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File: libtool.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Introduction,  Prev: (dir),  Up: (dir)

Shared library support for GNU
******************************

This file documents GNU Libtool, a script that allows package developers
to provide generic shared library support.  This edition documents
version 2.2.6b.

   *Note Reporting bugs::, for information on how to report problems
with GNU Libtool.

* Menu:

* Introduction::                What the heck is libtool?
* Libtool paradigm::            How libtool's view of libraries is different.
* Using libtool::               Example of using libtool to build libraries.
* Invoking libtool::            Running the `libtool' script.
* Integrating libtool::         Using libtool in your own packages.
* Other languages::             Using libtool without a C compiler.
* Versioning::                  Using library interface versions.
* Library tips::                Tips for library interface design.
* Inter-library dependencies::  Libraries that depend on other libraries.
* Dlopened modules::            `dlopen'ing libtool-created libraries.
* Using libltdl::               Libtool's portable `dlopen' wrapper library.
* Trace interface::             Libtool's trace interface.
* Troubleshooting::             When libtool doesn't work as advertised.
* Maintaining::                 Information used by the libtool maintainer.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: License for this manual.
* Index::                       Full index.

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

* Motivation::                  Why does GNU need a libtool?
* Issues::                      The problems that need to be addressed.
* Other implementations::       How other people have solved these issues.
* Postmortem::                  Learning from past difficulties.

Using libtool

* Creating object files::       Compiling object files for libraries.
* Linking libraries::           Creating libraries from object files.
* Linking executables::         Linking object files against libtool libraries.
* Debugging executables::       Running GDB on libtool-generated programs.
* Installing libraries::        Making libraries available to users.
* Installing executables::      Making programs available to users.
* Static libraries::            When shared libraries are not wanted.

Invoking `libtool'

* Compile mode::                Creating library object files.
* Link mode::                   Generating executables and libraries.
* Execute mode::                Debugging libtool-generated programs.
* Install mode::                Making libraries and executables public.
* Finish mode::                 Completing a library installation.
* Uninstall mode::              Removing installed executables and libraries.
* Clean mode::                  Removing uninstalled executables and libraries.

Integrating libtool with your package

* Autoconf macros::             Autoconf macros exported by libtool.
* Makefile rules::              Writing `Makefile' rules for libtool.
* Using Automake::              Automatically supporting libtool.
* Configuring::                 Configuring libtool for a host system.
* Distributing::                What files to distribute with your package.
* Static-only libraries::       Sometimes shared libraries are just a pain.

Configuring libtool

* LT_INIT::                     Configuring `libtool' in `configure.ac'.
* Configure notes::             Platform-specific notes for configuration.

Including libtool in your package

* Invoking libtoolize::         `libtoolize' command line options.
* Autoconf and LTLIBOBJS::      Autoconf automates LTLIBOBJS generation.

Using libtool with other languages

* C++ libraries::               Writing libraries for C++
* Tags::                        Tags

Library interface versions

* Interfaces::                  What are library interfaces?
* Libtool versioning::          Libtool's versioning system.
* Updating version info::       Changing version information before releases.
* Release numbers::             Breaking binary compatibility for aesthetics.

Tips for interface design

* C header files::              How to write portable include files.

Dlopened modules

* Building modules::            Creating dlopenable objects and libraries.
* Dlpreopening::                Dlopening that works on static platforms.
* Linking with dlopened modules:: Using dlopenable modules in libraries.
* Finding the dlname::          Choosing the right file to `dlopen'.
* Dlopen issues::               Unresolved problems that need your attention.

Using libltdl

* Libltdl interface::           How to use libltdl in your programs.
* Modules for libltdl::         Creating modules that can be `dlopen'ed.
* Thread Safety in libltdl::    Registering callbacks for multi-thread safety.
* User defined module data::    Associating data with loaded modules.
* Module loaders for libltdl::  Creating user defined module loaders.
* Distributing libltdl::        How to distribute libltdl with your package.

Troubleshooting

* Libtool test suite::          Libtool's self-tests.
* Reporting bugs::              How to report problems with libtool.

The libtool test suite

* Test descriptions::           The contents of the test suite.
* When tests fail::             What to do when a test fails.

Maintenance notes for libtool

* New ports::                   How to port libtool to new systems.
* Tested platforms::            When libtool was last tested.
* Platform quirks::             Information about different library systems.
* libtool script contents::     Configuration information that libtool uses.
* Cheap tricks::                Making libtool maintainership easier.

Porting libtool to new systems

* Information sources::         Where to find relevant documentation
* Porting inter-library dependencies::  Implementation details explained

Platform quirks

* References::                  Finding more information.
* Compilers::                   Creating object files from source files.
* Reloadable objects::          Binding object files together.
* Multiple dependencies::       Removing duplicate dependent libraries.
* Archivers::                   Programs that create static archives.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Libtool paradigm,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction
**************

In the past, if a source code package developer wanted to take advantage
of the power of shared libraries, he needed to write custom support code
for each platform on which his package ran.  He also had to design a
configuration interface so that the package installer could choose what
sort of libraries were built.

   GNU Libtool simplifies the developer's job by encapsulating both the
platform-specific dependencies, and the user interface, in a single
script.  GNU Libtool is designed so that the complete functionality of
each host type is available via a generic interface, but nasty quirks
are hidden from the programmer.

   GNU Libtool's consistent interface is reassuring... users don't need
to read obscure documentation in order to have their favorite source
package build shared libraries.  They just run your package `configure'
script (or equivalent), and libtool does all the dirty work.

   There are several examples throughout this document.  All assume the
same environment: we want to build a library, `libhello', in a generic
way.

   `libhello' could be a shared library, a static library, or both...
whatever is available on the host system, as long as libtool has been
ported to it.

   This chapter explains the original design philosophy of libtool.
Feel free to skip to the next chapter, unless you are interested in
history, or want to write code to extend libtool in a consistent way.

* Menu:

* Motivation::                  Why does GNU need a libtool?
* Issues::                      The problems that need to be addressed.
* Other implementations::       How other people have solved these issues.
* Postmortem::                  Learning from past difficulties.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Motivation,  Next: Issues,  Up: Introduction

1.1 Motivation for writing libtool
==================================

Since early 1995, several different GNU developers have recognized the
importance of having shared library support for their packages.  The
primary motivation for such a change is to encourage modularity and
reuse of code (both conceptually and physically) in GNU programs.

   Such a demand means that the way libraries are built in GNU packages
needs to be general, to allow for any library type the package installer
might want.  The problem is compounded by the absence of a standard
procedure for creating shared libraries on different platforms.

   The following sections outline the major issues facing shared library
support in GNU, and how shared library support could be standardized
with libtool.

   The following specifications were used in developing and evaluating
this system:

  1. The system must be as elegant as possible.

  2. The system must be fully integrated with the GNU Autoconf and
     Automake utilities, so that it will be easy for GNU maintainers to
     use.  However, the system must not require these tools, so that it
     can be used by non-GNU packages.

  3. Portability to other (non-GNU) architectures and tools is
     desirable.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Issues,  Next: Other implementations,  Prev: Motivation,  Up: Introduction

1.2 Implementation issues
=========================

The following issues need to be addressed in any reusable shared library
system, specifically libtool:

  1. The package installer should be able to control what sort of
     libraries are built.

  2. It can be tricky to run dynamically linked programs whose
     libraries have not yet been installed.  `LD_LIBRARY_PATH' must be
     set properly (if it is supported), or programs fail to run.

  3. The system must operate consistently even on hosts that don't
     support shared libraries.

  4. The commands required to build shared libraries may differ wildly
     from host to host.  These need to be determined at configure time
     in a consistent way.

  5. It is not always obvious with what prefix or suffix a shared
     library should be installed.  This makes it difficult for
     `Makefile' rules, since they generally assume that file names are
     the same from host to host.

  6. The system needs a simple library version number abstraction, so
     that shared libraries can be upgraded in place.  The programmer
     should be informed how to design the interfaces to the library to
     maximize binary compatibility.

  7. The install `Makefile' target should warn the package installer to
     set the proper environment variables (`LD_LIBRARY_PATH' or
     equivalent), or run `ldconfig'.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Other implementations,  Next: Postmortem,  Prev: Issues,  Up: Introduction

1.3 Other implementations
=========================

Even before libtool was developed, many free software packages built and
installed their own shared libraries.  At first, these packages were
examined to avoid reinventing existing features.

   Now it is clear that none of these packages have documented the
details of shared library systems that libtool requires.  So, other
packages have been more or less abandoned as influences.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Postmortem,  Prev: Other implementations,  Up: Introduction

1.4 A postmortem analysis of other implementations
==================================================

In all fairness, each of the implementations that were examined do the
job that they were intended to do, for a number of different host
systems.  However, none of these solutions seem to function well as a
generalized, reusable component.

   Most were too complex to use (much less modify) without understanding
exactly what the implementation does, and they were generally not
documented.

   The main difficulty is that different vendors have different views of
what libraries are, and none of the packages that were examined seemed
to be confident enough to settle on a single paradigm that just _works_.

   Ideally, libtool would be a standard that would be implemented as
series of extensions and modifications to existing library systems to
make them work consistently.  However, it is not an easy task to
convince operating system developers to mend their evil ways, and
people want to build shared libraries right now, even on buggy, broken,
confused operating systems.

   For this reason, libtool was designed as an independent shell script.
It isolates the problems and inconsistencies in library building that
plague `Makefile' writers by wrapping the compiler suite on different
platforms with a consistent, powerful interface.

   With luck, libtool will be useful to and used by the GNU community,
and that the lessons that were learned in writing it will be taken up by
designers of future library systems.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Libtool paradigm,  Next: Using libtool,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 The libtool paradigm
**********************

At first, libtool was designed to support an arbitrary number of library
object types.  After libtool was ported to more platforms, a new
paradigm gradually developed for describing the relationship between
libraries and programs.

   In summary, "libraries are programs with multiple entry points, and
more formally defined interfaces."

   Version 0.7 of libtool was a complete redesign and rewrite of
libtool to reflect this new paradigm.  So far, it has proved to be
successful: libtool is simpler and more useful than before.

   The best way to introduce the libtool paradigm is to contrast it with
the paradigm of existing library systems, with examples from each.  It
is a new way of thinking, so it may take a little time to absorb, but
when you understand it, the world becomes simpler.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Using libtool,  Next: Invoking libtool,  Prev: Libtool paradigm,  Up: Top

3 Using libtool
***************

It makes little sense to talk about using libtool in your own packages
until you have seen how it makes your life simpler.  The examples in
this chapter introduce the main features of libtool by comparing the
standard library building procedure to libtool's operation on two
different platforms:

`a23'
     An Ultrix 4.2 platform with only static libraries.

`burger'
     A NetBSD/i386 1.2 platform with shared libraries.

   You can follow these examples on your own platform, using the
preconfigured libtool script that was installed with libtool (*note
Configuring::).

   Source files for the following examples are taken from the `demo'
subdirectory of the libtool distribution.  Assume that we are building a
library, `libhello', out of the files `foo.c' and `hello.c'.

   Note that the `foo.c' source file uses the `cos' math library
function, which is usually found in the standalone math library, and not
the C library (*note Trigonometric Functions: (libc)Trig Functions.).
So, we need to add `-lm' to the end of the link line whenever we link
`foo.lo' into an executable or a library (*note Inter-library
dependencies::).

   The same rule applies whenever you use functions that don't appear in
the standard C library... you need to add the appropriate `-lNAME' flag
to the end of the link line when you link against those objects.

   After we have built that library, we want to create a program by
linking `main.o' against `libhello'.

* Menu:

* Creating object files::       Compiling object files for libraries.
* Linking libraries::           Creating libraries from object files.
* Linking executables::         Linking object files against libtool libraries.
* Debugging executables::       Running GDB on libtool-generated programs.
* Installing libraries::        Making libraries available to users.
* Installing executables::      Making programs available to users.
* Static libraries::            When shared libraries are not wanted.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Creating object files,  Next: Linking libraries,  Up: Using libtool

3.1 Creating object files
=========================

To create an object file from a source file, the compiler is invoked
with the `-c' flag (and any other desired flags):

     burger$ gcc -g -O -c main.c
     burger$

   The above compiler command produces an object file, usually named
`main.o', from the source file `main.c'.

   For most library systems, creating object files that become part of a
static library is as simple as creating object files that are linked to
form an executable:

     burger$ gcc -g -O -c foo.c
     burger$ gcc -g -O -c hello.c
     burger$

   Shared libraries, however, may only be built from
"position-independent code" (PIC).  So, special flags must be passed to
the compiler to tell it to generate PIC rather than the standard
position-dependent code.

   Since this is a library implementation detail, libtool hides the
complexity of PIC compiler flags and uses separate library object files
(the PIC one lives in the `.libs' subdirectory and the static one lives
in the current directory).  On systems without shared libraries, the
PIC library object files are not created, whereas on systems where all
code is PIC, such as AIX, the static ones are not created.

   To create library object files for `foo.c' and `hello.c', simply
invoke libtool with the standard compilation command as arguments
(*note Compile mode::):

     a23$ libtool --mode=compile gcc -g -O -c foo.c
     gcc -g -O -c foo.c -o foo.o
     a23$ libtool --mode=compile gcc -g -O -c hello.c
     gcc -g -O -c hello.c -o hello.o
     a23$

   Note that libtool silently creates an additional control file on each
`compile' invocation.  The `.lo' file is the libtool object, which
Libtool uses to determine what object file may be built into a shared
library.  On `a23', only static libraries are supported so the library
objects look like this:

     # foo.lo - a libtool object file
     # Generated by ltmain.sh (GNU libtool) 2.2.6b
     #
     # Please DO NOT delete this file!
     # It is necessary for linking the library.

     # Name of the PIC object.
     pic_object=none

     # Name of the non-PIC object.
     non_pic_object='foo.o'

   On shared library systems, libtool automatically generates an
additional PIC object by inserting the appropriate PIC generation flags
into the compilation command:

     burger$ libtool --mode=compile gcc -g -O -c foo.c
     mkdir .libs
     gcc -g -O -c foo.c  -fPIC -DPIC -o .libs/foo.o
     gcc -g -O -c foo.c -o foo.o >/dev/null 2>&1
     burger$

   Note that Libtool automatically created `.libs' directory upon its
first execution, where PIC library object files will be stored.

   Since `burger' supports shared libraries, and requires PIC objects
to build them, Libtool has compiled a PIC object this time, and made a
note of it in the libtool object:

     # foo.lo - a libtool object file
     # Generated by ltmain.sh (GNU libtool) 2.2.6b
     #
     # Please DO NOT delete this file!
     # It is necessary for linking the library.

     # Name of the PIC object.
     pic_object='.libs/foo.o'

     # Name of the non-PIC object.
     non_pic_object='foo.o'

   Notice that the second run of GCC has its output discarded.  This is
done so that compiler warnings aren't annoyingly duplicated.  If you
need to see both sets of warnings (you might have conditional code
inside `#ifdef PIC' for example), you can turn off suppression with the
`-no-suppress' option to libtool's compile mode:

     burger$ libtool --mode=compile gcc -no-suppress -g -O -c hello.c
     gcc -g -O -c hello.c  -fPIC -DPIC -o .libs/hello.o
     gcc -g -O -c hello.c -o hello.o
     burger$

File: libtool.info,  Node: Linking libraries,  Next: Linking executables,  Prev: Creating object files,  Up: Using libtool

3.2 Linking libraries
=====================

Without libtool, the programmer would invoke the `ar' command to create
a static library:

     burger$ ar cru libhello.a hello.o foo.o
     burger$

   But of course, that would be too simple, so many systems require that
you run the `ranlib' command on the resulting library (to give it
better karma, or something):

     burger$ ranlib libhello.a
     burger$

   It seems more natural to use the C compiler for this task, given
libtool's "libraries are programs" approach.  So, on platforms without
shared libraries, libtool simply acts as a wrapper for the system `ar'
(and possibly `ranlib') commands.

   Again, the libtool control file name (`.la' suffix) differs from the
standard library name (`.a' suffix).  The arguments to libtool are the
same ones you would use to produce an executable named `libhello.la'
with your compiler (*note Link mode::):

     a23$ libtool --mode=link gcc -g -O -o libhello.la foo.o hello.o
     *** Warning: Linking the shared library libhello.la against the non-libtool
     *** objects  foo.o hello.o is not portable!
     ar cru .libs/libhello.a
     ranlib .libs/libhello.a
     creating libhello.la
     (cd .libs && rm -f libhello.la && ln -s ../libhello.la libhello.la)
     a23$

   Aha!  Libtool caught a common error... trying to build a library
from standard objects instead of special `.lo' object files.  This
doesn't matter so much for static libraries, but on shared library
systems, it is of great importance.  (Note that you may replace
`libhello.la' with `libhello.a' in which case libtool won't issue the
warning any more.  But although this method works, this is not intended
to be used because it makes you lose the benefits of using Libtool.)

   So, let's try again, this time with the library object files.
Remember also that we need to add `-lm' to the link command line because
`foo.c' uses the `cos' math library function (*note Using libtool::).

   Another complication in building shared libraries is that we need to
specify the path to the directory in which they (eventually) will be
installed (in this case, `/usr/local/lib')(1):

     a23$ libtool --mode=link gcc -g -O -o libhello.la foo.lo hello.lo \
                     -rpath /usr/local/lib -lm
     ar cru .libs/libhello.a foo.o hello.o
     ranlib .libs/libhello.a
     creating libhello.la
     (cd .libs && rm -f libhello.la && ln -s ../libhello.la libhello.la)
     a23$

   Now, let's try the same trick on the shared library platform:

     burger$ libtool --mode=link gcc -g -O -o libhello.la foo.lo hello.lo \
                     -rpath /usr/local/lib -lm
     rm -fr  .libs/libhello.a .libs/libhello.la
     ld -Bshareable -o .libs/libhello.so.0.0 .libs/foo.o .libs/hello.o -lm
     ar cru .libs/libhello.a foo.o hello.o
     ranlib .libs/libhello.a
     creating libhello.la
     (cd .libs && rm -f libhello.la && ln -s ../libhello.la libhello.la)
     burger$

   Now that's significantly cooler... Libtool just ran an obscure `ld'
command to create a shared library, as well as the static library.

   Note how libtool creates extra files in the `.libs' subdirectory,
rather than the current directory.  This feature is to make it easier
to clean up the build directory, and to help ensure that other programs
fail horribly if you accidentally forget to use libtool when you should.

   Again, you may want to have a look at the `.la' file in order to see
what Libtool stores in it.  In particular, you will see that Libtool
uses this file to remember the destination directory for the library
(the argument to `-rpath') as well as the dependency on the math
library (`-lm').

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) If you don't specify an `rpath', then libtool builds a libtool
convenience archive, not a shared library (*note Static libraries::).

File: libtool.info,  Node: Linking executables,  Next: Debugging executables,  Prev: Linking libraries,  Up: Using libtool

3.3 Linking executables
=======================

If you choose at this point to "install" the library (put it in a
permanent location) before linking executables against it, then you
don't need to use libtool to do the linking.  Simply use the appropriate
`-L' and `-l' flags to specify the library's location.

   Some system linkers insist on encoding the full directory name of
each shared library in the resulting executable.  Libtool has to work
around this misfeature by special magic to ensure that only permanent
directory names are put into installed executables.

   The importance of this bug must not be overlooked: it won't cause
programs to crash in obvious ways.  It creates a security hole, and
possibly even worse, if you are modifying the library source code after
you have installed the package, you will change the behaviour of the
installed programs!

   So, if you want to link programs against the library before you
install it, you must use libtool to do the linking.

   Here's the old way of linking against an uninstalled library:

     burger$ gcc -g -O -o hell.old main.o libhello.a -lm
     burger$

   Libtool's way is almost the same(1) (*note Link mode::):

     a23$ libtool --mode=link gcc -g -O -o hell main.o libhello.la
     gcc -g -O -o hell main.o  ./.libs/libhello.a -lm
     a23$

   That looks too simple to be true.  All libtool did was transform
`libhello.la' to `./.libs/libhello.a', but remember that `a23' has no
shared libraries.  Notice that Libtool also remembered that
`libhello.la' depends on `-lm', so even though we didn't specify `-lm'
on the libtool command line(2) Libtool has added it to the `gcc' link
line for us.

   On `burger' Libtool links against the uninstalled shared library:

     burger$ libtool --mode=link gcc -g -O -o hell main.o libhello.la
     gcc -g -O -o .libs/hell main.o -L./.libs -R/usr/local/lib -lhello -lm
     creating hell
     burger$

   Now assume `libhello.la' had already been installed, and you want to
link a new program with it.  You could figure out where it lives by
yourself, then run:

     burger$ gcc -g -O -o test test.o -L/usr/local/lib -lhello -lm

   However, unless `/usr/local/lib' is in the standard library search
path, you won't be able to run `test'.  However, if you use libtool to
link the already-installed libtool library, it will do The Right Thing
(TM) for you:

     burger$ libtool --mode=link gcc -g -O -o test test.o \
                     /usr/local/lib/libhello.la
     gcc -g -O -o .libs/test test.o -Wl,--rpath \
             -Wl,/usr/local/lib /usr/local/lib/libhello.a -lm
     creating test
     burger$

   Note that libtool added the necessary run-time path flag, as well as
`-lm', the library libhello.la depended upon.  Nice, huh?

   Notice that the executable, `hell', was actually created in the
`.libs' subdirectory.  Then, a wrapper script was created in the
current directory.

   Since libtool created a wrapper script, you should use libtool to
install it and debug it too.  However, since the program does not depend
on any uninstalled libtool library, it is probably usable even without
the wrapper script.

   On NetBSD 1.2, libtool encodes the installation directory of
`libhello', by using the `-R/usr/local/lib' compiler flag.  Then, the
wrapper script guarantees that the executable finds the correct shared
library (the one in `./.libs') until it is properly installed.

   Let's compare the two different programs:

     burger$ time ./hell.old
     Welcome to GNU Hell!
     ** This is not GNU Hello.  There is no built-in mail reader. **
             0.21 real         0.02 user         0.08 sys
     burger$ time ./hell
     Welcome to GNU Hell!
     ** This is not GNU Hello.  There is no built-in mail reader. **
             0.63 real         0.09 user         0.59 sys
     burger$

   The wrapper script takes significantly longer to execute, but at
least the results are correct, even though the shared library hasn't
been installed yet.

   So, what about all the space savings that shared libraries are
supposed to yield?

     burger$ ls -l hell.old libhello.a
     -rwxr-xr-x  1 gord  gord  15481 Nov 14 12:11 hell.old
     -rw-r--r--  1 gord  gord   4274 Nov 13 18:02 libhello.a
     burger$ ls -l .libs/hell .libs/libhello.*
     -rwxr-xr-x  1 gord  gord  11647 Nov 14 12:10 .libs/hell
     -rw-r--r--  1 gord  gord   4274 Nov 13 18:44 .libs/libhello.a
     -rwxr-xr-x  1 gord  gord  12205 Nov 13 18:44 .libs/libhello.so.0.0
     burger$

   Well, that sucks.  Maybe I should just scrap this project and take up
basket weaving.

   Actually, it just proves an important point: shared libraries incur
overhead because of their (relative) complexity.  In this situation, the
price of being dynamic is eight kilobytes, and the payoff is about four
kilobytes.  So, having a shared `libhello' won't be an advantage until
we link it against at least a few more programs.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) However, you should avoid using `-L' or `-l' flags to link
against an uninstalled libtool library.  Just specify the relative path
to the `.la' file, such as `../intl/libintl.la'.  This is a design
decision to eliminate any ambiguity when linking against uninstalled
shared libraries.

   (2) And why should we? `main.o' doesn't directly depend on `-lm'
after all.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Debugging executables,  Next: Installing libraries,  Prev: Linking executables,  Up: Using libtool

3.4 Debugging executables
=========================

If `hell' was a complicated program, you would certainly want to test
and debug it before installing it on your system.  In the above
section, you saw how the libtool wrapper script makes it possible to run
the program directly, but unfortunately, this mechanism interferes with
the debugger:

     burger$ gdb hell
     GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
      under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
     There is no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
     GDB 4.16 (i386-unknown-netbsd), (C) 1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     "hell": not in executable format: File format not recognized

     (gdb) quit
     burger$

   Sad.  It doesn't work because GDB doesn't know where the executable
lives.  So, let's try again, by invoking GDB directly on the executable:

     burger$ gdb .libs/hell
     GNU gdb 5.3 (i386-unknown-netbsd)
     Copyright 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License,
     and you are welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it
     under certain conditions.  Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
     There is no warranty for GDB.  Type "show warranty" for details.
     (gdb) break main
     Breakpoint 1 at 0x8048547: file main.c, line 29.
     (gdb) run
     Starting program: /home/src/libtool/demo/.libs/hell
     /home/src/libtool/demo/.libs/hell: can't load library 'libhello.so.0'

     Program exited with code 020.
     (gdb) quit
     burger$

   Argh.  Now GDB complains because it cannot find the shared library
that `hell' is linked against.  So, we must use libtool in order to
properly set the library path and run the debugger.  Fortunately, we can
forget all about the `.libs' directory, and just run it on the
executable wrapper (*note Execute mode::):

     burger$ libtool --mode=execute gdb hell
     GNU gdb 5.3 (i386-unknown-netbsd)
     Copyright 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License,
     and you are welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it
     under certain conditions.  Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
     There is no warranty for GDB.  Type "show warranty" for details.
     (gdb) break main
     Breakpoint 1 at 0x8048547: file main.c, line 29.
     (gdb) run
     Starting program: /home/src/libtool/demo/.libs/hell

     Breakpoint 1, main (argc=1, argv=0xbffffc40) at main.c:29
     29        printf ("Welcome to GNU Hell!\n");
     (gdb) quit
     The program is running.  Quit anyway (and kill it)? (y or n) y
     burger$

File: libtool.info,  Node: Installing libraries,  Next: Installing executables,  Prev: Debugging executables,  Up: Using libtool

3.5 Installing libraries
========================

Installing libraries on a non-libtool system is quite
straightforward... just copy them into place:(1)

     burger$ su
     Password: ********
     burger# cp libhello.a /usr/local/lib/libhello.a
     burger#

   Oops, don't forget the `ranlib' command:

     burger# ranlib /usr/local/lib/libhello.a
     burger#

   Libtool installation is quite simple, as well.  Just use the
`install' or `cp' command that you normally would (*note Install
mode::):

     a23# libtool --mode=install cp libhello.la /usr/local/lib/libhello.la
     cp libhello.la /usr/local/lib/libhello.la
     cp .libs/libhello.a /usr/local/lib/libhello.a
     ranlib /usr/local/lib/libhello.a
     a23#

   Note that the libtool library `libhello.la' is also installed, to
help libtool with uninstallation (*note Uninstall mode::) and linking
(*note Linking executables::) and to help programs with dlopening
(*note Dlopened modules::).

   Here is the shared library example:

     burger# libtool --mode=install install -c libhello.la \
                     /usr/local/lib/libhello.la
     install -c .libs/libhello.so.0.0 /usr/local/lib/libhello.so.0.0
     install -c libhello.la /usr/local/lib/libhello.la
     install -c .libs/libhello.a /usr/local/lib/libhello.a
     ranlib /usr/local/lib/libhello.a
     burger#

   It is safe to specify the `-s' (strip symbols) flag if you use a
BSD-compatible install program when installing libraries.  Libtool will
either ignore the `-s' flag, or will run a program that will strip only
debugging and compiler symbols from the library.

   Once the libraries have been put in place, there may be some
additional configuration that you need to do before using them.  First,
you must make sure that where the library is installed actually agrees
with the `-rpath' flag you used to build it.

   Then, running `libtool -n finish LIBDIR' can give you further hints
on what to do (*note Finish mode::):

     burger# libtool -n finish /usr/local/lib
     PATH="$PATH:/sbin" ldconfig -m /usr/local/lib
     -----------------------------------------------------------------
     Libraries have been installed in:
        /usr/local/lib

     To link against installed libraries in a given directory, LIBDIR,
     you must use the `-LLIBDIR' flag during linking.

      You will also need to do one of the following:
        - add LIBDIR to the `LD_LIBRARY_PATH' environment variable
          during execution
        - add LIBDIR to the `LD_RUN_PATH' environment variable
          during linking
        - use the `-RLIBDIR' linker flag

     See any operating system documentation about shared libraries for
     more information, such as the ld and ld.so manual pages.
     -----------------------------------------------------------------
     burger#

   After you have completed these steps, you can go on to begin using
the installed libraries.  You may also install any executables that
depend on libraries you created.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Don't strip static libraries though, or they will be unusable.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Installing executables,  Next: Static libraries,  Prev: Installing libraries,  Up: Using libtool

3.6 Installing executables
==========================

If you used libtool to link any executables against uninstalled libtool
libraries (*note Linking executables::), you need to use libtool to
install the executables after the libraries have been installed (*note
Installing libraries::).

   So, for our Ultrix example, we would run:

     a23# libtool --mode=install -c hell /usr/local/bin/hell
     install -c hell /usr/local/bin/hell
     a23#

   On shared library systems that require wrapper scripts, libtool just
ignores the wrapper script and installs the correct binary:

     burger# libtool --mode=install -c hell /usr/local/bin/hell
     install -c .libs/hell /usr/local/bin/hell
     burger#

File: libtool.info,  Node: Static libraries,  Prev: Installing executables,  Up: Using libtool

3.7 Linking static libraries
============================

Why return to `ar' and `ranlib' silliness when you've had a taste of
libtool?  Well, sometimes it is desirable to create a static archive
that can never be shared.  The most frequent case is when you have a
set of object files that you use to build several different libraries.
You can create a "convenience library" out of those objects, and link
against that with the other libraries, instead of listing all the
object files every time.

   If you just want to link this convenience library into programs, then
you could just ignore libtool entirely, and use the old `ar' and
`ranlib' commands (or the corresponding GNU Automake `_LIBRARIES'
rules).  You can even install a convenience library using GNU Libtool,
though you probably don't want to and hence GNU Automake doesn't allow
you to do so.

     burger$ libtool --mode=install ./install-sh -c libhello.a \
                     /local/lib/libhello.a
     ./install-sh -c libhello.a /local/lib/libhello.a
     ranlib /local/lib/libhello.a
     burger$

   Using libtool for static library installation protects your library
from being accidentally stripped (if the installer used the `-s' flag),
as well as automatically running the correct `ranlib' command.

   But libtool libraries are more than just collections of object files:
they can also carry library dependency information, which old archives
do not.  If you want to create a libtool static convenience library, you
can omit the `-rpath' flag and use `-static' to indicate that you're
only interested in a static library.  When you link a program with such
a library, libtool will actually link all object files and dependency
libraries into the program.

   If you omit both `-rpath' and `-static', libtool will create a
convenience library that can be used to create other libtool libraries,
even shared ones.  Just like in the static case, the library behaves as
an alias to a set of object files and dependency libraries, but in this
case the object files are suitable for inclusion in shared libraries.
But be careful not to link a single convenience library, directly or
indirectly, into a single program or library, otherwise you may get
errors about symbol redefinitions.

   The key is remembering that a convenience library contains PIC
objects, and can be linked where a list of PIC objects makes sense;
i.e. into a shared library.  A static convenience library contains
non-PIC objects, so can be linked into an old static library, or a
program.

   When GNU Automake is used, you should use `noinst_LTLIBRARIES'
instead of `lib_LTLIBRARIES' for convenience libraries, so that the
`-rpath' option is not passed when they are linked.

   As a rule of thumb, link a libtool convenience library into at most
one libtool library, and never into a program, and link libtool static
convenience libraries only into programs, and only if you need to carry
library dependency information to the user of the static convenience
library.

   Another common situation where static linking is desirable is in
creating a standalone binary.  Use libtool to do the linking and add the
`-all-static' flag.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Invoking libtool,  Next: Integrating libtool,  Prev: Using libtool,  Up: Top

4 Invoking `libtool'
********************

The `libtool' program has the following synopsis:

     libtool [OPTION]... [MODE-ARG]...

and accepts the following options:

`--config'
     Display libtool configuration variables and exit.

`--debug'
     Dump a trace of shell script execution to standard output.  This
     produces a lot of output, so you may wish to pipe it to `less' (or
     `more') or redirect to a file.

`-n'
`--dry-run'
     Don't create, modify, or delete any files, just show what commands
     would be executed by libtool.

`--features'
     Display basic configuration options.  This provides a way for
     packages to determine whether shared or static libraries will be
     built.

`--finish'
     Same as `--mode=finish'.

`--help'
     Display a help message and exit.  If `--mode=MODE' is specified,
     then detailed help for MODE is displayed.

`--mode=MODE'
     Use MODE as the operation mode.  When using libtool from the
     command line, you can give just MODE (or a unique abbreviation of
     it) as the first argument as a shorthand for the full
     `--mode=MODE'.

     MODE must be set to one of the following:

    `compile'
          Compile a source file into a libtool object.

    `execute'
          Automatically set the library path so that another program
          can use uninstalled libtool-generated programs or libraries.

    `finish'
          Complete the installation of libtool libraries on the system.

    `install'
          Install libraries or executables.

    `link'
          Create a library or an executable.

    `uninstall'
          Delete installed libraries or executables.

    `clean'
          Delete uninstalled libraries or executables.

`--tag=TAG'
     Use configuration variables from tag TAG (*note Tags::).

`--preserve-dup-deps'
     Do not remove duplicate dependencies in libraries.  When building
     packages with static libraries, the libraries may depend
     circularly on each other (shared libs can too, but for those it
     doesn't matter), so there are situations, where -la -lb -la is
     required, and the second -la may not be stripped or the link will
     fail.  In cases where these duplications are required, this option
     will preserve them, only stripping the libraries that libtool
     knows it can safely.

`--quiet'
`--silent'
     Do not print out any progress or informational messages.

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Print out progress and informational messages (enabled by default).

`--version'
     Print libtool version information and exit.

   The MODE-ARGS are a variable number of arguments, depending on the
selected operation mode.  In general, each MODE-ARG is interpreted by
programs libtool invokes, rather than libtool itself.

* Menu:

* Compile mode::                Creating library object files.
* Link mode::                   Generating executables and libraries.
* Execute mode::                Debugging libtool-generated programs.
* Install mode::                Making libraries and executables public.
* Finish mode::                 Completing a library installation.
* Uninstall mode::              Removing installed executables and libraries.
* Clean mode::                  Removing uninstalled executables and libraries.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Compile mode,  Next: Link mode,  Up: Invoking libtool

4.1 Compile mode
================

For "compile" mode, MODE-ARGS is a compiler command to be used in
creating a "standard" object file.  These arguments should begin with
the name of the C compiler, and contain the `-c' compiler flag so that
only an object file is created.

   Libtool determines the name of the output file by removing the
directory component from the source file name, then substituting the
source code suffix (e.g. `.c' for C source code) with the library
object suffix, `.lo'.

   If shared libraries are being built, any necessary PIC generation
flags are substituted into the compilation command.

   The following components of MODE-ARGS are treated specially:

`-o'
     Note that the `-o' option is now fully supported.  It is emulated
     on the platforms that don't support it (by locking and moving the
     objects), so it is really easy to use libtool, just with minor
     modifications to your Makefiles.  Typing for example
          libtool --mode=compile gcc -c foo/x.c -o foo/x.lo
     will do what you expect.

     Note, however, that, if the compiler does not support `-c' and
     `-o', it is impossible to compile `foo/x.c' without overwriting an
     existing `./x.o'.  Therefore, if you do have a source file
     `./x.c', make sure you introduce dependencies in your `Makefile'
     to make sure `./x.o' (or `./x.lo') is re-created after any
     sub-directory's `x.lo':

          x.o x.lo: foo/x.lo bar/x.lo

     This will also ensure that make won't try to use a temporarily
     corrupted `x.o' to create a program or library.  It may cause
     needless recompilation on platforms that support `-c' and `-o'
     together, but it's the only way to make it safe for those that
     don't.

`-no-suppress'
     If both PIC and non-PIC objects are being built, libtool will
     normally suppress the compiler output for the PIC object
     compilation to save showing very similar, if not identical
     duplicate output for each object.  If the `-no-suppress' option is
     given in compile mode, libtool will show the compiler output for
     both objects.

`-prefer-pic'
     Libtool will try to build only PIC objects.

`-prefer-non-pic'
     Libtool will try to build only non-PIC objects.

`-shared'
     Even if Libtool was configured with `--enable-static', the object
     file Libtool builds will not be suitable for static linking.
     Libtool will signal an error if it was configured with
     `--disable-shared', or if the host does not support shared
     libraries.

`-static'
     Even if libtool was configured with `--disable-static', the object
     file Libtool builds *will* be suitable for static linking.

`-Wc,FLAG'
`-Xcompiler FLAG'
     Pass a linker specific flag directly to the compiler.

`-Wl,FLAG'
`-Xlinker FLAG'
     Pass a linker specific flag directly to the linker.

`-XCClinker FLAG'
     Pass a link specific flag to the compiler driver (CC) during
     linking.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Link mode,  Next: Execute mode,  Prev: Compile mode,  Up: Invoking libtool

4.2 Link mode
=============

"Link" mode links together object files (including library objects) to
form another library or to create an executable program.

   MODE-ARGS consist of a command using the C compiler to create an
output file (with the `-o' flag) from several object files.

   The following components of MODE-ARGS are treated specially:

`-all-static'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a program, then do not link it against any
     shared libraries at all.  If OUTPUT-FILE is a library, then only
     create a static library.  In general, this flag cannot be used
     together with `disable-static' (*note LT_INIT::).

`-avoid-version'
     Tries to avoid versioning (*note Versioning::) for libraries and
     modules, i.e. no version information is stored and no symbolic
     links are created.  If the platform requires versioning, this
     option has no effect.

`-dlopen FILE'
     Same as `-dlpreopen FILE', if native dlopening is not supported on
     the host platform (*note Dlopened modules::) or if the program is
     linked with `-static', `-static-libtool-libs', or `-all-static'.
     Otherwise, no effect.  If FILE is `self' Libtool will make sure
     that the program can `dlopen' itself, either by enabling
     `-export-dynamic' or by falling back to `-dlpreopen self'.

`-dlpreopen FILE'
     Link FILE into the output program, and add its symbols to the list
     of preloaded symbols (*note Dlpreopening::).  If FILE is `self',
     the symbols of the program itself will be added to preloaded
     symbol lists.  If FILE is `force' Libtool will make sure that a
     preloaded symbol list is always _defined_, regardless of whether
     it's empty or not.

`-export-dynamic'
     Allow symbols from OUTPUT-FILE to be resolved with `dlsym' (*note
     Dlopened modules::).

`-export-symbols SYMFILE'
     Tells the linker to export only the symbols listed in SYMFILE.
     The symbol file should end in `.sym' and must contain the name of
     one symbol per line.  This option has no effect on some platforms.
     By default all symbols are exported.

`-export-symbols-regex REGEX'
     Same as `-export-symbols', except that only symbols matching the
     regular expression REGEX are exported.  By default all symbols are
     exported.

`-LLIBDIR'
     Search LIBDIR for required libraries that have already been
     installed.

`-lNAME'
     OUTPUT-FILE requires the installed library `libNAME'.  This option
     is required even when OUTPUT-FILE is not an executable.

`-module'
     Creates a library that can be dlopened (*note Dlopened modules::).
     This option doesn't work for programs.  Module names don't need to
     be prefixed with `lib'.  In order to prevent name clashes,
     however, `libNAME' and `NAME' must not be used at the same time in
     your package.

`-no-fast-install'
     Disable fast-install mode for the executable OUTPUT-FILE.  Useful
     if the program won't be necessarily installed.

`-no-install'
     Link an executable OUTPUT-FILE that can't be installed and
     therefore doesn't need a wrapper script on systems that allow
     hardcoding of library paths.  Useful if the program is only used
     in the build tree, e.g., for testing or generating other files.

`-no-undefined'
     Declare that OUTPUT-FILE does not depend on any other libraries.
     Some platforms cannot create shared libraries that depend on other
     libraries (*note Inter-library dependencies::).

`-o OUTPUT-FILE'
     Create OUTPUT-FILE from the specified objects and libraries.

`-objectlist FILE'
     Use a list of object files found in FILE to specify objects.

`-precious-files-regex REGEX'
     Prevents removal of files from the temporary output directory whose
     names match this regular expression.  You might specify `\.bbg?$'
     to keep those files created with `gcc -ftest-coverage' for example.

`-release RELEASE'
     Specify that the library was generated by release RELEASE of your
     package, so that users can easily tell which versions are newer
     than others.  Be warned that no two releases of your package will
     be binary compatible if you use this flag.  If you want binary
     compatibility, use the `-version-info' flag instead (*note
     Versioning::).

`-rpath LIBDIR'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a library, it will eventually be installed in
     LIBDIR.  If OUTPUT-FILE is a program, add LIBDIR to the run-time
     path of the program.

`-R LIBDIR'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a program, add LIBDIR to its run-time path.  If
     OUTPUT-FILE is a library, add `-RLIBDIR' to its DEPENDENCY_LIBS,
     so that, whenever the library is linked into a program, LIBDIR
     will be added to its run-time path.

`-shared'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a program, then link it against any uninstalled
     shared libtool libraries (this is the default behavior).  If
     OUTPUT-FILE is a library, then only create a shared library.  In
     the later case, libtool will signal an error if it was configured
     with `--disable-shared', or if the host does not support shared
     libraries.

`-shrext SUFFIX'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a libtool library, replace the system's standard
     file name extension for shared libraries with SUFFIX (most systems
     use `.so' here).  This option is helpful in certain cases where an
     application requires that shared libraries (typically modules)
     have an extension other than the default one.  Please note you
     must supply the full file name extension including any leading dot.

`-static'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a program, then do not link it against any
     uninstalled shared libtool libraries.  If OUTPUT-FILE is a
     library, then only create a static library.

`-static-libtool-libs'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a program, then do not link it against any
     shared libtool libraries.  If OUTPUT-FILE is a library, then only
     create a static library.

`-version-info CURRENT[:REVISION[:AGE]]'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a libtool library, use interface version
     information CURRENT, REVISION, and AGE to build it (*note
     Versioning::).  Do *not* use this flag to specify package release
     information, rather see the `-release' flag.

`-version-number MAJOR[:MINOR[:REVISION]]'
     If OUTPUT-FILE is a libtool library, compute interface version
     information so that the resulting library uses the specified
     major, minor and revision numbers.  This is designed to permit
     libtool to be used with existing projects where identical version
     numbers are already used across operating systems.  New projects
     should use the `-version-info' flag instead.

`-weak LIBNAME'
     if OUTPUT-FILE is a libtool library, declare that it provides a
     weak LIBNAME interface.  This is a hint to libtool that there is
     no need to append LIBNAME to the list of dependency libraries of
     OUTPUT-FILE, because linking against OUTPUT-FILE already supplies
     the same interface (*note Linking with dlopened modules::).

`-Wl,FLAG'
`-Xlinker FLAG'
     Pass a linker specific flag directly to the linker.

`-XCClinker FLAG'
     Pass a link specific flag to the compiler driver (CC) during
     linking.

   If the OUTPUT-FILE ends in `.la', then a libtool library is created,
which must be built only from library objects (`.lo' files).  The
`-rpath' option is required.  In the current implementation, libtool
libraries may not depend on other uninstalled libtool libraries (*note
Inter-library dependencies::).

   If the OUTPUT-FILE ends in `.a', then a standard library is created
using `ar' and possibly `ranlib'.

   If OUTPUT-FILE ends in `.o' or `.lo', then a reloadable object file
is created from the input files (generally using `ld -r').  This method
is often called "partial linking".

   Otherwise, an executable program is created.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Execute mode,  Next: Install mode,  Prev: Link mode,  Up: Invoking libtool

4.3 Execute mode
================

For "execute" mode, the library path is automatically set, then a
program is executed.

   The first of the MODE-ARGS is treated as a program name, with the
rest as arguments to that program.

   The following components of MODE-ARGS are treated specially:

`-dlopen FILE'
     Add the directory containing FILE to the library path.

   This mode sets the library path environment variable according to any
`-dlopen' flags.

   If any of the ARGS are libtool executable wrappers, then they are
translated into the name of their corresponding uninstalled binary, and
any of their required library directories are added to the library path.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Install mode,  Next: Finish mode,  Prev: Execute mode,  Up: Invoking libtool

4.4 Install mode
================

In "install" mode, libtool interprets most of the elements of MODE-ARGS
as an installation command beginning with `cp', or a BSD-compatible
`install' program.

   The following components of MODE-ARGS are treated specially:

`-inst-prefix INST-PREFIX-DIR'
     When installing into a temporary staging area, rather than the
     final PREFIX, this argument is used to reflect the temporary path,
     in much the same way `automake' uses DESTDIR.  For instance, if
     PREFIX is `/usr/local', but INST-PREFIX-DIR is `/tmp', then the
     object will be installed under `/tmp/usr/local/'.  If the
     installed object is a libtool library, then the internal fields of
     that library will reflect only PREFIX, not INST-PREFIX-DIR:

          # Directory that this library needs to be installed in:
          libdir='/usr/local/lib'

     not

          # Directory that this library needs to be installed in:
          libdir='/tmp/usr/local/lib'

     `inst-prefix' is also used to insure that if the installed object
     must be relinked upon installation, that it is relinked against
     the libraries in INST-PREFIX-DIR/PREFIX, not PREFIX.

     In truth, this option is not really intended for use when calling
     libtool directly; it is automatically used when `libtool
     --mode=install' calls `libtool --mode=relink'.  Libtool does this
     by analyzing the destination path given in the original `libtool
     --mode=install' command and comparing it to the expected
     installation path established during `libtool --mode=link'.

     Thus, end-users need change nothing, and `automake'-style `make
     install DESTDIR=/tmp' will Just Work(tm) most of the time.  For
     systems where fast installation can not be turned on, relinking
     may be needed.  In this case, a `DESTDIR' install will fail.

     Currently it is not generally possible to install into a temporary
     staging area that contains needed third-party libraries which are
     not yet visible at their final location.

   The rest of the MODE-ARGS are interpreted as arguments to the `cp'
or `install' command.

   The command is run, and any necessary unprivileged post-installation
commands are also completed.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Finish mode,  Next: Uninstall mode,  Prev: Install mode,  Up: Invoking libtool

4.5 Finish mode
===============

"Finish" mode helps system administrators install libtool libraries so
that they can be located and linked into user programs.

   Each MODE-ARG is interpreted as the name of a library directory.
Running this command may require superuser privileges, so the
`--dry-run' option may be useful.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Uninstall mode,  Next: Clean mode,  Prev: Finish mode,  Up: Invoking libtool

4.6 Uninstall mode
==================

"Uninstall" mode deletes installed libraries, executables and objects.

   The first MODE-ARG is the name of the program to use to delete files
(typically `/bin/rm').

   The remaining MODE-ARGS are either flags for the deletion program
(beginning with a `-'), or the names of files to delete.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Clean mode,  Prev: Uninstall mode,  Up: Invoking libtool

4.7 Clean mode
==============

"Clean" mode deletes uninstalled libraries, executables, objects and
libtool's temporary files associated with them.

   The first MODE-ARG is the name of the program to use to delete files
(typically `/bin/rm').

   The remaining MODE-ARGS are either flags for the deletion program
(beginning with a `-'), or the names of files to delete.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Integrating libtool,  Next: Other languages,  Prev: Invoking libtool,  Up: Top

5 Integrating libtool with your package
***************************************

This chapter describes how to integrate libtool with your packages so
that your users can install hassle-free shared libraries.

* Menu:

* Autoconf macros::             Autoconf macros exported by libtool.
* Makefile rules::              Writing `Makefile' rules for libtool.
* Using Automake::              Automatically supporting libtool.
* Configuring::                 Configuring libtool for a host system.
* Distributing::                What files to distribute with your package.
* Static-only libraries::       Sometimes shared libraries are just a pain.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Autoconf macros,  Next: Makefile rules,  Up: Integrating libtool

5.1 Autoconf macros exported by libtool
=======================================

Libtool uses a number of macros to interrogate the host system when it
is being built, and you can use some of them yourself too.  Although
there are a great many other macros in the libtool installed m4 files,
these do not form part of the published interface, and are subject to
change between releases.

Macros in the `LT_CMD_' namespace check for various shell commands:

 -- Macro: LT_CMD_MAX_LEN
     Finds the longest command line that can be safely passed to
     `$SHELL' without being truncated, and store in the shell variable
     `$max_cmd_len'.  It is only an approximate value, but command
     lines of this length or shorter are guaranteed not to be truncated.

Macros in the `LT_FUNC_' namespace check characteristics of library
functions:

 -- Macro: LT_FUNC_DLSYM_USCORE
     `AC_DEFINE' the preprocessor symbol `DLSYM_USCORE' if we have to
     add an underscore to symbol-names passed in to `dlsym'.

Macros in the `LT_LIB_' namespace check characteristics of system
libraries:

 -- Macro: LT_LIB_M
     Set `LIBM' to the math library or libraries required on this
     machine, if any.

 -- Macro: LT_LIB_DLLOAD
     This is the macro used by `libltdl' to determine which dlloaders
     to use on this machine, if any.  Several shell variables are set
     (and `AC_SUBST'ed) depending on the dlload interfaces are
     available on this machine.  `LT_DLLOADERS' contains a list of
     libtool libraries that can be used, and if necessary also sets
     `LIBADD_DLOPEN' if additional system libraries are required by the
     `dlopen' loader, and `LIBADD_SHL_LOAD' if additional system
     libraries are required by the `shl_load' loader, respectively.
     Finally some symbols are set in `config.h' depending on the
     loaders that are found to work: `HAVE_LIBDL', `HAVE_SHL_LOAD',
     `HAVE_DYLD', `HAVE_DLD'.

Macros in the `LT_PATH_' namespace search the system for the full path
to particular system commands:

 -- Macro: LT_PATH_LD
     Add a `--with-gnu-ld' option to `configure'.  Try to find the path
     to the linker used by `$CC', and whether it is the GNU linker.
     The result is stored in the shell variable `$LD', which is
     `AC_SUBST'ed.

 -- Macro: LT_PATH_NM
     Try to find a BSD compatible `nm' or a MS compatible `dumpbin'
     command on this machine.  The result is stored in the shell
     variable `$NM', which is `AC_SUBST'ed.

Macros in the `LT_SYS_' namespace probe for system characteristics:

 -- Macro: LT_SYS_DLOPEN_SELF
     Tests whether a program can dlopen itself, and then also whether
     the same program can still dlopen itself when statically linked.
     Results are stored in the shell variables `$enable_dlopen_self' and
     `enable_dlopen_self_static' respectively.

 -- Macro: LT_SYS_DLOPEN_DEPLIBS
     Define the preprocessor symbol `LTDL_DLOPEN_DEPLIBS' if the OS
     needs help to load dependent libraries for `dlopen' (or
     equivalent).

 -- Macro: LT_SYS_DLSEARCH_PATH
     Define the preprocessor symbol `LT_DLSEARCH_PATH' to the system
     default library search path.

 -- Macro: LT_SYS_MODULE_EXT
     Define the preprocessor symbol `LT_MODULE_EXT' to the extension
     used for runtime loadable modules.  If you use libltdl to open
     modules, then you can simply use the libtool library extension,
     `.la'.

 -- Macro: LT_SYS_MODULE_PATH
     Define the preprocessor symbol `LT_MODULE_PATH_VAR' to the name of
     the shell environment variable that determines the run-time module
     search path.

 -- Macro: LT_SYS_SYMBOL_USCORE
     Set the shell variable `sys_symbol_underscore' to `no' unless the
     compiler prefixes global symbols with an underscore.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Makefile rules,  Next: Using Automake,  Prev: Autoconf macros,  Up: Integrating libtool

5.2 Writing `Makefile' rules for libtool
========================================

Libtool is fully integrated with Automake (*note Introduction:
(automake)Top.), starting with Automake version 1.2.

   If you want to use libtool in a regular `Makefile' (or
`Makefile.in'), you are on your own.  If you're not using Automake, and
you don't know how to incorporate libtool into your package you need to
do one of the following:

  1. Download the latest Automake distribution from your nearest GNU
     mirror, install it, and start using it.

  2. Learn how to write `Makefile' rules by hand.  They're sometimes
     complex, but if you're clever enough to write rules for compiling
     your old libraries, then you should be able to figure out new
     rules for libtool libraries (hint: examine the `Makefile.in' in
     the `tests/demo' subdirectory of the libtool distribution... note
     especially that it was automatically generated from the
     `Makefile.am' by Automake).

File: libtool.info,  Node: Using Automake,  Next: Configuring,  Prev: Makefile rules,  Up: Integrating libtool

5.3 Using Automake with libtool
===============================

Libtool library support is implemented under the `LTLIBRARIES' primary.

   Here are some samples from the Automake `Makefile.am' in the libtool
distribution's `demo' subdirectory.

   First, to link a program against a libtool library, just use the
`program_LDADD'(1) variable:

     bin_PROGRAMS = hell hell_static

     # Build hell from main.c and libhello.la
     hell_SOURCES = main.c
     hell_LDADD = libhello.la

     # Create a statically linked version of hell.
     hell_static_SOURCES = main.c
     hell_static_LDADD = libhello.la
     hell_static_LDFLAGS = -static

   You may use the `program_LDFLAGS' variable to stuff in any flags you
want to pass to libtool while linking `program' (such as `-static' to
avoid linking uninstalled shared libtool libraries).

   Building a libtool library is almost as trivial... note the use of
`libhello_la_LDFLAGS' to pass the `-version-info' (*note Versioning::)
option to libtool:

     # Build a libtool library, libhello.la for installation in libdir.
     lib_LTLIBRARIES = libhello.la
     libhello_la_SOURCES = hello.c foo.c
     libhello_la_LDFLAGS = -version-info 3:12:1

   The `-rpath' option is passed automatically by Automake (except for
libraries listed as `noinst_LTLIBRARIES'), so you should not specify it.

   *Note Building a Shared Library: (automake)A Shared Library, for
more information.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Since GNU Automake 1.5, the flags `-dlopen' or `-dlpreopen'
(*note Link mode::) can be employed with the PROGRAM_LDADD variable.
Unfortunately, older releases didn't accept these flags, so if you are
stuck with an ancient Automake, we recommend quoting the flag itself,
and setting PROGRAM_DEPENDENCIES too:

     program_LDADD = "-dlopen" libfoo.la
     program_DEPENDENCIES = libfoo.la

File: libtool.info,  Node: Configuring,  Next: Distributing,  Prev: Using Automake,  Up: Integrating libtool

5.4 Configuring libtool
=======================

Libtool requires intimate knowledge of your compiler suite and operating
system in order to be able to create shared libraries and link against
them properly.  When you install the libtool distribution, a
system-specific libtool script is installed into your binary directory.

   However, when you distribute libtool with your own packages (*note
Distributing::), you do not always know the compiler suite and
operating system that are used to compile your package.

   For this reason, libtool must be "configured" before it can be used.
This idea should be familiar to anybody who has used a GNU `configure'
script.  `configure' runs a number of tests for system features, then
generates the `Makefile's (and possibly a `config.h' header file),
after which you can run `make' and build the package.

   Libtool adds its own tests to your `configure' script in order to
generate a libtool script for the installer's host machine.

* Menu:

* LT_INIT::                     Configuring `libtool' in `configure.ac'.
* Configure notes::             Platform-specific notes for configuration.

File: libtool.info,  Node: LT_INIT,  Next: Configure notes,  Up: Configuring

5.4.1 The `LT_INIT' macro
-------------------------

If you are using GNU Autoconf (or Automake), you should add a call to
`LT_INIT' to your `configure.ac' file.  This macro adds many new tests
to the `configure' script so that the generated libtool script will
understand the characteristics of the host.  It's the most important of
a number of macros defined by Libtool:

 -- Macro: LT_PREREQ (VERSION)
     Ensure that a recent enough version of Libtool is being used.  If
     the version of Libtool used for `LT_INIT' is earlier than VERSION,
     print an error message to the standard error output and exit with
     failure (exit status is 63).  For example:

          LT_PREREQ([2.2.6b])

 -- Macro: LT_INIT (OPTIONS)
 -- Macro: AC_PROG_LIBTOOL
 -- Macro: AM_PROG_LIBTOOL
     Add support for the `--enable-shared' and `--disable-shared'
     `configure' flags.(1)  `AC_PROG_LIBTOOL' and `AM_PROG_LIBTOOL' are
     deprecated names for older versions of this macro; `autoupdate'
     will upgrade your `configure.ac' files.

     By default, this macro turns on shared libraries if they are
     available, and also enables static libraries if they don't
     conflict with the shared libraries.  You can modify these defaults
     by passing either `disable-shared' or `disable-static' in the
     option list to `LT_INIT', or using `AC_DISABLE_SHARED' or
     `AC_DISABLE_STATIC'.

          # Turn off shared libraries during beta-testing, since they
          # make the build process take too long.
          LT_INIT([disable-shared])

     The user may specify modified forms of the configure flags
     `--enable-shared' and `--enable-static' to choose whether shared
     or static libraries are built based on the name of the package.
     For example, to have shared `bfd' and `gdb' libraries built, but
     not shared `libg++', you can run all three `configure' scripts as
     follows:

          trick$ ./configure --enable-shared=bfd,gdb

     In general, specifying `--enable-shared=PKGS' is the same as
     configuring with `--enable-shared' every package named in the
     comma-separated PKGS list, and every other package with
     `--disable-shared'.  The `--enable-static=PKGS' flag behaves
     similarly, but it uses `--enable-static' and `--disable-static'.
     The same applies to the `--enable-fast-install=PKGS' flag, which
     uses `--enable-fast-install' and `--disable-fast-install'.

     The package name `default' matches any packages that have not set
     their name in the `PACKAGE' environment variable.

     This macro also sets the shell variable LIBTOOL_DEPS, that you can
     use to automatically update the libtool script if it becomes
     out-of-date.  In order to do that, add to your `configure.ac':

          LT_INIT
          AC_SUBST([LIBTOOL_DEPS])

     and, to `Makefile.in' or `Makefile.am':

          LIBTOOL_DEPS = @LIBTOOL_DEPS@
          libtool: $(LIBTOOL_DEPS)
                  $(SHELL) ./config.status --recheck

     If you are using GNU Automake, you can omit the assignment, as
     Automake will take care of it.  You'll obviously have to create
     some dependency on `libtool'.

     Aside from `disable-static' and `disable-shared', there are other
     options that you can pass to `LT_INIT' to modify its behaviour.
     Here is a full list:

    `dlopen'
          Enable checking for dlopen support.  This option should be
          used if the package makes use of the `-dlopen' and
          `-dlpreopen' libtool flags, otherwise libtool will assume
          that the system does not support dlopening.

    `win32-dll'
          This option should be used if the package has been ported to
          build clean dlls on win32 platforms.  Usually this means that
          any library data items are exported with
          `__declspec(dllexport)' and imported with
          `__declspec(dllimport)'.  If this macro is not used, libtool
          will assume that the package libraries are not dll clean and
          will build only static libraries on win32 hosts.

          Provision must be made to pass `-no-undefined' to `libtool'
          in link mode from the package `Makefile'.  Naturally, if you
          pass `-no-undefined', you must ensure that all the library
          symbols *really are* defined at link time!

    `disable-fast-install'
          Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to disable
          optimization for fast installation.  The user may still
          override this default, depending on platform support, by
          specifying `--enable-fast-install' to `configure'.

    `shared'
          Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to enable shared
          libraries.  This is the default on all systems where Libtool
          knows how to create shared libraries.  The user may still
          override this default by specifying `--disable-shared' to
          `configure'.

    `disable-shared'
          Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to disable shared
          libraries.  The user may still override this default by
          specifying `--enable-shared' to `configure'.

    `static'
          Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to enable static
          libraries.  This is the default on all systems where shared
          libraries have been disabled for some reason, and on most
          systems where shared libraries have been enabled.  If shared
          libraries are enabled, the user may still override this
          default by specifying `--disable-static' to `configure'.

    `disable-static'
          Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to disable static
          libraries.  The user may still override this default by
          specifying `--enable-static' to `configure'.

    `pic-only'
          Change the default behaviour for `libtool' to try to use only
          PIC objects.  The user may still override this default by
          specifying `--without-pic' to `configure'.

    `no-pic'
          Change the default behaviour of `libtool' to try to use only
          non-PIC objects.  The user may still override this default by
          specifying `--with-pic' to `configure'.



 -- Macro: LT_LANG (LANGUAGE)
     Enable `libtool' support for the language given if it has not yet
     already been enabled.  Languages accepted are "C++", "Fortran 77",
     "Java" and "Windows Resource".

     If Autoconf language support macros such as `AC_PROG_CXX' are used
     in your `configure.ac', Libtool language support will automatically
     be enabled.

     Conversely using `LT_LANG' to enable language support for Libtool
     will automatically enable Autoconf language support as well.

     Both of the following examples are therefore valid ways of adding
     C++ language support to Libtool.

          LT_INIT
          LT_LANG([C++])

          LT_INIT
          AC_PROG_CXX


 -- Macro: AC_LIBTOOL_DLOPEN
     This macro is deprecated, the `dlopen' option to `LT_INIT' should
     be used instead.

 -- Macro: AC_LIBTOOL_WIN32_DLL
     This macro is deprecated, the `win32-dll' option to `LT_INIT'
     should be used instead.

 -- Macro: AC_DISABLE_FAST_INSTALL
     This macro is deprecated, the `disable-fast-install' option to
     `LT_INIT' should be used instead.

 -- Macro: AC_DISABLE_SHARED
 -- Macro: AM_DISABLE_SHARED
     Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to disable shared
     libraries.  The user may still override this default by specifying
     `--enable-shared'.  The option `disable-shared' to `LT_INIT' is a
     shorthand for this.  `AM_DISABLE_SHARED' is a deprecated alias for
     `AC_DISABLE_SHARED'.

 -- Macro: AC_ENABLE_SHARED
 -- Macro: AM_ENABLE_SHARED
     Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to enable shared
     libraries.  This is the default on all systems where Libtool knows
     how to create shared libraries.  The user may still override this
     default by specifying `--disable-shared'.  The option `shared' to
     `LT_INIT' is a shorthand for this.  `AM_ENABLE_SHARED' is a
     deprecated alias for `AC_ENABLE_SHARED'.

 -- Macro: AC_DISABLE_STATIC
 -- Macro: AM_DISABLE_STATIC
     Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to disable static
     libraries.  The user may still override this default by specifying
     `--enable-static'.  The option `disable-static' to `LT_INIT' is a
     shorthand for this.  `AM_DISABLE_STATIC' is a deprecated alias for
     `AC_DISABLE_STATIC'.

 -- Macro: AC_ENABLE_STATIC
 -- Macro: AM_ENABLE_STATIC
     Change the default behaviour for `LT_INIT' to enable static
     libraries.  This is the default on all systems where shared
     libraries have been disabled for some reason, and on most systems
     where shared libraries have been enabled.  If shared libraries are
     enabled, the user may still override this default by specifying
     `--disable-static'.  The option `static' to `LT_INIT' is a
     shorthand for this.  `AM_ENABLE_STATIC' is a deprecated alias for
     `AC_ENABLE_STATIC'.

   The tests in `LT_INIT' also recognize the following environment
variables:

 -- Variable: CC
     The C compiler that will be used by the generated `libtool'.  If
     this is not set, `LT_INIT' will look for `gcc' or `cc'.

 -- Variable: CFLAGS
     Compiler flags used to generate standard object files.  If this is
     not set, `LT_INIT' will not use any such flags.  It affects only
     the way `LT_INIT' runs tests, not the produced `libtool'.

 -- Variable: CPPFLAGS
     C preprocessor flags.  If this is not set, `LT_INIT' will not use
     any such flags.  It affects only the way `LT_INIT' runs tests, not
     the produced `libtool'.

 -- Variable: LD
     The system linker to use (if the generated `libtool' requires one).
     If this is not set, `LT_INIT' will try to find out what is the
     linker used by CC.

 -- Variable: LDFLAGS
     The flags to be used by `libtool' when it links a program.  If
     this is not set, `LT_INIT' will not use any such flags.  It
     affects only the way `LT_INIT' runs tests, not the produced
     `libtool'.

 -- Variable: LIBS
     The libraries to be used by `LT_INIT' when it links a program.  If
     this is not set, `LT_INIT' will not use any such flags.  It
     affects only the way `LT_INIT' runs tests, not the produced
     `libtool'.

 -- Variable: NM
     Program to use rather than checking for `nm'.

 -- Variable: RANLIB
     Program to use rather than checking for `ranlib'.

 -- Variable: LN_S
     A command that creates a link of a program, a soft-link if
     possible, a hard-link otherwise.  `LT_INIT' will check for a
     suitable program if this variable is not set.

 -- Variable: DLLTOOL
     Program to use rather than checking for `dlltool'.  Only meaningful
     for Cygwin/MS-Windows.

 -- Variable: OBJDUMP
     Program to use rather than checking for `objdump'.  Only meaningful
     for Cygwin/MS-Windows.

 -- Variable: AS
     Program to use rather than checking for `as'.  Only used on
     Cygwin/MS-Windows at the moment.

   With 1.3 era libtool, if you wanted to know any details of what
libtool had discovered about your architecture and environment, you had
to run the script with `--config' and grep through the results.  This
idiom was supported up to and including 1.5.x era libtool, where it was
possible to call the generated libtool script from `configure.ac' as
soon as `LT_INIT' had completed.  However, one of the features of
libtool 1.4 was that the libtool configuration was migrated out of a
separate `ltconfig' file, and added to the `LT_INIT' macro (nee
`AC_PROG_LIBTOOL'), so the results of the configuration tests were
available directly to code in `configure.ac', rendering the call out to
the generated libtool script obsolete.

   Starting with libtool 2.0, the multipass generation of the libtool
script has been consolidated into a single `config.status' pass, which
happens after all the code in `configure.ac' has completed.  The
implication of this is that the libtool script does not exist during
execution of code from `configure.ac', and so obviously it cannot be
called for `--config' details anymore.  If you are upgrading projects
that used this idiom to libtool 2.0 or newer, you should replace those
calls with direct references to the equivalent Autoconf shell variables
that are set by the configure time tests before being passed to
`config.status' for inclusion in the generated libtool script.

 -- Macro: LT_OUTPUT
     By default, the configured `libtool' script is generated by the
     call to `AC_OUTPUT' command, and there is rarely any need to use
     `libtool' from `configure'.  However, sometimes it is necessary to
     run configure time compile and link tests using `libtool'.  You
     can add `LT_OUTPUT' to your `configure.ac' any time after
     `LT_INIT' and any `LT_LANG' calls; that done, `libtool' will be
     created by a specially generated `config.lt' file, and available
     for use in later tests.

     Also, when `LT_OUTPUT' is used, for backwards compatibility with
     Automake regeneration rules, `config.status' will call `config.lt'
     to regenerate `libtool', rather than generating the file itself.

   When you invoke the `libtoolize' program (*note Invoking
libtoolize::), it will tell you where to find a definition of
`LT_INIT'.  If you use Automake, the `aclocal' program will
automatically add `LT_INIT' support to your `configure' script when it
sees the invocation of `LT_INIT' in `configure.ac'.

   Because of these changes, and the runtime version compatibility
checks Libtool now executes, we now advise *against* including a copy of
`libtool.m4' (and brethren) in `acinclude.m4'.  Instead, you should set
your project macro directory with `AC_CONFIG_MACRO_DIR'.  When you
`libtoolize' your project, a copy of the relevant macro definitions
will be placed in your `AC_CONFIG_MACRO_DIR', where `aclocal' can
reference them directly from `aclocal.m4'.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) `LT_INIT' requires that you define the `Makefile' variable
`top_builddir' in your `Makefile.in'.  Automake does this
automatically, but Autoconf users should set it to the relative path to
the top of your build directory (`../..', for example).

File: libtool.info,  Node: Configure notes,  Prev: LT_INIT,  Up: Configuring

5.4.2 Platform-specific configuration notes
-------------------------------------------

While Libtool tries to hide as many platform-specific features as
possible, some have to be taken into account when configuring either
the Libtool package or a libtoolized package.

   * You currently need GNU make to build the Libtool package itself.

   * On AIX there are two different styles of shared linking, one in
     which symbols are bound at link-time and one in which symbols are
     bound at runtime only, similar to ELF.  In case of doubt use
     `LDFLAGS=-Wl,-brtl' for the latter style.

   * On AIX, native tools are to be preferred over binutils; especially
     for C++ code, if using the AIX Toolbox GCC 4.0 and binutils,
     configure with `AR=/usr/bin/ar LD=/usr/bin/ld NM='/usr/bin/nm -B''.

   * On AIX, the `/bin/sh' is very slow due to its inefficient handling
     of here-documents.  A modern shell is preferable:
          CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash; export $CONFIG_SHELL
          $CONFIG_SHELL ./configure [...]

   * For C++ code with templates, it may be necessary to specify the
     way the compiler will generate the instantiations.  For Portland
     pgCC version5, use `CXX='pgCC --one_instantiation_per_object'' and
     avoid parallel `make'.

   * On Darwin, for C++ code with templates you need two level shared
     libraries.  Libtool builds these by default if
     `MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET' is set to 10.3 or later at `configure'
     time.  See `rdar://problem/4135857' for more information on this
     issue.

   * The default shell on UNICOS 9, a ksh 88e variant, is too buggy to
     correctly execute the libtool script.  Users are advised to
     install a modern shell such as GNU bash.

   * Some HP-UX `sed' programs are horribly broken, and cannot handle
     libtool's requirements, so users may report unusual problems.
     There is no workaround except to install a working `sed' (such as
     GNU sed) on these systems.

   * The vendor-distributed NCR MP-RAS `cc' programs emits copyright on
     standard error that confuse tests on size of `conftest.err'.  The
     workaround is to specify `CC' when run configure with `CC='cc
     -Hnocopyr''.

   * Any earlier DG/UX system with ELF executables, such as R3.10 or
     R4.10, is also likely to work, but hasn't been explicitly tested.

   * On Reliant Unix libtool has only been tested with the Siemens
     C-compiler and an old version of `gcc' provided by Marco Walther.

   * `libtool.m4', `ltdl.m4' and the `configure.ac' files are marked to
     use autoconf-mode, which is distributed with GNU Emacs 21,
     Autoconf itself, and all recent releases of XEmacs.

   * When building on some linux systems for multilib targets `libtool'
     sometimes guesses the wrong paths that the linker and dynamic
     linker search by default. If this occurs, you may override
     libtool's guesses at `configure' time by setting the `autoconf'
     cache variables `lt_cv_sys_lib_search_path_spec' and
     `lt_cv_sys_lib_dlsearch_path_spec' respectively to the correct
     search paths.


File: libtool.info,  Node: Distributing,  Next: Static-only libraries,  Prev: Configuring,  Up: Integrating libtool

5.5 Including libtool in your package
=====================================

In order to use libtool, you need to include the following files with
your package:

`config.guess'
     Attempt to guess a canonical system name.

`config.sub'
     Canonical system name validation subroutine script.

`install-sh'
     BSD-compatible `install' replacement script.

`ltmain.sh'
     A generic script implementing basic libtool functionality.

   Note that the libtool script itself should _not_ be included with
your package.  *Note Configuring::.

   You should use the `libtoolize' program, rather than manually
copying these files into your package.

* Menu:

* Invoking libtoolize::         `libtoolize' command line options.
* Autoconf and LTLIBOBJS::      Autoconf automates LTLIBOBJS generation.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Invoking libtoolize,  Next: Autoconf and LTLIBOBJS,  Up: Distributing

5.5.1 Invoking `libtoolize'
---------------------------

The `libtoolize' program provides a standard way to add libtool support
to your package.  In the future, it may implement better usage
checking, or other features to make libtool even easier to use.

   The `libtoolize' program has the following synopsis:

     libtoolize [OPTION]...

and accepts the following options:

`--copy'
`-c'
     Copy files from the libtool data directory rather than creating
     symlinks.

`--debug'
     Dump a trace of shell script execution to standard output.  This
     produces a lot of output, so you may wish to pipe it to `less' (or
     `more') or redirect to a file.

`--dry-run'
`-n'
     Don't run any commands that modify the file system, just print them
     out.

`--force'
`-f'
     Replace existing libtool files.  By default, `libtoolize' won't
     overwrite existing files.

`--help'
     Display a help message and exit.

`--ltdl [TARGET-DIRECTORY-NAME]'
     Install libltdl in the TARGET-DIRECTORY-NAME subdirectory of your
     package.  Normally, the directory is extracted from the argument
     to `LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR' in `configure.ac', though you can also
     specify a subdirectory name here if you are not using Autoconf for
     example.  If `libtoolize' can't determine the target directory,
     `libltdl' is used as the default.

`--no-warn'
     Normally, Libtoolize tries to diagnose use of deprecated libtool
     macros and other stylistic issues.  If you are deliberately using
     outdated calling conventions, this option prevents Libtoolize from
     explaining how to update your project's Libtool conventions.

`--nonrecursive'
     If passed in conjunction with `--ltdl', this option will cause the
     `libltdl' installed by `libtoolize' to be set up for use with a
     non-recursive `automake' build.  To make use of it, you will need
     to add the following to the `Makefile.am' of the parent project:

          ## libltdl/Makefile.inc appends to the following variables
          ## so we set them here before including it:
          BUILT_SOURCES   =

          AM_CPPFLAGS        =
          AM_LDFLAGS         =

          include_HEADERS    =
          noinst_LTLIBRARIES =
          lib_LTLIBRARIES   =
          EXTRA_LTLIBRARIES  =

          EXTRA_DIST   =

          CLEANFILES   =
          MOSTLYCLEANFILES   =

          include libltdl/Makefile.inc


`--quiet'
`-q'
     Work silently.  `libtoolize --quiet' is used by GNU Automake to
     add libtool files to your package if necessary.

`--recursive'
     If passed in conjunction with `--ltdl', this option will cause the
     `libtoolize' installed `libltdl' to be set up for use with a
     recursive `automake' build.  To make use of it, you will need to
     adjust the parent project's `configure.ac':

          AC_CONFIG_FILES([libltdl/Makefile])

     and `Makefile.am':

          SUBDIRS += libltdl

`--subproject'
     If passed in conjunction with `--ltdl', this option will cause the
     `libtoolize' installed `libltdl' to be set up for independent
     configuration and compilation as a self-contained subproject.  To
     make use of it, you should arrange for your build to call
     `libltdl/configure', and then run `make' in the `libltdl'
     directory (or the subdirectory you put libltdl into).  If your
     project uses Autoconf, you can use the supplied `LT_WITH_LTDL'
     macro, or else call `AC_CONFIG_SUBDIRS' directly.

     Previous releases of `libltdl' built exclusively in this mode, but
     now it is the default mode both for backwards compatibility and
     because, for example, it is suitable for use in projects that wish
     to use `libltdl', but not use the Autotools for their own build
     process.

`--verbose'
`-v'
     Work noisily!  Give a blow by blow account of what `libtoolize' is
     doing.

`--version'
     Print `libtoolize' version information and exit.

   Sometimes it can be useful to pass options to `libtoolize' even
though it is called by another program, such as `autoreconf'.  A
limited number of options are parsed from the environment variable
`LIBTOOLIZE_OPTIONS': currently `--debug', `--no-warn', `--quiet' and
`--verbose'.  Multiple options passed in `LIBTOOLIZE_OPTIONS' must be
separated with a space, comma or a colon.

   By default, a warning is issued for unknown options found in
`LIBTOOLIZE_OPTIONS' unless the first such option is `--no-warn'.
Where `libtoolize' has always quit on receipt of an unknown option at
the command line, this and all previous releases of `libtoolize' will
continue unabated whatever the content of `LIBTOOLIZE_OPTIONS' (modulo
some possible warning messages).

     trick$ LIBTOOLIZE_OPTIONS=--no-warn,--quiet autoreconf --install

   If `libtoolize' detects an explicit call to `AC_CONFIG_MACRO_DIR'
(*note The Autoconf Manual: (autoconf)Input.) in your `configure.ac',
it will put the Libtool macros in the specified directory.

   In the future other Autotools will automatically check the contents
of `AC_CONFIG_MACRO_DIR', but at the moment it is more portable to add
the macro directory to `ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS' in `Makefile.am', which is
where the tools currently look.  If `libtoolize' doesn't see
`AC_CONFIG_MACRO_DIR', it too will honour the first `-I' argument in
`ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS' when choosing a directory to store libtool
configuration macros in.  It is perfectly sensible to use both
`AC_CONFIG_MACRO_DIR' and `ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS', as long as they are kept
in synchronisation.

     ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS = -I m4

   When you bootstrap your project with `aclocal', then you will need
to explicitly pass the same macro directory with `aclocal''s `-I' flag:

     trick$ aclocal -I m4

   If `libtoolize' detects an explicit call to `AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR'
(*note The Autoconf Manual: (autoconf)Input.) in your `configure.ac', it
will put the other support files in the specified directory.  Otherwise
they too end up in the project root directory.

   Unless `--no-warn' is passed, `libtoolize' displays hints for adding
libtool support to your package, as well.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Autoconf and LTLIBOBJS,  Prev: Invoking libtoolize,  Up: Distributing

5.5.2 Autoconf and `LTLIBOBJS'
------------------------------

People used to add code like the following to their `configure.ac':

     LTLIBOBJS=`echo "$LIBOBJS" | sed 's/\.[^.]* /.lo /g;s/\.[^.]*$/.lo/'`
     AC_SUBST([LTLIBOBJS])

This is no longer required (since Autoconf 2.54), and doesn't take
Automake's deansification support into account either, so doesn't work
correctly even with ancient Autoconfs!

   Provided you are using a recent (2.54 or better) incarnation of
Autoconf, the call to `AC_OUTPUT' takes care of setting `LTLIBOBJS' up
correctly, so you can simply delete such snippets from your
`configure.ac' if you had them.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Static-only libraries,  Prev: Distributing,  Up: Integrating libtool

5.6 Static-only libraries
=========================

When you are developing a package, it is often worthwhile to configure
your package with the `--disable-shared' flag, or to override the
defaults for `LT_INIT' by using the `disable-shared' option (*note The
`LT_INIT' macro: LT_INIT.).  This prevents libtool from building shared
libraries, which has several advantages:

   * compilation is twice as fast, which can speed up your development
     cycle,

   * debugging is easier because you don't need to deal with any
     complexities added by shared libraries, and

   * you can see how libtool behaves on static-only platforms.

   You may want to put a small note in your package `README' to let
other developers know that `--disable-shared' can save them time.  The
following example note is taken from the GIMP(1) distribution `README':

     The GIMP uses GNU Libtool in order to build shared libraries on a
     variety of systems.  While this is very nice for making usable
     binaries, it can be a pain when trying to debug a program.  For that
     reason, compilation of shared libraries can be turned off by
     specifying the `--disable-shared' option to `configure'.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) GNU Image Manipulation Program, for those who haven't taken the
plunge.  See `http://www.gimp.org/'.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Other languages,  Next: Versioning,  Prev: Integrating libtool,  Up: Top

6 Using libtool with other languages
************************************

Libtool was first implemented in order to add support for writing shared
libraries in the C language.  However, over time, libtool is being
integrated with other languages, so that programmers are free to reap
the benefits of shared libraries in their favorite programming language.

   This chapter describes how libtool interacts with other languages,
and what special considerations you need to make if you do not use C.

* Menu:

* C++ libraries::               Writing libraries for C++
* Tags::                        Tags

File: libtool.info,  Node: C++ libraries,  Next: Tags,  Up: Other languages

6.1 Writing libraries for C++
=============================

Creating libraries of C++ code should be a fairly straightforward
process, because its object files differ from C ones in only three ways:

  1. Because of name mangling, C++ libraries are only usable by the C++
     compiler that created them.  This decision was made by the
     designers of C++ in order to protect users from conflicting
     implementations of features such as constructors, exception
     handling, and RTTI.

  2. On some systems, the C++ compiler must take special actions for the
     dynamic linker to run dynamic (i.e., run-time) initializers.  This
     means that we should not call `ld' directly to link such
     libraries, and we should use the C++ compiler instead.

  3. C++ compilers will link some Standard C++ library in by default,
     but libtool does not know which are these libraries, so it cannot
     even run the inter-library dependence analyzer to check how to
     link it in.  Therefore, running `ld' to link a C++ program or
     library is deemed to fail.

   Because of these three issues, Libtool has been designed to always
use the C++ compiler to compile and link C++ programs and libraries.  In
some instances the `main()' function of a program must also be compiled
with the C++ compiler for static C++ objects to be properly initialized.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Tags,  Prev: C++ libraries,  Up: Other languages

6.2 Tags
========

Libtool supports multiple languages through the use of tags.
Technically a tag corresponds to a set of configuration variables
associated with a language.  These variables tell `libtool' how it
should create objects and libraries for each language.

   Tags are defined at `configure'-time for each language activated in
the package (see `LT_LANG' in *note LT_INIT::).  Here is the
correspondence between language names and tags names.

Language name      Tag name
C                  CC
C++                CXX
Java               GCJ
Fortran 77         F77
Fortran            FC
Windows Resource   RC

   `libtool' tries to automatically infer which tag to use from the
compiler command being used to compile or link.  If it can't infer a
tag, then it defaults to the configuration for the `C' language.

   The tag can also be specified using `libtool''s `--tag=TAG' option
(*note Invoking libtool::).  It is a good idea to do so in `Makefile'
rules, because that will allow users to substitute the compiler without
relying on `libtool' inference heuristics.  When no tag is specified,
`libtool' will default to `CC'; this tag always exists.

   Finally, the set of tags available in a particular project can be
retrieved by tracing for the `LT_SUPPORTED_TAG' macro (*note Trace
interface::).

File: libtool.info,  Node: Versioning,  Next: Library tips,  Prev: Other languages,  Up: Top

7 Library interface versions
****************************

The most difficult issue introduced by shared libraries is that of
creating and resolving runtime dependencies.  Dependencies on programs
and libraries are often described in terms of a single name, such as
`sed'.  So, one may say "libtool depends on sed," and that is good
enough for most purposes.

   However, when an interface changes regularly, we need to be more
specific: "Gnus 5.1 requires Emacs 19.28 or above."  Here, the
description of an interface consists of a name, and a "version number."

   Even that sort of description is not accurate enough for some
purposes.  What if Emacs 20 changes enough to break Gnus 5.1?

   The same problem exists in shared libraries: we require a formal
version system to describe the sorts of dependencies that programs have
on shared libraries, so that the dynamic linker can guarantee that
programs are linked only against libraries that provide the interface
they require.

* Menu:

* Interfaces::                  What are library interfaces?
* Libtool versioning::          Libtool's versioning system.
* Updating version info::       Changing version information before releases.
* Release numbers::             Breaking binary compatibility for aesthetics.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Interfaces,  Next: Libtool versioning,  Up: Versioning

7.1 What are library interfaces?
================================

Interfaces for libraries may be any of the following (and more):

   * global variables: both names and types

   * global functions: argument types and number, return types, and
     function names

   * standard input, standard output, standard error, and file formats

   * sockets, pipes, and other inter-process communication protocol
     formats

   Note that static functions do not count as interfaces, because they
are not directly available to the user of the library.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Libtool versioning,  Next: Updating version info,  Prev: Interfaces,  Up: Versioning

7.2 Libtool's versioning system
===============================

Libtool has its own formal versioning system.  It is not as flexible as
some, but it is definitely the simplest of the more powerful versioning
systems.

   Think of a library as exporting several sets of interfaces,
arbitrarily represented by integers.  When a program is linked against
a library, it may use any subset of those interfaces.

   Libtool's description of the interfaces that a program uses is
simple: it encodes the least and the greatest interface numbers in the
resulting binary (FIRST-INTERFACE, LAST-INTERFACE).

   The dynamic linker is guaranteed that if a library supports _every_
interface number between FIRST-INTERFACE and LAST-INTERFACE, then the
program can be relinked against that library.

   Note that this can cause problems because libtool's compatibility
requirements are actually stricter than is necessary.

   Say `libhello' supports interfaces 5, 16, 17, 18, and 19, and that
libtool is used to link `test' against `libhello'.

   Libtool encodes the numbers 5 and 19 in `test', and the dynamic
linker will only link `test' against libraries that support _every_
interface between 5 and 19.  So, the dynamic linker refuses to link
`test' against `libhello'!

   In order to eliminate this problem, libtool only allows libraries to
declare consecutive interface numbers.  So, `libhello' can declare at
most that it supports interfaces 16 through 19.  Then, the dynamic
linker will link `test' against `libhello'.

   So, libtool library versions are described by three integers:

CURRENT
     The most recent interface number that this library implements.

REVISION
     The implementation number of the CURRENT interface.

AGE
     The difference between the newest and oldest interfaces that this
     library implements.  In other words, the library implements all the
     interface numbers in the range from number `CURRENT - AGE' to
     `CURRENT'.

   If two libraries have identical CURRENT and AGE numbers, then the
dynamic linker chooses the library with the greater REVISION number.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Updating version info,  Next: Release numbers,  Prev: Libtool versioning,  Up: Versioning

7.3 Updating library version information
========================================

If you want to use libtool's versioning system, then you must specify
the version information to libtool using the `-version-info' flag
during link mode (*note Link mode::).

   This flag accepts an argument of the form
`CURRENT[:REVISION[:AGE]]'.  So, passing `-version-info 3:12:1' sets
CURRENT to 3, REVISION to 12, and AGE to 1.

   If either REVISION or AGE are omitted, they default to 0.  Also note
that AGE must be less than or equal to the CURRENT interface number.

   Here are a set of rules to help you update your library version
information:

  1. Start with version information of `0:0:0' for each libtool library.

  2. Update the version information only immediately before a public
     release of your software.  More frequent updates are unnecessary,
     and only guarantee that the current interface number gets larger
     faster.

  3. If the library source code has changed at all since the last
     update, then increment REVISION (`C:R:A' becomes `C:r+1:A').

  4. If any interfaces have been added, removed, or changed since the
     last update, increment CURRENT, and set REVISION to 0.

  5. If any interfaces have been added since the last public release,
     then increment AGE.

  6. If any interfaces have been removed since the last public release,
     then set AGE to 0.

   *_Never_* try to set the interface numbers so that they correspond
to the release number of your package.  This is an abuse that only
fosters misunderstanding of the purpose of library versions.  Instead,
use the `-release' flag (*note Release numbers::), but be warned that
every release of your package will not be binary compatible with any
other release.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Release numbers,  Prev: Updating version info,  Up: Versioning

7.4 Managing release information
================================

Often, people want to encode the name of the package release into the
shared library so that it is obvious to the user which package their
programs are linked against.  This convention is used especially on
GNU/Linux:

     trick$ ls /usr/lib/libbfd*
     /usr/lib/libbfd.a           /usr/lib/libbfd.so.2.7.0.2
     /usr/lib/libbfd.so
     trick$

   On `trick', `/usr/lib/libbfd.so' is a symbolic link to
`libbfd.so.2.7.0.2', which was distributed as a part of
`binutils-2.7.0.2'.

   Unfortunately, this convention conflicts directly with libtool's
idea of library interface versions, because the library interface
rarely changes at the same time that the release number does, and the
library suffix is never the same across all platforms.

   So, in order to accommodate both views, you can use the `-release'
flag in order to set release information for libraries for which you do
not want to use `-version-info'.  For the `libbfd' example, the next
release that uses libtool should be built with `-release 2.9.0', which
will produce the following files on GNU/Linux:

     trick$ ls /usr/lib/libbfd*
     /usr/lib/libbfd-2.9.0.so     /usr/lib/libbfd.a
     /usr/lib/libbfd.so
     trick$

   In this case, `/usr/lib/libbfd.so' is a symbolic link to
`libbfd-2.9.0.so'.  This makes it obvious that the user is dealing with
`binutils-2.9.0', without compromising libtool's idea of interface
versions.

   Note that this option causes a modification of the library name, so
do not use it unless you want to break binary compatibility with any
past library releases.  In general, you should only use `-release' for
package-internal libraries or for ones whose interfaces change very
frequently.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Library tips,  Next: Inter-library dependencies,  Prev: Versioning,  Up: Top

8 Tips for interface design
***************************

Writing a good library interface takes a lot of practice and thorough
understanding of the problem that the library is intended to solve.

   If you design a good interface, it won't have to change often, you
won't have to keep updating documentation, and users won't have to keep
relearning how to use the library.

   Here is a brief list of tips for library interface design that may
help you in your exploits:

Plan ahead
     Try to make every interface truly minimal, so that you won't need
     to delete entry points very often.

Avoid interface changes
     Some people love redesigning and changing entry points just for
     the heck of it (note: _renaming_ a function is considered changing
     an entry point).  Don't be one of those people.  If you must
     redesign an interface, then try to leave compatibility functions
     behind so that users don't need to rewrite their existing code.

Use opaque data types
     The fewer data type definitions a library user has access to, the
     better.  If possible, design your functions to accept a generic
     pointer (that you can cast to an internal data type), and provide
     access functions rather than allowing the library user to directly
     manipulate the data.  That way, you have the freedom to change the
     data structures without changing the interface.

     This is essentially the same thing as using abstract data types and
     inheritance in an object-oriented system.

Use header files
     If you are careful to document each of your library's global
     functions and variables in header files, and include them in your
     library source files, then the compiler will let you know if you
     make any interface changes by accident (*note C header files::).

Use the `static' keyword (or equivalent) whenever possible
     The fewer global functions your library has, the more flexibility
     you'll have in changing them.  Static functions and variables may
     change forms as often as you like... your users cannot access
     them, so they aren't interface changes.

Be careful with array dimensions
     The number of elements in a global array is part of an interface,
     even if the header just declares `extern int foo[];'.  This is
     because on i386 and some other SVR4/ELF systems, when an
     application references data in a shared library the size of that
     data (whatever its type) is included in the application
     executable.  If you might want to change the size of an array or
     string then provide a pointer not the actual array.

* Menu:

* C header files::              How to write portable include files.

File: libtool.info,  Node: C header files,  Up: Library tips

8.1 Writing C header files
==========================

Writing portable C header files can be difficult, since they may be read
by different types of compilers:

C++ compilers
     C++ compilers require that functions be declared with full
     prototypes, since C++ is more strongly typed than C.  C functions
     and variables also need to be declared with the `extern "C"'
     directive, so that the names aren't mangled.  *Note C++
     libraries::, for other issues relevant to using C++ with libtool.

ANSI C compilers
     ANSI C compilers are not as strict as C++ compilers, but functions
     should be prototyped to avoid unnecessary warnings when the header
     file is `#include'd.

non-ANSI C compilers
     Non-ANSI compilers will report errors if functions are prototyped.

   These complications mean that your library interface headers must use
some C preprocessor magic in order to be usable by each of the above
compilers.

   `foo.h' in the `tests/demo' subdirectory of the libtool distribution
serves as an example for how to write a header file that can be safely
installed in a system directory.

   Here are the relevant portions of that file:

     /* BEGIN_C_DECLS should be used at the beginning of your declarations,
        so that C++ compilers don't mangle their names.  Use END_C_DECLS at
        the end of C declarations. */
     #undef BEGIN_C_DECLS
     #undef END_C_DECLS
     #ifdef __cplusplus
     # define BEGIN_C_DECLS extern "C" {
     # define END_C_DECLS }
     #else
     # define BEGIN_C_DECLS /* empty */
     # define END_C_DECLS /* empty */
     #endif

     /* PARAMS is a macro used to wrap function prototypes, so that
        compilers that don't understand ANSI C prototypes still work,
        and ANSI C compilers can issue warnings about type mismatches. */
     #undef PARAMS
     #if defined (__STDC__) || defined (_AIX) \
             || (defined (__mips) && defined (_SYSTYPE_SVR4)) \
             || defined(WIN32) || defined(__cplusplus)
     # define PARAMS(protos) protos
     #else
     # define PARAMS(protos) ()
     #endif

   These macros are used in `foo.h' as follows:

     #ifndef FOO_H
     #define FOO_H 1

     /* The above macro definitions. */
     #include "..."

     BEGIN_C_DECLS

     int foo PARAMS((void));
     int hello PARAMS((void));

     END_C_DECLS

     #endif /* !FOO_H */

   Note that the `#ifndef FOO_H' prevents the body of `foo.h' from
being read more than once in a given compilation.

   Also the only thing that must go outside the
`BEGIN_C_DECLS'/`END_C_DECLS' pair are `#include' lines.  Strictly
speaking it is only C symbol names that need to be protected, but your
header files will be more maintainable if you have a single pair of of
these macros around the majority of the header contents.

   You should use these definitions of `PARAMS', `BEGIN_C_DECLS', and
`END_C_DECLS' into your own headers.  Then, you may use them to create
header files that are valid for C++, ANSI, and non-ANSI compilers(1).

   Do not be naive about writing portable code.  Following the tips
given above will help you miss the most obvious problems, but there are
definitely other subtle portability issues.  You may need to cope with
some of the following issues:

   * Pre-ANSI compilers do not always support the `void *' generic
     pointer type, and so need to use `char *' in its place.

   * The `const', `inline' and `signed' keywords are not supported by
     some compilers, especially pre-ANSI compilers.

   * The `long double' type is not supported by many compilers.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) We used to recommend `__P', `__BEGIN_DECLS' and `__END_DECLS'.
This was bad advice since symbols (even preprocessor macro names) that
begin with an underscore are reserved for the use of the compiler.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Inter-library dependencies,  Next: Dlopened modules,  Prev: Library tips,  Up: Top

9 Inter-library dependencies
****************************

By definition, every shared library system provides a way for
executables to depend on libraries, so that symbol resolution is
deferred until runtime.

   An "inter-library dependency" is one in which a library depends on
other libraries.  For example, if the libtool library `libhello' uses
the `cos' function, then it has an inter-library dependency on `libm',
the math library that implements `cos'.

   Some shared library systems provide this feature in an
internally-consistent way: these systems allow chains of dependencies of
potentially infinite length.

   However, most shared library systems are restricted in that they only
allow a single level of dependencies.  In these systems, programs may
depend on shared libraries, but shared libraries may not depend on other
shared libraries.

   In any event, libtool provides a simple mechanism for you to declare
inter-library dependencies: for every library `libNAME' that your own
library depends on, simply add a corresponding `-lNAME' option to the
link line when you create your library.  To make an example of our
`libhello' that depends on `libm':

     burger$ libtool --mode=link gcc -g -O -o libhello.la foo.lo hello.lo \
                     -rpath /usr/local/lib -lm
     burger$

   When you link a program against `libhello', you don't need to
specify the same `-l' options again: libtool will do that for you, in
order to guarantee that all the required libraries are found.  This
restriction is only necessary to preserve compatibility with static
library systems and simple dynamic library systems.

   Some platforms, such as AIX, do not even allow you this flexibility.
In order to build a shared library, it must be entirely self-contained
(that is, have references only to symbols that are found in the `.lo'
files or the specified `-l' libraries), and you need to specify the
`-no-undefined' flag.  By default, libtool builds only static libraries
on these kinds of platforms.

   The simple-minded inter-library dependency tracking code of libtool
releases prior to 1.2 was disabled because it was not clear when it was
possible to link one library with another, and complex failures would
occur.  A more complex implementation of this concept was re-introduced
before release 1.3, but it has not been ported to all platforms that
libtool supports.  The default, conservative behavior is to avoid
linking one library with another, introducing their inter-dependencies
only when a program is linked with them.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Dlopened modules,  Next: Using libltdl,  Prev: Inter-library dependencies,  Up: Top

10 Dlopened modules
*******************

It can sometimes be confusing to discuss "dynamic linking", because the
term is used to refer to two different concepts:

  1. Compiling and linking a program against a shared library, which is
     resolved automatically at run time by the dynamic linker.  In this
     process, dynamic linking is transparent to the application.

  2. The application calling functions such as `dlopen' that load
     arbitrary, user-specified modules at runtime.  This type of dynamic
     linking is explicitly controlled by the application.

   To mitigate confusion, this manual refers to the second type of
dynamic linking as "dlopening" a module.

   The main benefit to dlopening object modules is the ability to access
compiled object code to extend your program, rather than using an
interpreted language.  In fact, dlopen calls are frequently used in
language interpreters to provide an efficient way to extend the
language.

   As of version 2.2.6b, libtool provides support for dlopened modules.
However, you should indicate that your package is willing to use such
support, by using the `LT_INIT' option `dlopen' in `configure.ac'.  If
this option is not given, libtool will assume no dlopening mechanism is
available, and will try to simulate it.

   This chapter discusses how you as a dlopen application developer
might use libtool to generate dlopen-accessible modules.

* Menu:

* Building modules::            Creating dlopenable objects and libraries.
* Dlpreopening::                Dlopening that works on static platforms.
* Linking with dlopened modules:: Using dlopenable modules in libraries.
* Finding the dlname::          Choosing the right file to `dlopen'.
* Dlopen issues::               Unresolved problems that need your attention.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Building modules,  Next: Dlpreopening,  Up: Dlopened modules

10.1 Building modules to dlopen
===============================

On some operating systems, a program symbol must be specially declared
in order to be dynamically resolved with the `dlsym' (or equivalent)
function.  Libtool provides the `-export-dynamic' and `-module' link
flags (*note Link mode::), for you to make that declaration.  You need
to use these flags if you are linking an application program that
dlopens other modules or a libtool library that will also be dlopened.

   For example, if we wanted to build a shared library, `hello', that
would later be dlopened by an application, we would add `-module' to
the other link flags:

     burger$ libtool --mode=link gcc -module -o hello.la foo.lo \
                     hello.lo -rpath /usr/local/lib -lm
     burger$

   If symbols from your _executable_ are needed to satisfy unresolved
references in a library you want to dlopen you will have to use the flag
`-export-dynamic'.  You should use `-export-dynamic' while linking the
executable that calls dlopen:

     burger$ libtool --mode=link gcc -export-dynamic -o helldl main.o
     burger$

File: libtool.info,  Node: Dlpreopening,  Next: Linking with dlopened modules,  Prev: Building modules,  Up: Dlopened modules

10.2 Dlpreopening
=================

Libtool provides special support for dlopening libtool object and
libtool library files, so that their symbols can be resolved _even on
platforms without any `dlopen' and `dlsym' functions_.

   Consider the following alternative ways of loading code into your
program, in order of increasing "laziness":

  1. Linking against object files that become part of the program
     executable, whether or not they are referenced.  If an object file
     cannot be found, then the compile time linker refuses to create
     the executable.

  2. Declaring a static library to the linker, so that it is searched
     at link time in order to satisfy any undefined references in the
     above object files.  If the static library cannot be found, then
     the compile time linker refuses to create the executable.

  3. Declaring a shared library to the runtime linker, so that it is
     searched at runtime in order to satisfy any undefined references
     in the above files.  If the shared library cannot be found, then
     the dynamic linker aborts the program before it runs.

  4. Dlopening a module, so that the application can resolve its own,
     dynamically-computed references.  If there is an error opening the
     module, or the module is not found, then the application can
     recover without crashing.

   Libtool emulates `-dlopen' on static platforms by linking objects
into the program at compile time, and creating data structures that
represent the program's symbol table.  In order to use this feature,
you must declare the objects you want your application to dlopen by
using the `-dlopen' or `-dlpreopen' flags when you link your program
(*note Link mode::).

 -- Structure: struct lt_dlsymbol { const char *NAME; void *ADDRESS; }
     The NAME attribute is a null-terminated character string of the
     symbol name, such as `"fprintf"'.  The ADDRESS attribute is a
     generic pointer to the appropriate object, such as `&fprintf'.

 -- Structure: struct lt_dlsymlist { const char *ORIGINATOR;
          const lt_dlsymbol SYMBOLS[]; }
     The ORIGINATOR attribute is a null-terminated character string,
     naming the compilation unit that SYMBOLS were preloaded on behalf
     of.  This is usually the basename of a library, `libltdl.la' has a
     corresponding ORIGINATOR value of `libltdl'; if the SYMBOLS are
     for the benefit of the application proper, then ORIGINATOR is
     `@PROGRAM@', though Libtool takes care of that detail if you use
     `LTDL_SET_PRELOADED_SYMBOLS'.

 -- Variable: const lt_dlsymlist * lt_preloaded_symbols
     An array of LT_SYMBOL structures, representing all the preloaded
     symbols linked into the program proper.  For each module
     `-dlpreopen'ed by the Libtool linked program there is an element
     with the NAME of the module and a ADDRESS of `0', followed by all
     symbols exported from this file.  For the executable itself the
     special name `@PROGRAM@' is used.  The last element of all has a
     NAME and ADDRESS of `0'.

   Some compilers may allow identifiers that are not valid in ANSI C,
such as dollar signs.  Libtool only recognizes valid ANSI C symbols (an
initial ASCII letter or underscore, followed by zero or more ASCII
letters, digits, and underscores), so non-ANSI symbols will not appear
in LT_PRELOADED_SYMBOLS.

 -- Function: int lt_dlpreload (const lt_dlsymlist *PRELOADED)
     Register the list of preloaded modules PRELOADED.  If PRELOADED is
     `NULL', then all previously registered symbol lists, except the
     list set by `lt_dlpreload_default', are deleted.  Return 0 on
     success.

 -- Function: int lt_dlpreload_default (const lt_dlsymlist *PRELOADED)
     Set the default list of preloaded modules to PRELOADED, which
     won't be deleted by `lt_dlpreload'.  Note that this function does
     _not_ require libltdl to be initialized using `lt_dlinit' and can
     be used in the program to register the default preloaded modules.
     Instead of calling this function directly, most programs will use
     the macro `LTDL_SET_PRELOADED_SYMBOLS'.

     Return 0 on success.

 -- Macro: LTDL_SET_PRELOADED_SYMBOLS
     Set the default list of preloaded symbols.  Should be used in your
     program to initialize libltdl's list of preloaded modules.

          #include <ltdl.h>

          int main() {
            /* ... */
            LTDL_SET_PRELOADED_SYMBOLS();
            /* ... */
          }

 -- Function Type: int lt_dlpreload_callback_func (lt_dlhandle HANDLE)
     Functions of this type can be passed to `lt_dlpreload_open', which
     in turn will call back into a function thus passed for each
     preloaded module that it opens.

 -- Function: int lt_dlpreload_open (const char *ORIGINATOR,
          lt_dlpreload_callback_func *FUNC)
     Load all of the preloaded modules for ORIGINATOR.  For every
     module opened in this way, call FUNC.

     To open all of the modules preloaded into `libhell.la' (presumably
     from within the `libhell.a' initialisation code):

          #define preloaded_symbols lt_libhell_LTX_preloaded_symbols

          static int hell_preload_callback (lt_dlhandle handle);

          int
          hell_init (void)
          {
            ...
            if (lt_dlpreload (&preloaded_symbols) == 0)
              {
                lt_dlpreload_open ("libhell", preload_callback);
              }
            ...
          }

     Note that to prevent clashes between multiple preloaded modules,
     the preloaded symbols are accessed via a mangled symbol name: to
     get the symbols preloaded into `libhell', you must prefix
     `preloaded_symbols' with `lt_'; the originator name, `libhell' in
     this case; and `_LTX_'.  That is,
     `lt_libhell_LTX_preloaded_symbols' here.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Linking with dlopened modules,  Next: Finding the dlname,  Prev: Dlpreopening,  Up: Dlopened modules

10.3 Linking with dlopened modules
==================================

When, say, an interpreter application uses dlopened modules to extend
the list of methods it provides, an obvious abstraction for the
maintainers of the interpreter is to have all methods (including the
built in ones supplied with the interpreter) accessed through dlopen.
For one thing, the dlopening functionality will be tested even during
routine invocations.  For another, only one subsystem has to be written
for getting methods into the interpreter.

   The downside of this abstraction is, of course, that environments
that provide only static linkage can't even load the intrinsic
interpreter methods.  Not so!  We can statically link those methods by
*dlpreopening* them.

   Unfortunately, since platforms such as AIX and cygwin require that
all library symbols must be resolved at compile time, the interpreter
maintainers will need to provide a library to both its own dlpreopened
modules, and third-party modules loaded by dlopen.  In itself, that is
not so bad, except that the interpreter too must provide those same
symbols otherwise it will be impossible to resolve all the symbols
required by the modules as they are loaded.  Things are even worse if
the code that loads the modules for the interpreter is itself in a
library - and that is usually the case for any non-trivial application.
Modern platforms take care of this by automatically loading all of a
module's dependency libraries as the module is loaded (libltdl can do
this even on platforms that can't do it by themselves).  In the end,
this leads to problems with duplicated symbols and prevents modules
from loading, and prevents the application from compiling when modules
are preloaded.

     ,-------------.    ,------------------.    ,-----------------.
     | Interpreter |---->     Module------------>   Third-party   |
     `-------------'    |     Loader       |    |Dlopened Modules |
                        |        |         |    `-----------------'
                        |,-------v--------.|             |
                        ||  Dlpreopened   ||             |
                        ||    Modules     ||             |
                        |`----------------'|             |
                        |        |         |             |
                        |,-------v--------.|    ,--------v--------.
                        ||Module Interface||    |Module Interface |
                        ||    Library     ||    |     Library     |
                        |`----------------'|    `-----------------'
                        `------------------'

   Libtool has the concept of "weak library interfaces" to circumvent
this problem.  Recall that the code that dlopens method-provider
modules for the interpreter application resides in a library: All of
the modules and the dlopener library itself should be linked against
the common library that resolves the module symbols at compile time.
To guard against duplicate symbol definitions, and for dlpreopened
modules to work at all in this scenario, the dlopener library must
declare that it provides a weak library interface to the common symbols
in the library it shares with the modules.  That way, when `libtool'
links the *Module Loader* library with some *Dlpreopened Modules* that
were in turn linked against the *Module Interface Library*, it knows
that the *Module Loader* provides an already loaded *Module Interface
Library* to resolve symbols for the *Dlpreopened Modules*, and doesn't
ask the compiler driver to link an identical *Module Interface Library*
dependency library too.

   In conjunction with Automake, the `Makefile.am' for the *Module
Loader* might look like this:

     lib_LTLIBRARIES = libinterface.la libloader.la

     libinterface_la_SOURCES = interface.c interface.h
     libinterface_la_LDFLAGS = -version-info 3:2:1

     libloader_la_SOURCES    = loader.c
     libloader_la_LDFLAGS    = -weak libinterface.la \
                               -version-info 3:2:1 \
                               -dlpreopen ../modules/intrinsics.la
     libloader_la_LIBADD     = $(libinterface_la_OBJECTS)

   And the `Makefile.am' for the `intrinsics.la' module in a sibling
`modules' directory might look like this:

     AM_CPPFLAGS             = -I$(srcdir)/../libloader
     AM_LDFLAGS              = -no-undefined -module -avoid-version \
                               -export-dynamic

     noinst_LTLIBRARIES      = intrinsics.la

     intrinsics_la_LIBADD    = ../libloader/libinterface.la

     ../libloader/libinterface.la:
             cd ../libloader && $(MAKE) $(AM_MAKEFLAGS) libinterface.la

   For a more complex example, see the sources of `libltdl' in the
Libtool distribution, which is built with the help of the `-weak'
option.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Finding the dlname,  Next: Dlopen issues,  Prev: Linking with dlopened modules,  Up: Dlopened modules

10.4 Finding the correct name to dlopen
=======================================

After a library has been linked with `-module', it can be dlopened.
Unfortunately, because of the variation in library names, your package
needs to determine the correct file to dlopen.

   The most straightforward and flexible implementation is to determine
the name at runtime, by finding the installed `.la' file, and searching
it for the following lines:

     # The name that we can `dlopen'.
     dlname='DLNAME'

   If DLNAME is empty, then the library cannot be dlopened.  Otherwise,
it gives the dlname of the library.  So, if the library was installed
as `/usr/local/lib/libhello.la', and the DLNAME was `libhello.so.3',
then `/usr/local/lib/libhello.so.3' should be dlopened.

   If your program uses this approach, then it should search the
directories listed in the `LD_LIBRARY_PATH'(1) environment variable, as
well as the directory where libraries will eventually be installed.
Searching this variable (or equivalent) will guarantee that your
program can find its dlopened modules, even before installation,
provided you have linked them using libtool.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) `LIBPATH' on AIX, and `SHLIB_PATH' on HP-UX.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Dlopen issues,  Prev: Finding the dlname,  Up: Dlopened modules

10.5 Unresolved dlopen issues
=============================

The following problems are not solved by using libtool's dlopen support:

   * Dlopen functions are generally only available on shared library
     platforms.  If you want your package to be portable to static
     platforms, you have to use either libltdl (*note Using libltdl::)
     or develop your own alternatives to dlopening dynamic code.  Most
     reasonable solutions involve writing wrapper functions for the
     `dlopen' family, which do package-specific tricks when dlopening
     is unsupported or not available on a given platform.

   * There are major differences in implementations of the `dlopen'
     family of functions.  Some platforms do not even use the same
     function names (notably HP-UX, with its `shl_load' family).

   * The application developer must write a custom search function in
     order to discover the correct module filename to supply to
     `dlopen'.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Using libltdl,  Next: Trace interface,  Prev: Dlopened modules,  Up: Top

11 Using libltdl
****************

Libtool provides a small library, called `libltdl', that aims at hiding
the various difficulties of dlopening libraries from programmers.  It
consists of a few headers and small C source files that can be
distributed with applications that need dlopening functionality.  On
some platforms, whose dynamic linkers are too limited for a simple
implementation of `libltdl' services, it requires GNU DLD, or it will
only emulate dynamic linking with libtool's dlpreopening mechanism.

libltdl supports currently the following dynamic linking mechanisms:

   * `dlopen' (Solaris, Linux and various BSD flavors)

   * `shl_load' (HP-UX)

   * `LoadLibrary' (Win16 and Win32)

   * `load_add_on' (BeOS)

   * `NSAddImage' or `NSLinkModule' (Darwin and Mac OS X)

   * GNU DLD (emulates dynamic linking for static libraries)

   * libtool's dlpreopen (see *note Dlpreopening::)

libltdl is licensed under the terms of the GNU Library General Public
License, with the following exception:

     As a special exception to the GNU Lesser General Public License,
     if you distribute this file as part of a program or library that
     is built using GNU Libtool, you may include it under the same
     distribution terms that you use for the rest of that program.

* Menu:

* Libltdl interface::           How to use libltdl in your programs.
* Modules for libltdl::         Creating modules that can be `dlopen'ed.
* Thread Safety in libltdl::    Registering callbacks for multi-thread safety.
* User defined module data::    Associating data with loaded modules.
* Module loaders for libltdl::  Creating user defined module loaders.
* Distributing libltdl::        How to distribute libltdl with your package.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Libltdl interface,  Next: Modules for libltdl,  Up: Using libltdl

11.1 How to use libltdl in your programs
========================================

The libltdl API is similar to the dlopen interface of Solaris and Linux,
which is very simple but powerful.

To use libltdl in your program you have to include the header file
`ltdl.h':

     #include <ltdl.h>

The early releases of libltdl used some symbols that violated the POSIX
namespace conventions.  These symbols are now deprecated, and have been
replaced by those described here.  If you have code that relies on the
old deprecated symbol names, defining `LT_NON_POSIX_NAMESPACE' before
you include `ltdl.h' provides conversion macros.  Whichever set of
symbols you use, the new API is not binary compatible with the last, so
you will need to recompile your application in order to use this
version of libltdl.

Note that libltdl is not well tested in a multithreaded environment,
though the intention is that it should work (*note Using libltdl in a
multi threaded environment: Thread Safety in libltdl.).  It was
reported that GNU/Linux's glibc 2.0's `dlopen' with `RTLD_LAZY' (which
libltdl uses by default) is not thread-safe, but this problem is
supposed to be fixed in glibc 2.1.  On the other hand, `RTLD_NOW' was
reported to introduce problems in multi-threaded applications on
FreeBSD.  Working around these problems is left as an exercise for the
reader; contributions are certainly welcome.

The following macros are defined by including `ltdl.h':

 -- Macro: LT_PATHSEP_CHAR
     `LT_PATHSEP_CHAR' is the system-dependent path separator, that is,
     `;' on Windows and `:' everywhere else.

 -- Macro: LT_DIRSEP_CHAR
     If `LT_DIRSEP_CHAR' is defined, it can be used as directory
     separator in addition to `/'.  On Windows, this contains `\'.

The following types are defined in `ltdl.h':

 -- Type: lt_dlhandle
     `lt_dlhandle' is a module "handle".  Every lt_dlopened module has
     a handle associated with it.

 -- Type: lt_dladvise
     `lt_dladvise' is used to control optional module loading modes.
     If it is not used, the default mode of the underlying system module
     loader is used.

 -- Type: lt_dlsymlist
     `lt_dlsymlist' is a symbol list for dlpreopened modules.  This
     structure is described in *note Dlpreopening::.

libltdl provides the following functions:

 -- Function: int lt_dlinit (void)
     Initialize libltdl.  This function must be called before using
     libltdl and may be called several times.  Return 0 on success,
     otherwise the number of errors.

 -- Function: int lt_dlexit (void)
     Shut down libltdl and close all modules.  This function will only
     then shut down libltdl when it was called as many times as
     `lt_dlinit' has been successfully called.  Return 0 on success,
     otherwise the number of errors.

 -- Function: lt_dlhandle lt_dlopen (const char *FILENAME)
     Open the module with the file name FILENAME and return a handle
     for it.  `lt_dlopen' is able to open libtool dynamic modules,
     preloaded static modules, the program itself and native dynamic
     modules(1).

     Unresolved symbols in the module are resolved using its dependency
     libraries and previously dlopened modules.  If the executable using
     this module was linked with the `-export-dynamic' flag, then the
     global symbols in the executable will also be used to resolve
     references in the module.

     If FILENAME is `NULL' and the program was linked with
     `-export-dynamic' or `-dlopen self', `lt_dlopen' will return a
     handle for the program itself, which can be used to access its
     symbols.

     If libltdl cannot find the library and the file name FILENAME does
     not have a directory component it will additionally look in the
     following search paths for the module (in the following order):

       1. user-defined search path: This search path can be changed by
          the program using the functions `lt_dlsetsearchpath',
          `lt_dladdsearchdir' and `lt_dlinsertsearchdir'.

       2. libltdl's search path: This search path is the value of the
          environment variable LTDL_LIBRARY_PATH.

       3. system library search path: The system dependent library
          search path (e.g. on Linux it is LD_LIBRARY_PATH).

     Each search path must be a list of absolute directories separated
     by `LT_PATHSEP_CHAR', for example, `"/usr/lib/mypkg:/lib/foo"'.
     The directory names may not contain the path separator.

     If the same module is loaded several times, the same handle is
     returned.  If `lt_dlopen' fails for any reason, it returns `NULL'.

 -- Function: lt_dlhandle lt_dlopenext (const char *FILENAME)
     The same as `lt_dlopen', except that it tries to append different
     file name extensions to the file name.  If the file with the file
     name FILENAME cannot be found libltdl tries to append the
     following extensions:

       1. the libtool archive extension `.la'

       2. the extension used for native dynamically loadable modules on
          the host platform, e.g., `.so', `.sl', etc.

     This lookup strategy was designed to allow programs that don't
     have knowledge about native dynamic libraries naming conventions
     to be able to `dlopen' such libraries as well as libtool modules
     transparently.

 -- Function: lt_dlhandle lt_dlopenadvise (const char *FILENAME,
          lt_dladvise ADVISE)
     The same as `lt_dlopen', except that it also requires an additional
     argument which may contain additional hints to the underlying
     system module loader.  The ADVISE parameter is opaque and can only
     be accessed with the functions documented below.

     Note that this function does not change the content of ADVISE, so
     unlike the other calls in this API takes a direct `lt_dladvise'
     type, and not a pointer to the same.

 -- Function: int lt_dladvise_init (lt_dladvise *ADVISE)
     The ADVISE parameter can be used to pass hints to the module
     loader when using `lt_dlopenadvise' to perform the loading.  The
     ADVISE parameter needs to be initialised by this function before
     it can be used.  Any memory used by ADVISE needs to be recycled
     with `lt_dladvise_destroy' when it is no longer needed.

     On failure, `lt_dladvise_init' returns non-zero and sets an error
     message that can be retrieved with `lt_dlerror'.

 -- Function: int lt_dladvise_destroy (lt_dladvise *ADVISE)
     Recycle the memory used by ADVISE.  For an example, see the
     documentation for `lt_dladvise_ext'.

     On failure, `lt_dladvise_destroy' returns non-zero and sets an
     error message that can be retrieved with `lt_dlerror'.

 -- Function: int lt_dladvise_ext (lt_dladvise *ADVISE)
     Set the `ext' hint on ADVISE.  Passing an ADVISE parameter to
     `lt_dlopenadvise' with this hint set causes it to try to append
     different file name extensions like `lt_dlopenext'.

     The following example is equivalent to calling `lt_dlopenext
     (filename)':

          lt_dlhandle
          my_dlopenext (const char *filename)
          {
            lt_dlhandle handle = 0;
            lt_dladvise advise;

            if (!lt_dladvise_init (&advise) && !lt_dladvise_ext (&advise))
              handle = lt_dlopenadvise (filename, advise);

            lt_dladvise_destroy (&advise);

            return handle;
          }

     On failure, `lt_dladvise_ext' returns non-zero and sets an error
     message that can be retrieved with `lt_dlerror'.

 -- Function: int lt_dladvise_global (lt_dladvise *ADVISE)
     Set the `symglobal' hint on ADVISE.  Passing an ADVISE parameter
     to `lt_dlopenadvise' with this hint set causes it to try to make
     the loaded module's symbols globally available for resolving
     unresolved symbols in subsequently loaded modules.

     If neither the `symglobal' nor the `symlocal' hints are set, or if
     a module is loaded without using the `lt_dlopenadvise' call in any
     case, then the visibility of the module's symbols will be as per
     the default for the underlying module loader and OS.  Even if a
     suitable hint is passed, not all loaders are able to act upon it in
     which case `lt_dlgetinfo' will reveal whether the hint was actually
     followed.

     On failure, `lt_dladvise_global' returns non-zero and sets an error
     message that can be retrieved with `lt_dlerror'.

 -- Function: int lt_dladvise_local (lt_dladvise *ADVISE)
     Set the `symlocal' hint on ADVISE.  Passing an ADVISE parameter to
     `lt_dlopenadvise' with this hint set causes it to try to keep the
     loaded module's symbols hidden so that they are not visible to
     subsequently loaded modules.

     If neither the `symglobal' nor the `symlocal' hints are set, or if
     a module is loaded without using the `lt_dlopenadvise' call in any
     case, then the visibility of the module's symbols will be as per
     the default for the underlying module loader and OS.  Even if a
     suitable hint is passed, not all loaders are able to act upon it in
     which case `lt_dlgetinfo' will reveal whether the hint was actually
     followed.

     On failure, `lt_dladvise_local' returns non-zero and sets an error
     message that can be retrieved with `lt_dlerror'.

 -- Function: int lt_dladvise_resident (lt_dladvise *ADVISE)
     Set the `resident' hint on ADVISE.  Passing an ADVISE parameter to
     `lt_dlopenadvise' with this hint set causes it to try to make the
     loaded module resident in memory, so that it cannot be unloaded
     with a later call to `lt_dlclose'.

     On failure, `lt_dladvise_resident' returns non-zero and sets an
     error message that can be retrieved with `lt_dlerror'.

 -- Function: int lt_dladvise_preload (lt_dladvise *ADVISE)
     Set the `preload' hint on ADVISE.  Passing an ADVISE parameter to
     `lt_dlopenadvise' with this hint set causes it to load only
     preloaded modules, so that if a suitable preloaded module is not
     found, `lt_dlopenadvise' will return `NULL'.

 -- Function: int lt_dlclose (lt_dlhandle HANDLE)
     Decrement the reference count on the module HANDLE.  If it drops
     to zero and no other module depends on this module, then the
     module is unloaded.  Return 0 on success.

 -- Function: void * lt_dlsym (lt_dlhandle HANDLE, const char *NAME)
     Return the address in the module HANDLE, where the symbol given by
     the null-terminated string NAME is loaded.  If the symbol cannot
     be found, `NULL' is returned.

 -- Function: const char * lt_dlerror (void)
     Return a human readable string describing the most recent error
     that occurred from any of libltdl's functions.  Return `NULL' if
     no errors have occurred since initialization or since it was last
     called.

 -- Function: int lt_dladdsearchdir (const char *SEARCH_DIR)
     Append the search directory SEARCH_DIR to the current user-defined
     library search path.  Return 0 on success.

 -- Function: int lt_dlinsertsearchdir (const char *BEFORE,
          const char *SEARCH_DIR)
     Insert the search directory SEARCH_DIR into the user-defined
     library search path, immediately before the element starting at
     address BEFORE.  If BEFORE is `NULL', then SEARCH_DIR is appending
     as if `lt_dladdsearchdir' had been called.  Return 0 on success.

 -- Function: int lt_dlsetsearchpath (const char *SEARCH_PATH)
     Replace the current user-defined library search path with
     SEARCH_PATH, which must be a list of absolute directories separated
     by `LT_PATHSEP_CHAR'.  Return 0 on success.

 -- Function: const char * lt_dlgetsearchpath (void)
     Return the current user-defined library search path.

 -- Function: int lt_dlforeachfile (const char *SEARCH_PATH,
          int (*FUNC) (const char *FILENAME, void * DATA), void * DATA)
     In some applications you may not want to load individual modules
     with known names, but rather find all of the modules in a set of
     directories and load them all during initialisation.  With this
     function you can have libltdl scan the `LT_PATHSEP_CHAR'-delimited
     directory list in SEARCH_PATH for candidates, and pass them, along
     with DATA to your own callback function, FUNC.  If SEARCH_PATH is
     `NULL', then search all of the standard locations that `lt_dlopen'
     would examine.  This function will continue to make calls to FUNC
     for each file that it discovers in SEARCH_PATH until one of these
     calls returns non-zero, or until the files are exhausted.
     `lt_dlforeachfile' returns the value returned by the last call
     made to FUNC.

     For example you could define FUNC to build an ordered "argv"-like
     vector of files using DATA to hold the address of the start of the
     vector.

 -- Function: int lt_dlmakeresident (lt_dlhandle HANDLE)
     Mark a module so that it cannot be `lt_dlclose'd.  This can be
     useful if a module implements some core functionality in your
     project that would cause your code to crash if removed.  Return 0
     on success.

     If you use `lt_dlopen (NULL)' to get a HANDLE for the running
     binary, that handle will always be marked as resident, and
     consequently cannot be successfully `lt_dlclose'd.

 -- Function: int lt_dlisresident (lt_dlhandle HANDLE)
     Check whether a particular module has been marked as resident,
     returning 1 if it has or 0 otherwise.  If there is an error while
     executing this function, return -1 and set an error message for
     retrieval with `lt_dlerror'.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Some platforms, notably Mac OS X, differentiate between a
runtime library that cannot be opened by `lt_dlopen' and a dynamic
module that can.  For maximum portability you should try to ensure that
you only pass `lt_dlopen' objects that have been compiled with libtool's
`-module' flag.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Modules for libltdl,  Next: Thread Safety in libltdl,  Prev: Libltdl interface,  Up: Using libltdl

11.2 Creating modules that can be `dlopen'ed
============================================

Libtool modules are created like normal libtool libraries with a few
exceptions:

   You have to link the module with libtool's `-module' switch, and you
should link any program that is intended to dlopen the module with
`-dlopen MODULENAME.LA' where possible, so that libtool can dlpreopen
the module on platforms that do not support dlopening.  If the module
depends on any other libraries, make sure you specify them either when
you link the module or when you link programs that dlopen it.  If you
want to disable versioning (*note Versioning::) for a specific module
you should link it with the `-avoid-version' switch.  Note that libtool
modules don't need to have a "lib" prefix.  However, Automake 1.4 or
higher is required to build such modules.

   Usually a set of modules provide the same interface, i.e. exports
the same symbols, so that a program can dlopen them without having to
know more about their internals: In order to avoid symbol conflicts all
exported symbols must be prefixed with "modulename_LTX_" (MODULENAME is
the name of the module).  Internal symbols must be named in such a way
that they won't conflict with other modules, for example, by prefixing
them with "_modulename_".  Although some platforms support having the
same symbols defined more than once it is generally not portable and it
makes it impossible to dlpreopen such modules.

   libltdl will automatically cut the prefix off to get the real name of
the symbol.  Additionally, it supports modules that do not use a prefix
so that you can also dlopen non-libtool modules.

   `foo1.c' gives an example of a portable libtool module.  Exported
symbols are prefixed with "foo1_LTX_", internal symbols with "_foo1_".
Aliases are defined at the beginning so that the code is more readable.

     /* aliases for the exported symbols */
     #define foo  foo1_LTX_foo
     #define bar  foo1_LTX_bar

     /* a global variable definition */
     int bar = 1;

     /* a private function */
     int _foo1_helper() {
       return bar;
     }

     /* an exported function */
     int foo() {
       return _foo1_helper();
     }

The `Makefile.am' contains the necessary rules to build the module
`foo1.la':

     ...
     lib_LTLIBRARIES = foo1.la

     foo1_la_SOURCES = foo1.c
     foo1_la_LDFLAGS = -module
     ...

File: libtool.info,  Node: Thread Safety in libltdl,  Next: User defined module data,  Prev: Modules for libltdl,  Up: Using libltdl

11.3 Using libltdl in a multi threaded environment
==================================================

Libltdl provides a wrapper around whatever dynamic run-time object
loading mechanisms are provided by the host system, many of which are
themselves not thread safe.  Consequently libltdl cannot itself be
consistently thread safe.

   If you wish to use libltdl in a multithreaded environment, then you
must mutex lock around libltdl calls, since they may in turn be calling
non-thread-safe system calls on some target hosts.

   Some old releases of libtool provided a mutex locking API that was
unusable with POSIX threads, so callers were forced to lock around all
libltdl API calls anyway.  That mutex locking API was next to useless,
and is not present in current releases.

   Some future release of libtool may provide a new POSIX thread
compliant mutex locking API.

File: libtool.info,  Node: User defined module data,  Next: Module loaders for libltdl,  Prev: Thread Safety in libltdl,  Up: Using libltdl

11.4 Data associated with loaded modules
========================================

Some of the internal information about each loaded module that is
maintained by libltdl is available to the user, in the form of this
structure:

 -- Type: struct lt_dlinfo { char *FILENAME; char *NAME; int REF_COUNT;
          int IS_RESIDENT; int IS_SYMGLOBAL; int IS_SYMLOCAL;}
     `lt_dlinfo' is used to store information about a module.  The
     FILENAME attribute is a null-terminated character string of the
     real module file name.  If the module is a libtool module then
     NAME is its module name (e.g. `"libfoo"' for `"dir/libfoo.la"'),
     otherwise it is set to `NULL'.  The REF_COUNT attribute is a
     reference counter that describes how often the same module is
     currently loaded. The remaining fields can be compared to any
     hints that were passed to `lt_dlopenadvise' to determine whether
     the underlying loader was able to follow them.

   The following function will return a pointer to libltdl's internal
copy of this structure for the given HANDLE:

 -- Function: const lt_dlinfo * lt_dlgetinfo (lt_dlhandle HANDLE)
     Return a pointer to a struct that contains some information about
     the module HANDLE.  The contents of the struct must not be
     modified.  Return `NULL' on failure.

   Furthermore, in order to save you from having to keep a list of the
handles of all the modules you have loaded, these functions allow you to
iterate over libltdl's list of loaded modules:

 -- Type: lt_dlinterface_id
     The opaque type used to hold the module interface details for each
     registered libltdl client.

 -- Type: int lt_dlhandle_interface (lt_dlhandle HANDLE,
          const char *ID_STRING)
     Functions of this type are called to check that a handle conforms
     to a library's expected module interface when iterating over the
     global handle list.  You should be careful to write a callback
     function of this type that can correctly identify modules that
     belong to this client, both to prevent other clients from
     accidentally finding your loaded modules with the iterator
     functions below, and vice versa.  The best way to do this is to
     check that module HANDLE conforms to the interface specification
     of your loader using `lt_dlsym'.

     The callback may be given *every* module loaded by all the libltdl
     module clients in the current address space, including any modules
     loaded by other libraries such as libltdl itself, and should
     return non-zero if that module does not fulfill the interface
     requirements of your loader.

          int
          my_interface_cb (lt_dlhandle handle, const char *id_string)
          {
            char *(*module_id) (void) = NULL;

            /* A valid my_module must provide all of these symbols.  */
            if (!((module_id = (char*(*)(void)) lt_dlsym ("module_version"))
                  && lt_dlsym ("my_module_entrypoint")))
                return 1;

            if (strcmp (id_string, module_id()) != 0)
                return 1;

            return 0;
          }

 -- Function: lt_dlinterface_id lt_dlinterface_register
          (const char *ID_STRING, lt_dlhandle_interface *IFACE)
     Use this function to register your interface validator with
     libltdl, and in return obtain a unique key to store and retrieve
     per-module data.  You supply an ID_STRING and IFACE so that the
     resulting `lt_dlinterface_id' can be used to filter the module
     handles returned by the iteration functions below.  If IFACE is
     `NULL', all modules will be matched.

 -- Function: void lt_dlinterface_free (lt_dlinterface_id IFACE)
     Release the data associated with IFACE.

 -- Function: int lt_dlhandle_map (lt_dlinterface_id IFACE,
          int (*FUNC) (lt_dlhandle HANDLE, void * DATA), void * DATA)
     For each module that matches IFACE, call the function FUNC.  When
     writing the FUNC callback function, the argument HANDLE is the
     handle of a loaded module, and DATA is the last argument passed to
     `lt_dlhandle_map'. As soon as FUNC returns a non-zero value for
     one of the handles, `lt_dlhandle_map' will stop calling FUNC and
     immediately return that non-zero value.  Otherwise 0 is eventually
     returned when FUNC has been successfully called for all matching
     modules.

 -- Function: lt_dlhandle lt_dlhandle_iterate (lt_dlinterface_id IFACE,
          lt_dlhandle PLACE)
     Iterate over the module handles loaded by IFACE, returning the
     first matching handle in the list if PLACE is `NULL', and the next
     one on subsequent calls.  If PLACE is the last element in the list
     of eligible modules, this function returns `NULL'.

          lt_dlhandle handle = 0;
          lt_dlinterface_id iface = my_interface_id;

          while ((handle = lt_dlhandle_iterate (iface, handle)))
            {
              ...
            }

 -- Function: lt_dlhandle lt_dlhandle_fetch (lt_dlinterface_id IFACE,
          const char *MODULE_NAME)
     Search through the module handles loaded by IFACE for a module
     named MODULE_NAME, returning its handle if found or else `NULL' if
     no such named module has been loaded by IFACE.

   However, you might still need to maintain your own list of loaded
module handles (in parallel with the list maintained inside libltdl) if
there were any other data that your application wanted to associate
with each open module.  Instead, you can use the following API calls to
do that for you.  You must first obtain a unique interface id from
libltdl as described above, and subsequently always use it to retrieve
the data you stored earlier.  This allows different libraries to each
store their own data against loaded modules, without interfering with
one another.

 -- Function: void * lt_dlcaller_set_data (lt_dlinterface_id KEY,
          lt_dlhandle HANDLE, void * DATA)
     Set DATA as the set of data uniquely associated with KEY and
     HANDLE for later retrieval.  This function returns the DATA
     previously associated with KEY and HANDLE if any.  A result of 0,
     may indicate that a diagnostic for the last error (if any) is
     available from `lt_dlerror()'.

     For example, to correctly remove some associated data:

          void *stale = lt_dlcaller_set_data (key, handle, 0);
          if (stale != NULL)
            {
              free (stale);
            }
          else
            {
              char *error_msg = lt_dlerror ();

              if (error_msg != NULL)
                {
                  my_error_handler (error_msg);
                  return STATUS_FAILED;
                }
            }

 -- Function: void * lt_dlcaller_get_data (lt_dlinterface_id KEY,
          lt_dlhandle HANDLE)
     Return the address of the data associated with KEY and HANDLE, or
     else `NULL' if there is none.

   Old versions of libltdl also provided a simpler, but similar, API
based around `lt_dlcaller_id'.  Unfortunately, it had no provision for
detecting whether a module belonged to a particular interface as
libltdl didn't support multiple loaders in the same address space at
that time.  Those APIs are no longer supported as there would be no way
to stop clients of the old APIs from seeing (and accidentally altering)
modules loaded by other libraries.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Module loaders for libltdl,  Next: Distributing libltdl,  Prev: User defined module data,  Up: Using libltdl

11.5 How to create and register new module loaders
==================================================

Sometimes libltdl's many ways of gaining access to modules are not
sufficient for the purposes of a project.  You can write your own
loader, and register it with libltdl so that `lt_dlopen' will be able
to use it.

   Writing a loader involves writing at least three functions that can
be called by `lt_dlopen', `lt_dlsym' and `lt_dlclose'.  Optionally, you
can provide a finalisation function to perform any cleanup operations
when `lt_dlexit' executes, and a symbol prefix string that will be
prepended to any symbols passed to `lt_dlsym'.  These functions must
match the function pointer types below, after which they can be
allocated to an instance of `lt_user_dlloader' and registered.

   Registering the loader requires that you choose a name for it, so
that it can be recognised by `lt_dlloader_find' and removed with
`lt_dlloader_remove'.  The name you choose must be unique, and not
already in use by libltdl's builtin loaders:

"dlopen"
     The system dynamic library loader, if one exists.

"dld"
     The GNU dld loader, if `libdld' was installed when libltdl was
     built.

"dlpreload"
     The loader for `lt_dlopen'ing of preloaded static modules.

   The prefix "dl" is reserved for loaders supplied with future
versions of libltdl, so you should not use that for your own loader
names.

The following types are defined in `ltdl.h':

 -- Type: lt_module
     `lt_module' is a dlloader dependent module.  The dynamic module
     loader extensions communicate using these low level types.

 -- Type: lt_dlloader
     `lt_dlloader' is a handle for module loader types.

 -- Type: lt_user_data
     `lt_user_data' is used for specifying loader instance data.

 -- Type: struct lt_user_dlloader {const char *SYM_PREFIX;
          lt_module_open *MODULE_OPEN; lt_module_close *MODULE_CLOSE;
          lt_find_sym *FIND_SYM; lt_dlloader_exit *DLLOADER_EXIT; }
     If you want to define a new way to open dynamic modules, and have
     the `lt_dlopen' API use it, you need to instantiate one of these
     structures and pass it to `lt_dlloader_add'.  You can pass whatever
     you like in the DLLOADER_DATA field, and it will be passed back as
     the value of the first parameter to each of the functions
     specified in the function pointer fields.

 -- Type: lt_module lt_module_open (const char *FILENAME)
     The type of the loader function for an `lt_dlloader' module
     loader.  The value set in the dlloader_data field of the `struct
     lt_user_dlloader' structure will be passed into this function in
     the LOADER_DATA parameter.  Implementation of such a function
     should attempt to load the named module, and return an `lt_module'
     suitable for passing in to the associated `lt_module_close' and
     `lt_sym_find' function pointers.  If the function fails it should
     return `NULL', and set the error message with `lt_dlseterror'.

 -- Type: int lt_module_close (lt_user_data LOADER_DATA,
          lt_module MODULE)
     The type of the unloader function for a user defined module loader.
     Implementation of such a function should attempt to release any
     resources tied up by the MODULE module, and then unload it from
     memory.  If the function fails for some reason, set the error
     message with `lt_dlseterror' and return non-zero.

 -- Type: void * lt_find_sym (lt_module MODULE, const char *SYMBOL)
     The type of the symbol lookup function for a user defined module
     loader.  Implementation of such a function should return the
     address of the named SYMBOL in the module MODULE, or else set the
     error message with `lt_dlseterror' and return `NULL' if lookup
     fails.

 -- Type: int lt_dlloader_exit (lt_user_data LOADER_DATA)
     The type of the finalisation function for a user defined module
     loader.  Implementation of such a function should free any
     resources associated with the loader, including any user specified
     data in the `dlloader_data' field of the `lt_user_dlloader'.  If
     non-`NULL', the function will be called by `lt_dlexit', and
     `lt_dlloader_remove'.

   For example:

     int
     register_myloader (void)
     {
       lt_user_dlloader dlloader;

       /* User modules are responsible for their own initialisation. */
       if (myloader_init () != 0)
         return MYLOADER_INIT_ERROR;

       dlloader.sym_prefix    = NULL;
       dlloader.module_open   = myloader_open;
       dlloader.module_close  = myloader_close;
       dlloader.find_sym      = myloader_find_sym;
       dlloader.dlloader_exit = myloader_exit;
       dlloader.dlloader_data = (lt_user_data)myloader_function;

       /* Add my loader as the default module loader. */
       if (lt_dlloader_add (lt_dlloader_next (NULL), &dlloader, "myloader") != 0)
         return ERROR;

       return OK;
     }

   Note that if there is any initialisation required for the loader, it
must be performed manually before the loader is registered - libltdl
doesn't handle user loader initialisation.

   Finalisation _is_ handled by libltdl however, and it is important to
ensure the `dlloader_exit' callback releases any resources claimed
during the initialisation phase.

libltdl provides the following functions for writing your own module
loaders:

 -- Function: int lt_dlloader_add (lt_dlloader *PLACE,
          lt_user_dlloader *DLLOADER, const char *LOADER_NAME)
     Add a new module loader to the list of all loaders, either as the
     last loader (if PLACE is `NULL'), else immediately before the
     loader passed as PLACE.  LOADER_NAME will be returned by
     `lt_dlloader_name' if it is subsequently passed a newly registered
     loader.  These LOADER_NAMEs must be unique, or
     `lt_dlloader_remove' and `lt_dlloader_find' cannot work.  Returns
     0 for success.

          /* Make myloader be the last one. */
          if (lt_dlloader_add (NULL, myloader) != 0)
            perror (lt_dlerror ());

 -- Function: int lt_dlloader_remove (const char *LOADER_NAME)
     Remove the loader identified by the unique name, LOADER_NAME.
     Before this can succeed, all modules opened by the named loader
     must have been closed.  Returns 0 for success, otherwise an error
     message can be obtained from `lt_dlerror'.

          /* Remove myloader. */
          if (lt_dlloader_remove ("myloader") != 0)
            perror (lt_dlerror ());

 -- Function: lt_dlloader * lt_dlloader_next (lt_dlloader *PLACE)
     Iterate over the module loaders, returning the first loader if
     PLACE is `NULL', and the next one on subsequent calls.  The handle
     is for use with `lt_dlloader_add'.

          /* Make myloader be the first one. */
          if (lt_dlloader_add (lt_dlloader_next (NULL), myloader) != 0)
            return ERROR;

 -- Function: lt_dlloader * lt_dlloader_find (const char *LOADER_NAME)
     Return the first loader with a matching LOADER_NAME identifier, or
     else `NULL', if the identifier is not found.

     The identifiers that may be used by libltdl itself, if the host
     architecture supports them are "dlopen"(1), "dld" and "dlpreload".

          /* Add a user loader as the next module loader to be tried if
             the standard dlopen loader were to fail when lt_dlopening. */
          if (lt_dlloader_add (lt_dlloader_find ("dlopen"), myloader) != 0)
            return ERROR;

 -- Function: const char * lt_dlloader_name (lt_dlloader *PLACE)
     Return the identifying name of PLACE, as obtained from
     `lt_dlloader_next' or `lt_dlloader_find'.  If this function fails,
     it will return `NULL' and set an error for retrieval with
     `lt_dlerror'.

 -- Function: lt_user_data * lt_dlloader_data (lt_dlloader *PLACE)
     Return the address of the `dlloader_data' of PLACE, as obtained
     from `lt_dlloader_next' or `lt_dlloader_find'.  If this function
     fails, it will return `NULL' and set an error for retrieval with
     `lt_dlerror'.

11.5.1 Error handling within user module loaders
------------------------------------------------

 -- Function: int lt_dladderror (const char *DIAGNOSTIC)
     This function allows you to integrate your own error messages into
     `lt_dlerror'.  Pass in a suitable diagnostic message for return by
     `lt_dlerror', and an error identifier for use with `lt_dlseterror'
     is returned.

     If the allocation of an identifier fails, this function returns -1.

          int myerror = lt_dladderror ("Doh!");
          if (myerror < 0)
            perror (lt_dlerror ());

 -- Function: int lt_dlseterror (int ERRORCODE)
     When writing your own module loaders, you should use this function
     to raise errors so that they are propagated through the
     `lt_dlerror' interface.  All of the standard errors used by
     libltdl are declared in `ltdl.h', or you can add more of your own
     with `lt_dladderror'.  This function returns 0 on success.

          if (lt_dlseterror (LTDL_ERROR_NO_MEMORY) != 0)
            perror (lt_dlerror ());

---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This is used for the host dependent module loading API -
`shl_load' and `LoadLibrary' for example

File: libtool.info,  Node: Distributing libltdl,  Prev: Module loaders for libltdl,  Up: Using libltdl

11.6 How to distribute libltdl with your package
================================================

Even though libltdl is installed together with libtool, you may wish to
include libltdl in the distribution of your package, for the
convenience of users of your package that don't have libtool or libltdl
installed, or if you are using features of a very new version of
libltdl that you don't expect your users to have yet.  In such cases,
you must decide which flavor of libltdl you want to use: a convenience
library or an installable libtool library.

   The most simplistic way to add `libltdl' to your package is to copy
all the `libltdl' source files to a subdirectory within your package
and to build and link them along with the rest of your sources.  To
help you do this, the m4 macros for Autoconf are available in
`ltdl.m4'.  You must ensure that they are available in `aclocal.m4'
before you run Autoconf(1).  Having made the macros available, you must
add a call to the `LTDL_INIT' macro (after the call to `LT_INIT' to
your package's `configure.ac' to perform the configure time checks
required to build the library correctly.  Unfortunately, this method
has problems if you then try to link the package binaries with an
installed libltdl, or a library that depends on libltdl, because of the
duplicate symbol definitions.  For example, ultimately linking against
two different versions of libltdl, or against both a local convenience
library and an installed libltdl is bad.  Ensuring that only one copy
of the libltdl sources are linked into any program is left as an
exercise for the reader.

 -- Macro: LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR (DIRECTORY)
     Declare DIRECTORY to be the location of the `libltdl' source
     files, for `libtoolize --ltdl' to place them. *Note Invoking
     libtoolize::, for more details.  Provided that you add an
     appropriate `LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR' call in your `configure.ac'
     before calling `libtoolize', the appropriate `libltdl' files will
     be installed automatically.

 -- Macro: LTDL_INIT (OPTIONS)
 -- Macro: LT_WITH_LTDL
 -- Macro: AC_WITH_LTDL
     `AC_WITH_LTDL' and `LT_WITH_LTDL' are deprecated names for older
     versions of this macro; `autoupdate' will update your
     `configure.ac' file.

     This macro adds the following options to the `configure' script:

    `--with-ltdl-include INSTALLED-LTDL-HEADER-DIR'
          The `LTDL_INIT' macro will look in the standard header file
          locations to find the installed `libltdl' headers.  If
          `LTDL_INIT' can't find them by itself, the person who builds
          your package can use this option to tell `configure' where
          the installed `libltdl' headers are.

    `--with-ltdl-lib INSTALLED-LTDL-LIBRARY-DIR'
          Similarly, the person building your package can use this
          option to help `configure' find the installed `libltdl.la'.

    `--with-included-ltdl'
          If there is no installed `libltdl', or in any case if the
          person building your package would rather use the `libltdl'
          sources shipped with the package in the subdirectory named by
          `LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR', they should pass this option to
          `configure'.

     If the `--with-included-ltdl' is not passed at configure time, and
     an installed `libltdl' is not found(2), then `configure' will exit
     immediately with an error that asks the user to either specify the
     location of an installed `libltdl' using the `--with-ltdl-include'
     and `--with-ltdl-lib' options, or to build with the `libltdl'
     sources shipped with the package by passing `--with-included-ltdl'.

     If an installed `libltdl' is found, then `LIBLTDL' is set to the
     link flags needed to use it, and `LTDLINCL' to the preprocessor
     flags needed to find the installed headers, and `LTDLDEPS' will be
     empty.  Note, however, that no version checking is performed.  You
     should manually check for the `libltdl' features you need in
     `configure.ac':

          LT_INIT([dlopen])
          LTDL_INIT

          # The lt_dladvise_init symbol was added with libtool-2.2
          if test "x$with_included_ltdl" != "xyes"; then
            save_CFLAGS="$CFLAGS"
            save_LDFLAGS="$LDFLAGS"
            CFLAGS="$CFLAGS $LTDLINCL"
            LDFLAGS="$LDFLAGS $LIBLTDL"
            AC_CHECK_LIB([ltdl], [lt_dladvise_init],
                          [],
                  [AC_MSG_ERROR([installed libltdl is too old])])
            LDFLAGS="$save_LDFLAGS"
            CFLAGS="$save_CFLAGS"
          fi

     OPTIONS may include no more than one of the following build modes
     depending on how you want your project to build `libltdl':
     `nonrecursive', `recursive', or `subproject'.  In order for
     `libtoolize' to detect this option correctly, if you supply one of
     these arguments, they must be given literally (i.e., macros or
     shell variables that expand to the correct ltdl mode will not
     work).

    `nonrecursive'
          This is how the Libtool project distribution builds the
          `libltdl' we ship and install.  If you wish to use Automake
          to build `libltdl' without invoking a recursive make to
          descend into the `libltdl' subdirectory, then use this
          option.  You will need to set your configuration up carefully
          to make this work properly, and you will need releases of
          Autoconf and Automake that support `subdir-objects' and
          `LIBOBJDIR' properly.  In your `configure.ac', add:

               AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE([subdir-objects])
               AC_CONFIG_HEADERS([config.h])
               LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR([libltdl])
               LT_INIT([dlopen])
               LTDL_INIT([nonrecursive])

          You _have to_ use a config header, but it may have a name
          different than `config.h'.

          Also, add the following near the top of your `Makefile.am':

               AM_CPPFLAGS =
               AM_LDFLAGS =

               BUILT_SOURCES =
               EXTRA_DIST =
               CLEANFILES =
               MOSTLYCLEANFILES =

               include_HEADERS =
               noinst_LTLIBRARIES =
               lib_LTLIBRARIES =
               EXTRA_LTLIBRARIES =

               include libltdl/Makefile.inc

          Unless you build no other libraries from this `Makefile.am',
          you will also need to change `lib_LTLIBRARIES' to assign with
          `+=' so that the `libltdl' targets declared in `Makefile.inc'
          are not overwritten.

    `recursive'
          This build mode still requires that you use Automake, but (in
          contrast with `nonrecursive') uses the more usual device of
          starting another `make' process in the `libltdl'
          subdirectory.  To use this mode, you should add to your
          `configure.ac':

               AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE
               AC_CONFIG_HEADERS([config.h])
               LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR([libltdl])
               LT_INIT([dlopen])
               LTDL_INIT([recursive])
               AC_CONFIG_FILES([libltdl/Makefile])

          Again, you _have to_ use a config header, but it may have a
          name different than `config.h' if you like.

          Also, add this to your `Makefile.am':

               SUBDIRS = libltdl

    `subproject'
          This mode is the default unless you explicitly add
          `recursive' or `nonrecursive' to your `LTDL_INIT' options;
          `subproject' is the only mode supported by previous releases
          of libltdl.  Even if you do not use Autoconf in the parent
          project, then, in `subproject' mode, still `libltdl' contains
          all the necessary files to configure and build itself - you
          just need to arrange for your build system to call
          `libltdl/configure' with appropriate options, and then run
          `make' in the `libltdl' subdirectory.

          If you _are_ using Autoconf and Automake, then you will need
          to add the following to your `configure.ac':

               LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR([libltdl])
               LTDL_INIT

          and to `Makefile.am':

               SUBDIRS = libltdl

     Aside from setting the libltdl build mode, there are other keywords
     that you can pass to `LTDL_INIT' to modify its behavior when
     `--with-included-ltdl' has been given:

    `convenience'
          This is the default unless you explicitly add `installable' to
          your `LTDL_INIT' options.

          This keyword will cause options to be passed to the
          `configure' script in the subdirectory named by
          `LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR' in order to cause it to be built as a
          convenience library.  If you're not using automake, you will
          need to define `top_build_prefix', `top_builddir', and
          `top_srcdir' in your makefile so that `LIBLTDL', `LTDLDEPS',
          and `LTDLINCL' expand correctly.

          One advantage of the convenience library is that it is not
          installed, so the fact that you use `libltdl' will not be
          apparent to the user, and it won't overwrite a pre-installed
          version of `libltdl' the system might already have in the
          installation directory.  On the other hand, if you want to
          upgrade `libltdl' for any reason (e.g. a bugfix) you'll have
          to recompile your package instead of just replacing the
          shared installed version of `libltdl'.  However, if your
          programs or libraries are linked with other libraries that
          use such a pre-installed version of `libltdl', you may get
          linker errors or run-time crashes.  Another problem is that
          you cannot link the convenience library into more than one
          libtool library, then link a single program with those
          libraries, because you may get duplicate symbols.  In general
          you can safely use the convenience library in programs that
          don't depend on other libraries that might use `libltdl' too.

    `installable'
          This keyword will pass options to the `configure' script in
          the subdirectory named by `LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR' in order to
          cause it to be built as an installable library.  If you're not
          using automake, you will need to define `top_build_prefix',
          `top_builddir' and `top_srcdir' in your makefile so that
          `LIBLTDL', `LTDLDEPS', and `LTDLINCL' are expanded properly.

          Be aware that you could overwrite another `libltdl' already
          installed to the same directory if you use this option.

   Whatever method you use, `LTDL_INIT' will define the shell variable
LIBLTDL to the link flag that you should use to link with `libltdl',
the shell variable LTDLDEPS to the files that can be used as a
dependency in `Makefile' rules, and the shell variable LTDLINCL to the
preprocessor flag that you should use to compile programs that include
`ltdl.h'. So, when you want to link a program with libltdl, be it a
convenience, installed or installable library, just use `$(LTDLINCL)'
for preprocessing and compilation, and `$(LIBLTDL)' for linking.

   * If your package is built using an installed version of `libltdl',
     LIBLTDL will be set to the compiler flags needed to link against
     the installed library, LTDLDEPS will be empty, and LTDLINCL will
     be set to the compiler flags needed to find the `libltdl' header
     files.

   * If your package is built using the convenience libltdl, LIBLTDL
     and LTDLDEPS will be the pathname for the convenience version of
     libltdl (starting with `${top_builddir}/' or
     `${top_build_prefix}') and LTDLINCL will be `-I' followed by the
     directory that contains `ltdl.h' (starting with `${top_srcdir}/').

   * If an installable version of the included `libltdl' is being
     built, its pathname starting with `${top_builddir}/' or
     `${top_build_prefix}', will be stored in LIBLTDL and LTDLDEPS, and
     LTDLINCL will be set just like in the case of convenience library.

   You should probably also use the `dlopen' option to `LT_INIT' in
your `configure.ac', otherwise libtool will assume no dlopening
mechanism is supported, and revert to dlpreopening, which is probably
not what you want.  Avoid using the `-static', `-static-libtool-libs',
or `-all-static' switches when linking programs with libltdl.  This
will not work on all platforms, because the dlopening functions may not
be available for static linking.

   The following example shows you how to embed an installable libltdl
in your package.  In order to use the convenience variant, just replace
the `LTDL_INIT' option `installable' with `convenience'.  We assume
that libltdl was embedded using `libtoolize --ltdl'.

   configure.ac:
     ...
     # Name the subdirectory that contains libltdl sources
     LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR([libltdl])

     # Configure libtool with dlopen support if possible
     LT_INIT([dlopen])

     # Enable building of the installable libltdl library
     LTDL_INIT([installable])
     ...

   Makefile.am:
     ...
     SUBDIRS = libltdl

     AM_CPPFLAGS = $(LTDLINCL)

     myprog_LDFLAGS = -export-dynamic
     myprog_LDADD = $(LIBLTDL) -dlopen self -dlopen foo1.la
     myprog_DEPENDENCIES = $(LTDLDEPS) foo1.la
     ...

 -- Macro: LTDL_INSTALLABLE
 -- Macro: AC_LIBLTDL_INSTALLABLE
     These macros are deprecated, the `installable' option to
     `LTDL_INIT' should be used instead.

 -- Macro: LTDL_CONVENIENCE
 -- Macro: AC_LIBLTDL_CONVENIENCE
     These macros are deprecated, the `convenience' option to
     `LTDL_INIT' should be used instead.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) We used to recommend adding the contents of `ltdl.m4' to
`acinclude.m4', but with `aclocal' from a modern Automake (1.8 or
newer) and this release of libltdl that is not only unnecessary but
makes it easy to forget to upgrade `acinclude.m4' if you move to a
different release of libltdl.

   (2) Even if libltdl is installed, `LTDL_INIT' may fail to detect it
if libltdl depends on symbols provided by libraries other than the C
library.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Trace interface,  Next: Troubleshooting,  Prev: Using libltdl,  Up: Top

12 Libtool's trace interface
****************************

This section describes macros whose sole purpose is to be traced using
Autoconf's `--trace' option (*note The Autoconf Manual:
(autoconf)autoconf Invocation.) to query the Libtool configuration of a
project.  These macros are called by Libtool internals and should never
be called by user code; they should only be traced.

 -- Macro: LT_SUPPORTED_TAG (TAG)
     This macro is called once for each language enabled in the
     package.  Its only argument, TAG, is the tag-name corresponding to
     the language (*note Tags::).

     You can therefore retrieve the list of all tags enabled in a
     project using the following command:
          autoconf --trace 'LT_SUPPORTED_TAG:$1'

File: libtool.info,  Node: Troubleshooting,  Next: Maintaining,  Prev: Trace interface,  Up: Top

13 Troubleshooting
******************

Libtool is under constant development, changing to remain up-to-date
with modern operating systems.  If libtool doesn't work the way you
think it should on your platform, you should read this chapter to help
determine what the problem is, and how to resolve it.

* Menu:

* Libtool test suite::          Libtool's self-tests.
* Reporting bugs::              How to report problems with libtool.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Libtool test suite,  Next: Reporting bugs,  Up: Troubleshooting

13.1 The libtool test suite
===========================

Libtool comes with two integrated sets of tests to check that your build
is sane, that test its capabilities, and report obvious bugs in the
libtool program.  These tests, too, are constantly evolving, based on
past problems with libtool, and known deficiencies in other operating
systems.

   As described in the `README' file, you may run `make -k check' after
you have built libtool (possibly before you install it) in order to
make sure that it meets basic functional requirements.

* Menu:

* Test descriptions::           The contents of the old test suite.
* When tests fail::             What to do when a test fails.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Test descriptions,  Next: When tests fail,  Up: Libtool test suite

13.1.1 Description of test suite
--------------------------------

Here is a list of the current programs in the old test suite, and what
they test for:

`cdemo-conf.test'
`cdemo-exec.test'
`cdemo-make.test'
`cdemo-static.test'
`cdemo-shared.test'
`cdemo-undef.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/cdemo' subdirectory of
     the libtool distribution can be configured and built correctly.

     The `tests/cdemo' subdirectory contains a demonstration of libtool
     convenience libraries, a mechanism that allows build-time static
     libraries to be created, in a way that their components can be
     later linked into programs or other libraries, even shared ones.

     The tests `cdemo-make.test' and `cdemo-exec.test' are executed
     three times, under three different libtool configurations:
     `cdemo-conf.test' configures `cdemo/libtool' to build both static
     and shared libraries (the default for platforms that support
     both), `cdemo-static.test' builds only static libraries
     (`--disable-shared'), and `cdemo-shared.test' builds only shared
     libraries (`--disable-static').

     The test `cdemo-undef.test' tests the generation of shared
     libraries with undefined symbols on systems that allow this.

`demo-conf.test'
`demo-exec.test'
`demo-inst.test'
`demo-make.test'
`demo-unst.test'
`demo-static.test'
`demo-shared.test'
`demo-nofast.test'
`demo-pic.test'
`demo-nopic.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/demo' subdirectory of
     the libtool distribution can be configured, built, installed, and
     uninstalled correctly.

     The `tests/demo' subdirectory contains a demonstration of a trivial
     package that uses libtool.  The tests `demo-make.test',
     `demo-exec.test', `demo-inst.test' and `demo-unst.test' are
     executed four times, under four different libtool configurations:
     `demo-conf.test' configures `demo/libtool' to build both static
     and shared libraries, `demo-static.test' builds only static
     libraries (`--disable-shared'), and `demo-shared.test' builds only
     shared libraries (`--disable-static').  `demo-nofast.test'
     configures `demo/libtool' to disable the fast-install mode
     (`--enable-fast-install=no').  `demo-pic.test' configures
     `demo/libtool' to prefer building PIC code (`--with-pic'),
     `demo-nopic.test' to prefer non-PIC code (`--without-pic').

`demo-deplibs.test'
     Many systems cannot link static libraries into shared libraries.
     libtool uses a `deplibs_check_method' to prevent such cases.  This
     tests checks whether libtool's `deplibs_check_method' works
     properly.

`demo-hardcode.test'
     On all systems with shared libraries, the location of the library
     can be encoded in executables that are linked against it *note
     Linking executables::.  This test checks the conditions under
     which your system linker hardcodes the library location, and
     guarantees that they correspond to libtool's own notion of how
     your linker behaves.

`demo-relink.test'
`depdemo-relink.test'
     These tests check whether variable SHLIBPATH_OVERRIDES_RUNPATH is
     properly set.  If the test fails and VERBOSE is set, it will
     indicate what the variable should have been set to.

`demo-noinst-link.test'
     Checks whether libtool will not try to link with a previously
     installed version of a library when it should be linking with a
     just-built one.

`depdemo-conf.test'
`depdemo-exec.test'
`depdemo-inst.test'
`depdemo-make.test'
`depdemo-unst.test'
`depdemo-static.test'
`depdemo-shared.test'
`depdemo-nofast.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/depdemo' subdirectory
     of the libtool distribution can be configured, built, installed,
     and uninstalled correctly.

     The `tests/depdemo' subdirectory contains a demonstration of
     inter-library dependencies with libtool.  The test programs link
     some interdependent libraries.

     The tests `depdemo-make.test', `depdemo-exec.test',
     `depdemo-inst.test' and `depdemo-unst.test' are executed four
     times, under four different libtool configurations:
     `depdemo-conf.test' configures `depdemo/libtool' to build both
     static and shared libraries, `depdemo-static.test' builds only
     static libraries (`--disable-shared'), and `depdemo-shared.test'
     builds only shared libraries (`--disable-static').
     `depdemo-nofast.test' configures `depdemo/libtool' to disable the
     fast-install mode (`--enable-fast-install=no'.

`mdemo-conf.test'
`mdemo-exec.test'
`mdemo-inst.test'
`mdemo-make.test'
`mdemo-unst.test'
`mdemo-static.test'
`mdemo-shared.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/mdemo' subdirectory of
     the libtool distribution can be configured, built, installed, and
     uninstalled correctly.

     The `tests/mdemo' subdirectory contains a demonstration of a
     package that uses libtool and the system independent dlopen wrapper
     `libltdl' to load modules.  The library `libltdl' provides a
     dlopen wrapper for various platforms (Linux, Solaris, HP/UX etc.)
     including support for dlpreopened modules (*note Dlpreopening::).

     The tests `mdemo-make.test', `mdemo-exec.test', `mdemo-inst.test'
     and `mdemo-unst.test' are executed three times, under three
     different libtool configurations: `mdemo-conf.test' configures
     `mdemo/libtool' to build both static and shared libraries,
     `mdemo-static.test' builds only static libraries
     (`--disable-shared'), and `mdemo-shared.test' builds only shared
     libraries (`--disable-static').

`mdemo-dryrun.test'
     This test checks whether libtool's `--dry-run' mode works properly.

`mdemo2-conf.test'
`mdemo2-exec.test'
`mdemo2-make.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/mdemo2' subdirectory of
     the libtool distribution can be configured, built, and executed
     correctly.

     The `tests/mdemo2' directory contains a demonstration of a package
     that attempts to link with a library (from the `tests/mdemo'
     directory) that itself does dlopening of libtool modules.

`link.test'
     This test guarantees that linking directly against a non-libtool
     static library works properly.

`link-2.test'
     This test makes sure that files ending in `.lo' are never linked
     directly into a program file.

`nomode.test'
     Check whether we can actually get help for libtool.

`objectlist.test'
     Check that a nonexistent objectlist file is properly detected.

`pdemo-conf.test'
`pdemo-exec.test'
`pdemo-inst.test'
`pdemo-make.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/pdemo' subdirectory of
     the libtool distribution can be configured, built, and executed
     correctly.

     The `pdemo-conf.test' lowers the MAX_CMD_LEN variable in the
     generated libtool script to test the measures to evade command line
     length limitations.

`quote.test'
     This program checks libtool's metacharacter quoting.

`sh.test'
     Checks for some nonportable or dubious or undesired shell
     constructs in shell scripts.

`suffix.test'
     When other programming languages are used with libtool (*note
     Other languages::), the source files may end in suffixes other
     than `.c'.  This test validates that libtool can handle suffixes
     for all the file types that it supports, and that it fails when
     the suffix is invalid.

`tagdemo-conf.test'
`tagdemo-exec.test'
`tagdemo-make.test'
`tagdemo-static.test'
`tagdemo-shared.test'
`tagdemo-undef.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/tagdemo' subdirectory
     of the libtool distribution can be configured, built, and executed
     correctly.

     The `tests/tagdemo' directory contains a demonstration of a package
     that uses libtool's multi-language support through configuration
     tags.  It generates a library from C++ sources, which is then
     linked to a C++ program.

`f77demo-conf.test'
`f77demo-exec.test'
`f77demo-make.test'
`f77demo-static.test'
`f77demo-shared.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/f77demo' subdirectory
     of the libtool distribution can be configured, built, and executed
     correctly.

     The `tests/f77demo' tests test Fortran 77 support in libtool by
     creating libraries from Fortran 77 sources, and mixed Fortran and C
     sources, and a Fortran 77 program to use the former library, and a
     C program to use the latter library.

`fcdemo-conf.test'
`fcdemo-exec.test'
`fcdemo-make.test'
`fcdemo-static.test'
`fcdemo-shared.test'
     These programs check to see that the `tests/fcdemo' subdirectory
     of the libtool distribution can be configured, built, and executed
     correctly.

     The `tests/fcdemo' is similar to the `tests/f77demo' directory,
     except that Fortran 90 is used in combination with the `FC'
     interface provided by Autoconf and Automake.


File: libtool.info,  Node: When tests fail,  Prev: Test descriptions,  Up: Libtool test suite

13.1.2 When tests fail
----------------------

Each of the tests in the old test suite are designed to produce no
output when they are run via `make check'.  The exit status of each
program tells the `Makefile' whether or not the test succeeded.

   If a test fails, it means that there is either a programming error in
libtool, or in the test program itself.

   To investigate a particular test, you may run it directly, as you
would a normal program.  When the test is invoked in this way, it
produces output that may be useful in determining what the problem is.

   Another way to have the test programs produce output is to set the
VERBOSE environment variable to `yes' before running them.  For
example, `env VERBOSE=yes make check' runs all the tests, and has each
of them display debugging information.

   The new, Autotest-based test suite produces as output a file
`tests/testsuite.log' which contains information about failed tests.

   You can pass options to the test suite through the `make' variable
TESTSUITEFLAGS (*note The Autoconf Manual: (autoconf)testsuite
Invocation.).

File: libtool.info,  Node: Reporting bugs,  Prev: Libtool test suite,  Up: Troubleshooting

13.2 Reporting bugs
===================

If you think you have discovered a bug in libtool, you should think
twice: the libtool maintainer is notorious for passing the buck (or
maybe that should be "passing the bug").  Libtool was invented to fix
known deficiencies in shared library implementations, so, in a way, most
of the bugs in libtool are actually bugs in other operating systems.
However, the libtool maintainer would definitely be happy to add support
for somebody else's buggy operating system.  [I wish there was a good
way to do winking smiley-faces in Texinfo.]

   Genuine bugs in libtool include problems with shell script
portability, documentation errors, and failures in the test suite
(*note Libtool test suite::).

   First, check the documentation and help screens to make sure that the
behaviour you think is a problem is not already mentioned as a feature.

   Then, you should read the Emacs guide to reporting bugs (*note
Reporting Bugs: (emacs)Bugs.).  Some of the details listed there are
specific to Emacs, but the principle behind them is a general one.

   Finally, send a bug report to the Libtool bug reporting address
<bug-libtoolATgnu.org> with any appropriate _facts_, such as test suite
output (*note When tests fail::), all the details needed to reproduce
the bug, and a brief description of why you think the behaviour is a
bug.  Be sure to include the word "libtool" in the subject line, as
well as the version number you are using (which can be found by typing
`libtool --version').

File: libtool.info,  Node: Maintaining,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Troubleshooting,  Up: Top

14 Maintenance notes for libtool
********************************

This chapter contains information that the libtool maintainer finds
important.  It will be of no use to you unless you are considering
porting libtool to new systems, or writing your own libtool.

* Menu:

* New ports::                   How to port libtool to new systems.
* Tested platforms::            When libtool was last tested.
* Platform quirks::             Information about different library systems.
* libtool script contents::     Configuration information that libtool uses.
* Cheap tricks::                Making libtool maintainership easier.

File: libtool.info,  Node: New ports,  Next: Tested platforms,  Up: Maintaining

14.1 Porting libtool to new systems
===================================

Before you embark on porting libtool to an unsupported system, it is
worthwhile to send e-mail to the Libtool mailing list
<libtoolATgnu.org>, to make sure that you are not duplicating existing
work.

   If you find that any porting documentation is missing, please
complain!  Complaints with patches and improvements to the
documentation, or to libtool itself, are more than welcome.

* Menu:

* Information sources::         Where to find relevant documentation
* Porting inter-library dependencies::  Implementation details explained

File: libtool.info,  Node: Information sources,  Next: Porting inter-library dependencies,  Up: New ports

14.1.1 Information sources
--------------------------

Once it is clear that a new port is necessary, you'll generally need the
following information:

canonical system name
     You need the output of `config.guess' for this system, so that you
     can make changes to the libtool configuration process without
     affecting other systems.

man pages for `ld' and `cc'
     These generally describe what flags are used to generate PIC, to
     create shared libraries, and to link against only static
     libraries.  You may need to follow some cross references to find
     the information that is required.

man pages for `ld.so', `rtld', or equivalent
     These are a valuable resource for understanding how shared
     libraries are loaded on the system.

man page for `ldconfig', or equivalent
     This page usually describes how to install shared libraries.

output from `ls -l /lib /usr/lib'
     This shows the naming convention for shared libraries on the
     system, including which names should be symbolic links.

any additional documentation
     Some systems have special documentation on how to build and install
     shared libraries.

   If you know how to program the Bourne shell, then you can complete
the port yourself; otherwise, you'll have to find somebody with the
relevant skills who will do the work.  People on the libtool mailing
list are usually willing to volunteer to help you with new ports, so
you can send the information to them.

   To do the port yourself, you'll definitely need to modify the
`libtool.m4' macros in order to make platform-specific changes to the
configuration process.  You should search that file for the `PORTME'
keyword, which will give you some hints on what you'll need to change.
In general, all that is involved is modifying the appropriate
configuration variables (*note libtool script contents::).

   Your best bet is to find an already-supported system that is similar
to yours, and make your changes based on that.  In some cases, however,
your system will differ significantly from every other supported system,
and it may be necessary to add new configuration variables, and modify
the `ltmain.in' script accordingly.  Be sure to write to the mailing
list before you make changes to `ltmain.in', since they may have advice
on the most effective way of accomplishing what you want.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Porting inter-library dependencies,  Prev: Information sources,  Up: New ports

14.1.2 Porting inter-library dependencies support
-------------------------------------------------

Since version 1.2c, libtool has re-introduced the ability to do
inter-library dependency on some platforms, thanks to a patch by Toshio
Kuratomi <badgerATprtr-13.edu>.  Here's a shortened version of the
message that contained his patch:

   The basic architecture is this: in `libtool.m4', the person who
writes libtool makes sure `$deplibs' is included in `$archive_cmds'
somewhere and also sets the variable `$deplibs_check_method', and maybe
`$file_magic_cmd' when `deplibs_check_method' is file_magic.

   `deplibs_check_method' can be one of five things:
`file_magic [REGEX]'
     looks in the library link path for libraries that have the right
     libname.  Then it runs `$file_magic_cmd' on the library and checks
     for a match against the extended regular expression REGEX.  When
     FILE_MAGIC_TEST_FILE is set by `libtool.m4', it is used as an
     argument to `$file_magic_cmd' in order to verify whether the
     regular expression matches its output, and warn the user otherwise.

`test_compile'
     just checks whether it is possible to link a program out of a list
     of libraries, and checks which of those are listed in the output of
     `ldd'.  It is currently unused, and will probably be dropped in the
     future.

`pass_all'
     will pass everything without any checking.  This may work on
     platforms in which code is position-independent by default and
     inter-library dependencies are properly supported by the dynamic
     linker, for example, on DEC OSF/1 3 and 4.

`none'
     It causes deplibs to be reassigned `deplibs=""'.  That way
     `archive_cmds' can contain deplibs on all platforms, but not have
     deplibs used unless needed.

`unknown'
     is the default for all systems unless overridden in `libtool.m4'.
     It is the same as `none', but it documents that we really don't
     know what the correct value should be, and we welcome patches that
     improve it.

   Then in `ltmain.in' we have the real workhorse: a little
initialization and postprocessing (to setup/release variables for use
with eval echo libname_spec etc.) and a case statement that decides the
method that is being used.  This is the real code... I wish I could
condense it a little more, but I don't think I can without function
calls.  I've mostly optimized it (moved things out of loops, etc.) but
there is probably some fat left.  I thought I should stop while I was
ahead, work on whatever bugs you discover, etc. before thinking about
more than obvious optimizations.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Tested platforms,  Next: Platform quirks,  Prev: New ports,  Up: Maintaining

14.2 Tested platforms
=====================

This table describes when libtool was last known to be tested on
platforms where it claims to support shared libraries:

     -------------------------------------------------------
     canonical host name          compiler  libtool results
       (tools versions)                     release
     -------------------------------------------------------
     alpha-dec-osf5.1		cc	 1.3e	  ok (1.910)
     alpha-dec-osf4.0f               gcc      1.3e     ok (1.910)
     alpha-dec-osf4.0f               cc       1.3e     ok (1.910)
     alpha-dec-osf3.2                gcc      0.8      ok
     alpha-dec-osf3.2                cc       0.8      ok
     alpha-dec-osf2.1                gcc      1.2f     NS
     alpha*-unknown-linux-gnu        gcc      1.3b     ok
       (egcs-1.1.2, GNU ld 2.9.1.0.23)
     hppa2.0w-hp-hpux11.00           cc       1.2f     ok
     hppa2.0-hp-hpux10.20            cc       1.3.2    ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux10.20            gcc      1.2f     ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux10.20            cc       1.3c     ok (1.821)
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux10.10            gcc      1.2f     ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux10.10            cc       1.2f     ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux9.07             gcc      1.2f     ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux9.07             cc       1.2f     ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux9.05             gcc      1.2f     ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux9.05             cc       1.2f     ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux9.01             gcc      1.2f     ok
     hppa1.1-hp-hpux9.01             cc       1.2f     ok
     i*86-*-beos                     gcc      1.2f     ok
     i*86-*-bsdi4.0.1                gcc      1.3c     ok
       (gcc-2.7.2.1)
     i*86-*-bsdi4.0                  gcc      1.2f     ok
     i*86-*-bsdi3.1                  gcc      1.2e     NS
     i*86-*-bsdi3.0                  gcc      1.2e     NS
     i*86-*-bsdi2.1                  gcc      1.2e     NS
     i*86-pc-cygwin                  gcc      1.3b     NS
       (egcs-1.1 stock b20.1 compiler)
     i*86-*-dguxR4.20MU01            gcc      1.2      ok
     i*86-*-freebsd4.3		gcc      1.3e     ok (1.912)
     i*86-*-freebsdelf4.0            gcc      1.3c     ok
       (egcs-1.1.2)
     i*86-*-freebsdelf3.2            gcc      1.3c     ok
       (gcc-2.7.2.1)
     i*86-*-freebsdelf3.1            gcc      1.3c     ok
       (gcc-2.7.2.1)
     i*86-*-freebsdelf3.0            gcc      1.3c     ok
     i*86-*-freebsd3.0               gcc      1.2e     ok
     i*86-*-freebsd2.2.8             gcc      1.3c     ok
       (gcc-2.7.2.1)
     i*86-*-freebsd2.2.6             gcc      1.3b     ok
       (egcs-1.1 & gcc-2.7.2.1, native ld)
     i*86-*-freebsd2.1.5             gcc      0.5      ok
     i*86-*-netbsd1.5                gcc      1.3e     ok (1.901)
       (egcs-1.1.2)
     i*86-*-netbsd1.4                gcc      1.3c     ok
       (egcs-1.1.1)
     i*86-*-netbsd1.4.3A             gcc      1.3e     ok (1.901)
     i*86-*-netbsd1.3.3              gcc      1.3c     ok
       (gcc-2.7.2.2+myc2)
     i*86-*-netbsd1.3.2              gcc      1.2e     ok
     i*86-*-netbsd1.3I               gcc      1.2e     ok
       (egcs 1.1?)
     i*86-*-netbsd1.2                gcc      0.9g     ok
     i*86-*-linux-gnu		gcc	 1.3e	  ok (1.901)
       (Red Hat 7.0, gcc "2.96")
     i*86-*-linux-gnu		gcc	 1.3e	  ok (1.911)
       (SuSE 7.0, gcc 2.95.2)
     i*86-*-linux-gnulibc1           gcc      1.2f     ok
     i*86-*-openbsd2.5               gcc      1.3c     ok
       (gcc-2.8.1)
     i*86-*-openbsd2.4               gcc      1.3c     ok
       (gcc-2.8.1)
     i*86-*-solaris2.7               gcc      1.3b     ok
       (egcs-1.1.2, native ld)
     i*86-*-solaris2.6               gcc      1.2f     ok
     i*86-*-solaris2.5.1             gcc      1.2f     ok
     i*86-ncr-sysv4.3.03             gcc      1.2f     ok
     i*86-ncr-sysv4.3.03             cc       1.2e     ok
       (cc -Hnocopyr)
     i*86-pc-sco3.2v5.0.5		cc	 1.3c	  ok
     i*86-pc-sco3.2v5.0.5		gcc	 1.3c	  ok
       (gcc 95q4c)
     i*86-pc-sco3.2v5.0.5		gcc	 1.3c	  ok
       (egcs-1.1.2)
     i*86-sco-sysv5uw7.1.1		gcc	 1.3e	  ok (1.901)
       (gcc-2.95.2, SCO linker)
     i*86-UnixWare7.1.0-sysv5	cc	 1.3c	  ok
     i*86-UnixWare7.1.0-sysv5	gcc	 1.3c	  ok
       (egcs-1.1.1)
     m68k-next-nextstep3             gcc      1.2f     NS
     m68k-sun-sunos4.1.1             gcc      1.2f     NS
       (gcc-2.5.7)
     m88k-dg-dguxR4.12TMU01          gcc      1.2      ok
     m88k-motorola-sysv4             gcc      1.3      ok
       (egcs-1.1.2)
     mips-sgi-irix6.5                gcc      1.2f     ok
       (gcc-2.8.1)
     mips-sgi-irix6.4                gcc      1.2f     ok
     mips-sgi-irix6.3                gcc      1.3b     ok
       (egcs-1.1.2, native ld)
     mips-sgi-irix6.3                cc       1.3b     ok
       (cc 7.0)
     mips-sgi-irix6.2                gcc      1.2f     ok
     mips-sgi-irix6.2                cc       0.9      ok
     mips-sgi-irix5.3                gcc      1.2f     ok
       (egcs-1.1.1)
     mips-sgi-irix5.3                gcc      1.2f     NS
       (gcc-2.6.3)
     mips-sgi-irix5.3                cc       0.8      ok
     mips-sgi-irix5.2                gcc      1.3b     ok
       (egcs-1.1.2, native ld)
     mips-sgi-irix5.2                cc       1.3b     ok
       (cc 3.18)
     mips-sni-sysv4			cc       1.3.5    ok
       (Siemens C-compiler)
     mips-sni-sysv4			gcc      1.3.5    ok
       (gcc-2.7.2.3, GNU assembler 2.8.1, native ld)
     mipsel-unknown-openbsd2.1       gcc      1.0      ok
     powerpc-apple-darwin6.4         gcc      1.5      ok
     (apple dev tools released 12/2002)
     powerpc-ibm-aix4.3.1.0          gcc      1.2f     ok
       (egcs-1.1.1)
     powerpc-ibm-aix4.2.1.0          gcc      1.2f     ok
       (egcs-1.1.1)
     powerpc-ibm-aix4.1.5.0          gcc      1.2f     ok
       (egcs-1.1.1)
     powerpc-ibm-aix4.1.5.0          gcc      1.2f     NS
       (gcc-2.8.1)
     powerpc-ibm-aix4.1.4.0          gcc      1.0      ok
     powerpc-ibm-aix4.1.4.0          xlc      1.0i     ok
     rs6000-ibm-aix4.1.5.0           gcc      1.2f     ok
       (gcc-2.7.2)
     rs6000-ibm-aix4.1.4.0           gcc      1.2f     ok
       (gcc-2.7.2)
     rs6000-ibm-aix3.2.5             gcc      1.0i     ok
     rs6000-ibm-aix3.2.5             xlc      1.0i     ok
     sparc-sun-solaris2.8		gcc	 1.3e	  ok (1.913)
       (gcc-2.95.3 & native ld)
     sparc-sun-solaris2.7            gcc      1.3e     ok (1.913)
       (gcc-2.95.3 & native ld)
     sparc-sun-solaris2.6            gcc      1.3e     ok (1.913)
       (gcc-2.95.3 & native ld)
     sparc-sun-solaris2.5.1          gcc      1.3e     ok (1.911)
     sparc-sun-solaris2.5            gcc      1.3b     ok
       (egcs-1.1.2, GNU ld 2.9.1 & native ld)
     sparc-sun-solaris2.5            cc       1.3b     ok
       (SC 3.0.1)
     sparc-sun-solaris2.4            gcc      1.0a     ok
     sparc-sun-solaris2.4            cc       1.0a     ok
     sparc-sun-solaris2.3            gcc      1.2f     ok
     sparc-sun-sunos4.1.4            gcc      1.2f     ok
     sparc-sun-sunos4.1.4            cc       1.0f     ok
     sparc-sun-sunos4.1.3_U1         gcc      1.2f     ok
     sparc-sun-sunos4.1.3C           gcc      1.2f     ok
     sparc-sun-sunos4.1.3            gcc      1.3b     ok
       (egcs-1.1.2, GNU ld 2.9.1 & native ld)
     sparc-sun-sunos4.1.3            cc       1.3b     ok
     sparc-unknown-bsdi4.0           gcc      1.2c     ok
     sparc-unknown-linux-gnulibc1    gcc      1.2f     ok
     sparc-unknown-linux-gnu         gcc      1.3b     ok
       (egcs-1.1.2, GNU ld 2.9.1.0.23)
     sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu       gcc      1.2f     ok

     Notes:
     - "ok" means "all tests passed".
     - "NS" means "Not Shared", but OK for static libraries

   Note: The vendor-distributed HP-UX `sed'(1) programs are horribly
broken, and cannot handle libtool's requirements, so users may report
unusual problems.  There is no workaround except to install a working
`sed' (such as GNU `sed') on these systems.

   Note: The vendor-distributed NCR MP-RAS `cc' programs emits
copyright on standard error that confuse tests on size of
`conftest.err'.  The workaround is to specify `CC' when run `configure'
with `CC='cc -Hnocopyr''.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Platform quirks,  Next: libtool script contents,  Prev: Tested platforms,  Up: Maintaining

14.3 Platform quirks
====================

This section is dedicated to the sanity of the libtool maintainers.  It
describes the programs that libtool uses, how they vary from system to
system, and how to test for them.

   Because libtool is a shell script, it can be difficult to understand
just by reading it from top to bottom.  This section helps show why
libtool does things a certain way.  Combined with the scripts
themselves, you should have a better sense of how to improve libtool, or
write your own.

* Menu:

* References::                  Finding more information.
* Compilers::                   Creating object files from source files.
* Reloadable objects::          Binding object files together.
* Multiple dependencies::       Removing duplicate dependent libraries.
* Archivers::                   Programs that create static archives.

File: libtool.info,  Node: References,  Next: Compilers,  Up: Platform quirks

14.3.1 References
-----------------

The following is a list of valuable documentation references:

   * SGI's IRIX Manual Pages can be found at
     `http://techpubs.sgi.com/cgi-bin/infosrch.cgi?cmd=browse&db=man'.

   * Sun's free service area
     (`http://www.sun.com/service/online/free.html') and documentation
     server (`http://docs.sun.com/').

   * Compaq's Tru64 UNIX online documentation is at
     (`http://tru64unix.compaq.com/faqs/publications/pub_page/doc_list.html')
     with C++ documentation at
     (`http://tru64unix.compaq.com/cplus/docs/index.htm').

   * Hewlett-Packard has online documentation at
     (`http://docs.hp.com/index.html').

   * IBM has online documentation at
     (`http://www.rs6000.ibm.com/resource/aix_resource/Pubs/').

File: libtool.info,  Node: Compilers,  Next: Reloadable objects,  Prev: References,  Up: Platform quirks

14.3.2 Compilers
----------------

The only compiler characteristics that affect libtool are the flags
needed (if any) to generate PIC objects.  In general, if a C compiler
supports certain PIC flags, then any derivative compilers support the
same flags.  Until there are some noteworthy exceptions to this rule,
this section will document only C compilers.

   The following C compilers have standard command line options,
regardless of the platform:

`gcc'
     This is the GNU C compiler, which is also the system compiler for
     many free operating systems (FreeBSD, GNU/Hurd, GNU/Linux, Lites,
     NetBSD, and OpenBSD, to name a few).

     The `-fpic' or `-fPIC' flags can be used to generate
     position-independent code.  `-fPIC' is guaranteed to generate
     working code, but the code is slower on m68k, m88k, and Sparc
     chips.  However, using `-fpic' on those chips imposes arbitrary
     size limits on the shared libraries.

   The rest of this subsection lists compilers by the operating system
that they are bundled with:

`aix3*'
`aix4*'
     Most AIX compilers have no PIC flags, since AIX (with the
     exception of AIX for IA-64) runs on PowerPC and RS/6000 chips. (1)

`hpux10*'
     Use `+Z' to generate PIC.

`osf3*'
     Digital/UNIX 3.x does not have PIC flags, at least not on the
     PowerPC platform.

`solaris2*'
     Use `-KPIC' to generate PIC.

`sunos4*'
     Use `-PIC' to generate PIC.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) All code compiled for the PowerPC and RS/6000 chips
(`powerpc-*-*', `powerpcle-*-*', and `rs6000-*-*') is
position-independent, regardless of the operating system or compiler
suite.  So, "regular objects" can be used to build shared libraries on
these systems and no special PIC compiler flags are required.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Reloadable objects,  Next: Multiple dependencies,  Prev: Compilers,  Up: Platform quirks

14.3.3 Reloadable objects
-------------------------

On all known systems, a reloadable object can be created by running `ld
-r -o OUTPUT.o INPUT1.o INPUT2.o'.  This reloadable object may be
treated as exactly equivalent to other objects.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Multiple dependencies,  Next: Archivers,  Prev: Reloadable objects,  Up: Platform quirks

14.3.4 Multiple dependencies
----------------------------

On most modern platforms the order in which dependent libraries are
listed has no effect on object generation.  In theory, there are
platforms that require libraries that provide missing symbols to other
libraries to be listed after those libraries whose symbols they provide.

   Particularly, if a pair of static archives each resolve some of the
other's symbols, it might be necessary to list one of those archives
both before and after the other one.  Libtool does not currently cope
with this situation well, since duplicate libraries are removed from
the link line by default.  Libtool provides the command line option
`--preserve-dup-deps' to preserve all duplicate dependencies in cases
where it is necessary.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Archivers,  Prev: Multiple dependencies,  Up: Platform quirks

14.3.5 Archivers
----------------

On all known systems, building a static library can be accomplished by
running `ar cru libNAME.a OBJ1.o OBJ2.o ...', where the `.a' file is
the output library, and each `.o' file is an object file.

   On all known systems, if there is a program named `ranlib', then it
must be used to "bless" the created library before linking against it,
with the `ranlib libNAME.a' command.  Some systems, like Irix, use the
`ar ts' command, instead.

File: libtool.info,  Node: libtool script contents,  Next: Cheap tricks,  Prev: Platform quirks,  Up: Maintaining

14.4 `libtool' script contents
==============================

Since version 1.4, the `libtool' script is generated by `configure'
(*note Configuring::).  In earlier versions, `configure' achieved this
by calling a helper script called `ltconfig'.  From libtool version 0.7
to 1.0, this script simply set shell variables, then sourced the
libtool backend, `ltmain.sh'.  `ltconfig' from libtool version 1.1
through 1.3 inlined the contents of `ltmain.sh' into the generated
`libtool', which improved performance on many systems.  The tests that
`ltconfig' used to perform are now kept in `libtool.m4' where they can
be written using Autoconf.  This has the runtime performance benefits
of inlined `ltmain.sh', _and_ improves the build time a little while
considerably easing the amount of raw shell code that used to need
maintaining.

   The convention used for naming variables that hold shell commands for
delayed evaluation, is to use the suffix `_cmd' where a single line of
valid shell script is needed, and the suffix `_cmds' where multiple
lines of shell script *may* be delayed for later evaluation.  By
convention, `_cmds' variables delimit the evaluation units with the `~'
character where necessary.

   Here is a listing of each of the configuration variables, and how
they are used within `ltmain.sh' (*note Configuring::):

 -- Variable: AR
     The name of the system library archiver.

 -- Variable: CC
     The name of the compiler used to configure libtool.  This will
     always contain the compiler for the current language (*note
     Tags::).

 -- Variable: ECHO
     An `echo' program that does not interpret backslashes as an escape
     character.  It may be given only one argument, so due quoting is
     necessary.

 -- Variable: LD
     The name of the linker that libtool should use internally for
     reloadable linking and possibly shared libraries.

 -- Variable: LTCC
 -- Variable: LTCFLAGS
     The name of the C compiler and C compiler flags used to configure
     libtool.

 -- Variable: NM
     The name of a BSD- or MS-compatible program that produces listings
     of global symbols.  For BSD `nm', the symbols should be in one the
     following formats:

          ADDRESS C GLOBAL-VARIABLE-NAME
          ADDRESS D GLOBAL-VARIABLE-NAME
          ADDRESS T GLOBAL-FUNCTION-NAME

     For MS `dumpbin', the symbols should be in one of the following
     formats:

          COUNTER SIZE    UNDEF    notype       External     | GLOBAL-VAR
          COUNTER ADDRESS SECTION  notype       External     | GLOBAL-VAR
          COUNTER ADDRESS SECTION  notype ()    External     | GLOBAL-FUNC

     The SIZE of the global variables are not zero and the SECTION of
     the global functions are not "UNDEF". Symbols in "pick any"
     sections ("pick any" appears in the section header) are not global
     either.

 -- Variable: RANLIB
     Set to the name of the `ranlib' program, if any.

 -- Variable: allow_undefined_flag
     The flag that is used by `archive_cmds' in order to declare that
     there will be unresolved symbols in the resulting shared library.
     Empty, if no such flag is required.  Set to `unsupported' if there
     is no way to generate a shared library with references to symbols
     that aren't defined in that library.

 -- Variable: always_export_symbols
     Whether libtool should automatically generate a list of exported
     symbols using EXPORT_SYMBOLS_CMDS before linking an archive.  Set
     to `yes' or `no'.  Default is `no'.

 -- Variable: archive_cmds
 -- Variable: archive_expsym_cmds
 -- Variable: old_archive_cmds
     Commands used to create shared libraries, shared libraries with
     `-export-symbols' and static libraries, respectively.

 -- Variable: old_archive_from_new_cmds
     If the shared library depends on a static library,
     `old_archive_from_new_cmds' contains the commands used to create
     that static library.  If this variable is not empty,
     `old_archive_cmds' is not used.

 -- Variable: old_archive_from_expsyms_cmds
     If a static library must be created from the export symbol list in
     order to correctly link with a shared library,
     `old_archive_from_expsyms_cmds' contains the commands needed to
     create that static library.  When these commands are executed, the
     variable SONAME contains the name of the shared library in
     question, and the $OBJDIR/$NEWLIB contains the path of the static
     library these commands should build.  After executing these
     commands, libtool will proceed to link against $OBJDIR/$NEWLIB
     instead of SONAME.

 -- Variable: build
 -- Variable: build_alias
 -- Variable: build_os
     Set to the specified and canonical names of the system that
     libtool was built on.

 -- Variable: build_libtool_libs
     Whether libtool should build shared libraries on this system.  Set
     to `yes' or `no'.

 -- Variable: build_old_libs
     Whether libtool should build static libraries on this system.  Set
     to `yes' or `no'.

 -- Variable: compiler_c_o
     Whether the compiler supports the `-c' and `-o' options
     simultaneously.  Set to `yes' or `no'.

 -- Variable: compiler_needs_object
     Whether the compiler has to see an object listed on the command
     line in order to successfully invoke the linker.  If `no', then a
     set of convenience archives or a set of object file names can be
     passed via linker-specific options or linker scripts.

 -- Variable: dlopen_support
     Whether `dlopen' is supported on the platform.  Set to `yes' or
     `no'.

 -- Variable: dlopen_self
     Whether it is possible to `dlopen' the executable itself.  Set to
     `yes' or `no'.

 -- Variable: dlopen_self_static
     Whether it is possible to `dlopen' the executable itself, when it
     is linked statically (`-all-static').  Set to `yes' or `no'.

 -- Variable: exclude_expsyms
     List of symbols that should not be listed in the preloaded symbols.

 -- Variable: export_dynamic_flag_spec
     Compiler link flag that allows a dlopened shared library to
     reference symbols that are defined in the program.

 -- Variable: export_symbols_cmds
     Commands to extract exported symbols from LIBOBJS to the file
     EXPORT_SYMBOLS.

 -- Variable: extract_expsyms_cmds
     Commands to extract the exported symbols list from a shared
     library.  These commands are executed if there is no file
     $OBJDIR/$SONAME-DEF, and should write the names of the exported
     symbols to that file, for the use of
     `old_archive_from_expsyms_cmds'.

 -- Variable: fast_install
     Determines whether libtool will privilege the installer or the
     developer.  The assumption is that installers will seldom run
     programs in the build tree, and the developer will seldom install.
     This is only meaningful on platforms where
     SHLIBPATH_OVERRIDES_RUNPATH is not `yes', so FAST_INSTALL will be
     set to `needless' in this case.  If FAST_INSTALL set to `yes',
     libtool will create programs that search for installed libraries,
     and, if a program is run in the build tree, a new copy will be
     linked on-demand to use the yet-to-be-installed libraries.  If set
     to `no', libtool will create programs that use the
     yet-to-be-installed libraries, and will link a new copy of the
     program at install time.  The default value is `yes' or
     `needless', depending on platform and configuration flags, and it
     can be turned from `yes' to `no' with the configure flag
     `--disable-fast-install'.

     On some systems, the linker always hardcodes paths to dependent
     libraries into the output.  In this case, FAST_INSTALL is never
     set to `yes', and relinking at install time is triggered.  This
     also means that DESTDIR installation does not work as expected.

 -- Variable: finish_cmds
     Commands to tell the dynamic linker how to find shared libraries
     in a specific directory.

 -- Variable: finish_eval
     Same as FINISH_CMDS, except the commands are not displayed.

 -- Variable: fix_srcfile_path
     Expression to fix the shell variable `$srcfile' for the compiler.

 -- Variable: global_symbol_pipe
     A pipeline that takes the output of NM, and produces a listing of
     raw symbols followed by their C names.  For example:

          $ eval "$NM progname | $global_symbol_pipe"
          D SYMBOL1 C-SYMBOL1
          T SYMBOL2 C-SYMBOL2
          C SYMBOL3 C-SYMBOL3
          ...
          $

     The first column contains the symbol type (used to tell data from
     code) but its meaning is system dependent.

 -- Variable: global_symbol_to_cdecl
     A pipeline that translates the output of GLOBAL_SYMBOL_PIPE into
     proper C declarations.  Since some platforms, such as HP/UX, have
     linkers that differentiate code from data, data symbols are
     declared as data, and code symbols are declared as functions.

 -- Variable: hardcode_action
     Either `immediate' or `relink', depending on whether shared
     library paths can be hardcoded into executables before they are
     installed, or if they need to be relinked.

 -- Variable: hardcode_direct
     Set to `yes' or `no', depending on whether the linker hardcodes
     directories if a library is directly specified on the command line
     (such as `DIR/libNAME.a') when HARDCODE_LIBDIR_FLAG_SPEC is
     specified.

 -- Variable: hardcode_direct_absolute
     Some architectures hardcode "absolute" library directories that
     can not be overridden by SHLIBPATH_VAR when HARDCODE_DIRECT is
     `yes'.  In that case set HARDCODE_DIRECT_ABSOLUTE to `yes', or
     otherwise `no'.

 -- Variable: hardcode_into_libs
     Whether the platform supports hardcoding of run-paths into
     libraries.  If enabled, linking of programs will be much simpler
     but libraries will need to be relinked during installation.  Set
     to `yes' or `no'.

 -- Variable: hardcode_libdir_flag_spec
     Flag to hardcode a LIBDIR variable into a binary, so that the
     dynamic linker searches LIBDIR for shared libraries at runtime.
     If it is empty, libtool will try to use some other hardcoding
     mechanism.

 -- Variable: hardcode_libdir_separator
     If the compiler only accepts a single HARDCODE_LIBDIR_FLAG, then
     this variable contains the string that should separate multiple
     arguments to that flag.

 -- Variable: hardcode_minus_L
     Set to `yes' or `no', depending on whether the linker hardcodes
     directories specified by `-L' flags into the resulting executable
     when HARDCODE_LIBDIR_FLAG_SPEC is specified.

 -- Variable: hardcode_shlibpath_var
     Set to `yes' or `no', depending on whether the linker hardcodes
     directories by writing the contents of `$shlibpath_var' into the
     resulting executable when HARDCODE_LIBDIR_FLAG_SPEC is specified.
     Set to `unsupported' if directories specified by `$shlibpath_var'
     are searched at run time, but not at link time.

 -- Variable: host
 -- Variable: host_alias
 -- Variable: host_os
     Set to the specified and canonical names of the system that
     libtool was configured for.

 -- Variable: include_expsyms
     List of symbols that must always be exported when using
     EXPORT_SYMBOLS.

 -- Variable: inherit_rpath
     Whether the linker adds runtime paths of dependency libraries to
     the runtime path list, requiring libtool to relink the output when
     installing.  Set to `yes' or `no'.  Default is `no'.

 -- Variable: libext
     The standard old archive suffix (normally `a').

 -- Variable: libname_spec
     The format of a library name prefix.  On all Unix systems, static
     libraries are called `libNAME.a', but on some systems (such as
     OS/2 or MS-DOS), the library is just called `NAME.a'.

 -- Variable: library_names_spec
     A list of shared library names.  The first is the name of the file,
     the rest are symbolic links to the file.  The name in the list is
     the file name that the linker finds when given `-lNAME'.

 -- Variable: link_all_deplibs
     Whether libtool must link a program against all its dependency
     libraries.  Set to `yes' or `no'.  Default is `unknown', which is
     a synonym for `yes'.

 -- Variable: link_static_flag
     Linker flag (passed through the C compiler) used to prevent dynamic
     linking.

 -- Variable: macro_version
 -- Variable: macro_revision
     The release and CVS revision from which the libtool.m4 macros were
     taken.  This is used to ensure that macros and `ltmain.sh'
     correspond to the same Libtool version.

 -- Variable: max_cmd_len
     The approximate longest command line that can be passed to `$SHELL'
     without being truncated, as computed by `LT_CMD_MAX_LEN'.

 -- Variable: need_lib_prefix
     Whether we can `dlopen' modules without a `lib' prefix.  Set to
     `yes' or `no'.  By default, it is `unknown', which means the same
     as `yes', but documents that we are not really sure about it.
     `no' means that it is possible to `dlopen' a module without the
     `lib' prefix.

 -- Variable: need_version
     Whether versioning is required for libraries, i.e. whether the
     dynamic linker requires a version suffix for all libraries.  Set
     to `yes' or `no'.  By default, it is `unknown', which means the
     same as `yes', but documents that we are not really sure about it.

 -- Variable: need_locks
     Whether files must be locked to prevent conflicts when compiling
     simultaneously.  Set to `yes' or `no'.

 -- Variable: no_builtin_flag
     Compiler flag to disable builtin functions that conflict with
     declaring external global symbols as `char'.

 -- Variable: no_undefined_flag
     The flag that is used by `archive_cmds' in order to declare that
     there will be no unresolved symbols in the resulting shared
     library.  Empty, if no such flag is required.

 -- Variable: objdir
     The name of the directory that contains temporary libtool files.

 -- Variable: objext
     The standard object file suffix (normally `o').

 -- Variable: pic_flag
     Any additional compiler flags for building library object files.

 -- Variable: postinstall_cmds
 -- Variable: old_postinstall_cmds
     Commands run after installing a shared or static library,
     respectively.

 -- Variable: postuninstall_cmds
 -- Variable: old_postuninstall_cmds
     Commands run after uninstalling a shared or static library,
     respectively.

 -- Variable: reload_cmds
 -- Variable: reload_flag
     Commands to create a reloadable object.

 -- Variable: runpath_var
     The environment variable that tells the linker which directories to
     hardcode in the resulting executable.

 -- Variable: shlibpath_overrides_runpath
     Indicates whether it is possible to override the hard-coded library
     search path of a program with an environment variable.  If this is
     set to no, libtool may have to create two copies of a program in
     the build tree, one to be installed and one to be run in the build
     tree only.  When each of these copies is created depends on the
     value of `fast_install'.  The default value is `unknown', which is
     equivalent to `no'.

 -- Variable: shlibpath_var
     The environment variable that tells the dynamic linker where to
     find shared libraries.

 -- Variable: soname_spec
     The name coded into shared libraries, if different from the real
     name of the file.

 -- Variable: striplib
 -- Variable: old_striplib
     Command to strip a shared (`striplib') or static (`old_striplib')
     library, respectively.  If these variables are empty, the strip
     flag in the install mode will be ignored for libraries (*note
     Install mode::).

 -- Variable: sys_lib_dlsearch_path_spec
     Expression to get the run-time system library search path.
     Directories that appear in this list are never hard-coded into
     executables.

 -- Variable: sys_lib_search_path_spec
     Expression to get the compile-time system library search path.
     This variable is used by libtool when it has to test whether a
     certain library is shared or static.  The directories listed in
     SHLIBPATH_VAR are automatically appended to this list, every time
     libtool runs (i.e., not at configuration time), because some
     linkers use this variable to extend the library search path.
     Linker switches such as `-L' also augment the search path.

 -- Variable: thread_safe_flag_spec
     Linker flag (passed through the C compiler) used to generate
     thread-safe libraries.

 -- Variable: version_type
     The library version numbering type.  One of `libtool',
     `freebsd-aout', `freebsd-elf', `irix', `linux', `osf', `sunos',
     `windows', or `none'.

 -- Variable: whole_archive_flag_spec
     Compiler flag to generate shared objects from convenience archives.

 -- Variable: wl
     The C compiler flag that allows libtool to pass a flag directly to
     the linker.  Used as: `${wl}SOME-FLAG'.

   Variables ending in `_cmds' or `_eval' contain a `~'-separated list
of commands that are `eval'ed one after another.  If any of the
commands return a nonzero exit status, libtool generally exits with an
error message.

   Variables ending in `_spec' are `eval'ed before being used by
libtool.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Cheap tricks,  Prev: libtool script contents,  Up: Maintaining

14.5 Cheap tricks
=================

Here are a few tricks that you can use in order to make maintainership
easier:

   * When people report bugs, ask them to use the `--config',
     `--debug', or `--features' flags, if you think they will help you.
     These flags are there to help you get information directly, rather
     than having to trust second-hand observation.

   * Rather than reconfiguring libtool every time I make a change to
     `ltmain.in', I keep a permanent `libtool' script in my PATH, which
     sources `ltmain.in' directly.

     The following steps describe how to create such a script, where
     `/home/src/libtool' is the directory containing the libtool source
     tree, `/home/src/libtool/libtool' is a libtool script that has been
     configured for your platform, and `~/bin' is a directory in your
     PATH:

          trick$ cd ~/bin
          trick$ sed 's%^\(macro_version=\).*$%\1@VERSION@%;
                      s%^\(macro_revision=\).*$%\1@package_revision@%;
                      /^# ltmain\.sh/q' /home/src/libtool/libtool > libtool
          trick$ echo '. /home/src/libtool/ltmain.in' >> libtool
          trick$ chmod +x libtool
          trick$ libtool --version
          ltmain.sh (GNU @PACKAGE@@TIMESTAMP@) @VERSION@

          Copyright (C) 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
          This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
          warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
          trick$

   The output of the final `libtool --version' command shows that the
`ltmain.in' script is being used directly.  Now, modify `~/bin/libtool'
or `/home/src/libtool/ltmain.in' directly in order to test new changes
without having to rerun `configure'.

File: libtool.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Index,  Prev: Maintaining,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                      Version 1.2, November 2002

     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: libtool.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Index
*****

[index]
* Menu:

* -no-suppress, libtool compile mode option: Creating object files.
                                                              (line  92)
* -weak option:                          Linking with dlopened modules.
                                                              (line  94)
* .la files:                             Linking libraries.   (line  24)
* .libs subdirectory:                    Linking libraries.   (line  77)
* .lo files:                             Creating object files.
                                                              (line  28)
* AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR:                     Invoking libtoolize. (line 157)
* AC_CONFIG_MACRO_DIR:                   Invoking libtoolize. (line 136)
* AC_DISABLE_FAST_INSTALL:               LT_INIT.             (line 174)
* AC_DISABLE_SHARED:                     LT_INIT.             (line 178)
* AC_DISABLE_STATIC:                     LT_INIT.             (line 195)
* AC_ENABLE_SHARED:                      LT_INIT.             (line 186)
* AC_ENABLE_STATIC:                      LT_INIT.             (line 203)
* AC_LIBLTDL_CONVENIENCE:                Distributing libltdl.
                                                              (line 300)
* AC_LIBLTDL_INSTALLABLE:                Distributing libltdl.
                                                              (line 295)
* AC_LIBTOOL_DLOPEN:                     LT_INIT.             (line 166)
* AC_LIBTOOL_WIN32_DLL:                  LT_INIT.             (line 170)
* AC_PROG_LIBTOOL:                       LT_INIT.             (line  22)
* AC_WITH_LTDL:                          Distributing libltdl.
                                                              (line  42)
* aclocal:                               LT_INIT.             (line 307)
* allow_undefined_flag:                  libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  76)
* always_export_symbols:                 libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  83)
* AM_DISABLE_SHARED:                     LT_INIT.             (line 179)
* AM_DISABLE_STATIC:                     LT_INIT.             (line 196)
* AM_ENABLE_SHARED:                      LT_INIT.             (line 187)
* AM_ENABLE_STATIC:                      LT_INIT.             (line 204)
* AM_PROG_LIBTOOL:                       LT_INIT.             (line  23)
* application-level dynamic linking <1>: Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* application-level dynamic linking:     Dlopened modules.    (line   6)
* AR:                                    libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  30)
* ar:                                    Linking libraries.   (line   6)
* archive_cmds:                          libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  88)
* archive_expsym_cmds:                   libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  89)
* AS:                                    LT_INIT.             (line 267)
* autoconf traces:                       Trace interface.     (line   6)
* avoiding shared libraries:             Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* bug reports:                           Reporting bugs.      (line   6)
* buggy system linkers:                  Linking executables. (line  11)
* bugs, subtle ones caused by buggy linkers: Linking executables.
                                                              (line  16)
* build:                                 libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 111)
* build_alias:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 112)
* build_libtool_libs:                    libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 117)
* build_old_libs:                        libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 121)
* build_os:                              libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 113)
* C header files, portable:              C header files.      (line   6)
* C++, pitfalls:                         C++ libraries.       (line   6)
* C++, using:                            Other languages.     (line   6)
* C, not using:                          Other languages.     (line   6)
* CC <1>:                                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  33)
* CC:                                    LT_INIT.             (line 217)
* cdemo-conf.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line  15)
* cdemo-exec.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line  15)
* cdemo-make.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line  15)
* cdemo-shared.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line  15)
* cdemo-static.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line  15)
* cdemo-undef.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line  15)
* CFLAGS:                                LT_INIT.             (line 221)
* clean mode:                            Clean mode.          (line   6)
* command options, libtool:              Invoking libtool.    (line   6)
* command options, libtoolize:           Invoking libtoolize. (line   6)
* compile mode:                          Compile mode.        (line   6)
* compiler_c_o:                          libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 125)
* compiler_needs_object:                 libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 129)
* compiling object files:                Creating object files.
                                                              (line   6)
* complexity of library systems:         Postmortem.          (line  11)
* config.guess:                          Distributing.        (line  10)
* config.sub:                            Distributing.        (line  13)
* configuring libtool:                   Configuring.         (line   6)
* convenience libraries:                 Static libraries.    (line   6)
* CPPFLAGS:                              LT_INIT.             (line 226)
* debugging libraries:                   Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* definition of libraries:               Libtool paradigm.    (line  11)
* demo-conf.test:                        Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-deplibs.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line  62)
* demo-exec.test:                        Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-hardcode.test:                    Test descriptions.   (line  68)
* demo-inst.test:                        Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-make.test:                        Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-nofast.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-noinst-link.test:                 Test descriptions.   (line  82)
* demo-nopic.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-pic.test:                         Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-relink.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line  77)
* demo-shared.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-static.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* demo-unst.test:                        Test descriptions.   (line  44)
* depdemo-conf.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line  94)
* depdemo-exec.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line  94)
* depdemo-inst.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line  94)
* depdemo-make.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line  94)
* depdemo-nofast.test:                   Test descriptions.   (line  94)
* depdemo-relink.test:                   Test descriptions.   (line  77)
* depdemo-shared.test:                   Test descriptions.   (line  94)
* depdemo-static.test:                   Test descriptions.   (line  94)
* depdemo-unst.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line  94)
* dependencies between libraries:        Inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line   6)
* dependency versioning:                 Versioning.          (line   6)
* deplibs_check_method:                  Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line   6)
* design issues:                         Issues.              (line   6)
* design of library interfaces:          Library tips.        (line   6)
* design philosophy:                     Motivation.          (line   6)
* developing libraries:                  Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* dlclose <1>:                           Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* dlclose:                               Dlopened modules.    (line   6)
* dlerror:                               Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* DLLTOOL:                               LT_INIT.             (line 259)
* dlopen <1>:                            Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* dlopen:                                Dlopened modules.    (line   6)
* dlopen_self:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 139)
* dlopen_self_static:                    libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 143)
* dlopen_support:                        libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 135)
* dlopening modules <1>:                 Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* dlopening modules:                     Dlopened modules.    (line   6)
* dlopening, pitfalls:                   Dlopen issues.       (line   6)
* dlsym <1>:                             Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* dlsym:                                 Dlopened modules.    (line   6)
* double-compilation, avoiding:          Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* dynamic dependencies:                  Versioning.          (line   6)
* dynamic linking, applications <1>:     Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* dynamic linking, applications:         Dlopened modules.    (line   6)
* dynamic modules, names:                Finding the dlname.  (line   6)
* ECHO:                                  libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  38)
* eliding shared libraries:              Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* examples of using libtool:             Using libtool.       (line   6)
* exclude_expsyms:                       libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 147)
* execute mode:                          Execute mode.        (line   6)
* export_dynamic_flag_spec:              libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 150)
* export_symbols_cmds:                   libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 154)
* extract_expsyms_cmds:                  libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 158)
* f77demo-conf.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 211)
* f77demo-exec.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 211)
* f77demo-make.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 211)
* f77demo-shared.test:                   Test descriptions.   (line 211)
* f77demo-static.test:                   Test descriptions.   (line 211)
* failed tests:                          When tests fail.     (line   6)
* fast_install:                          libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 165)
* fcdemo-conf.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line 225)
* fcdemo-exec.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line 225)
* fcdemo-make.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line 225)
* fcdemo-shared.test:                    Test descriptions.   (line 225)
* fcdemo-static.test:                    Test descriptions.   (line 225)
* FDL, GNU Free Documentation License:   GNU Free Documentation License.
                                                              (line   6)
* file_magic:                            Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line  18)
* file_magic_cmd:                        Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line  18)
* file_magic_test_file:                  Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line  18)
* finish mode:                           Finish mode.         (line   6)
* finish_cmds:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 187)
* finish_eval:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 191)
* fix_srcfile_path:                      libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 194)
* formal versioning:                     Libtool versioning.  (line   6)
* global functions:                      Library tips.        (line  45)
* global_symbol_pipe:                    libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 197)
* global_symbol_to_cdecl:                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 211)
* hardcode_action:                       libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 217)
* hardcode_direct:                       libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 222)
* hardcode_direct_absolute:              libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 228)
* hardcode_into_libs:                    libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 234)
* hardcode_libdir_flag_spec:             libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 240)
* hardcode_libdir_separator:             libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 246)
* hardcode_minus_L:                      libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 251)
* hardcode_shlibpath_var:                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 256)
* header files:                          Library tips.        (line  39)
* host:                                  libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 263)
* host_alias:                            libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 264)
* host_os:                               libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 265)
* implementation of libtool:             libtool script contents.
                                                              (line   6)
* include files, portable:               C header files.      (line   6)
* include_expsyms:                       libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 269)
* inferring tags:                        Tags.                (line   6)
* inherit_rpath:                         libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 273)
* install:                               Installing libraries.
                                                              (line  19)
* install mode:                          Install mode.        (line   6)
* install-sh:                            Distributing.        (line  16)
* installation, finishing:               Installing libraries.
                                                              (line  54)
* int:                                   User defined module data.
                                                              (line  40)
* inter-library dependencies:            Inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line   6)
* inter-library dependency:              Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line   6)
* language names:                        Tags.                (line   6)
* languages, non-C:                      Other languages.     (line   6)
* LD <1>:                                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  43)
* LD:                                    LT_INIT.             (line 231)
* LDFLAGS:                               LT_INIT.             (line 236)
* libext:                                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 278)
* libltdl:                               Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* libname_spec:                          libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 281)
* libraries, definition of:              Libtool paradigm.    (line  11)
* libraries, finishing installation:     Installing libraries.
                                                              (line  54)
* libraries, stripping:                  Installing libraries.
                                                              (line  44)
* library interfaces:                    Interfaces.          (line   6)
* library interfaces, design:            Library tips.        (line   6)
* library object file:                   Creating object files.
                                                              (line  28)
* library_names_spec:                    libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 286)
* LIBS:                                  LT_INIT.             (line 242)
* libtool:                               Invoking libtool.    (line   6)
* libtool command options:               Invoking libtool.    (line   6)
* libtool examples:                      Using libtool.       (line   6)
* libtool implementation:                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line   6)
* libtool libraries:                     Linking libraries.   (line  24)
* libtool library versions:              Libtool versioning.  (line   6)
* libtool specifications:                Motivation.          (line  20)
* libtoolize:                            Invoking libtoolize. (line   6)
* libtoolize command options:            Invoking libtoolize. (line   6)
* LIBTOOLIZE_OPTIONS:                    Invoking libtoolize. (line 120)
* link mode:                             Link mode.           (line   6)
* link-2.test:                           Test descriptions.   (line 156)
* link.test:                             Test descriptions.   (line 152)
* link_all_deplibs:                      libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 291)
* link_static_flag:                      libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 296)
* linking against installed libraries:   Linking executables. (line   6)
* linking against uninstalled libraries: Linking executables. (line  25)
* linking with installed libtool libraries: Linking executables.
                                                              (line  50)
* linking, dlopen:                       Linking with dlopened modules.
                                                              (line   6)
* linking, dlpreopen:                    Linking with dlopened modules.
                                                              (line   6)
* linking, partial:                      Link mode.           (line 181)
* LN_S:                                  LT_INIT.             (line 254)
* LT_CMD_MAX_LEN:                        Autoconf macros.     (line  15)
* LT_CONFIG_LTDL_DIR:                    Distributing libltdl.
                                                              (line  32)
* LT_DIRSEP_CHAR:                        Libltdl interface.   (line  40)
* lt_dladderror:                         Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line 190)
* lt_dladdsearchdir:                     Libltdl interface.   (line 244)
* lt_dladvise:                           Libltdl interface.   (line  50)
* lt_dladvise_destroy:                   Libltdl interface.   (line 147)
* lt_dladvise_ext:                       Libltdl interface.   (line 154)
* lt_dladvise_global:                    Libltdl interface.   (line 179)
* lt_dladvise_init:                      Libltdl interface.   (line 137)
* lt_dladvise_local:                     Libltdl interface.   (line 196)
* lt_dladvise_preload:                   Libltdl interface.   (line 222)
* lt_dladvise_resident:                  Libltdl interface.   (line 213)
* lt_dlcaller_get_data:                  User defined module data.
                                                              (line 154)
* lt_dlcaller_set_data:                  User defined module data.
                                                              (line 128)
* lt_dlclose:                            Libltdl interface.   (line 228)
* lt_dlerror:                            Libltdl interface.   (line 238)
* lt_dlexit:                             Libltdl interface.   (line  66)
* lt_dlforeachfile:                      Libltdl interface.   (line 264)
* lt_dlgetinfo:                          User defined module data.
                                                              (line  26)
* lt_dlgetsearchpath:                    Libltdl interface.   (line 260)
* lt_dlhandle:                           Libltdl interface.   (line  46)
* lt_dlhandle_fetch:                     User defined module data.
                                                              (line 112)
* lt_dlhandle_iterate:                   User defined module data.
                                                              (line  97)
* lt_dlhandle_map:                       User defined module data.
                                                              (line  86)
* lt_dlinfo:                             User defined module data.
                                                              (line  12)
* lt_dlinit:                             Libltdl interface.   (line  61)
* lt_dlinsertsearchdir:                  Libltdl interface.   (line 249)
* lt_dlinterface_free:                   User defined module data.
                                                              (line  82)
* lt_dlinterface_id:                     User defined module data.
                                                              (line  35)
* lt_dlinterface_register:               User defined module data.
                                                              (line  74)
* lt_dlisresident:                       Libltdl interface.   (line 292)
* lt_dlloader:                           Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line  45)
* lt_dlloader_add:                       Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line 131)
* lt_dlloader_data:                      Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line 181)
* lt_dlloader_exit:                      Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line  86)
* lt_dlloader_find:                      Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line 163)
* lt_dlloader_name:                      Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line 175)
* lt_dlloader_next:                      Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line 154)
* lt_dlloader_remove:                    Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line 144)
* lt_dlmakeresident:                     Libltdl interface.   (line 282)
* lt_dlopen:                             Libltdl interface.   (line  72)
* lt_dlopenadvise:                       Libltdl interface.   (line 127)
* lt_dlopenext:                          Libltdl interface.   (line 110)
* lt_dlpreload:                          Dlpreopening.        (line  71)
* lt_dlpreload_callback_func:            Dlpreopening.        (line  99)
* lt_dlpreload_default:                  Dlpreopening.        (line  77)
* lt_dlpreload_open:                     Dlpreopening.        (line 105)
* lt_dlseterror:                         Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line 202)
* lt_dlsetsearchpath:                    Libltdl interface.   (line 255)
* lt_dlsym:                              Libltdl interface.   (line 233)
* lt_dlsymbol:                           Dlpreopening.        (line  41)
* lt_dlsymlist <1>:                      Libltdl interface.   (line  55)
* lt_dlsymlist:                          Dlpreopening.        (line  47)
* lt_find_sym:                           Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line  79)
* LT_FUNC_DLSYM_USCORE:                  Autoconf macros.     (line  24)
* LT_INIT:                               LT_INIT.             (line  21)
* LT_LANG:                               LT_INIT.             (line 144)
* LT_LIB_DLLOAD:                         Autoconf macros.     (line  35)
* LT_LIB_M:                              Autoconf macros.     (line  31)
* lt_module:                             Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line  41)
* lt_module_close:                       Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line  72)
* lt_module_open:                        Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line  61)
* LT_OUTPUT:                             LT_INIT.             (line 294)
* LT_PATH_LD:                            Autoconf macros.     (line  51)
* LT_PATH_NM:                            Autoconf macros.     (line  57)
* LT_PATHSEP_CHAR:                       Libltdl interface.   (line  36)
* lt_preloaded_symbols:                  Dlpreopening.        (line  56)
* LT_PREREQ:                             LT_INIT.             (line  13)
* LT_SUPPORTED_TAG:                      Trace interface.     (line  13)
* LT_SYS_DLOPEN_DEPLIBS:                 Autoconf macros.     (line  70)
* LT_SYS_DLOPEN_SELF:                    Autoconf macros.     (line  64)
* LT_SYS_DLSEARCH_PATH:                  Autoconf macros.     (line  75)
* LT_SYS_MODULE_EXT:                     Autoconf macros.     (line  79)
* LT_SYS_MODULE_PATH:                    Autoconf macros.     (line  85)
* LT_SYS_SYMBOL_USCORE:                  Autoconf macros.     (line  90)
* lt_user_data:                          Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line  48)
* lt_user_dlloader:                      Module loaders for libltdl.
                                                              (line  53)
* LT_WITH_LTDL:                          Distributing libltdl.
                                                              (line  41)
* LTCC:                                  libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  47)
* LTCFLAGS:                              libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  48)
* LTDL_CONVENIENCE:                      Distributing libltdl.
                                                              (line 299)
* LTDL_INIT:                             Distributing libltdl.
                                                              (line  40)
* LTDL_INSTALLABLE:                      Distributing libltdl.
                                                              (line 294)
* LTDL_SET_PRELOADED_SYMBOLS:            Dlpreopening.        (line  87)
* LTLIBOBJS:                             Autoconf and LTLIBOBJS.
                                                              (line   8)
* LTLIBRARIES:                           Using Automake.      (line   6)
* ltmain.sh:                             Distributing.        (line  19)
* macro_revision:                        libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 301)
* macro_version:                         libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 300)
* Makefile:                              Makefile rules.      (line   6)
* Makefile.am:                           Makefile rules.      (line   6)
* Makefile.in:                           Makefile rules.      (line   6)
* max_cmd_len:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 306)
* mdemo-conf.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 119)
* mdemo-dryrun.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 138)
* mdemo-exec.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 119)
* mdemo-inst.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 119)
* mdemo-make.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 119)
* mdemo-shared.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 119)
* mdemo-static.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 119)
* mdemo-unst.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 119)
* mdemo2-conf.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line 143)
* mdemo2-exec.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line 143)
* mdemo2-make.test:                      Test descriptions.   (line 143)
* mode, clean:                           Clean mode.          (line   6)
* mode, compile:                         Compile mode.        (line   6)
* mode, execute:                         Execute mode.        (line   6)
* mode, finish:                          Finish mode.         (line   6)
* mode, install:                         Install mode.        (line   6)
* mode, link:                            Link mode.           (line   6)
* mode, uninstall:                       Uninstall mode.      (line   6)
* modules, dynamic <1>:                  Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* modules, dynamic:                      Dlopened modules.    (line   6)
* motivation for writing libtool:        Motivation.          (line   6)
* names of dynamic modules:              Finding the dlname.  (line   6)
* need_lib_prefix:                       libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 310)
* need_locks:                            libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 323)
* need_version:                          libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 317)
* NM <1>:                                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  52)
* NM:                                    LT_INIT.             (line 248)
* no_builtin_flag:                       libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 327)
* no_undefined_flag:                     libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 331)
* nomode.test:                           Test descriptions.   (line 160)
* none:                                  Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line  38)
* objdir:                                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 336)
* OBJDUMP:                               LT_INIT.             (line 263)
* object files, compiling:               Creating object files.
                                                              (line   6)
* object files, library:                 Creating object files.
                                                              (line  28)
* objectlist.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 163)
* objext:                                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 339)
* old_archive_cmds:                      libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  90)
* old_archive_from_expsyms_cmds:         libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 100)
* old_archive_from_new_cmds:             libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  94)
* old_postinstall_cmds:                  libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 346)
* old_postuninstall_cmds:                libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 351)
* old_striplib:                          libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 381)
* opaque data types:                     Library tips.        (line  28)
* options, libtool command:              Invoking libtool.    (line   6)
* options, libtoolize command:           Invoking libtoolize. (line   6)
* other implementations, flaws in:       Postmortem.          (line   6)
* partial linking:                       Link mode.           (line 181)
* pass_all:                              Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line  32)
* pdemo-conf.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 169)
* pdemo-exec.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 169)
* pdemo-inst.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 169)
* pdemo-make.test:                       Test descriptions.   (line 169)
* PIC (position-independent code):       Creating object files.
                                                              (line  23)
* pic_flag:                              libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 342)
* pitfalls using C++:                    C++ libraries.       (line   6)
* pitfalls with dlopen:                  Dlopen issues.       (line   6)
* portable C headers:                    C header files.      (line   6)
* position-independent code:             Creating object files.
                                                              (line  23)
* postinstall_cmds:                      libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 345)
* postinstallation:                      Installing libraries.
                                                              (line  54)
* postuninstall_cmds:                    libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 350)
* problem reports:                       Reporting bugs.      (line   6)
* problems, blaming somebody else for:   Troubleshooting.     (line   6)
* problems, solving:                     Troubleshooting.     (line   6)
* program wrapper scripts:               Linking executables. (line  71)
* quote.test:                            Test descriptions.   (line 178)
* RANLIB <1>:                            libtool script contents.
                                                              (line  73)
* RANLIB:                                LT_INIT.             (line 251)
* ranlib:                                Linking libraries.   (line  12)
* reload_cmds:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 355)
* reload_flag:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 356)
* renaming interface functions:          Library tips.        (line  21)
* reporting bugs:                        Reporting bugs.      (line   6)
* reusability of library systems:        Postmortem.          (line   6)
* runpath_var:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 359)
* saving time:                           Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* security problems with buggy linkers:  Linking executables. (line  16)
* sh.test:                               Test descriptions.   (line 181)
* shared libraries, not using:           Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* shared library versions:               Versioning.          (line   6)
* shl_load <1>:                          Using libltdl.       (line   6)
* shl_load:                              Dlopened modules.    (line   6)
* shlibpath_overrides_runpath:           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 363)
* shlibpath_var:                         libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 372)
* solving problems:                      Troubleshooting.     (line   6)
* soname_spec:                           libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 376)
* specifications for libtool:            Motivation.          (line  20)
* standalone binaries:                   Static libraries.    (line  64)
* static linking:                        Static libraries.    (line   6)
* strip:                                 Installing libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* striplib:                              libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 380)
* stripping libraries:                   Installing libraries.
                                                              (line  44)
* su:                                    Installing libraries.
                                                              (line   9)
* suffix.test:                           Test descriptions.   (line 185)
* sys_lib_dlsearch_path_spec:            libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 387)
* sys_lib_search_path_spec:              libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 392)
* tag names:                             Tags.                (line   6)
* tagdemo-conf.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 197)
* tagdemo-exec.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 197)
* tagdemo-make.test:                     Test descriptions.   (line 197)
* tagdemo-shared.test:                   Test descriptions.   (line 197)
* tagdemo-static.test:                   Test descriptions.   (line 197)
* tagdemo-undef.test:                    Test descriptions.   (line 197)
* test suite:                            Libtool test suite.  (line   6)
* test_compile:                          Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line  26)
* tests, failed:                         When tests fail.     (line   6)
* thread_safe_flag_spec:                 libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 401)
* time, saving:                          Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* trace interface:                       Trace interface.     (line   6)
* tricky design issues:                  Issues.              (line   6)
* trouble with C++:                      C++ libraries.       (line   6)
* trouble with dlopen:                   Dlopen issues.       (line   6)
* troubleshooting:                       Troubleshooting.     (line   6)
* undefined symbols, allowing:           Link mode.           (line  14)
* uninstall mode:                        Uninstall mode.      (line   6)
* unknown:                               Porting inter-library dependencies.
                                                              (line  43)
* unresolved symbols, allowing:          Link mode.           (line  14)
* using shared libraries, not:           Static-only libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* version_type:                          libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 405)
* versioning, formal:                    Libtool versioning.  (line   6)
* whole_archive_flag_spec:               libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 410)
* wl:                                    libtool script contents.
                                                              (line 413)
* wrapper scripts for programs:          Linking executables. (line  71)