valid characters in charset names:     Requests.
* verbose operation:                     Recoding.
* Vietnamese charsets:                   Vietnamese.
* Web:                                   HTML.
* World Wide Web:                        HTML.
* WWW:                                   HTML.
* XML:                                   HTML.

File: recode.info,  Node: Option Index,  Next: Library Index,  Prev: Concept Index,  Up: Top

Option Index
************

   This is an alphabetical list of all command-line options accepted by
`recode'.

* Menu:

* --colons:                              Recoding.
* --copyright:                           Listings.
* --diacritics:                          Mixed.
* --find-subsets:                        Listings.
* --force:                               Reversibility.
* --graphics:                            Recoding.
* --header:                              Listings.
* --help:                                Listings.
* --ignore:                              Recoding.
* --known=:                              Listings.
* --list:                                Listings.
* --quiet:                               Reversibility.
* --sequence:                            Sequencing.
* --silent:                              Reversibility.
* --source:                              Mixed.
* --strict:                              Reversibility.
* --touch:                               Recoding.
* --verbose:                             Recoding.
* --version:                             Listings.
* -c:                                    Recoding.
* -C:                                    Listings.
* -d:                                    Mixed.
* -f:                                    Reversibility.
* -g:                                    Recoding.
* -h:                                    Listings.
* -i:                                    Sequencing.
* -k:                                    Listings.
* -l:                                    Listings.
* -p:                                    Sequencing.
* -q:                                    Reversibility.
* -S:                                    Mixed.
* -s:                                    Reversibility.
* -t:                                    Recoding.
* -T:                                    Listings.
* -v:                                    Recoding.
* -x:                                    Recoding.

File: recode.info,  Node: Library Index,  Next: Charset and Surface Index,  Prev: Option Index,  Up: Top

Library Index
*************

   This is an alphabetical index of important functions, data
structures, and variables in the `recode' library.

* Menu:

* abort_level:                           Task level.
* ascii_graphics:                        Request level.
* byte_order_mark:                       Task level.
* declare_step:                          New surfaces.
* DEFAULT_CHARSET:                       Requests.
* diacritics_only:                       Request level.
* diaeresis_char:                        Request level.
* error_so_far:                          Task level.
* fail_level:                            Task level.
* file_one_to_many:                      New charsets.
* file_one_to_one:                       New charsets.
* find_charset:                          Charset level.
* LANG, when listing charsets:           Listings.
* LANGUAGE, when listing charsets:       Listings.
* list_all_charsets:                     Charset level.
* list_concise_charset:                  Charset level.
* list_full_charset:                     Charset level.
* make_header_flag:                      Request level.
* RECODE_AMBIGUOUS_OUTPUT:               Errors.
* recode_buffer_to_buffer:               Request level.
* recode_buffer_to_file:                 Request level.
* recode_delete_outer:                   Outer level.
* recode_delete_request:                 Request level.
* recode_delete_task:                    Task level.
* recode_file_to_buffer:                 Request level.
* recode_file_to_file:                   Request level.
* recode_filter_close:                   Task level.
* recode_filter_close, not available:    Request level.
* recode_filter_open:                    Task level.
* recode_filter_open, not available:     Request level.
* recode_format_table:                   Request level.
* RECODE_INTERNAL_ERROR:                 Errors.
* RECODE_INVALID_INPUT:                  Errors.
* RECODE_MAXIMUM_ERROR <1>:              Errors.
* RECODE_MAXIMUM_ERROR:                  Task level.
* recode_new_outer:                      Outer level.
* recode_new_request:                    Request level.
* recode_new_task:                       Task level.
* RECODE_NO_ERROR:                       Errors.
* RECODE_NOT_CANONICAL:                  Errors.
* RECODE_OUTER structure:                Outer level.
* recode_perform_task:                   Task level.
* recode_request structure:              Request level.
* RECODE_REQUEST structure:              Request level.
* recode_scan_request:                   Request level.
* RECODE_SEQUENCE_IN_MEMORY:             Task level.
* RECODE_SEQUENCE_WITH_FILES:            Task level.
* RECODE_SEQUENCE_WITH_PIPE:             Task level.
* RECODE_STRATEGY_UNDECIDED:             Task level.
* recode_string:                         Request level.
* recode_string_to_buffer:               Request level.
* recode_string_to_file:                 Request level.
* RECODE_SYSTEM_ERROR:                   Errors.
* RECODE_TASK structure:                 Task level.
* RECODE_UNTRANSLATABLE:                 Errors.
* RECODE_USER_ERROR:                     Errors.
* strategy:                              Task level.
* task_request structure:                Task level.
* verbose_flag:                          Request level.

File: recode.info,  Node: Charset and Surface Index,  Prev: Library Index,  Up: Top

Charset and Surface Index
*************************

   This is an alphabetical list of all the charsets and surfaces
supported by `recode', and their aliases.

* Menu:

* 037:                                   Tabular.
* 038:                                   Tabular.
* 1004:                                  Tabular.
* 1026:                                  Tabular.
* 1047:                                  Tabular.
* 10646:                                 UCS-4.
* 1129, not available:                   Vietnamese.
* 1250:                                  Tabular.
* 1251:                                  Tabular.
* 1252:                                  Tabular.
* 1253:                                  Tabular.
* 1254:                                  Tabular.
* 1255:                                  Tabular.
* 1256:                                  Tabular.
* 1257:                                  Tabular.
* 1258, not available:                   Vietnamese.
* 1345:                                  Tabular.
* 1866:                                  HTML.
* 2070:                                  HTML.
* 21-Permutation:                        Permutations.
* 256:                                   Tabular.
* 273:                                   Tabular.
* 274:                                   Tabular.
* 275:                                   Tabular.
* 278:                                   Tabular.
* 280:                                   Tabular.
* 281:                                   Tabular.
* 284:                                   Tabular.
* 285:                                   Tabular.
* 290:                                   Tabular.
* 297:                                   Tabular.
* 367:                                   Tabular.
* 420:                                   Tabular.
* 423:                                   Tabular.
* 424:                                   Tabular.
* 4321-Permutation:                      Permutations.
* 437:                                   Tabular.
* 500:                                   Tabular.
* 500V1:                                 Tabular.
* 64:                                    MIME.
* 819:                                   Tabular.
* 850 <1>:                               Tabular.
* 850:                                   libiconv.
* 851:                                   Tabular.
* 852:                                   Tabular.
* 855:                                   Tabular.
* 857:                                   Tabular.
* 860:                                   Tabular.
* 861:                                   Tabular.
* 862:                                   Tabular.
* 863:                                   Tabular.
* 864:                                   Tabular.
* 865:                                   Tabular.
* 866:                                   libiconv.
* 868:                                   Tabular.
* 869:                                   Tabular.
* 870:                                   Tabular.
* 871:                                   Tabular.
* 875:                                   Tabular.
* 880:                                   Tabular.
* 891:                                   Tabular.
* 903:                                   Tabular.
* 904:                                   Tabular.
* 905:                                   Tabular.
* 912:                                   Tabular.
* 918:                                   Tabular.
* AFRFUL-102-BPI_OCIL, and aliases:      African.
* AFRFUL-103-BPI_OCIL, and aliases:      African.
* AFRL1-101-BPI_OCIL:                    African.
* AFRLIN-104-BPI_OCIL:                   African.
* AFRLIN-105-BPI_OCIL:                   African.
* ANSI_X3.110-1983, not recognised by recode: Tabular.
* ANSI_X3.4-1968:                        libiconv.
* ANSI_X3.4-1968, aliases and source:    Tabular.
* ANSI_X3.4-1968, and its aliases:       ASCII.
* ANSI_X3.4-1986:                        Tabular.
* Apple-Mac:                             Apple-Mac.
* arabic:                                Tabular.
* ARABIC:                                libiconv.
* arabic7:                               Tabular.
* ARMSCII-8:                             libiconv.
* ASCII <1>:                             Tabular.
* ASCII:                                 libiconv.
* ASCII, an alias for the ANSI_X3.4-1968 charset: ASCII.
* ASCII-BS, and its aliases:             ASCII-BS.
* ASMO-708 <1>:                          Tabular.
* ASMO-708:                              libiconv.
* ASMO_449, aliases and source:          Tabular.
* AtariST:                               AtariST.
* b64:                                   MIME.
* baltic, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* bambara:                               African.
* Bang-Bang:                             Bang-Bang.
* Base64:                                MIME.
* BIG-5:                                 libiconv.
* BIG-FIVE:                              libiconv.
* BIG5, aliases:                         libiconv.
* BIG5HKSCS:                             libiconv.
* BIGFIVE:                               libiconv.
* BMP:                                   UCS-2.
* bra:                                   African.
* BS, an alias for ASCII-BS charset:     ASCII-BS.
* BS_4730, aliases and source:           Tabular.
* BS_viewdata, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* ca:                                    Tabular.
* CDC-NOS, and its aliases:              CDC-NOS.
* CHAR:                                  libiconv.
* CHINESE:                               libiconv.
* cl:                                    End lines.
* cn:                                    Tabular.
* CN:                                    libiconv.
* CN-BIG5:                               libiconv.
* CN-GB:                                 libiconv.
* CN-GB-ISOIR165:                        libiconv.
* combined-UCS-2:                        UCS-2.
* CORK:                                  Others.
* count-characters:                      count-characters.
* count-characters, not as before charset: Charset overview.
* cp-ar:                                 Tabular.
* cp-gr:                                 Tabular.
* cp-hu:                                 Tabular.
* cp-is:                                 Tabular.
* CP037:                                 Tabular.
* CP038:                                 Tabular.
* CP1004:                                Tabular.
* CP1026:                                Tabular.
* CP1047:                                Tabular.
* CP1129, not available:                 Vietnamese.
* CP1133, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1250, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1250, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* CP1251, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1251, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* CP1252, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1252, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* CP1253, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1253, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* CP1254, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1254, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* CP1255, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1255, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* CP1256, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1256, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* CP1257, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1257, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* CP1258, aliases:                       libiconv.
* CP1258, not available:                 Vietnamese.
* CP1361:                                libiconv.
* CP256:                                 Tabular.
* CP273:                                 Tabular.
* CP274:                                 Tabular.
* CP275:                                 Tabular.
* CP278:                                 Tabular.
* CP280:                                 Tabular.
* CP281:                                 Tabular.
* CP284:                                 Tabular.
* CP285:                                 Tabular.
* CP290:                                 Tabular.
* CP297:                                 Tabular.
* cp367:                                 ASCII.
* CP367 <1>:                             Tabular.
* CP367:                                 libiconv.
* CP420:                                 Tabular.
* CP423:                                 Tabular.
* CP424:                                 Tabular.
* CP437:                                 Tabular.
* CP500:                                 Tabular.
* CP819 <1>:                             Tabular.
* CP819:                                 libiconv.
* CP850:                                 Tabular.
* CP850, aliases:                        libiconv.
* CP851:                                 Tabular.
* CP852:                                 Tabular.
* CP855:                                 Tabular.
* CP857:                                 Tabular.
* CP860:                                 Tabular.
* CP861:                                 Tabular.
* CP862:                                 Tabular.
* CP863:                                 Tabular.
* CP864:                                 Tabular.
* CP865:                                 Tabular.
* CP866, aliases:                        libiconv.
* CP868:                                 Tabular.
* CP869:                                 Tabular.
* CP870:                                 Tabular.
* CP871:                                 Tabular.
* CP874, aliases:                        libiconv.
* CP875:                                 Tabular.
* CP880:                                 Tabular.
* CP891:                                 Tabular.
* CP903:                                 Tabular.
* CP904:                                 Tabular.
* CP905:                                 Tabular.
* CP912:                                 Tabular.
* CP918:                                 Tabular.
* CP932:                                 libiconv.
* CP936:                                 libiconv.
* CP949, aliases:                        libiconv.
* CP950:                                 libiconv.
* CR, a surface:                         End lines.
* CR-LF, a surface:                      End lines.
* csa7-1:                                Tabular.
* csa7-2:                                Tabular.
* CSA_Z243.4-1985-1, aliases and source: Tabular.
* CSA_Z243.4-1985-2, aliases and source: Tabular.
* CSA_Z243.4-1985-gr, aliases and source: Tabular.
* csASCII:                               libiconv.
* csBig5:                                libiconv.
* csEUCKR:                               libiconv.
* csEUCPkdFmtJapanese:                   libiconv.
* csEUCTW:                               libiconv.
* csGB2312:                              libiconv.
* csHalfWidthKatakana:                   libiconv.
* csHPRoman8:                            libiconv.
* csIBM866:                              libiconv.
* csISO14JISC6220ro:                     libiconv.
* csISO159JISX02121990:                  libiconv.
* csISO2022CN:                           libiconv.
* csISO2022JP:                           libiconv.
* csISO2022JP2:                          libiconv.
* csISO2022KR:                           libiconv.
* csISO57GB1988:                         libiconv.
* csISO58GB231280:                       libiconv.
* csISO87JISX0208:                       libiconv.
* csISOLatin1:                           libiconv.
* csISOLatin2:                           libiconv.
* csISOLatin3:                           libiconv.
* csISOLatin4:                           libiconv.
* csISOLatin5:                           libiconv.
* csISOLatin6:                           libiconv.
* csISOLatinArabic:                      libiconv.
* csISOLatinCyrillic:                    libiconv.
* csISOLatinGreek:                       libiconv.
* csISOLatinHebrew:                      libiconv.
* csKOI8R:                               libiconv.
* csKSC56011987:                         libiconv.
* csMacintosh:                           libiconv.
* CSN_369103, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* csPC850Multilingual:                   libiconv.
* csShiftJIS:                            libiconv.
* csUCS4:                                libiconv.
* csUnicode:                             libiconv.
* csUnicode11:                           libiconv.
* csUnicode11UTF7:                       libiconv.
* csVISCII:                              libiconv.
* cuba:                                  Tabular.
* CWI, aliases and source:               Tabular.
* CWI-2:                                 Tabular.
* cyrillic:                              Tabular.
* CYRILLIC:                              libiconv.
* d1:                                    Dump.
* d2:                                    Dump.
* d4:                                    Dump.
* data, a special charset:               Surfaces.
* data, not with charsets:               Charset overview.
* de:                                    Tabular.
* dec:                                   Tabular.
* DEC-MCS, aliases and source:           Tabular.
* Decimal-1:                             Dump.
* Decimal-2:                             Dump.
* Decimal-4:                             Dump.
* DIN_66003, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* dk:                                    Tabular.
* dk-us, not recognised by recode:       Tabular.
* dos:                                   IBM-PC.
* DS2089:                                Tabular.
* DS_2089, aliases and source:           Tabular.
* dump-with-names:                       dump-with-names.
* dump-with-names, not as before charset: Charset overview.
* e13b:                                  Tabular.
* EBCDIC, a charset:                     EBCDIC.
* EBCDIC-AT-DE, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* EBCDIC-AT-DE-A, aliases and source:    Tabular.
* EBCDIC-BE:                             Tabular.
* EBCDIC-BR:                             Tabular.
* EBCDIC-CA-FR, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* EBCDIC-CCC:                            EBCDIC.
* ebcdic-cp-ar1:                         Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-ar2:                         Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-be:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-ca:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-ch:                          Tabular.
* EBCDIC-CP-DK:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-es:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-fi:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-fr:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-gb:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-gr:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-he:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-is:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-it:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-nl:                          Tabular.
* EBCDIC-CP-NO:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-roece:                       Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-se:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-tr:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-us:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-wt:                          Tabular.
* ebcdic-cp-yu:                          Tabular.
* EBCDIC-Cyrillic:                       Tabular.
* EBCDIC-DK-NO, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* EBCDIC-DK-NO-A, aliases and source:    Tabular.
* EBCDIC-ES, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* EBCDIC-ES-A, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* EBCDIC-ES-S, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* EBCDIC-FI-SE, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* EBCDIC-FI-SE-A, aliases and source:    Tabular.
* EBCDIC-FR, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* EBCDIC-Greek:                          Tabular.
* EBCDIC-IBM:                            EBCDIC.
* EBCDIC-INT:                            Tabular.
* EBCDIC-INT1:                           Tabular.
* EBCDIC-IS-FRISS, aliases and source:   Tabular.
* EBCDIC-IT, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* EBCDIC-JP-E:                           Tabular.
* EBCDIC-JP-kana:                        Tabular.
* EBCDIC-PT, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* EBCDIC-UK, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* EBCDIC-US, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* ECMA-113:                              Tabular.
* ECMA-113(1986):                        Tabular.
* ECMA-114 <1>:                          Tabular.
* ECMA-114:                              libiconv.
* ECMA-118 <1>:                          Tabular.
* ECMA-118:                              libiconv.
* ECMA-cyrillic, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* ELOT_928 <1>:                          Tabular.
* ELOT_928:                              libiconv.
* ES, aliases and source:                Tabular.
* ES2, aliases and source:               Tabular.
* EUC-CN, aliases:                       libiconv.
* EUC-JP, aliases:                       libiconv.
* EUC-KR, aliases:                       libiconv.
* EUC-TW, aliases:                       libiconv.
* EUC_CN:                                libiconv.
* EUC_JP:                                libiconv.
* EUC_KR:                                libiconv.
* EUC_TW:                                libiconv.
* EUCCN:                                 libiconv.
* EUCJP:                                 libiconv.
* EUCKR:                                 libiconv.
* EUCTW:                                 libiconv.
* ewondo:                                African.
* Extended_UNIX_Code_Packed_Format_for_Japanese: libiconv.
* FI:                                    Tabular.
* flat, a charset:                       flat.
* flat, not as before charset:           Charset overview.
* fr:                                    Tabular.
* friss:                                 Tabular.
* FSS_UTF:                               UTF-8.
* fulfude:                               African.
* gb:                                    Tabular.
* GB18030:                               libiconv.
* GB2312:                                libiconv.
* GB2312.1980-0:                         libiconv.
* GB_1988-80, aliases:                   libiconv.
* GB_1988-80, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* GB_2312-80, aliases:                   libiconv.
* GB_2312-80, not recognised by recode:  Tabular.
* GBK, aliases:                          libiconv.
* Georgian-Academy:                      libiconv.
* Georgian-PS:                           libiconv.
* GOST_19768-74:                         Tabular.
* GOST_19768-87, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* greek:                                 Tabular.
* GREEK:                                 libiconv.
* greek-ccitt, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* greek7, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* greek7-old, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* greek8:                                Tabular.
* GREEK8:                                libiconv.
* h:                                     HTML.
* h0:                                    HTML.
* h1:                                    HTML.
* h2:                                    HTML.
* h3:                                    HTML.
* h4:                                    HTML.
* hebrew:                                Tabular.
* HEBREW:                                libiconv.
* Hexadecimal-1:                         Dump.
* Hexadecimal-2:                         Dump.
* Hexadecimal-4:                         Dump.
* HP-ROMAN8, aliases:                    libiconv.
* hp-roman8, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* HTML-i18n:                             HTML.
* HTML_1.1:                              HTML.
* HTML_2.0:                              HTML.
* HTML_3.2:                              HTML.
* hu:                                    Tabular.
* HZ, aliases:                           libiconv.
* HZ-GB-2312:                            libiconv.
* IBM-CP1133:                            libiconv.
* IBM-PC:                                IBM-PC.
* IBM-PC charset, and CR-LF surface:     Requests.
* IBM037, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM038, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM1004, aliases and source:           Tabular.
* IBM1026, aliases and source:           Tabular.
* IBM1047, aliases and source:           Tabular.
* IBM256, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM273, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM274, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM275, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM277, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM278, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM280, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM281, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM284, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM285, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM290, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM297, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM367 <1>:                            ASCII.
* IBM367 <2>:                            Tabular.
* IBM367:                                libiconv.
* IBM420, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM423, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM424, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* ibm437:                                IBM-PC.
* IBM437, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM500, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM819 <1>:                            Tabular.
* IBM819:                                libiconv.
* IBM819, and CR-LF surface:             IBM-PC.
* IBM850:                                libiconv.
* IBM850, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM851, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM852, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM855, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM857, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM860, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM861, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM862, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM863, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM864, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM865, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM866:                                libiconv.
* IBM868, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM869, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM870, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM871, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM875, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM880, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM891, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM903, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM904, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM905, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* IBM912:                                Tabular.
* IBM918, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* Icon-QNX, and aliases:                 Icon-QNX.
* IEC_P27-1, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* INIS, aliases and source:              Tabular.
* INIS-8, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* INIS-cyrillic, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* INVARIANT, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* irv:                                   Tabular.
* ISO-10646-UCS-2:                       libiconv.
* ISO-10646-UCS-2, and aliases:          UCS-2.
* ISO-10646-UCS-4:                       libiconv.
* ISO-10646-UCS-4, and aliases:          UCS-4.
* ISO-2022-CN, aliases:                  libiconv.
* ISO-2022-CN-EXT:                       libiconv.
* ISO-2022-JP, aliases:                  libiconv.
* ISO-2022-JP-1:                         libiconv.
* ISO-2022-JP-2, aliases:                libiconv.
* ISO-2022-KR, aliases:                  libiconv.
* ISO-8859-1, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-1, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* ISO-8859-10, aliases:                  libiconv.
* ISO-8859-10, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* ISO-8859-13, aliases:                  libiconv.
* ISO-8859-13, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* ISO-8859-14, aliases:                  libiconv.
* ISO-8859-14, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* ISO-8859-15, aliases:                  libiconv.
* ISO-8859-15, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* ISO-8859-16, aliases:                  libiconv.
* ISO-8859-2, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-2, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* ISO-8859-3, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-3, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* ISO-8859-4, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-4, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* ISO-8859-5, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-5, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* ISO-8859-6, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-6, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* ISO-8859-7, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-7, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* ISO-8859-8, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-8, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* ISO-8859-9, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-8859-9, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* iso-baltic:                            Tabular.
* iso-celtic:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-10:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-100:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-100:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-101:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-101:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-102:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-109:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-109:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-11:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-110:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-110:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-111:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-121:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-122:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-123:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-126:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-126:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-127:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-127:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-13:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-138:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-138:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-139:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-14:                             Tabular.
* ISO-IR-14:                             libiconv.
* iso-ir-141:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-143:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-144:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-144:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-146:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-147:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-148:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-148:                            libiconv.
* ISO-IR-149:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-15:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-150:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-151:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-152:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-153:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-154:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-155:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-157:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-157:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-158:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-159:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-16:                             Tabular.
* ISO-IR-165, aliases:                   libiconv.
* ISO-IR-166:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-17:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-170:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-179:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-179:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-179a:                           Tabular.
* iso-ir-18:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-19:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-199:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-199:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-2:                              Tabular.
* iso-ir-203:                            Tabular.
* ISO-IR-203:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-21:                             Tabular.
* ISO-IR-226:                            libiconv.
* iso-ir-25:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-27:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-37:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-4:                              Tabular.
* iso-ir-47:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-49:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-50:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-51:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-54:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-55:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-57:                             Tabular.
* ISO-IR-57:                             libiconv.
* ISO-IR-58:                             libiconv.
* iso-ir-6 <1>:                          ASCII.
* iso-ir-6:                              Tabular.
* ISO-IR-6:                              libiconv.
* iso-ir-60:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-61:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-69:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-8-1:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-8-2:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-84:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-85:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-86:                             Tabular.
* ISO-IR-87:                             libiconv.
* iso-ir-88:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-89:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-9-1:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-9-2:                            Tabular.
* iso-ir-90, not recognised by recode:   Tabular.
* iso-ir-93:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-94:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-95:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-96:                             Tabular.
* iso-ir-98:                             Tabular.
* ISO2022CN:                             libiconv.
* ISO2022JP:                             libiconv.
* ISO2022KR:                             libiconv.
* ISO646-CA:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-CA2:                            Tabular.
* ISO646-CN <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO646-CN:                             libiconv.
* ISO646-CU:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-DE:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-DK:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-ES:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-ES2:                            Tabular.
* ISO646-FI:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-FR:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-FR1:                            Tabular.
* ISO646-GB:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-HU:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-IT:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-JP <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO646-JP:                             libiconv.
* ISO646-JP-OCR-B:                       Tabular.
* ISO646-KR:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-NO:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-NO2:                            Tabular.
* ISO646-PT:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-PT2:                            Tabular.
* ISO646-SE:                             Tabular.
* ISO646-SE2:                            Tabular.
* ISO646-US <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO646-US:                             libiconv.
* ISO646-YU:                             Tabular.
* ISO646.1991-IRV:                       libiconv.
* ISO8859-1 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-1:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859-10 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO8859-10:                            libiconv.
* ISO8859-13:                            Tabular.
* ISO8859-14:                            Tabular.
* ISO8859-15:                            Tabular.
* ISO8859-2 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-2:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859-3 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-3:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859-4 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-4:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859-5 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-5:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859-6 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-6:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859-7 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-7:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859-8 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-8:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859-9 <1>:                         Tabular.
* ISO8859-9:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_1:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_2:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_3:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_4:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_5:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_6:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_7:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_8:                             libiconv.
* ISO8859_9:                             libiconv.
* ISO_10367-box, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* ISO_10646:                             UCS-4.
* ISO_2033-1983, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* ISO_5427(1981):                        Tabular.
* ISO_5427, aliases and source:          Tabular.
* ISO_5427-ext, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* ISO_5428(1980):                        Tabular.
* ISO_5428, aliases and source:          Tabular.
* ISO_646.basic(1983):                   Tabular.
* ISO_646.basic, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* ISO_646.irv(1983):                     Tabular.
* ISO_646.irv(1991):                     Tabular.
* ISO_646.IRV(1991):                     libiconv.
* ISO_646.irv, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* ISO_6937-2-25, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* ISO_6937-2-add, not recognised by recode: Tabular.
* ISO_8859-1 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-1:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-1(1987) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-1(1987):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-10 <1>:                       Tabular.
* ISO_8859-10:                           libiconv.
* ISO_8859-10(1992):                     libiconv.
* ISO_8859-10(1993):                     Tabular.
* ISO_8859-13 <1>:                       Tabular.
* ISO_8859-13:                           libiconv.
* ISO_8859-13(1998):                     Tabular.
* ISO_8859-14 <1>:                       Tabular.
* ISO_8859-14:                           libiconv.
* ISO_8859-14(1998) <1>:                 Tabular.
* ISO_8859-14(1998):                     libiconv.
* ISO_8859-15 <1>:                       Tabular.
* ISO_8859-15:                           libiconv.
* ISO_8859-15(1998) <1>:                 Tabular.
* ISO_8859-15(1998):                     libiconv.
* ISO_8859-16:                           libiconv.
* ISO_8859-16(2000):                     libiconv.
* ISO_8859-2 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-2:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-2(1987) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-2(1987):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-3 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-3:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-3(1988) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-3(1988):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-4 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-4:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-4(1988) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-4(1988):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-5 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-5:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-5(1988) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-5(1988):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-6 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-6:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-6(1987) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-6(1987):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-7 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-7:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-7(1987) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-7(1987):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-8 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-8:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-8(1988) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-8(1988):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-9 <1>:                        Tabular.
* ISO_8859-9:                            libiconv.
* ISO_8859-9(1989) <1>:                  Tabular.
* ISO_8859-9(1989):                      libiconv.
* ISO_8859-supp, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* ISO_9036:                              Tabular.
* isoir91:                               Tabular.
* isoir92:                               Tabular.
* IT, aliases and source:                Tabular.
* JAVA:                                  libiconv.
* JIS0201:                               libiconv.
* JIS0208:                               libiconv.
* JIS0212:                               libiconv.
* JIS_C6220-1969:                        Tabular.
* JIS_C6220-1969-jp, aliases and source: Tabular.
* JIS_C6220-1969-RO, aliases:            libiconv.
* JIS_C6220-1969-ro, aliases and source: Tabular.
* JIS_C6226-1978, not recognised by recode: Tabular.
* JIS_C6229-1984-a, aliases and source:  Tabular.
* JIS_C6229-1984-b, aliases and source:  Tabular.
* JIS_C6229-1984-b-add, aliases and source: Tabular.
* JIS_C6229-1984-hand, aliases and source: Tabular.
* JIS_C6229-1984-hand-add, aliases and source: Tabular.
* JIS_C6229-1984-kana, aliases and source: Tabular.
* JIS_X0201, aliases:                    libiconv.
* JIS_X0201, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* JIS_X0208, aliases:                    libiconv.
* JIS_X0208-1983:                        libiconv.
* JIS_X0208-1990:                        libiconv.
* JIS_X0212, aliases:                    libiconv.
* JIS_X0212-1990:                        libiconv.
* JIS_X0212-1990, not recognised by recode: Tabular.
* JIS_X0212.1990-0:                      libiconv.
* JISX0201-1976:                         libiconv.
* JISX0201.1976-0:                       libiconv.
* JISX0208.1983-0:                       libiconv.
* JISX0208.1990-0:                       libiconv.
* JISX0212.1990-0:                       libiconv.
* JOHAB, aliases:                        libiconv.
* jp:                                    Tabular.
* JP:                                    libiconv.
* jp-ocr-a:                              Tabular.
* jp-ocr-b:                              Tabular.
* jp-ocr-b-add:                          Tabular.
* jp-ocr-hand:                           Tabular.
* jp-ocr-hand-add:                       Tabular.
* js:                                    Tabular.
* JUS_I.B1.002, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* JUS_I.B1.003-mac, aliases and source:  Tabular.
* JUS_I.B1.003-serb, aliases and source: Tabular.
* Kamenicky:                             Others.
* katakana:                              Tabular.
* KEYBCS2:                               Others.
* KOI-7, aliases and source:             Tabular.
* KOI-8, aliases and source:             Tabular.
* KOI-8_CS2:                             Others.
* KOI-8_L2:                              Tabular.
* KOI8-R, aliases:                       libiconv.
* KOI8-R, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* KOI8-RU:                               libiconv.
* KOI8-RU, aliases and source:           Tabular.
* KOI8-U:                                libiconv.
* KOI8-U, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* koi8l2:                                Tabular.
* KOREAN:                                libiconv.
* KS_C_5601-1987:                        libiconv.
* KS_C_5601-1987, not recognised by recode: Tabular.
* KS_C_5601-1989:                        libiconv.
* KSC5601.1987-0:                        libiconv.
* KSC5636, aliases and source:           Tabular.
* KSC_5601, aliases:                     libiconv.
* KSX1001(1992):                         libiconv.
* l1:                                    Tabular.
* L1:                                    libiconv.
* l2:                                    Tabular.
* L2:                                    libiconv.
* l3:                                    Tabular.
* L3:                                    libiconv.
* l4:                                    Tabular.
* L4:                                    libiconv.
* l5:                                    Tabular.
* L5:                                    libiconv.
* L6 <1>:                                Tabular.
* L6:                                    libiconv.
* l7:                                    Tabular.
* L7:                                    libiconv.
* l8:                                    Tabular.
* L8:                                    libiconv.
* l9:                                    Tabular.
* lap:                                   Tabular.
* LaTeX, a charset:                      LaTeX.
* Latin-1:                               ISO 8859.
* latin-greek, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* Latin-greek-1, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* latin-lap:                             Tabular.
* latin1:                                Tabular.
* LATIN1:                                libiconv.
* latin1-2-5:                            Tabular.
* latin2:                                Tabular.
* LATIN2:                                libiconv.
* latin3:                                Tabular.
* LATIN3:                                libiconv.
* latin4:                                Tabular.
* LATIN4:                                libiconv.
* latin5:                                Tabular.
* LATIN5:                                libiconv.
* latin6:                                Tabular.
* LATIN6:                                libiconv.
* latin7:                                Tabular.
* LATIN7:                                libiconv.
* latin8:                                Tabular.
* LATIN8:                                libiconv.
* latin9:                                Tabular.
* libiconv:                              libiconv.
* libiconv, not in requests:             Charset overview.
* lin:                                   African.
* lingala:                               African.
* ltex:                                  LaTeX.
* mac <1>:                               Apple-Mac.
* mac:                                   Tabular.
* MAC:                                   libiconv.
* mac-is, aliases and source:            Tabular.
* MacArabic:                             libiconv.
* macce <1>:                             Apple-Mac.
* macce:                                 Tabular.
* MacCentralEurope:                      libiconv.
* MacCroatian:                           libiconv.
* MacCyrillic:                           libiconv.
* macedonian:                            Tabular.
* MacGreek:                              libiconv.
* MacHebrew:                             libiconv.
* MacIceland:                            libiconv.
* Macintosh:                             libiconv.
* macintosh, a charset, and its aliases: Apple-Mac.
* macintosh, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* macintosh_ce, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* macintosh_ce, and its aliases:         Apple-Mac.
* MacRoman, aliases:                     libiconv.
* MacRomania:                            libiconv.
* MacThai:                               libiconv.
* MacTurkish:                            libiconv.
* MacUkraine:                            libiconv.
* mnemonic, an alias for RFC1345 charset: Tabular.
* ms-ansi:                               Tabular.
* MS-ANSI:                               libiconv.
* ms-arab:                               Tabular.
* MS-ARAB:                               libiconv.
* ms-cyrl:                               Tabular.
* MS-CYRL:                               libiconv.
* ms-ee:                                 Tabular.
* MS-EE:                                 libiconv.
* ms-greek:                              Tabular.
* MS-GREEK:                              libiconv.
* ms-hebr:                               Tabular.
* MS-HEBR:                               libiconv.
* ms-turk:                               Tabular.
* MS-TURK:                               libiconv.
* MS_KANJI:                              libiconv.
* MSDOS:                                 IBM-PC.
* MSZ_7795.3, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* Mule, a charset:                       Mule.
* MuleLao-1:                             libiconv.
* NATS-DANO, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* NATS-DANO-ADD, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* NATS-SEFI, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* NATS-SEFI-ADD, aliases and source:     Tabular.
* NC_NC00-10(81):                        Tabular.
* NC_NC00-10, aliases and source:        Tabular.
* next:                                  Tabular.
* NEXTSTEP:                              libiconv.
* NeXTSTEP, aliases and source:          Tabular.
* NF_Z_62-010, aliases and source:       Tabular.
* NF_Z_62-010_(1973), aliases and source: Tabular.
* no:                                    Tabular.
* no2:                                   Tabular.
* NOS:                                   CDC-NOS.
* NS_4551-1, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* NS_4551-2, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* o1:                                    Dump.
* o2:                                    Dump.
* o4:                                    Dump.
* Octal-1:                               Dump.
* Octal-2:                               Dump.
* Octal-4:                               Dump.
* os2latin1:                             Tabular.
* pc:                                    IBM-PC.
* pcl2:                                  Tabular.
* pclatin2:                              Tabular.
* PT, aliases and source:                Tabular.
* PT2, aliases and source:               Tabular.
* QNX, an alias for a charset:           Icon-QNX.
* QP:                                    MIME.
* quote-printable:                       MIME.
* Quoted-Printable:                      MIME.
* r8:                                    Tabular.
* R8:                                    libiconv.
* ref:                                   Tabular.
* RFC1345, a charset, and its aliases:   Tabular.
* RFC1866:                               HTML.
* RFC2070:                               HTML.
* roman8:                                Tabular.
* ROMAN8:                                libiconv.
* rune:                                  UCS-2.
* sami, aliases and source:              Tabular.
* sango:                                 African.
* se:                                    Tabular.
* se2:                                   Tabular.
* SEN_850200_B, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* SEN_850200_C, aliases and source:      Tabular.
* serbian:                               Tabular.
* SHIFT-JIS:                             libiconv.
* SHIFT_JIS:                             libiconv.
* SJIS, aliases:                         libiconv.
* SS636127:                              Tabular.
* ST_SEV_358-88:                         Tabular.
* swabytes:                              Permutations.
* t-bambara:                             African.
* t-bra:                                 African.
* t-ewondo:                              African.
* t-fra:                                 African.
* t-francais:                            African.
* t-fulfude:                             African.
* t-lin:                                 African.
* t-lingala:                             African.
* t-sango:                               African.
* t-wolof:                               African.
* T.101-G2, not recognised by recode:    Tabular.
* T.61-7bit, aliases and source:         Tabular.
* T.61-8bit, not recognised by recode:   Tabular.
* T1:                                    Others.
* TCVN, aliases:                         libiconv.
* TCVN, for Vienamese:                   Vietnamese.
* TCVN-5712:                             libiconv.
* TCVN5712-1:                            libiconv.
* TCVN5712-1(1993):                      libiconv.
* test15:                                Test.
* test16:                                Test.
* test7:                                 Test.
* test8:                                 Test.
* texi:                                  Texinfo.
* Texinfo, a charset:                    Texinfo.
* Texte:                                 Texte.
* TF-16:                                 UTF-16.
* TF-7:                                  UTF-7.
* TF-8:                                  UTF-8.
* ti:                                    Texinfo.
* TIS-620, aliases:                      libiconv.
* TIS620:                                libiconv.
* TIS620-0:                              libiconv.
* TIS620.2529-1:                         libiconv.
* TIS620.2533-0:                         libiconv.
* TIS620.2533-1:                         libiconv.
* tree, a special charset:               Surfaces.
* txte:                                  Texte.
* u2:                                    UCS-2.
* u4:                                    UCS-4.
* u6:                                    UTF-16.
* u7:                                    UTF-7.
* u8:                                    UTF-8.
* UCS:                                   Universal.
* UCS-2:                                 UCS-2.
* UCS-2, aliases:                        libiconv.
* UCS-2-INTERNAL:                        libiconv.
* UCS-2-SWAPPED:                         libiconv.
* UCS-2BE, aliases:                      libiconv.
* UCS-2LE, aliases:                      libiconv.
* UCS-4:                                 UCS-4.
* UCS-4, aliases:                        libiconv.
* UCS-4-INTERNAL:                        libiconv.
* UCS-4-SWAPPED:                         libiconv.
* UCS-4BE:                               libiconv.
* UCS-4LE:                               libiconv.
* UHC:                                   libiconv.
* uk:                                    Tabular.
* Unicode, an alias for UTF-16:          UTF-16.
* UNICODE-1-1:                           libiconv.
* UNICODE-1-1-UTF-7:                     libiconv.
* UNICODE-1-1-UTF-7, and aliases:        UTF-7.
* UNICODEBIG:                            libiconv.
* UNICODELITTLE:                         libiconv.
* us <1>:                                ASCII.
* us:                                    Tabular.
* US:                                    libiconv.
* US-ASCII <1>:                          ASCII.
* US-ASCII:                              Tabular.
* US-ASCII, aliases:                     libiconv.
* us-dk, not recognised by recode:       Tabular.
* UTF-1:                                 Universal.
* UTF-16:                                libiconv.
* UTF-16, and aliases:                   UTF-16.
* UTF-16BE:                              libiconv.
* UTF-16LE:                              libiconv.
* UTF-7:                                 UTF-7.
* UTF-7, aliases:                        libiconv.
* UTF-8:                                 UTF-8.
* UTF-8, aliases <1>:                    libiconv.
* UTF-8, aliases:                        UTF-8.
* UTF-FSS:                               UTF-8.
* UTF8:                                  libiconv.
* VIQR:                                  Vietnamese.
* VISCII:                                Vietnamese.
* VISCII, aliases:                       libiconv.
* VISCII1.1-1:                           libiconv.
* VN1, maybe not available:              Vietnamese.
* VN2, maybe not available:              Vietnamese.
* VN3, maybe not available:              Vietnamese.
* VNI:                                   Vietnamese.
* VPS:                                   Vietnamese.
* WCHAR_T:                               libiconv.
* WinBaltRim:                            Tabular.
* WINBALTRIM:                            libiconv.
* windows-1250:                          Tabular.
* WINDOWS-1250:                          libiconv.
* windows-1251:                          Tabular.
* WINDOWS-1251:                          libiconv.
* windows-1252:                          Tabular.
* WINDOWS-1252:                          libiconv.
* windows-1253:                          Tabular.
* WINDOWS-1253:                          libiconv.
* windows-1254:                          Tabular.
* WINDOWS-1254:                          libiconv.
* windows-1255:                          Tabular.
* WINDOWS-1255:                          libiconv.
* windows-1256:                          Tabular.
* WINDOWS-1256:                          libiconv.
* windows-1257:                          Tabular.
* WINDOWS-1257:                          libiconv.
* WINDOWS-1258:                          libiconv.
* WINDOWS-874:                           libiconv.
* wolof:                                 African.
* X0201 <1>:                             Tabular.
* X0201:                                 libiconv.
* x0201-7:                               Tabular.
* X0208:                                 libiconv.
* X0212:                                 libiconv.
* x1:                                    Dump.
* x2:                                    Dump.
* x4:                                    Dump.
* XML-standalone:                        HTML.
* yu:                                    Tabular.