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This file documents Message, the Emacs message composition mode.

   Copyright (C) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

All message composition from Gnus (both mail and news) takes place in
Message mode buffers.

* Menu:

* Interface::         Setting up message buffers.
* Commands::          Commands you can execute in message mode buffers.
* Variables::         Customizing the message buffers.
* Compatibility::     Making Message backwards compatible.
* Appendices::        More technical things.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Index::             Variable, function and concept index.
* Key Index::         List of Message mode keys.

   Message is distributed with Gnus.  The Gnus distribution
corresponding to this manual is Gnus v5.13

File: message,  Node: Interface,  Next: Commands,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Interface

When a program (or a person) wants to respond to a message--reply,
follow up, forward, cancel--the program (or person) should just put
point in the buffer where the message is and call the required command.
`Message' will then pop up a new `message' mode buffer with appropriate
headers filled out, and the user can edit the message before sending it.

* Menu:

* New Mail Message::     Editing a brand new mail message.
* New News Message::     Editing a brand new news message.
* Reply::                Replying via mail.
* Wide Reply::           Responding to all people via mail.
* Followup::             Following up via news.
* Canceling News::       Canceling a news article.
* Superseding::          Superseding a message.
* Forwarding::           Forwarding a message via news or mail.
* Resending::            Resending a mail message.
* Bouncing::             Bouncing a mail message.
* Mailing Lists::        Send mail to mailing lists.

   You can customize the Message Mode tool bar, see `M-x
customize-apropos RET message-tool-bar'.  This feature is only available
in Emacs.

File: message,  Node: New Mail Message,  Next: New News Message,  Up: Interface

1.1 New Mail Message

The `message-mail' command pops up a new message buffer.

   Two optional parameters are accepted: The first will be used as the
`To' header and the second as the `Subject' header.  If these are
`nil', those two headers will be empty.

File: message,  Node: New News Message,  Next: Reply,  Prev: New Mail Message,  Up: Interface

1.2 New News Message

The `message-news' command pops up a new message buffer.

   This function accepts two optional parameters.  The first will be
used as the `Newsgroups' header and the second as the `Subject' header.
If these are `nil', those two headers will be empty.

File: message,  Node: Reply,  Next: Wide Reply,  Prev: New News Message,  Up: Interface

1.3 Reply

The `message-reply' function pops up a message buffer that's a reply to
the message in the current buffer.

   Message uses the normal methods to determine where replies are to go
(*note Responses::), but you can change the behavior to suit your needs
by fiddling with the `message-reply-to-function' variable.

   If you want the replies to go to the `Sender' instead of the `From',
you could do something like this:

     (setq message-reply-to-function
           (lambda ()
            (cond ((equal (mail-fetch-field "from") "somebody")
                    (list (cons 'To (mail-fetch-field "sender"))))

   This function will be called narrowed to the head of the article
that is being replied to.

   As you can see, this function should return a list.  In this case, it
returns `((To . "Whom"))' if it has an opinion as to what the To header
should be.  If it does not, it should just return `nil', and the normal
methods for determining the To header will be used.

   Each list element should be a cons, where the CAR should be the name
of a header (e.g. `Cc') and the CDR should be the header value (e.g.
`').  All these headers will be inserted into the head
of the outgoing mail.

File: message,  Node: Wide Reply,  Next: Followup,  Prev: Reply,  Up: Interface

1.4 Wide Reply

The `message-wide-reply' pops up a message buffer that's a wide reply
to the message in the current buffer.  A "wide reply" is a reply that
goes out to all people listed in the `To', `From' (or `Reply-to') and
`Cc' headers.

   Message uses the normal methods to determine where wide replies are
to go, but you can change the behavior to suit your needs by fiddling
with the `message-wide-reply-to-function'.  It is used in the same way
as `message-reply-to-function' (*note Reply::).

   Addresses that match the `message-dont-reply-to-names' regular
expression (or list of regular expressions) will be removed from the
`Cc' header. A value of `nil' means exclude your name only.

   If `message-wide-reply-confirm-recipients' is non-`nil' you will be
asked to confirm that you want to reply to multiple recipients.  The
default is `nil'.

File: message,  Node: Followup,  Next: Canceling News,  Prev: Wide Reply,  Up: Interface

1.5 Followup

The `message-followup' command pops up a message buffer that's a
followup to the message in the current buffer.

   Message uses the normal methods to determine where followups are to
go, but you can change the behavior to suit your needs by fiddling with
the `message-followup-to-function'.  It is used in the same way as
`message-reply-to-function' (*note Reply::).

   The `message-use-followup-to' variable says what to do about
`Followup-To' headers.  If it is `use', always use the value.  If it is
`ask' (which is the default), ask whether to use the value.  If it is
`t', use the value unless it is `poster'.  If it is `nil', don't use
the value.

File: message,  Node: Canceling News,  Next: Superseding,  Prev: Followup,  Up: Interface

1.6 Canceling News

The `message-cancel-news' command cancels the article in the current

   The value of `message-cancel-message' is inserted in the body of the
cancel message.  The default is `I am canceling my own article.'.

   When Message posts news messages, it inserts `Cancel-Lock' headers
by default.  This is a cryptographic header that ensures that only you
can cancel your own messages, which is nice.  The downside is that if
you lose your `.emacs' file (which is where Gnus stores the secret
cancel lock password (which is generated automatically the first time
you use this feature)), you won't be able to cancel your message.  If
you want to manage a password yourself, you can put something like the
following in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (setq canlock-password "geheimnis"
           canlock-password-for-verify canlock-password)

   Whether to insert the header or not is controlled by the
`message-insert-canlock' variable.

   Not many news servers respect the `Cancel-Lock' header yet, but this
is expected to change in the future.

File: message,  Node: Superseding,  Next: Forwarding,  Prev: Canceling News,  Up: Interface

1.7 Superseding

The `message-supersede' command pops up a message buffer that will
supersede the message in the current buffer.

   Headers matching the `message-ignored-supersedes-headers' are
removed before popping up the new message buffer.  The default is

File: message,  Node: Forwarding,  Next: Resending,  Prev: Superseding,  Up: Interface

1.8 Forwarding

The `message-forward' command pops up a message buffer to forward the
message in the current buffer.  If given a prefix, forward using news.

     All headers that match this regexp will be deleted when forwarding
     a message.

     A list of functions that are called to generate a subject header
     for forwarded messages.  The subject generated by the previous
     function is passed into each successive function.

     The provided functions are:

          Source of article (author or newsgroup), in brackets followed
          by the subject.

          Subject of article with `Fwd:' prepended to it.

     If this variable is `t', the subjects of forwarded messages have
     the evidence of previous forwards (such as `Fwd:', `Re:', `(fwd)')
     removed before the new subject is constructed.  The default value
     is `nil'.

     If this variable is `t' (the default), forwarded messages are
     included as inline MIME RFC822 parts.  If it's `nil', forwarded
     messages will just be copied inline to the new message, like
     previous, non MIME-savvy versions of Gnus would do.

     If non-`nil', put forwarded message before signature, else after.

File: message,  Node: Resending,  Next: Bouncing,  Prev: Forwarding,  Up: Interface

1.9 Resending

The `message-resend' command will prompt the user for an address and
resend the message in the current buffer to that address.

   Headers that match the `message-ignored-resent-headers' regexp will
be removed before sending the message.

File: message,  Node: Bouncing,  Next: Mailing Lists,  Prev: Resending,  Up: Interface

1.10 Bouncing

The `message-bounce' command will, if the current buffer contains a
bounced mail message, pop up a message buffer stripped of the bounce
information.  A "bounced message" is typically a mail you've sent out
that has been returned by some `mailer-daemon' as undeliverable.

   Headers that match the `message-ignored-bounced-headers' regexp will
be removed before popping up the buffer.  The default is

File: message,  Node: Mailing Lists,  Prev: Bouncing,  Up: Interface

1.11 Mailing Lists

Sometimes while posting to mailing lists, the poster needs to direct
followups to the post to specific places.  The Mail-Followup-To (MFT)
was created to enable just this.  Three example scenarios where this is

   * A mailing list poster can use MFT to express that responses should
     be sent to just the list, and not the poster as well.  This will
     happen if the poster is already subscribed to the list.

   * A mailing list poster can use MFT to express that responses should
     be sent to the list and the poster as well.  This will happen if
     the poster is not subscribed to the list.

   * If a message is posted to several mailing lists, MFT may also be
     used to direct the following discussion to one list only, because
     discussions that are spread over several lists tend to be
     fragmented and very difficult to follow.

   Gnus honors the MFT header in other's messages (i.e. while following
up to someone else's post) and also provides support for generating
sensible MFT headers for outgoing messages as well.

1.11.1 Composing a correct MFT header automagically

The first step in getting Gnus to automagically generate a MFT header
in posts you make is to give Gnus a list of the mailing lists addresses
you are subscribed to.  You can do this in more than one way.  The
following variables would come in handy.

     This should be a list of addresses the user is subscribed to.  Its
     default value is `nil'.  Example:
          (setq message-subscribed-addresses
                '("" ""))

     This should be a list of regexps denoting the addresses of mailing
     lists subscribed to.  Default value is `nil'.  Example: If you
     want to achieve the same result as above:
          (setq message-subscribed-regexps

     This can be a list of functions to be called (one at a time!!) to
     determine the value of MFT headers.  It is advisable that these
     functions not take any arguments.  Default value is `nil'.

     There is a pre-defined function in Gnus that is a good candidate
     for this variable.  `gnus-find-subscribed-addresses' is a function
     that returns a list of addresses corresponding to the groups that
     have the `subscribed' (*note Group Parameters: (gnus)Group
     Parameters.) group parameter set to a non-`nil' value.  This is
     how you would do it.

          (setq message-subscribed-address-functions

     You might be one organized human freak and have a list of
     addresses of all subscribed mailing lists in a separate file!
     Then you can just set this variable to the name of the file and
     life would be good.

   You can use one or more of the above variables.  All their values are
"added" in some way that works :-)

   Now you are all set.  Just start composing a message as you normally
do.  And just send it; as always.  Just before the message is sent out,
Gnus' MFT generation thingy kicks in and checks if the message already
has a MFT field.  If there is one, it is left alone.  (Except if it's
empty - in that case, the field is removed and is not replaced with an
automatically generated one.  This lets you disable MFT generation on a
per-message basis.)  If there is none, then the list of recipient
addresses (in the To: and Cc: headers) is checked to see if one of them
is a list address you are subscribed to.  If none of them is a list
address, then no MFT is generated; otherwise, a MFT is added to the
other headers and set to the value of all addresses in To: and Cc:

   Hm.  "So", you ask, "what if I send an email to a list I am not
subscribed to?  I want my MFT to say that I want an extra copy."  (This
is supposed to be interpreted by others the same way as if there were no
MFT, but you can use an explicit MFT to override someone else's
to-address group parameter.)  The function
`message-generate-unsubscribed-mail-followup-to' might come in handy.
It is bound to `C-c C-f C-a' by default.  In any case, you can insert a
MFT of your own choice; `C-c C-f C-m' (`message-goto-mail-followup-to')
will help you get started.

1.11.2 Honoring an MFT post

When you followup to a post on a mailing list, and the post has a MFT
header, Gnus' action will depend on the value of the variable
`message-use-mail-followup-to'.  This variable can be one of:

     Always honor MFTs.  The To: and Cc: headers in your followup will
     be  derived from the MFT header of the original post.  This is the

     Always dishonor MFTs (just ignore the darned thing)

     Gnus will prompt you for an action.

   It is considered good netiquette to honor MFT, as it is assumed the
fellow who posted a message knows where the followups need to go better
than you do.

File: message,  Node: Commands,  Next: Variables,  Prev: Interface,  Up: Top

2 Commands

* Menu:

* Buffer Entry::        Commands after entering a Message buffer.
* Header Commands::     Commands for moving headers or changing headers.
* Movement::            Moving around in message buffers.
* Insertion::           Inserting things into message buffers.
* MIME::                MIME considerations.
* IDNA::                Non-ASCII domain name considerations.
* Security::            Signing and encrypting messages.
* Various Commands::    Various things.
* Sending::             Actually sending the message.
* Mail Aliases::        How to use mail aliases.
* Spelling::            Having Emacs check your spelling.

File: message,  Node: Buffer Entry,  Next: Header Commands,  Up: Commands

2.1 Buffer Entry

You most often end up in a Message buffer when responding to some other
message of some sort.  Message does lots of handling of quoted text, and
may remove signatures, reformat the text, or the like--depending on
which used settings you're using.  Message usually gets things right,
but sometimes it stumbles.  To help the user unwind these stumblings,
Message sets the undo boundary before each major automatic action it
takes.  If you press the undo key (usually located at `C-_') a few
times, you will get back the un-edited message you're responding to.

File: message,  Node: Header Commands,  Next: Movement,  Prev: Buffer Entry,  Up: Commands

2.2 Header Commands

2.2.1 Commands for moving to headers

These following commands move to the header in question.  If it doesn't
exist, it will be inserted.

`C-c ?'
     Describe the message mode.

`C-c C-f C-t'
     Go to the `To' header (`message-goto-to').

`C-c C-f C-o'
     Go to the `From' header (`message-goto-from').  (The "o" in the
     key binding is for Originator.)

`C-c C-f C-b'
     Go to the `Bcc' header (`message-goto-bcc').

`C-c C-f C-w'
     Go to the `Fcc' header (`message-goto-fcc').

`C-c C-f C-c'
     Go to the `Cc' header (`message-goto-cc').

`C-c C-f C-s'
     Go to the `Subject' header (`message-goto-subject').

`C-c C-f C-r'
     Go to the `Reply-To' header (`message-goto-reply-to').

`C-c C-f C-n'
     Go to the `Newsgroups' header (`message-goto-newsgroups').

`C-c C-f C-d'
     Go to the `Distribution' header (`message-goto-distribution').

`C-c C-f C-f'
     Go to the `Followup-To' header (`message-goto-followup-to').

`C-c C-f C-k'
     Go to the `Keywords' header (`message-goto-keywords').

`C-c C-f C-u'
     Go to the `Summary' header (`message-goto-summary').

`C-c C-f C-i'
     This inserts the `Importance:' header with a value of `high'.
     This header is used to signal the importance of the message to the
     receiver.  If the header is already present in the buffer, it
     cycles between the three valid values according to RFC 1376:
     `low', `normal' and `high'.

`C-c C-f C-a'
     Insert a reasonable `Mail-Followup-To:' header (*note Mailing
     Lists::) in a post to an unsubscribed list.  When making original
     posts to a mailing list you are not subscribed to, you have to
     type in a `Mail-Followup-To:' header by hand.  The contents,
     usually, are the addresses of the list and your own address.  This
     function inserts such a header automatically.  It fetches the
     contents of the `To:' header in the current mail buffer, and
     appends the current `user-mail-address'.

     If the optional argument `include-cc' is non-`nil', the addresses
     in the `Cc:' header are also put into the `Mail-Followup-To:'

2.2.2 Commands to change headers

`C-c C-o'
     Sort headers according to `message-header-format-alist'

`C-c C-t'
     Insert a `To' header that contains the `Reply-To' or `From' header
     of the message you're following up (`message-insert-to').

`C-c C-n'
     Insert a `Newsgroups' header that reflects the `Followup-To' or
     `Newsgroups' header of the article you're replying to

`C-c C-l'
     Send a message to the list only.  Remove all addresses but the list
     address from `To:' and `Cc:' headers.

`C-c M-n'
     Insert a request for a disposition notification.
     (`message-insert-disposition-notification-to').  This means that
     if the recipient support RFC 2298 she might send you a
     notification that she received the message.

`M-x message-insert-importance-high'
     Insert an `Importance' header with a value of `high', deleting
     headers if necessary.

`M-x message-insert-importance-low'
     Insert an `Importance' header with a value of `low', deleting
     headers if necessary.

`C-c C-f s'
     Change the current `Subject' header.  Ask for new `Subject' header
     and append `(was: <Old Subject>)'.  The old subject can be
     stripped on replying, see `message-subject-trailing-was-query'
     (*note Message Headers::).

`C-c C-f x'
     Set up the `FollowUp-To' header with a target newsgroup for a
     cross-post, add that target newsgroup to the `Newsgroups' header if
     it is not a member of `Newsgroups', and insert a note in the body.
     If `message-cross-post-default' is `nil' or if this command is
     called with a prefix-argument, only the `FollowUp-To' header will
     be set but the target newsgroup will not be added to the
     `Newsgroups' header.  The function to insert a note is controlled
     by the `message-cross-post-note-function' variable.

`C-c C-f t'
     Replace contents of `To' header with contents of `Cc' or `Bcc'
     header.  (Iff `Cc' header is not present, `Bcc' header will be
     used instead.)

`C-c C-f w'
     Insert `To' and `Cc' headers as if you were doing a wide reply
     even if the message was not made for a wide reply first.

`C-c C-f a'
     Insert `X-No-Archive: Yes' in the header and a note in the body.
     The header and the note can be customized using
     `message-archive-header' and `message-archive-note'.  When called
     with a prefix argument, ask for a text to insert.  If you don't
     want the note in the body, set `message-archive-note' to `nil'.

File: message,  Node: Movement,  Next: Insertion,  Prev: Header Commands,  Up: Commands

2.3 Movement

`C-c C-b'
     Move to the beginning of the body of the message

`C-c C-i'
     Move to the signature of the message (`message-goto-signature').

     If at beginning of header value, go to beginning of line, else go
     to beginning of header value.  (The header value comes after the
     header name and the colon.)  This behavior can be disabled by
     toggling the variable `message-beginning-of-line'.

File: message,  Node: Insertion,  Next: MIME,  Prev: Movement,  Up: Commands

2.4 Insertion

`C-c C-y'
     Yank the message that's being replied to into the message buffer

`C-c C-M-y'
     Prompt for a buffer name and yank the contents of that buffer into
     the message buffer (`message-yank-buffer').

`C-c C-q'
     Fill the yanked message (`message-fill-yanked-message').  Warning:
     Can severely mess up the yanked text if its quoting conventions are
     strange.  You'll quickly get a feel for when it's safe, though.
     Anyway, just remember that `C-x u' (`undo') is available and
     you'll be all right.

`C-c C-w'
     Insert a signature at the end of the buffer

`C-c M-h'
     Insert the message headers (`message-insert-headers').

`C-c M-m'
     Mark some region in the current article with enclosing tags.  See
     `message-mark-insert-begin' and `message-mark-insert-end'.  When
     called with a prefix argument, use slrn style verbatim marks
     (`#v+' and `#v-').

`C-c M-f'
     Insert a file in the current article with enclosing tags.  See
     `message-mark-insert-begin' and `message-mark-insert-end'.  When
     called with a prefix argument, use slrn style verbatim marks
     (`#v+' and `#v-').

File: message,  Node: MIME,  Next: IDNA,  Prev: Insertion,  Up: Commands

2.5 MIME

Message is a MIME-compliant posting agent.  The user generally doesn't
have to do anything to make the MIME happen--Message will automatically
add the `Content-Type' and `Content-Transfer-Encoding' headers.

   The most typical thing users want to use the multipart things in
MIME for is to add "attachments" to mail they send out.  This can be
done with the `C-c C-a' command (`M-x mml-attach-file'), which will
prompt for a file name and a MIME type.

   If your Emacs supports drag and drop, you can also drop the file in
the Message buffer.  The variable `mml-dnd-protocol-alist' specifies
what kind of action is done when you drop a file into the Message
buffer.  The variable `mml-dnd-attach-options' controls which MIME
options you want to specify when dropping a file.  If it is a list,
valid members are `type', `description' and `disposition'.
`disposition' implies `type'.  If it is `nil', don't ask for options.
If it is `t', ask the user whether or not to specify options.

   You can also create arbitrarily complex multiparts using the MML
language (*note Composing: (emacs-mime)Composing.).

File: message,  Node: IDNA,  Next: Security,  Prev: MIME,  Up: Commands

2.6 IDNA

Message is a IDNA-compliant posting agent.  The user generally doesn't
have to do anything to make the IDNA happen--Message will encode
non-ASCII domain names in `From', `To', and `Cc' headers automatically.

   Until IDNA becomes more well known, Message queries you whether IDNA
encoding of the domain name really should occur.  Some users might not
be aware that domain names can contain non-ASCII now, so this gives
them a safety net if they accidently typed a non-ASCII domain name.

   The `message-use-idna' variable control whether IDNA is used.  If
the variable is `nil' no IDNA encoding will ever happen, if it is set
to the symbol `ask' the user will be queried, and if set to `t' (which
is the default if IDNA is fully available) IDNA encoding happens

   If you want to experiment with the IDNA encoding, you can invoke
`M-x message-idna-to-ascii-rhs RET' in the message buffer to have the
non-ASCII domain names encoded while you edit the message.

   Note that you must have GNU Libidn
( installed in order to use this

File: message,  Node: Security,  Next: Various Commands,  Prev: IDNA,  Up: Commands

2.7 Security

Using the MML language, Message is able to create digitally signed and
digitally encrypted messages.  Message (or rather MML) currently
support PGP (RFC 1991), PGP/MIME (RFC 2015/3156) and S/MIME.

* Menu:

* Signing and encryption::      Signing and encrypting commands.
* Using S/MIME::                Using S/MIME
* Using PGP/MIME::              Using PGP/MIME
* PGP Compatibility::           Compatibility with older implementations

File: message,  Node: Signing and encryption,  Next: Using S/MIME,  Up: Security

2.7.1 Signing and encrypting commands

Instructing MML to perform security operations on a MIME part is done
using the `C-c C-m s' key map for signing and the `C-c C-m c' key map
for encryption, as follows.
`C-c C-m s s'
     Digitally sign current message using S/MIME.

`C-c C-m s o'
     Digitally sign current message using PGP.

`C-c C-m s p'
     Digitally sign current message using PGP/MIME.

`C-c C-m c s'
     Digitally encrypt current message using S/MIME.

`C-c C-m c o'
     Digitally encrypt current message using PGP.

`C-c C-m c p'
     Digitally encrypt current message using PGP/MIME.

`C-c C-m C-n'
     Remove security related MML tags from message.

   These commands do not immediately sign or encrypt the message, they
merely insert the proper MML secure tag to instruct the MML engine to
perform that operation when the message is actually sent.  They may
perform other operations too, such as locating and retrieving a S/MIME
certificate of the person you wish to send encrypted mail to.  When the
mml parsing engine converts your MML into a properly encoded MIME
message, the secure tag will be replaced with either a part or a
multipart tag.  If your message contains other mml parts, a multipart
tag will be used; if no other parts are present in your message a
single part tag will be used.  This way, message mode will do the Right
Thing (TM) with signed/encrypted multipart messages.

   Since signing and especially encryption often is used when sensitive
information is sent, you may want to have some way to ensure that your
mail is actually signed or encrypted.  After invoking the above
sign/encrypt commands, it is possible to preview the raw article by
using `C-u C-c RET P' (`mml-preview').  Then you can verify that your
long rant about what your ex-significant other or whomever actually did
with that funny looking person at that strange party the other night,
actually will be sent encrypted.

   _Note!_  Neither PGP/MIME nor S/MIME encrypt/signs RFC822 headers.
They only operate on the MIME object.  Keep this in mind before sending
mail with a sensitive Subject line.

   By default, when encrypting a message, Gnus will use the
"signencrypt" mode, which means the message is both signed and
encrypted.  If you would like to disable this for a particular message,
give the `mml-secure-message-encrypt-*' command a prefix argument,
e.g., `C-u C-c C-m c p'.

   Actually using the security commands above is not very difficult.  At
least not compared with making sure all involved programs talk with each
other properly.  Thus, we now describe what external libraries or
programs are required to make things work, and some small general hints.

File: message,  Node: Using S/MIME,  Next: Using PGP/MIME,  Prev: Signing and encryption,  Up: Security

2.7.2 Using S/MIME

_Note!_  This section assume you have a basic familiarity with modern
cryptography, S/MIME, various PKCS standards, OpenSSL and so on.

   The S/MIME support in Message (and MML) require OpenSSL.  OpenSSL
performs the actual S/MIME sign/encrypt operations.  OpenSSL can be
found at `'.  OpenSSL 0.9.6 and later should
work.  Version 0.9.5a cannot extract mail addresses from certificates,
and it insert a spurious CR character into MIME separators so you may
wish to avoid it if you would like to avoid being regarded as someone
who send strange mail.  (Although by sending S/MIME messages you've
probably already lost that contest.)

   To be able to send encrypted mail, a personal certificate is not
required.  Message (MML) need a certificate for the person to whom you
wish to communicate with though.  You're asked for this when you type
`C-c C-m c s'.  Currently there are two ways to retrieve this
certificate, from a local file or from DNS.  If you chose a local file,
it need to contain a X.509 certificate in PEM format.  If you chose
DNS, you're asked for the domain name where the certificate is stored,
the default is a good guess.  To my belief, Message (MML) is the first
mail agent in the world to support retrieving S/MIME certificates from
DNS, so you're not likely to find very many certificates out there.  At
least there should be one, stored at the domain `'.
LDAP is a more popular method of distributing certificates, support for
it is planned.  (Meanwhile, you can use `ldapsearch' from the command
line to retrieve a certificate into a file and use it.)

   As for signing messages, OpenSSL can't perform signing operations
without some kind of configuration.  Especially, you need to tell it
where your private key and your certificate is stored.  MML uses an
Emacs interface to OpenSSL, aptly named `smime.el', and it contain a
`custom' group used for this configuration.  So, try `M-x
customize-group RET smime RET' and look around.

   Currently there is no support for talking to a CA (or RA) to create
your own certificate.  None is planned either.  You need to do this
manually with OpenSSL or using some other program.  I used Netscape and
got a free S/MIME certificate from one of the big CA's on the net.
Netscape is able to export your private key and certificate in PKCS #12
format.  Use OpenSSL to convert this into a plain X.509 certificate in
PEM format as follows.

     $ openssl pkcs12 -in ns.p12 -clcerts -nodes > key+cert.pem

   The `key+cert.pem' file should be pointed to from the `smime-keys'
variable.  You should now be able to send signed mail.

   _Note!_  Your private key is now stored unencrypted in the file, so
take care in handling it.  Storing encrypted keys on the disk are
supported, and Gnus will ask you for a passphrase before invoking
OpenSSL.  Read the OpenSSL documentation for how to achieve this.  If
you use unencrypted keys (e.g., if they are on a secure storage, or if
you are on a secure single user machine) simply press `RET' at the
passphrase prompt.

File: message,  Node: Using PGP/MIME,  Next: PGP Compatibility,  Prev: Using S/MIME,  Up: Security

2.7.3 Using PGP/MIME

PGP/MIME requires an external OpenPGP implementation, such as GNU
Privacy Guard (  Pre-OpenPGP implementations
such as PGP 2.x and PGP 5.x are also supported.  One Emacs interface to
the PGP implementations, PGG (*note PGG: (pgg)Top.), is included, but
Mailcrypt and Florian Weimer's `gpg.el' are also supported.  *Note PGP

   Message internally calls GnuPG (the `gpg' command) to perform data
encryption, and in certain cases (decrypting or signing for example),
`gpg' requires user's passphrase.  Currently the recommended way to
supply your passphrase to `gpg' is to use the `gpg-agent' program.

   To use `gpg-agent' in Emacs, you need to run the following command
from the shell before starting Emacs.

     eval `gpg-agent --daemon`

   This will invoke `gpg-agent' and set the environment variable
`GPG_AGENT_INFO' to allow `gpg' to communicate with it.  It might be
good idea to put this command in your `.xsession' or `.bash_profile'.
*Note Invoking GPG-AGENT: (gnupg)Invoking GPG-AGENT.

   Once your `gpg-agent' is set up, it will ask you for a passphrase as
needed for `gpg'.  Under the X Window System, you will see a new
passphrase input dialog appear.  The dialog is provided by PIN Entry
(the `pinentry' command), and as of version 0.7.2, `pinentry' cannot
cooperate with Emacs on a single tty.  So, if you are using a text
console, you may need to put a passphrase into gpg-agent's cache
beforehand.  The following command does the trick.

     gpg --use-agent --sign < /dev/null > /dev/null

   The Lisp variable `pgg-gpg-use-agent' controls whether to use
`gpg-agent'.  See also *Note Caching passphrase: (pgg)Caching

File: message,  Node: PGP Compatibility,  Prev: Using PGP/MIME,  Up: Security

2.7.4 Compatibility with older implementations

Note, if you are using the `gpg.el' you must make sure that the
directory specified by `gpg-temp-directory' have permissions 0700.

   Creating your own key is described in detail in the documentation of
your PGP implementation, so we refer to it.

   If you have imported your old PGP 2.x key into GnuPG, and want to
send signed and encrypted messages to your fellow PGP 2.x users, you'll
discover that the receiver cannot understand what you send. One
solution is to use PGP 2.x instead (i.e., if you use `pgg', set
`pgg-default-scheme' to `pgp').  If you do want to use GnuPG, you can
use a compatibility script called `gpg-2comp' available from
`'.  You could
also convince your fellow PGP 2.x users to convert to GnuPG.  As a
final workaround, you can make the sign and encryption work in two
steps; separately sign, then encrypt a message.  If you would like to
change this behavior you can customize the
`mml-signencrypt-style-alist' variable.  For example:

     (setq mml-signencrypt-style-alist '(("smime" separate)
                                         ("pgp" separate)
                                         ("pgpauto" separate)
                                         ("pgpmime" separate)))

   This causes to sign and encrypt in two passes, thus generating a
message that can be understood by PGP version 2.

   (Refer to `' for more
information about the problem.)

File: message,  Node: Various Commands,  Next: Sending,  Prev: Security,  Up: Commands

2.8 Various Commands

`C-c C-r'
     Caesar rotate (aka. rot13) the current message
     (`message-caesar-buffer-body').  If narrowing is in effect, just
     rotate the visible portion of the buffer.  A numerical prefix says
     how many places to rotate the text.  The default is 13.

`C-c C-e'
     Elide the text between point and mark (`message-elide-region').
     The text is killed and replaced with the contents of the variable
     `message-elide-ellipsis'.  The default value is to use an ellipsis

`C-c M-k'
     Kill the address under point.

`C-c C-z'
     Kill all the text up to the signature, or if that's missing, up to
     the end of the message (`message-kill-to-signature').

`C-c C-v'
     Delete all text in the body of the message that is outside the
     region (`message-delete-not-region').

     Insert four newlines, and then reformat if inside quoted text.

     Here's an example:

          > This is some quoted text.  And here's more quoted text.

     If point is before `And' and you press `M-RET', you'll get:

          > This is some quoted text.


          > And here's more quoted text.

     `*' says where point will be placed.

`C-c M-r'
     Rename the buffer (`message-rename-buffer').  If given a prefix,
     prompt for a new buffer name.

     If `message-tab-body-function' is non-`nil', execute the function
     it specifies.  Otherwise use the function bound to `TAB' in
     `text-mode-map' or `global-map'.

File: message,  Node: Sending,  Next: Mail Aliases,  Prev: Various Commands,  Up: Commands

2.9 Sending

`C-c C-c'
     Send the message and bury the current buffer

`C-c C-s'
     Send the message (`message-send').

`C-c C-d'
     Bury the message buffer and exit (`message-dont-send').

`C-c C-k'
     Kill the message buffer and exit (`message-kill-buffer').

File: message,  Node: Mail Aliases,  Next: Spelling,  Prev: Sending,  Up: Commands

2.10 Mail Aliases

The `message-mail-alias-type' variable controls what type of mail alias
expansion to use.  Currently two forms are supported: `mailabbrev' and
`ecomplete'.  If this variable is `nil', no mail alias expansion will
be performed.

   `mailabbrev' works by parsing the `/etc/mailrc' and `~/.mailrc'
files.  These files look like:

     alias lmi "Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <>"
     alias ding " (ding mailing list)"

   After adding lines like this to your `~/.mailrc' file, you should be
able to just write `lmi' in the `To' or `Cc' (and so on) headers and
press `SPC' to expand the alias.

   No expansion will be performed upon sending of the message--all
expansions have to be done explicitly.

   If you're using `ecomplete', all addresses from `To' and `Cc'
headers will automatically be put into the `~/.ecompleterc' file.  When
you enter text in the `To' and `Cc' headers, `ecomplete' will check out
the values stored there and "electrically" say what completions are
possible.  To choose one of these completions, use the `M-n' command to
move down to the list.  Use `M-n' and `M-p' to move down and up the
list, and `RET' to choose a completion.

File: message,  Node: Spelling,  Prev: Mail Aliases,  Up: Commands

2.11 Spelling

There are two popular ways to have Emacs spell-check your messages:
`ispell' and `flyspell'.  `ispell' is the older and probably more
popular package.  You typically first write the message, and then run
the entire thing through `ispell' and fix all the typos.  To have this
happen automatically when you send a message, put something like the
following in your `.emacs' file:

     (add-hook 'message-send-hook 'ispell-message)

   If you're in the habit of writing in different languages, this can be
controlled by the `ispell-message-dictionary-alist' variable:

     (setq ispell-message-dictionary-alist
           '(("^Newsgroups:.*\\bde\\." . "deutsch8")
             (".*" . "default")))

   `ispell' depends on having the external `ispell' command installed.

   The other popular method is using `flyspell'.  This package checks
your spelling while you're writing, and marks any mis-spelled words in
various ways.

   To use `flyspell', put something like the following in your `.emacs'

     (defun my-message-setup-routine ()
       (flyspell-mode 1))
     (add-hook 'message-setup-hook 'my-message-setup-routine)

   `flyspell' depends on having the external `ispell' command installed.

File: message,  Node: Variables,  Next: Compatibility,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Top

3 Variables

* Menu:

* Message Headers::             General message header stuff.
* Mail Headers::                Customizing mail headers.
* Mail Variables::              Other mail variables.
* News Headers::                Customizing news headers.
* News Variables::              Other news variables.
* Insertion Variables::         Customizing how things are inserted.
* Various Message Variables::   Other message variables.
* Sending Variables::           Variables for sending.
* Message Buffers::             How Message names its buffers.
* Message Actions::             Actions to be performed when exiting.

File: message,  Node: Message Headers,  Next: Mail Headers,  Up: Variables

3.1 Message Headers

Message is quite aggressive on the message generation front.  It has to
be--it's a combined news and mail agent.  To be able to send combined
messages, it has to generate all headers itself (instead of letting the
mail/news system do it) to ensure that mail and news copies of messages
look sufficiently similar.

     If `t', generate all required headers before starting to compose
     the message.  This can also be a list of headers to generate:

          (setq message-generate-headers-first

     The variables `message-required-headers',
     `message-required-mail-headers' and
     `message-required-news-headers' specify which headers are required.

     Note that some headers will be removed and re-generated before
     posting, because of the variable `message-deletable-headers' (see

     When running Message from Gnus, the message buffers are associated
     with a draft group.  `message-draft-headers' says which headers
     should be generated when a draft is written to the draft group.

     Specifies how `From' headers should look.  There are four valid

          Just the address--`'.

          ` (Elvis Parsley)'.

          `Elvis Parsley <>'.

          Look like `angles' if that doesn't require quoting, and
          `parens' if it does.  If even `parens' requires quoting, use
          `angles' anyway.

     Headers in this list that were previously generated by Message
     will be deleted before posting.  Let's say you post an article.
     Then you decide to post it again to some other group, you naughty
     boy, so you jump back to the `*post-buf*' buffer, edit the
     `Newsgroups' line, and ship it off again.  By default, this
     variable makes sure that the old generated `Message-ID' is
     deleted, and a new one generated.  If this isn't done, the entire
     empire would probably crumble, anarchy would prevail, and cats
     would start walking on two legs and rule the world.  Allegedly.

     This string is inserted at the end of the headers in all message

     Responses to messages have subjects that start with `Re: '.  This
     is _not_ an abbreviation of the English word "response", but is
     Latin, and means "in response to".  Some illiterate nincompoops
     have failed to grasp this fact, and have "internationalized" their
     software to use abominations like `Aw: ' ("antwort") or `Sv: '
     ("svar") instead, which is meaningless and evil.  However, you may
     have to deal with users that use these evil tools, in which case
     you may set this variable to a regexp that matches these prefixes.
     Myself, I just throw away non-compliant mail.

     Here's an example of a value to deal with these headers when
     responding to a message:

          (setq message-subject-re-regexp
                 "^[ \t]*"
                       "[Aa][Nn][Tt][Ww]\\.?\\|"     ; antw
                       "[Aa][Ww]\\|"                 ; aw
                       "[Ff][Ww][Dd]?\\|"            ; fwd
                       "[Oo][Dd][Pp]\\|"             ; odp
                       "[Rr][Ee]\\|"                 ; re
                       "[Rr][\311\351][Ff]\\.?\\|"   ; ref
                       "[Ss][Vv]"                    ; sv
                     "*:[ \t]*"
                 "*[ \t]*"

     Controls what to do with trailing `(was: <old subject>)' in subject
     lines.  If `nil', leave the subject unchanged.  If it is the symbol
     `ask', query the user what to do.  In this case, the subject is
     matched against `message-subject-trailing-was-ask-regexp'.  If
     `message-subject-trailing-was-query' is `t', always strip the
     trailing old subject.  In this case,
     `message-subject-trailing-was-regexp' is used.

     Regexp matching alternative email addresses.  The first address in
     the To, Cc or From headers of the original article matching this
     variable is used as the From field of outgoing messages, replacing
     the default From value.

     For example, if you have two secondary email addresses and and want to use them in the
     From field when composing a reply to a message addressed to one of
     them, you could set this variable like this:

          (setq message-alternative-emails
                (regexp-opt '("" "")))

     This variable has precedence over posting styles and anything that
     runs off `message-setup-hook'.

     Specifies what to do when there are no recipients other than `Gcc'
     or `Fcc'.  If it is `always', the posting is allowed.  If it is
     `never', the posting is not allowed.  If it is `ask' (the
     default), you are prompted.

     A regexp, a list of regexps, or a list where the first element is
     `not' and the rest are regexps.  It says which headers to keep
     hidden when composing a message.

          (setq message-hidden-headers
                '(not "From" "Subject" "To" "Cc" "Newsgroups"))

     Headers are hidden using narrowing, you can use `M-x widen' to
     expose them in the buffer.

     A list of lists of header synonyms.  E.g., if this list contains a
     member list with elements `Cc' and `To', then
     `message-carefully-insert-headers' will not insert a `To' header
     when the message is already `Cc'ed to the recipient.

File: message,  Node: Mail Headers,  Next: Mail Variables,  Prev: Message Headers,  Up: Variables

3.2 Mail Headers

     *Note News Headers::, for the syntax of this variable.  It is
     `(From Subject Date (optional . In-Reply-To) Message-ID (optional
     . User-Agent))' by default.

     Regexp of headers to be removed before mailing.  The default is

     This string is inserted at the end of the headers in all message
     buffers that are initialized as mail.

     Variable that indicates whether `X-Hashcash' headers should be
     computed for the message.  *Note Hashcash: (gnus)Hashcash.  If
     `opportunistic', only generate the headers when it doesn't lead to
     the user having to wait.

File: message,  Node: Mail Variables,  Next: News Headers,  Prev: Mail Headers,  Up: Variables

3.3 Mail Variables

     Function used to send the current buffer as mail.  The default is
     `message-send-mail-with-sendmail', or `smtpmail-send-it' according
     to the system.  Other valid values include
     `message-send-mail-with-mailclient', `message-send-mail-with-mh',
     `message-send-mail-with-qmail', `message-smtpmail-send-it' and

     The function `message-send-mail-with-sendmail' pipes your article
     to the `sendmail' binary for further queuing and sending.  When
     your local system is not configured for sending mail using
     `sendmail', and you have access to a remote SMTP server, you can
     set `message-send-mail-function' to `smtpmail-send-it' and make
     sure to setup the `smtpmail' package correctly.  An example:

          (setq message-send-mail-function 'smtpmail-send-it
                smtpmail-default-smtp-server "YOUR SMTP HOST")

     To the thing similar to this, there is `message-smtpmail-send-it'.
     It is useful if your ISP requires the POP-before-SMTP
     authentication.  *Note POP before SMTP: (gnus)POP before SMTP.

     Most versions of MH doesn't like being fed messages that contain
     the headers in this variable.  If this variable is non-`nil'
     (which is the default), these headers will be removed before
     mailing when sending messages via MH.  Set it to `nil' if your MH
     can handle these headers.

     Location of the qmail-inject program.

     Arguments passed to qmail-inject programs.  This should be a list
     of strings, one string for each argument.  It may also be a

     For e.g., if you wish to set the envelope sender address so that
     bounces go to the right place or to deal with listserv's usage of
     that address, you might set this variable to `'("-f"

     Non-`nil' means don't add `-f username' to the sendmail command
     line.  Doing so would be even more evil than leaving it out.

     When `message-sendmail-f-is-evil' is `nil', this specifies the
     address to use in the SMTP envelope.  If it is `nil', use
     `user-mail-address'.  If it is the symbol `header', use the `From'
     header of the message.

     Set this to non-`nil' if the system's mailer runs the header and
     body together.  (This problem exists on SunOS 4 when sendmail is
     run in remote mode.)  The value should be an expression to test
     whether the problem will actually occur.

     The limitation of messages sent as message/partial.  The lower
     bound of message size in characters, beyond which the message
     should be sent in several parts.  If it is `nil', the size is

File: message,  Node: News Headers,  Next: News Variables,  Prev: Mail Variables,  Up: Variables

3.4 News Headers

`message-required-news-headers' a list of header symbols.  These
headers will either be automatically generated, or, if that's
impossible, they will be prompted for.  The following symbols are valid:

     This required header will be filled out with the result of the
     `message-make-from' function, which depends on the
     `message-from-style', `user-full-name', `user-mail-address'

     This required header will be prompted for if not present already.

     This required header says which newsgroups the article is to be
     posted to.  If it isn't present already, it will be prompted for.

     This optional header will be filled out depending on the
     `message-user-organization' variable.
     `message-user-organization-file' will be used if this variable is
     `t'.  This variable can also be a string (in which case this string
     will be used), or it can be a function (which will be called with
     no parameters and should return a string to be used).

     This optional header will be computed by Message.

     This required header will be generated by Message.  A unique ID
     will be created based on the date, time, user name (for the local
     part) and the domain part.  For the domain part, message will look
     (in this order) at `message-user-fqdn', `system-name',
     `mail-host-address' and `message-user-mail-address' (i.e.
     `user-mail-address') until a probably valid fully qualified domain
     name (FQDN) was found.

     This optional header will be filled out according to the
     `message-newsreader' local variable.

     This optional header is filled out using the `Date' and `From'
     header of the article being replied to.

     This extremely optional header will be inserted according to the
     `message-expires' variable.  It is highly deprecated and shouldn't
     be used unless you know what you're doing.

     This optional header is filled out according to the
     `message-distribution-function' variable.  It is a deprecated and
     much misunderstood header.

     This extremely optional header should probably never be used.
     However, some _very_ old servers require that this header is
     present.  `message-user-path' further controls how this `Path'
     header is to look.  If it is `nil', use the server name as the
     leaf node.  If it is a string, use the string.  If it is neither a
     string nor `nil', use the user name only.  However, it is highly
     unlikely that you should need to fiddle with this variable at all.

   In addition, you can enter conses into this list.  The CAR of this
cons should be a symbol.  This symbol's name is the name of the header,
and the CDR can either be a string to be entered verbatim as the value
of this header, or it can be a function to be called.  This function
should return a string to be inserted.  For instance, if you want to
insert `Mime-Version: 1.0', you should enter `(Mime-Version . "1.0")'
into the list.  If you want to insert a funny quote, you could enter
something like `(X-Yow . yow)' into the list.  The function `yow' will
then be called without any arguments.

   If the list contains a cons where the CAR of the cons is `optional',
the CDR of this cons will only be inserted if it is non-`nil'.

   If you want to delete an entry from this list, the following Lisp
snippet might be useful.  Adjust accordingly if you want to remove
another element.

     (setq message-required-news-headers
           (delq 'Message-ID message-required-news-headers))

   Other variables for customizing outgoing news articles:

     Controls what syntax checks should not be performed on outgoing
     posts.  To disable checking of long signatures, for instance, add

          (signature . disabled)

     to this list.

     Valid checks are:

          Check whether the article has an `Approved' header, which is
          something only moderators should include.

          Check whether there are continuation header lines that don't
          begin with whitespace.

          Check for invalid characters.

          Check whether the article is empty.

          Check whether the newsgroups mentioned in the `Newsgroups' and
          `Followup-To' headers exist.

          Check whether the `From' header seems nice.

          Check whether there is any non-printable character in the

          Check whether there is any invisible text in the buffer.

          Check for too long header lines.

          Check for too long lines in the body.

          Check whether the `Message-ID' looks syntactically ok.

          Check for the existence of multiple equal headers.

          Check whether there is any new text in the messages.

          Check whether the `Newsgroups' header exists and is not empty.

          Check whether text follows last quoted portion.

          Check whether the `Newsgroups' and `Followup-to' headers
          contains repeated group names.

          Check whether the `Reply-To' header looks ok.

          Insert a new `Sender' header if the `From' header looks odd.

          Check for the existence of version and sendsys commands.

          Check whether the domain part of the `Message-ID' header
          looks ok.

          Check whether to add a `Followup-to' header to shorten the
          number of groups to post to.

          Check the length of the signature.

          Check for excessive size.

          Check whether the `Subject' header exists and is not empty.

          Check the subject for commands.

          Check whether the `Newsgroups' and `Followup-to' headers are
          valid syntactically.

     All these conditions are checked by default, except for `sender'
     for which the check is disabled by default if
     `message-insert-canlock' is non-`nil' (*note Canceling News::).

     Regexp of headers to be removed before posting.  The default is

     This string is inserted at the end of the headers in all message
     buffers that are initialized as news.

File: message,  Node: News Variables,  Next: Insertion Variables,  Prev: News Headers,  Up: Variables

3.5 News Variables

     Function used to send the current buffer as news.  The default is

     Gnusish "select method" (see the Gnus manual for details) used for
     posting a prepared news message.

File: message,  Node: Insertion Variables,  Next: Various Message Variables,  Prev: News Variables,  Up: Variables

3.6 Insertion Variables

     All headers that match this regexp will be removed from yanked
     messages.  The default is `.', which means that all headers will be

     Regexp matching the longest possible citation prefix on a line.

     Function called to insert the citation line.  The default is
     `message-insert-citation-line', which will lead to citation lines
     that look like:

          Hallvard B Furuseth <> writes:

     Point will be at the beginning of the body of the message when this
     function is called.

     Note that Gnus provides a feature where clicking on `writes:'
     hides the cited text.  If you change the citation line too much,
     readers of your messages will have to adjust their Gnus, too.  See
     the variable `gnus-cite-attribution-suffix'.  *Note Article
     Highlighting: (gnus)Article Highlighting, for details.

     When you are replying to or following up an article, you normally
     want to quote the person you are answering.  Inserting quoted text
     is done by "yanking", and each line you yank will have
     `message-yank-prefix' prepended to it (except for quoted lines
     which use `message-yank-cited-prefix' and empty lines which use
     `message-yank-empty-prefix').  The default is `> '.

     When yanking text from an article which contains already cited
     text, each line will be prefixed with the contents of this
     variable.  The default is `>'.  See also `message-yank-prefix'.

     When yanking text from an article, each empty line will be
     prefixed with the contents of this variable.  The default is `>'.
     You can set this variable to an empty string to split the cited
     text into paragraphs automatically.  See also

     Number of spaces to indent yanked messages.

     Function for citing an original message.  The default is
     `message-cite-original', which simply inserts the original message
     and prepends `> ' to each line.
     `message-cite-original-without-signature' does the same, but elides
     the signature.

     Function for modifying a citation just inserted in the mail buffer.
     This can also be a list of functions.  Each function can find the
     citation between `(point)' and `(mark t)'.  And each function
     should leave point and mark around the citation text as modified.

     String to mark the beginning of some inserted text.

     String to mark the end of some inserted text.

     String to be inserted at the end of the message buffer.  If `t'
     (which is the default), the `message-signature-file' file will be
     inserted instead.  If a function, the result from the function
     will be used instead.  If a form, the result from the form will be
     used instead.  If this variable is `nil', no signature will be
     inserted at all.

     File containing the signature to be inserted at the end of the
     buffer.  If a path is specified, the value of
     `message-signature-directory' is ignored, even if set.  The
     default is `~/.signature'.

     Name of directory containing signature files.  Comes in handy if
     you have many such files, handled via Gnus posting styles for
     instance.  If `nil' (the default), `message-signature-file' is
     expected to specify the directory if needed.

     If `t' (the default value) an empty line is inserted before the
     signature separator.

   Note that RFC1036bis says that a signature should be preceded by the
three characters `-- ' on a line by themselves.  This is to make it
easier for the recipient to automatically recognize and process the
signature.  So don't remove those characters, even though you might feel
that they ruin your beautiful design, like, totally.

   Also note that no signature should be more than four lines long.
Including ASCII graphics is an efficient way to get everybody to
believe that you are silly and have nothing important to say.

File: message,  Node: Various Message Variables,  Next: Sending Variables,  Prev: Insertion Variables,  Up: Variables

3.7 Various Message Variables

     Symbol naming a MIME charset.  Non-ASCII characters in messages
     are assumed to be encoded using this charset.  The default is
     `iso-8859-1' on non-MULE Emacsen; otherwise `nil', which means ask
     the user.  (This variable is used only on non-MULE Emacsen.)
     *Note Charset Translation: (emacs-mime)Charset Translation, for
     details on the MULE-to-MIME translation process.

     Local value for the column beyond which automatic line-wrapping
     should happen for message buffers.  If non-nil (the default), also
     turn on auto-fill in message buffers.

     Regexp matching the signature separator.  It is `^-- *$' by

     String used to separate the headers from the body.  It is `--text
     follows this line--' by default.

     Directory used by many mailey things.  The default is `~/Mail/'.
     All other mail file variables are derived from `message-directory'.

     Directory where Message auto-saves buffers if Gnus isn't running.
     If `nil', Message won't auto-save.  The default is

     Hook run when initializing the message buffer.  It is run after the
     headers have been inserted but before the signature has been

     Hook run as the last thing when the message buffer has been
     initialized, but before yanked text is inserted.

     Hook called narrowed to the headers after initializing the headers.

     For instance, if you're running Gnus and wish to insert a
     `Mail-Copies-To' header in all your news articles and all messages
     you send to mailing lists, you could do something like the

          (defun my-message-header-setup-hook ()
            (let ((group (or gnus-newsgroup-name "")))
              (when (or (message-fetch-field "newsgroups")
                        (gnus-group-find-parameter group 'to-address)
                        (gnus-group-find-parameter group 'to-list))
                (insert "Mail-Copies-To: never\n"))))

          (add-hook 'message-header-setup-hook

     Hook run before sending messages.

     If you want to add certain headers before sending, you can use the
     `message-add-header' function in this hook.  For instance:

          (add-hook 'message-send-hook 'my-message-add-content)
          (defun my-message-add-content ()
            (message-add-header "X-In-No-Sense: Nonsense")
            (message-add-header "X-Whatever: no"))

     This function won't add the header if the header is already

     Hook run before sending mail messages.  This hook is run very late
     - just before the message is actually sent as mail.

     Hook run before sending news messages.  This hook is run very late
     - just before the message is actually sent as news.

     Hook run after sending messages.

     Hook run when canceling news articles.

     Syntax table used in message mode buffers.

     If non-`nil', don't strip quoted text from articles that have
     `X-No-Archive' set.  Even if this variable isn't set, you can undo
     the stripping by hitting the `undo' keystroke.

     Emacs has a number of special text properties which can break
     message composing in various ways.  If this option is set, message
     will strip these properties from the message composition buffer.
     However, some packages requires these properties to be present in
     order to work.  If you use one of these packages, turn this option
     off, and hope the message composition doesn't break too bad.

     Alist of ways to send outgoing messages.  Each element has the


          A symbol that names the method.

          A function called without any parameters to determine whether
          the message is a message of type TYPE.  The function will be
          called in the buffer where the message is.

          A function to be called if PREDICATE returns non-`nil'.
          FUNCTION is called with one parameter--the prefix.

     The default is:

          ((news message-news-p message-send-via-news)
           (mail message-mail-p message-send-via-mail))

     The `message-news-p' function returns non-`nil' if the message
     looks like news, and the `message-send-via-news' function sends the
     message according to the `message-send-news-function' variable
     (*note News Variables::).  The `message-mail-p' function returns
     non-`nil' if the message looks like mail, and the
     `message-send-via-mail' function sends the message according to the
     `message-send-mail-function' variable (*note Mail Variables::).

     All the elements in this alist will be tried in order, so a message
     containing both a valid `Newsgroups' header and a valid `To'
     header, for example, will be sent as news, and then as mail.

File: message,  Node: Sending Variables,  Next: Message Buffers,  Prev: Various Message Variables,  Up: Variables

3.8 Sending Variables

     A function called to save outgoing articles.  This function will be
     called with the name of the file to store the article in.  The
     default function is `message-output' which saves in Unix mailbox

     When sending combined messages, this string is inserted at the
     start of the mailed copy.  If the string contains the format spec
     `%s', the newsgroups the article has been posted to will be
     inserted there.  If this variable is `nil', no such courtesy
     message will be added.  The default value is `"The following
     message is a courtesy copy of an article\\nthat has been posted to
     %s as well.\\n\\n"'.

     If `nil', attach files as normal parts in Fcc copies; if it is
     non-`nil', attach local files as external parts.

     If non-`nil' wait for and display errors when sending a message;
     if `nil' let the mailer mail back a message to report errors.

     When non-`nil', Gnus will ask for confirmation when sending a

File: message,  Node: Message Buffers,  Next: Message Actions,  Prev: Sending Variables,  Up: Variables

3.9 Message Buffers

Message will generate new buffers with unique buffer names when you
request a message buffer.  When you send the message, the buffer isn't
normally killed off.  Its name is changed and a certain number of old
message buffers are kept alive.

     Controls whether to create a new message buffer to compose a
     message.  Valid values include:

          Generate the buffer name in the Message way (e.g., *mail*,
          *news*, *mail to whom*, *news on group*, etc.) and continue
          editing in the existing buffer of that name.  If there is no
          such buffer, it will be newly created.


          Create the new buffer with the name generated in the Message
          way.  This is the default.

          Similar to `unique' but the buffer name begins with "*unsent

          Similar to `nil' but the buffer name is simpler like *mail

          If this is a function, call that function with three
          parameters: The type, the To address and the group name (any
          of these may be `nil').  The function should return the new
          buffer name.

     The default value is `unique'.

     This variable says how many old message buffers to keep.  If there
     are more message buffers than this, the oldest buffer will be
     killed.  The default is 10.  If this variable is `nil', no old
     message buffers will ever be killed.

     After sending a message, the buffer is renamed from, for instance,
     `*reply to Lars*' to `*sent reply to Lars*'.  If you don't like
     this, set this variable to a function that renames the buffer in a
     manner you like.  If you don't want to rename the buffer at all,
     you can say:

          (setq message-send-rename-function 'ignore)

     If non-`nil', kill the buffer immediately on exit.

File: message,  Node: Message Actions,  Prev: Message Buffers,  Up: Variables

3.10 Message Actions

When Message is being used from a news/mail reader, the reader is likely
to want to perform some task after the message has been sent.  Perhaps
return to the previous window configuration or mark an article as

   The user may exit from the message buffer in various ways.  The most
common is `C-c C-c', which sends the message and exits.  Other
possibilities are `C-c C-s' which just sends the message, `C-c C-d'
which postpones the message editing and buries the message buffer, and
`C-c C-k' which kills the message buffer.  Each of these actions have
lists associated with them that contains actions to be executed:
`message-send-actions', `message-exit-actions',
`message-postpone-actions', and `message-kill-actions'.

   Message provides a function to interface with these lists:
`message-add-action'.  The first parameter is the action to be added,
and the rest of the arguments are which lists to add this action to.
Here's an example from Gnus:

        `(set-window-configuration ,(current-window-configuration))
        'exit 'postpone 'kill)

   This restores the Gnus window configuration when the message buffer
is killed, postponed or exited.

   An "action" can be either: a normal function, or a list where the
CAR is a function and the CDR is the list of arguments, or a form to be

File: message,  Node: Compatibility,  Next: Appendices,  Prev: Variables,  Up: Top

4 Compatibility

Message uses virtually only its own variables--older `mail-' variables
aren't consulted.  To force Message to take those variables into
account, you can put the following in your `.emacs' file:

     (require 'messcompat)

   This will initialize many Message variables from the values in the
corresponding mail variables.

File: message,  Node: Appendices,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Compatibility,  Up: Top

5 Appendices

* Menu:

* Responses::          Standard rules for determining where responses go.

File: message,  Node: Responses,  Up: Appendices

5.1 Responses

To determine where a message is to go, the following algorithm is used
by default.

     A "reply" is when you want to respond _just_ to the person who
     sent the message via mail.  There will only be one recipient.  To
     determine who the recipient will be, the following headers are
     consulted, in turn:



"wide reply"
     A "wide reply" is a mail response that includes _all_ entities
     mentioned in the message you are responded to.  All mailboxes from
     the following headers will be concatenated to form the outgoing
     `To'/`Cc' headers:

          (unless there's a `Reply-To', in which case that is used



     If a `Mail-Copies-To' header is present, it will also be included
     in the list of mailboxes.  If this header is `never', that means
     that the `From' (or `Reply-To') mailbox will be suppressed.

     A "followup" is a response sent via news.  The following headers
     (listed in order of precedence) determine where the response is to
     be sent:



     If a `Mail-Copies-To' header is present, it will be used as the
     basis of the new `Cc' header, except if this header is `never'.

File: message,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Index,  Prev: Appendices,  Up: Top

6 GNU Free Documentation License

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

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     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: message,  Node: Index,  Next: Key Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

7 Index

* Menu:

* aliases:                               Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* approved:                              News Headers.        (line 103)
* attachment:                            MIME.                (line   6)
* attribution line:                      Insertion Variables. (line  15)
* auto-fill:                             Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  15)
* Aw:                                    Message Headers.     (line  67)
* Cancel Locks:                          Canceling News.      (line  12)
* canlock:                               Canceling News.      (line  12)
* charset:                               Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line   7)
* cited:                                 Insertion Variables. (line  39)
* compatibility:                         Compatibility.       (line   6)
* completion:                            Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* cross-post:                            Header Commands.     (line 115)
* describe-mode:                         Header Commands.     (line  13)
* Distribution:                          News Headers.        (line  57)
* ecomplete:                             Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* encrypt:                               Security.            (line   6)
* Expires:                               News Headers.        (line  52)
* feedmail-send-it:                      Mail Variables.      (line   7)
* From:                                  News Headers.        (line  11)
* gpg-agent:                             Using PGP/MIME.      (line  13)
* gpg-temp-directory:                    PGP Compatibility.   (line   6)
* i-did-not-set-mail-host-address-so-tickle-me: News Headers. (line  35)
* IDNA:                                  IDNA.                (line   6)
* Importance:                            Header Commands.     (line 101)
* internationalized domain names:        IDNA.                (line   6)
* ispell-message:                        Spelling.            (line   6)
* ispell-message-dictionary-alist:       Spelling.            (line  15)
* Lines:                                 News Headers.        (line  32)
* long lines:                            News Headers.        (line 134)
* mail aliases:                          Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* Mail-Followup-To:                      Mailing Lists.       (line   6)
* mail-header-separator:                 Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  24)
* mail-host-address:                     News Headers.        (line  35)
* message-add-archive-header:            Header Commands.     (line 134)
* message-add-header:                    Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  67)
* message-allow-no-recipients:           Message Headers.     (line 126)
* message-alternative-emails:            Message Headers.     (line 109)
* message-archive-header:                Header Commands.     (line 134)
* message-archive-note:                  Header Commands.     (line 134)
* message-auto-save-directory:           Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  32)
* message-beginning-of-line:             Movement.            (line  14)
* message-bounce:                        Bouncing.            (line   6)
* message-caesar-buffer-body:            Various Commands.    (line   7)
* message-cancel-hook:                   Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  89)
* message-cancel-message:                Canceling News.      (line   9)
* message-cancel-news:                   Canceling News.      (line   6)
* message-change-subject:                Header Commands.     (line 109)
* message-citation-line-function:        Insertion Variables. (line  15)
* message-cite-articles-with-x-no-archive: Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  95)
* message-cite-function:                 Insertion Variables. (line  54)
* message-cite-original:                 Insertion Variables. (line  54)
* message-cite-original-without-signature: Insertion Variables.
                                                              (line  54)
* message-cite-prefix-regexp:            Insertion Variables. (line  12)
* message-confirm-send:                  Sending Variables.   (line  30)
* message-courtesy-message:              Sending Variables.   (line  13)
* message-cross-post-default:            Header Commands.     (line 115)
* message-cross-post-followup-to:        Header Commands.     (line 115)
* message-cross-post-note-function:      Header Commands.     (line 115)
* message-default-charset:               Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line   7)
* message-default-headers:               Message Headers.     (line  63)
* message-default-mail-headers:          Mail Headers.        (line  17)
* message-default-news-headers:          News Headers.        (line 198)
* message-deletable-headers:             Message Headers.     (line  52)
* message-delete-not-region:             Various Commands.    (line  26)
* message-directory:                     Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  28)
* message-distribution-function:         News Headers.        (line  57)
* message-dont-reply-to-names:           Wide Reply.          (line  16)
* message-dont-send:                     Sending.             (line  14)
* message-draft-headers:                 Message Headers.     (line  28)
* message-elide-ellipsis:                Various Commands.    (line  13)
* message-elide-region:                  Various Commands.    (line  13)
* message-exit-actions:                  Message Actions.     (line  11)
* message-expires:                       News Headers.        (line  52)
* message-fcc-externalize-attachments:   Sending Variables.   (line  22)
* message-fcc-handler-function:          Sending Variables.   (line   7)
* message-fill-column:                   Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  15)
* message-fill-yanked-message:           Insertion.           (line  15)
* message-followup:                      Followup.            (line   6)
* message-followup-to-function:          Followup.            (line   9)
* message-forward:                       Forwarding.          (line   6)
* message-forward-as-mime:               Forwarding.          (line  34)
* message-forward-before-signature:      Forwarding.          (line  40)
* message-forward-ignored-headers:       Forwarding.          (line  10)
* message-forward-subject-author-subject: Forwarding.         (line  21)
* message-from-style:                    Message Headers.     (line  33)
* message-generate-hashcash:             Mail Headers.        (line  21)
* message-generate-headers-first:        Message Headers.     (line  13)
* message-generate-new-buffers:          Message Buffers.     (line  12)
* message-generate-unsubscribed-mail-followup-to <1>: Header Commands.
                                                              (line  60)
* message-generate-unsubscribed-mail-followup-to: Mailing Lists.
                                                              (line  87)
* message-goto-bcc:                      Header Commands.     (line  23)
* message-goto-body:                     Movement.            (line   7)
* message-goto-cc:                       Header Commands.     (line  29)
* message-goto-distribution:             Header Commands.     (line  41)
* message-goto-fcc:                      Header Commands.     (line  26)
* message-goto-followup-to:              Header Commands.     (line  44)
* message-goto-from:                     Header Commands.     (line  19)
* message-goto-keywords:                 Header Commands.     (line  47)
* message-goto-mail-followup-to:         Mailing Lists.       (line  87)
* message-goto-newsgroups:               Header Commands.     (line  38)
* message-goto-reply-to:                 Header Commands.     (line  35)
* message-goto-signature:                Movement.            (line  11)
* message-goto-subject:                  Header Commands.     (line  32)
* message-goto-summary:                  Header Commands.     (line  50)
* message-goto-to:                       Header Commands.     (line  16)
* message-header-format-alist:           Header Commands.     (line  78)
* message-header-setup-hook:             Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  46)
* message-header-synonyms:               Message Headers.     (line 143)
* message-hidden-headers:                Message Headers.     (line 132)
* Message-ID:                            News Headers.        (line  35)
* message-idna-to-ascii-rhs:             IDNA.                (line  21)
* message-ignored-bounced-headers:       Bouncing.            (line  11)
* message-ignored-cited-headers:         Insertion Variables. (line   7)
* message-ignored-mail-headers:          Mail Headers.        (line  12)
* message-ignored-news-headers:          News Headers.        (line 193)
* message-ignored-resent-headers:        Resending.           (line   9)
* message-ignored-supersedes-headers:    Superseding.         (line   9)
* message-indent-citation-function:      Insertion Variables. (line  61)
* message-indentation-spaces:            Insertion Variables. (line  51)
* message-insert-canlock:                Canceling News.      (line  12)
* message-insert-disposition-notification-to: Header Commands.
                                                              (line  95)
* message-insert-headers:                Insertion.           (line  26)
* message-insert-importance-high:        Header Commands.     (line 101)
* message-insert-importance-low:         Header Commands.     (line 105)
* message-insert-newsgroups:             Header Commands.     (line  86)
* message-insert-or-toggle-importance:   Header Commands.     (line  53)
* message-insert-signature:              Insertion.           (line  22)
* message-insert-to:                     Header Commands.     (line  82)
* message-insert-wide-reply:             Header Commands.     (line 130)
* message-interactive:                   Sending Variables.   (line  26)
* message-kill-actions:                  Message Actions.     (line  11)
* message-kill-address:                  Various Commands.    (line  19)
* message-kill-buffer:                   Sending.             (line  17)
* message-kill-buffer-on-exit:           Message Buffers.     (line  59)
* message-kill-to-signature:             Various Commands.    (line  22)
* message-mail:                          New Mail Message.    (line   6)
* message-mail-alias-type:               Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* message-mail-p:                        Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line 108)
* message-mailer-swallows-blank-line:    Mail Variables.      (line  59)
* message-make-forward-subject-function: Forwarding.          (line  14)
* message-mark-insert-begin:             Insertion Variables. (line  67)
* message-mark-insert-end:               Insertion Variables. (line  70)
* message-mark-insert-file:              Insertion.           (line  35)
* message-mark-inserted-region:          Insertion.           (line  29)
* message-max-buffers:                   Message Buffers.     (line  44)
* message-mh-deletable-headers:          Mail Variables.      (line  29)
* message-mode-syntax-table:             Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  92)
* message-newline-and-reformat:          Various Commands.    (line  30)
* message-news:                          New News Message.    (line   6)
* message-news-p:                        Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line 108)
* message-post-method:                   News Variables.      (line  11)
* message-postpone-actions:              Message Actions.     (line  11)
* message-qmail-inject-args:             Mail Variables.      (line  39)
* message-qmail-inject-program:          Mail Variables.      (line  36)
* message-reduce-to-to-cc:               Header Commands.     (line 125)
* message-rename-buffer:                 Various Commands.    (line  47)
* message-reply:                         Reply.               (line   6)
* message-reply-to-function:             Reply.               (line   9)
* message-required-headers:              Message Headers.     (line  19)
* message-required-mail-headers:         Mail Headers.        (line   7)
* message-required-news-headers:         News Headers.        (line   6)
* message-resend:                        Resending.           (line   6)
* message-send:                          Sending.             (line  11)
* message-send-actions:                  Message Actions.     (line  11)
* message-send-and-exit:                 Sending.             (line   7)
* message-send-hook:                     Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  64)
* message-send-mail-function:            Mail Variables.      (line   7)
* message-send-mail-hook:                Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  78)
* message-send-mail-partially-limit:     Mail Variables.      (line  65)
* message-send-mail-with-mailclient:     Mail Variables.      (line   7)
* message-send-mail-with-mh:             Mail Variables.      (line   7)
* message-send-mail-with-qmail:          Mail Variables.      (line   7)
* message-send-mail-with-sendmail:       Mail Variables.      (line   7)
* message-send-method-alist:             Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line 108)
* message-send-news-function:            News Variables.      (line   7)
* message-send-news-hook:                Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  82)
* message-send-rename-function:          Message Buffers.     (line  50)
* message-send-via-mail:                 Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line 108)
* message-send-via-news:                 Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line 108)
* message-sendmail-envelope-from:        Mail Variables.      (line  53)
* message-sendmail-f-is-evil:            Mail Variables.      (line  49)
* message-sent-hook:                     Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  86)
* message-setup-hook:                    Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  42)
* message-signature:                     Insertion Variables. (line  73)
* message-signature-directory:           Insertion Variables. (line  87)
* message-signature-file:                Insertion Variables. (line  81)
* message-signature-insert-empty-line:   Insertion Variables. (line  93)
* message-signature-separator:           Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  20)
* message-signature-setup-hook:          Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line  37)
* message-smtpmail-send-it:              Mail Variables.      (line   7)
* message-sort-headers:                  Header Commands.     (line  78)
* message-strip-special-text-properties: Various Message Variables.
                                                              (line 100)
* message-subject-re-regexp:             Message Headers.     (line  67)
* message-subject-trailing-was-ask-regexp: Message Headers.   (line 100)
* message-subject-trailing-was-query:    Message Headers.     (line 100)
* message-subject-trailing-was-regexp:   Message Headers.     (line 100)
* message-subscribed-address-file:       Mailing Lists.       (line  65)
* message-subscribed-address-functions:  Mailing Lists.       (line  50)
* message-subscribed-addresses:          Mailing Lists.       (line  37)
* message-subscribed-regexps:            Mailing Lists.       (line  43)
* message-supersede:                     Superseding.         (line   6)
* message-syntax-checks:                 News Headers.        (line  93)
* message-tab:                           Various Commands.    (line  51)
* message-tab-body-function:             Various Commands.    (line  51)
* message-to-list-only:                  Header Commands.     (line  91)
* message-use-followup-to:               Followup.            (line  14)
* message-use-idna:                      IDNA.                (line  15)
* message-use-mail-followup-to:          Mailing Lists.       (line 100)
* message-user-fqdn:                     News Headers.        (line  35)
* message-user-organization:             News Headers.        (line  24)
* message-user-organization-file:        News Headers.        (line  24)
* message-user-path:                     News Headers.        (line  62)
* message-wash-forwarded-subjects:       Forwarding.          (line  28)
* message-wide-reply:                    Wide Reply.          (line   6)
* message-wide-reply-confirm-recipients: Wide Reply.          (line  20)
* message-wide-reply-to-function:        Wide Reply.          (line  11)
* message-yank-buffer:                   Insertion.           (line  11)
* message-yank-cited-prefix:             Insertion Variables. (line  39)
* message-yank-empty-prefix:             Insertion Variables. (line  44)
* message-yank-original:                 Insertion.           (line   7)
* message-yank-prefix:                   Insertion Variables. (line  31)
* MIME:                                  MIME.                (line   6)
* Mime-Version:                          News Headers.        (line  70)
* MML:                                   MIME.                (line   6)
* mml-attach-file:                       MIME.                (line  10)
* mml-dnd-attach-options:                MIME.                (line  15)
* mml-dnd-protocol-alist:                MIME.                (line  15)
* mml-secure-message-encrypt-pgp:        Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  22)
* mml-secure-message-encrypt-pgpmime:    Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  25)
* mml-secure-message-encrypt-smime:      Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  19)
* mml-secure-message-sign-pgp:           Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  13)
* mml-secure-message-sign-pgpmime:       Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  16)
* mml-secure-message-sign-smime:         Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  10)
* mml-signencrypt-style-alist:           PGP Compatibility.   (line  19)
* mml-unsecure-message:                  Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  28)
* multipart:                             MIME.                (line   6)
* Newsgroups:                            News Headers.        (line  20)
* non-ascii domain names:                IDNA.                (line   6)
* organization:                          News Headers.        (line  24)
* path:                                  News Headers.        (line  62)
* PGP:                                   Security.            (line   6)
* PGP/MIME:                              Security.            (line   6)
* qmail:                                 Mail Variables.      (line  36)
* quoting:                               Insertion Variables. (line  31)
* Re:                                    Message Headers.     (line  67)
* S/MIME:                                Security.            (line   6)
* secure:                                Security.            (line   6)
* Security:                              Security.            (line   6)
* Sender:                                News Headers.        (line 159)
* sendmail:                              Mail Variables.      (line  49)
* sendsys:                               News Headers.        (line 162)
* sign:                                  Security.            (line   6)
* smtpmail-send-it:                      Mail Variables.      (line   7)
* spelling:                              Spelling.            (line   6)
* split large message:                   Mail Variables.      (line  65)
* Subject <1>:                           News Headers.        (line  17)
* Subject:                               Header Commands.     (line 109)
* Sun:                                   News Headers.        (line  35)
* Sv:                                    Message Headers.     (line  67)
* system-name:                           News Headers.        (line  35)
* undo:                                  Buffer Entry.        (line   6)
* User-Agent:                            News Headers.        (line  44)
* user-full-name:                        News Headers.        (line  11)
* user-mail-address:                     News Headers.        (line  11)
* X-No-Archive:                          Header Commands.     (line 134)
* X-Post:                                Header Commands.     (line 115)
* yanking:                               Insertion Variables. (line  31)
* yow:                                   News Headers.        (line  70)

File: message,  Node: Key Index,  Prev: Index,  Up: Top

8 Key Index

* Menu:

* C-_:                                   Buffer Entry.        (line   6)
* C-a:                                   Movement.            (line  14)
* C-c ?:                                 Header Commands.     (line  13)
* C-c C-a:                               MIME.                (line  10)
* C-c C-b:                               Movement.            (line   7)
* C-c C-c:                               Sending.             (line   7)
* C-c C-d:                               Sending.             (line  14)
* C-c C-e:                               Various Commands.    (line  13)
* C-c C-f a:                             Header Commands.     (line 134)
* C-c C-f C-a <1>:                       Header Commands.     (line  60)
* C-c C-f C-a:                           Mailing Lists.       (line  87)
* C-c C-f C-b:                           Header Commands.     (line  23)
* C-c C-f C-c:                           Header Commands.     (line  29)
* C-c C-f C-d:                           Header Commands.     (line  41)
* C-c C-f C-f:                           Header Commands.     (line  44)
* C-c C-f C-i:                           Header Commands.     (line  53)
* C-c C-f C-k:                           Header Commands.     (line  47)
* C-c C-f C-m:                           Mailing Lists.       (line  87)
* C-c C-f C-n:                           Header Commands.     (line  38)
* C-c C-f C-o:                           Header Commands.     (line  19)
* C-c C-f C-r:                           Header Commands.     (line  35)
* C-c C-f C-s:                           Header Commands.     (line  32)
* C-c C-f C-t:                           Header Commands.     (line  16)
* C-c C-f C-u:                           Header Commands.     (line  50)
* C-c C-f C-w:                           Header Commands.     (line  26)
* C-c C-f s:                             Header Commands.     (line 109)
* C-c C-f t:                             Header Commands.     (line 125)
* C-c C-f w:                             Header Commands.     (line 130)
* C-c C-f x:                             Header Commands.     (line 115)
* C-c C-i:                               Movement.            (line  11)
* C-c C-k:                               Sending.             (line  17)
* C-c C-l:                               Header Commands.     (line  91)
* C-c C-m c o:                           Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  22)
* C-c C-m c p:                           Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  25)
* C-c C-m c s:                           Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  19)
* C-c C-m C-n:                           Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  28)
* C-c C-m s o:                           Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  13)
* C-c C-m s p:                           Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  16)
* C-c C-m s s:                           Signing and encryption.
                                                              (line  10)
* C-c C-M-y:                             Insertion.           (line  11)
* C-c C-n:                               Header Commands.     (line  86)
* C-c C-o:                               Header Commands.     (line  78)
* C-c C-q:                               Insertion.           (line  15)
* C-c C-r:                               Various Commands.    (line   7)
* C-c C-s:                               Sending.             (line  11)
* C-c C-t:                               Header Commands.     (line  82)
* C-c C-v:                               Various Commands.    (line  26)
* C-c C-w:                               Insertion.           (line  22)
* C-c C-y:                               Insertion.           (line   7)
* C-c C-z:                               Various Commands.    (line  22)
* C-c M-f:                               Insertion.           (line  35)
* C-c M-h:                               Insertion.           (line  26)
* C-c M-k:                               Various Commands.    (line  19)
* C-c M-m:                               Insertion.           (line  29)
* C-c M-n:                               Header Commands.     (line  95)
* C-c M-r:                               Various Commands.    (line  47)
* M-RET:                                 Various Commands.    (line  30)
* M-x message-insert-importance-high:    Header Commands.     (line 101)
* M-x message-insert-importance-low:     Header Commands.     (line 105)
* TAB:                                   Various Commands.    (line  51)