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File: latex.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Overview,  Prev: (dir),  Up: (dir)

   LaTeX2e is a document preparation system implemented as a macro
package for Donald E. Knuth's TeX typesetting program.

   LaTeX was originally conceived by Leslie Lamport.

   This is edition 1.6 of the LaTeX2e documentation.

* Menu:


* Overview::                    What is LaTeX?
* Commands::                    Commands within a LaTeX document.
* Parameters::                  The command line.
* Command Index::           	An alphabetical list of LaTeX commands.
* Concept Index::		An alphabetical list of concepts.

File: latex.info,  Node: Overview,  Next: Commands,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Overview of LaTeX and Local Guide
***********************************

The LaTeX command typesets a file of text using the TeX program and the
LaTeX Macro package for TeX.  To be more specific, it processes an input
file containing the text of a document with interspersed commands that
describe how the text should be formatted.  It produces at least three
files as output:

  1. A "Device Independent", or `.dvi' file. This contains commands that
     can be translated into commands for a variety of output devices.
     You can view the output of LaTeX by using a program such as `xdvi',
     which actually uses the `.dvi' file.

  2. A "transcript" or `.log' file that contains summary information and
     diagnostic messages for any errors discovered in the input file.

  3. An "auxiliary" or `.aux' file. This is used by LaTeX itself, for
     things such as sectioning.

   For a description of what goes on inside TeX, you should consult
`The TeXbook' by Donald E. Knuth, ISBN 0-201-13448-9, published jointly
by the American Mathematical Society and Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company.

   For a description of LaTeX, you should consult:

   `LaTeX: A Document Preparation System', by Leslie Lamport,
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 2nd edition, 1994.

   `The LaTeX Companion', by Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and
Alexander Samarin, Addison-Wesley, 1994.

File: latex.info,  Node: Commands,  Next: Parameters,  Prev: Overview,  Up: Top

2 Commands
**********

A LaTeX command begins with the command name, which consists of a `\'
followed by either (a) a string of letters or (b) a single non-letter.
Arguments contained in square brackets, `[]', are optional while
arguments contained in braces, `{}', are required.

   NOTE:  LaTeX  is case sensitive.   Enter  all commands  in lower
case unless explicitly directed to do otherwise.

* Menu:

* Counters::			Internal counters used by LaTeX.
* Cross References::		Automatic referencing.
* Definitions::			Define your own commands etc.
* Document Classes::		Some of the various classes available.
* Environments::		Such as enumerate & itemize.
* Footnotes::			How to produce footnotes.
* Layout::			Controlling the page layout.
* Lengths::			The length commands.
* Letters::			The letter class.
* Line & Page Breaking::	How to insert pagebreaks etc.
* Making Paragraphs::		Paragraph commands.
* Margin Notes::                Putting remarks in the margin.
* Math Formulae::		How to create mathematical formulae.
* Modes::			Paragraph, Math or LR modes.
* Page Styles::			Various styles of page layout.
* Sectioning::			How to section properly.
* Spaces & Boxes::		All the associated commands.
* Special Characters::		Special reserved characters.
* Splitting the Input::		Dealing with big files by splitting.
* Starting & Ending::		The formal start & end layouts.
* Table of Contents::		How to create a table of contents.
* Terminal Input/Output::	User interaction.
* Typefaces::			Such as bold, italics etc.

File: latex.info,  Node: Counters,  Next: Cross References,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Commands

2.1 Counters
============

Everything LaTeX numbers for you has a counter associated with it. The
name of the counter is the same as the name of the environment or
command that produces the number, except with no `\'.  (enumi - enumiv
are used for the nested enumerate environment.)  Below is a list of the
counters used in LaTeX's standard document classes to control numbering.

      part            paragraph       figure          enumi
      chapter         subparagraph    table           enumii
      section         page            footnote        enumiii
      subsection      equation        mpfootnote      enumiv
      subsubsection

* Menu:

* \addtocounter::       Add a quantity to a counter.
* \alph::               Print value of a counter using letters.
* \arabic::             Print value of a counter using numerals.
* \fnsymbol::           Print value of a counter using symbols.
* \newcounter::         Define a new counter.
* \refstepcounter::     Add to counter, resetting subsidiary counters.
* \roman::              Print value of a counter using roman numerals.
* \setcounter::         Set the value of a counter.
* \stepcounter::        Add to counter, resetting subsidiary counters.
* \usecounter::         Use a specified counter in a list environment.
* \value::              Use the value of a counter in an expression.

File: latex.info,  Node: \addtocounter,  Next: \alph,  Prev: Counters,  Up: Counters

2.1.1 \addtocounter
-------------------

`\addtocounter{counter}{value}'

   The `\addtocounter' command increments the `counter' by the amount
specified by the `value' argument.  The `value' argument can be
negative.

File: latex.info,  Node: \alph,  Next: \arabic,  Prev: \addtocounter,  Up: Counters

2.1.2 \alph
-----------

`\alph{counter}'

   This command causes the value of the `counter' to be printed in
alphabetic characters.  The `\alph' command uses lower case alphabetic
alphabetic characters, i.e., `a, b, c...' while the `\Alph' command
uses upper case alphabetic characters, i.e., `A, B, C...'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \arabic,  Next: \fnsymbol,  Prev: \alph,  Up: Counters

2.1.3 \arabic
-------------

`\arabic{counter}'

   The `\arabic' command causes the value of the `counter' to be
printed in Arabic numbers, i.e., `3'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \fnsymbol,  Next: \newcounter,  Prev: \arabic,  Up: Counters

2.1.4 \fnsymbol
---------------

`\fnsymbol{counter}'

   The `\fnsymbol' command causes the value of the `counter' to be
printed in a specific sequence of nine symbols that can be used for
numbering footnotes.

   NB. `counter' must have a value between 1 and 9 inclusive.

File: latex.info,  Node: \newcounter,  Next: \refstepcounter,  Prev: \fnsymbol,  Up: Counters

2.1.5 \newcounter
-----------------

`\newcounter{foo}[counter]'

   The `\newcounter' command defines a new counter named `foo'.  The
counter is initialized to zero.

   The optional argument `[counter]' causes the counter `foo' to be
reset whenever the counter named in the optional argument is
incremented.

File: latex.info,  Node: \refstepcounter,  Next: \roman,  Prev: \newcounter,  Up: Counters

2.1.6 \refstepcounter
---------------------

`\refstepcounter{counter}'

   The `\refstepcounter' command works like  `\stepcounter' *Note
\stepcounter::, except it also defines the current `\ref' value to be
the result of `\thecounter'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \roman,  Next: \stepcounter,  Prev: \refstepcounter,  Up: Counters

2.1.7 \roman
------------

`\roman{counter}'

   This command causes the value of the `counter' to be printed in
Roman numerals.  The `\roman' command uses lower case Roman numerals,
i.e., `i, ii, iii...', while the `\Roman' command uses upper case Roman
numerals, i.e., `I, II, III...'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \setcounter,  Next: \usecounter,  Prev: \stepcounter,  Up: Counters

2.1.9 \setcounter
-----------------

`\setcounter{counter}{value}'

   The `\setcounter' command sets the value of the `counter' to that
specified by the `value' argument.

File: latex.info,  Node: \stepcounter,  Next: \setcounter,  Prev: \roman,  Up: Counters

2.1.8 \stepcounter
------------------

`\stepcounter{counter}'

   The `\stepcounter' command adds one to the `counter' and resets all
subsidiary counters.

File: latex.info,  Node: \usecounter,  Next: \value,  Prev: \setcounter,  Up: Counters

2.1.10 \usecounter
------------------

`\usecounter{counter}'

   The `\usecounter' command is used in the second argument of the
`list' environment to allow the counter specified to be used to number
the list items.

File: latex.info,  Node: \value,  Prev: \usecounter,  Up: Counters

2.1.11 \value
-------------

`\value{counter}'

   The `\value' command produces the value of the `counter' named in
the mandatory argument.  It can be used where LaTeX expects an integer
or number, such as the second argument of a `\setcounter' or
`\addtocounter' command, or in:

             \hspace{\value{foo}\parindent}

   It is useful for doing arithmetic with counters.

File: latex.info,  Node: Cross References,  Next: Definitions,  Prev: Counters,  Up: Commands

2.2 Cross References
====================

One reason for numbering things like figures and equations is to refer
the reader to them, as in "See Figure 3 for more details."

* Menu:

* \label::      Assign a symbolic name to a piece of text.
* \pageref::    Refer to a page number.
* \ref::        Refer to a section, figure or similar.

File: latex.info,  Node: \label,  Next: \pageref,  Prev: Cross References,  Up: Cross References

2.2.1 \label
------------

`\label{key}'

   A `\label' command appearing in ordinary text assigns to the `key'
the number of the current sectional unit; one appearing inside a
numbered environment assigns that number to the `key'.

   A `key' can consist of any sequence of letters, digits, or
punctuation characters.  Upper and lowercase letters are different.

   To avoid accidentally creating two labels with the same name, it is
common to use labels consisting of a prefix and a suffix separated by a
colon. The prefixes conventionally used are

   * `cha' for chapters

   * `sec' for lower-level sectioning commands

   * `fig' for figures

   * `tab' for tables

   * `eq' for equations

   Thus, a label for a figure would look like `fig:bandersnatch'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \pageref,  Next: \ref,  Prev: \label,  Up: Cross References

2.2.2 \pageref
--------------

`\pageref{key}'

   The `\pageref' command produces the page number of the place in the
text where the corresponding `\label' command appears. ie. where
`\label{key}' appears.

File: latex.info,  Node: \ref,  Prev: \pageref,  Up: Cross References

2.2.3 \ref
----------

`\ref{key}'

   The `\ref' command produces the number of the sectional unit,
equation number, ... of the corresponding `\label' command.

File: latex.info,  Node: Definitions,  Next: Document Classes,  Prev: Cross References,  Up: Commands

2.3 Definitions
===============

* Menu:

* \newcommand::         Define a new command.
* \newenvironment::     Define a new environment.
* \newtheorem::         Define a new theorem-like environment.
* \newfont::            Define a new font name.

File: latex.info,  Node: \newcommand,  Next: \newenvironment,  Prev: Definitions,  Up: Definitions

2.3.1 \newcommand
-----------------

      \newcommand{cmd}[args]{definition}
      \newcommand{cmd}[args][default]{definition}
      \renewcommand{cmd}[args]{definition}
      \renewcommand{cmd}[args][default]{definition}

   These commands define (or redefine) a command.

`cmd'
     A command name beginning with a `\'.  For `\newcommand' it must
     not be already defined and must not begin with `\end'; for
     `\renewcommand' it must already be defined.

`args'
     An integer from 1 to 9 denoting the number of arguments of the
     command being defined.  The default is for the command to have no
     arguments.

`def'
     If this optional parameter is present, it means that the command's
     first argument is optional. The default value of the optional
     argument is `def'.

`definition'
     The text to be substituted for every occurrence of `cmd'; a
     parameter of the form `#n' in `cmd' is replaced by the text of the
     nth argument when this substitution takes place.


File: latex.info,  Node: \newenvironment,  Next: \newtheorem,  Prev: \newcommand,  Up: Definitions

2.3.2 \newenvironment
---------------------

      \newenvironment{nam}[args]{begdef}{enddef}
      \newenvironment{nam}[args][default]{begdef}{enddef}
      \renewenvironment{nam}[args]{begdef}{enddef}

   These commands define or redefine an environment.

`nam'
     The name of the environment.  For `\newenvironment' there must be
     no currently defined environment by that name, and the command
     `\nam' must be undefined.  For `\renewenvironment' the environment
     must already be defined.

`args'
     An integer from 1 to 9 denoting the number of arguments of the
     newly-defined environment.  The default is no arguments.

`default'
     If this is specified, the first argument is optional, and `default'
     gives the default value for that argument.

`begdef'
     The text substituted for every occurrence of `\begin{nam}'; a
     parameter of the form `#n' in `cmd' is replaced by the text of the
     nth argument when this substitution takes place.

`enddef'
     The text substituted for every occurrence of `\end{nam}'.  It may
     not contain any argument parameters.


File: latex.info,  Node: \newtheorem,  Next: \newfont,  Prev: \newenvironment,  Up: Definitions

2.3.3 \newtheorem
-----------------

      \newtheorem{env_name}{caption}[within]
      \newtheorem{env_name}[numbered_like]{caption}

   This command defines a theorem-like environment.

`env_name'
     The name of the environment to be defined. A string of letters.
     It must not be the name of an existing environment or counter.

`caption'
     The text printed at the beginning of the environment, right before
     the number. This may simply say "Theorem", for example.

`within'
     The name of an already defined counter, usually of a sectional
     unit.  Provides a means of resetting the new theorem counter
     *within* the sectional unit.

`numbered_like'
     The name of an already defined theorem-like environment.


   The `\newtheorem' command may have at most one optional argument.

File: latex.info,  Node: \newfont,  Prev: \newtheorem,  Up: Definitions

2.3.4 \newfont
--------------

`\newfont{cmd}{font_name}'

   Defines the command name `cmd', which must not be currently defined,
to be a declaration that selects the font named `font_name' to be the
current font.

File: latex.info,  Node: Document Classes,  Next: Environments,  Prev: Definitions,  Up: Commands

2.4 Document Classes
====================

Valid LaTeX document classes include:

   * article

   * report

   * letter

   * book

   * slides

   Other document classes are often available. *Note Overview::, for
details.  They are selected with the following command:

   `\documentclass [options] {class}'

   All the standard classes (except slides) accept the following options
for selecting the typeface size (10 pt is default):

   10pt, 11pt, 12pt

   All classes accept these options for selecting the paper size
(default is letter):

   a4paper, a5paper, b5paper, letterpaper, legalpaper, executivepaper

   Miscellaneous options:

   * landscape -- selects landscape format. Default is portrait.

   * titlepage, notitlepage -- selects if there should be a separate
     title page.

   * leqno -- equation number on left side of equations. Default is
     right side.

   * fleqn -- displayed formulas flush left. Default is centred.

   * openbib -- use "open" bibliography format.

   * draft, final -- mark/do not mark overfull boxes with a rule.
     Default is final.

   These options are not available with the slides class:

   * oneside, twoside -- selects one- or twosided layout. Default is
     oneside, except for the book class.

   * openright, openany -- determines if a chapter should start on a
     right-hand page. Default is openright for book.

   * onecolumn, twocolumn -- one or two columns. Defaults to one column.

   The slides class offers the option `clock' for printing the time at
the bottom of each note.

   If you specify more than one option, they must be separated by a
comma.

   Additional packages are loaded by a

   `\usepackage[options]{pkg}'

   command. If you specify more than one package, they must be
separated by a comma.

   Any options given in the `\documentclass' command that are unknown
by the selected document class are passed on to the packages loaded with
`\usepackage'.

File: latex.info,  Node: Environments,  Next: Footnotes,  Prev: Document Classes,  Up: Commands

2.6 Environments
================

LaTeX provides a number of different paragraph-making environments.
Each environment begins and ends in the same manner.

             \begin{environment-name}
             .
             .
             .
             \end{environment-name}

* Menu:

* array::       Math arrays.
* center::      Centred lines.
* description:: Labelled lists.
* enumerate::   Numbered lists.
* eqnarray::    Sequences of aligned equations.
* equation::    Displayed equation.
* figure::      Floating figures.
* flushleft::   Flushed left lines.
* flushright::  Flushed right lines.
* itemize::     Bulleted lists.
* letter::      Letters.
* list::        Generic list environment.
* minipage::    Miniature page.
* picture::     Picture with text, arrows, lines and circles.
* quotation::   Indented environment with paragraph indentation.
* quote::       Indented environment with no paragraph indentation.
* tabbing::     Align text arbitrarily.
* table::       Floating tables.
* tabular::     Align text in columns.
* thebibliography::     Bibliography or reference list.
* theorem::     Theorems, lemmas, etc.
* titlepage::   For hand crafted title pages.
* verbatim::    Simulating typed input.
* verse::       For poetry and other things.

File: latex.info,  Node: array,  Next: center,  Prev: Environments,  Up: Environments

2.6.1 array
-----------

     \begin{array}{col1col2...coln}
     column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
      .
      .
      .
     \end{array}

   Math arrays are produced with the array environment.  It has a single
mandatory argument describing the number of columns and the alignment
within them.  Each column, `coln', is specified by a single letter that
tells how items in that row should be formatted.

   * `c' -- for centred

   * `l' -- for flush left

   * `r' -- for flush right

   Column entries must be separated by an `&'.  Column entries may
include other LaTeX commands.  Each row of the array must be terminated
with the string `\\'.

   Note that the `array' environment can only be used in math mode, so
normally it is used inside an `equation' environment.

File: latex.info,  Node: center,  Next: description,  Prev: array,  Up: Environments

2.6.2 center
------------

      \begin{center}
      Text on line 1 \\
      Text on line 2 \\
      .
      .
      .
      \end{center}

   The `center' environment allows you to create a paragraph consisting
of lines that are centred within the left and right margins on the
current page.  Each line must be terminated with the string `\\'.

* Menu:

* \centering::          The declaration form of the `center' environment.

File: latex.info,  Node: \centering,  Up: center

2.6.2.1 \centering
..................

This declaration corresponds to the `center' environment.  This
declaration can be used inside an environment such as `quote' or in a
`parbox'.  The text of a figure or table can be centred on the page by
putting a `\centering' command at the beginning of the figure or table
environment.

   Unlike the `center' environment, the `\centering' command does not
start a new paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats paragraph
units.  To affect a paragraph unit's format, the scope of the
declaration must contain the blank line or `\end' command (of an
environment like quote) that ends the paragraph unit.

File: latex.info,  Node: description,  Next: enumerate,  Prev: center,  Up: Environments

2.6.3 description
-----------------

      \begin{description}
      \item [label] First item
      \item [label] Second item
      .
      .
      .
      \end{description}

   The `description' environment is used to make labelled lists.  The
`label' is bold face and flushed right.

File: latex.info,  Node: enumerate,  Next: eqnarray,  Prev: description,  Up: Environments

2.6.4 enumerate
---------------

      \begin{enumerate}
      \item First item
      \item Second item
      .
      .
      .
      \end{enumerate}

   The `enumerate' environment produces a numbered list.  Enumerations
can be nested within one another, up to four levels deep.  They can also
be nested within other paragraph-making environments.

   Each item of an enumerated list begins with an `\item' command.
There must be at least one `\item' command within the environment.

   The `enumerate' environment uses the `enumi' through `enumiv'
counters (*note Counters::). The type of numbering can be changed by
redefining `\theenumi' etc.

File: latex.info,  Node: eqnarray,  Next: equation,  Prev: enumerate,  Up: Environments

2.6.5 eqnarray
--------------

      \begin{eqnarray}
      math formula 1 \\
      math formula 2 \\
      .
      .
      .
      \end{eqnarray}

   The `eqnarray' environment is used to display a sequence of
equations or inequalities.  It is very much like a three-column `array'
environment, with consecutive rows separated by `\\' and consecutive
items within a row separated by an `&'.

   An equation number is placed on every line unless that line has a
`\nonumber' command.

   The command `\lefteqn' is used for splitting long formulas across
lines. It typesets its argument in display style flush left in a box of
zero width.

File: latex.info,  Node: equation,  Next: figure,  Prev: eqnarray,  Up: Environments

2.6.6 equation
--------------

      \begin{equation}
       math formula
      \end{equation}

   The `equation' environment centres your equation on the page and
places the equation number in the right margin.

File: latex.info,  Node: figure,  Next: flushleft,  Prev: equation,  Up: Environments

2.6.7 figure
------------

      \begin{figure}[placement]

       body of the figure

      \caption{figure title}
      \end{figure}

   Figures are objects that are not part of the normal text, and are
usually "floated" to a convenient place, like the top of a page.
Figures will not be split between two pages.

   The optional argument `[placement]' determines where LaTeX will try
to place your figure.  There are four places where LaTeX can possibly
put a float:

  1. `h' (Here) - at the position in the text where the figure
     environment appears.

  2. `t' (Top) - at the top of a text page.

  3. `b' (Bottom) - at the bottom of a text page.

  4. `p' (Page of floats) - on a separate float page, which is a page
     containing no text, only floats.

   The standard report and article classes use the default placement
`tbp'.

   The body of the figure is made up of whatever text, LaTeX commands,
etc.  you wish.  The `\caption' command allows you to title your figure.

File: latex.info,  Node: flushleft,  Next: flushright,  Prev: figure,  Up: Environments

2.6.8 flushleft
---------------

      \begin{flushleft}
      Text on line 1 \\
      Text on line 2 \\
      .
      .
      .
      \end{flushleft}

   The `flushleft' environment allows you to create a paragraph
consisting of lines that are flushed left, to the left-hand margin.
Each line must be terminated with the string `\\'.

* Menu:

* \raggedright::        The declaration form of the `flushleft' environment.

File: latex.info,  Node: \raggedright,  Up: flushleft

2.6.8.1 \raggedright
....................

This declaration corresponds to the `flushleft' environment.  This
declaration can be used inside an environment such as `quote' or in a
`parbox'.

   Unlike the `flushleft' environment, the `\raggedright' command does
not start a new paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats
paragraph units.  To affect a paragraph unit's format, the scope of the
declaration must contain the blank line or `\end' command (of an
environment like quote) that ends the paragraph unit.

File: latex.info,  Node: flushright,  Next: itemize,  Prev: flushleft,  Up: Environments

2.6.9 flushright
----------------

      \begin{flushright}
      Text on line 1 \\
      Text on line 2 \\
      .
      .
      .
      \end{flushright}

   The `flushright' environment allows you to create a paragraph
consisting of lines that are flushed right, to the right-hand margin.
Each line must be terminated with the string `\\'.

* Menu:

* \raggedleft:: The declaration form of the `flushright' environment.

File: latex.info,  Node: \raggedleft,  Up: flushright

2.6.9.1 \raggedleft
...................

This declaration corresponds to the `flushright' environment.  This
declaration can be used inside an environment such as `quote' or in a
`parbox'.

   Unlike the `flushright' environment, the `\raggedleft' command does
not start a new paragraph; it simply changes how LaTeX formats
paragraph units.  To affect a paragraph unit's format, the scope of the
declaration must contain the blank line or `\end' command (of an
environment like quote) that ends the paragraph unit.

File: latex.info,  Node: itemize,  Next: letter,  Prev: flushright,  Up: Environments

2.6.10 itemize
--------------

      \begin{itemize}
      \item First item
      \item Second item
      .
      .
      .
      \end{itemize}

   The `itemize' environment produces a "bulleted" list.  Itemizations
can be nested within one another, up to four levels deep.  They can also
be nested within other paragraph-making environments.

   Each item of an `itemized' list begins with an `\item' command.
There must be at least one `\item' command within the environment.

   The `itemize' environment uses the `itemi' through `itemiv' counters
(*note Counters::). The type of numbering can be changed by redefining
`\theitemi' etc.

File: latex.info,  Node: letter,  Next: list,  Prev: itemize,  Up: Environments

2.6.11 letter
-------------

This environment is used for creating letters. *Note Letters::.

File: latex.info,  Node: list,  Next: minipage,  Prev: letter,  Up: Environments

2.6.12 list
-----------

The `list' environment is a generic environment which is used for
defining many of the more specific environments. It is seldom used in
documents, but often in macros.

      \begin{list}{label}{spacing}
      \item First item
      \item Second item
      .
      .
      .
      \end{list}

   The `{label}' argument specifies how items should be labelled.  This
argument is a piece of text that is inserted in a box to form the
label.  This argument can and usually does contain other LaTeX commands.

   The `{spacing}' argument contains commands to change the spacing
parameters for the list.  This argument will most often be null, i.e.,
`{}'.  This will select all default spacing which should suffice for
most cases.

File: latex.info,  Node: minipage,  Next: picture,  Prev: list,  Up: Environments

2.6.13 minipage
---------------

      \begin{minipage}[position]{width}
       text
      \end{minipage}

   The `minipage' environment is similar to a `\parbox' command.  It
takes the same optional `position' argument and mandatory `width'
argument.  You may use other paragraph-making environments inside a
minipage.

   Footnotes in a `minipage' environment are handled in a way that is
particularly useful for putting footnotes in figures or tables.  A
`\footnote' or `\footnotetext' command puts the footnote at the bottom
of the minipage instead of at the bottom of the page, and it uses the
`mpfootnote' counter instead of the ordinary `footnote' counter *Note
Counters::.

   NOTE: Don't put one minipage inside another if you are using
footnotes; they may wind up at the bottom of the wrong minipage.

File: latex.info,  Node: picture,  Next: quotation,  Prev: minipage,  Up: Environments

2.6.14 picture
--------------

      \begin{picture}(width,height)(x offset,y offset)
       .
       .
       picture commands
       .
       .
      \end{picture}

   The `picture' environment allows you to create just about any kind
of picture you want containing text, lines, arrows and circles.  You
tell LaTeX where to put things in the picture by specifying their
coordinates.  A coordinate is a number that may have a decimal point and
a minus sign -- a number like `5', `2.3' or `-3.1416'.  A coordinate
specifies a length in multiples of the unit length `\unitlength', so if
`\unitlength' has been set to `1cm', then the coordinate 2.54 specifies
a length of 2.54 centimetres.  You can change the value of
`\unitlength' anywhere you want, using the `\setlength' command, but
strange things will happen if you try changing it inside the picture
environment.

   A position is a pair of coordinates, such as `(2.4,-5)', specifying
the point with x-coordinate `2.4' and y-coordinate `-5'.  Coordinates
are specified in the usual way with respect to an origin, which is
normally at the lower-left corner of the picture.  Note that when a
position appears as an argument, it is not enclosed in braces; the
parentheses serve to delimit the argument.

   The `picture' environment has one mandatory argument, which is a
`position'.  It specifies the size of the picture.  The environment
produces a rectangular box with width and height determined by this
argument's x- and y-coordinates.

   The `picture' environment also has an optional `position' argument,
following the `size' argument, that can change the origin.  (Unlike
ordinary optional arguments, this argument is not contained in square
brackets.) The optional argument gives the coordinates of the point at
the lower-left corner of the picture (thereby determining the origin).
For example, if `\unitlength' has been set to `1mm', the command
        \begin{picture}(100,200)(10,20)
   produces a picture of width 100 millimetres and height 200
millimetres, whose lower-left corner is the point (10,20) and whose
upper-right corner is therefore the point (110,220).  When you first
draw a picture, you will omit the optional argument, leaving the origin
at the lower-left corner.  If you then want to modify your picture by
shifting everything, you just add the appropriate optional argument.

   The environment's mandatory argument determines the nominal size of
the picture.  This need bear no relation to how large the picture
really is; LaTeX will happily allow you to put things outside the
picture, or even off the page.  The picture's nominal size is used by
LaTeX in determining how much room to leave for it.

   Everything that appears in a picture is drawn by the `\put' command.
The command
        \put (11.3,-.3){...}
   puts the object specified by `...' in the picture, with its
reference point at coordinates (11.3,-.3).  The reference points for
various objects will be described below.

   The `\put' command creates an "LR box".  You can put anything in the
text argument of the `\put' command that you'd put into the argument of
an `\mbox' and related commands.  When you do this, the reference point
will be the lower left corner of the box.

   Picture commands:

* Menu:

* \circle::             Draw a circle.
* \dashbox::            Draw a dashed box.
* \frame::              Draw a frame around an object.
* \framebox (picture):: Draw a box with a frame around it.
* \line::               Draw a straight line.
* \linethickness::      Set the line thickness.
* \makebox (picture)::  Draw a box of the specified size.
* \multiput::           Draw multiple instances of an object.
* \oval::               Draw an ellipse.
* \put::                Place an object at a specified place.
* \shortstack::         Make a pile of objects.
* \vector::             Draw a line with an arrow.

File: latex.info,  Node: \circle,  Next: \dashbox,  Up: picture

2.6.14.1 \circle
................

`\circle[*]{diameter}'

   The `\circle' command produces a circle with a diameter as close to
the specified one as possible.  If the `*'-form of the command is used,
LaTeX draws a solid circle.

   Note that only circles up to 40 pt can be drawn.

File: latex.info,  Node: \dashbox,  Next: \frame,  Prev: \circle,  Up: picture

2.6.14.2 \dashbox
.................

Draws a box with a dashed line.

   `\dashbox{dash_length}(width,height){...}'

   The `\dashbox' has an extra argument which specifies the width of
each dash.  A dashed box looks best when the `width' and `height' are
multiples of the `dash_length'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \frame,  Next: \framebox (picture),  Prev: \dashbox,  Up: picture

2.6.14.3 \frame
...............

`\frame{...}'

   The `\frame' command puts a rectangular frame around the object
specified in the argument.  The reference point is the bottom left
corner of the frame.  No extra space is put between the frame and the
object.

File: latex.info,  Node: \framebox (picture),  Next: \line,  Prev: \frame,  Up: picture

2.6.14.4 \framebox
..................

`\framebox(width,height)[position]{...}'

   The `\framebox' command is exactly the same as the `\makebox'
command, except that it puts a frame around the outside of the box that
it creates.

   The `framebox' command produces a rule of thickness `\fboxrule', and
leaves a space `\fboxsep' between the rule and the contents of the box.

File: latex.info,  Node: \line,  Next: \linethickness,  Prev: \framebox (picture),  Up: picture

2.6.14.5 \line
..............

`\line(x slope,y slope){length}'

   The `\line' command draws a line of the specified `length' and
`slope'.

   Note that LaTeX can only draw lines with slope = x/y, where x and y
have integer values from -6 through 6.

File: latex.info,  Node: \linethickness,  Next: \makebox (picture),  Prev: \line,  Up: picture

2.6.14.6 \linethickness
.......................

`\linethickness{dimension}'

   Declares the thickness of horizontal and vertical lines in a picture
environment to be `dimension', which must be a positive length. It does
not affect the thickness of slanted lines and circles, or the quarter
circles drawn by `\oval' to form the corners of an oval.

File: latex.info,  Node: \makebox (picture),  Next: \multiput,  Prev: \linethickness,  Up: picture

2.6.14.7 \makebox
.................

`\makebox(width,height)[position]{...}'

   The `\makebox' command for the picture environment is similar to the
normal `\makebox' command except that you must specify a `width' and
`height' in multiples of `\unitlength'.

   The optional argument, `[position]', specifies the quadrant that
your text appears in.  You may select up to two of the following:

   * `t' - Moves the item to the top of the rectangle

   * `b' - Moves the item to the bottom

   * `l' - Moves the item to the left

   * `r' - Moves the item to the right

   *Note \makebox::.

File: latex.info,  Node: \multiput,  Next: \oval,  Prev: \makebox (picture),  Up: picture

2.6.14.8 \multiput
..................

`\multiput(x coord,y coord)(delta x,delta y){number of copies}{object}'

   The `\multiput' command can be used when you are putting the same
object in a regular pattern across a picture.

File: latex.info,  Node: \oval,  Next: \put,  Prev: \multiput,  Up: picture

2.6.14.9 \oval
..............

`\oval(width,height)[portion]'

   The `\oval' command produces a rectangle with rounded corners.  The
optional argument, `[portion]', allows you to select part of the oval.

   * `t' - Selects the top portion

   * `b' - Selects the bottom portion

   * `r' - Selects the right portion

   * `l' - Selects the left portion

   Note that the "corners" of the oval are made with quarter circles
with a maximum radius of 20 pt, so large "ovals" will look more like
boxes with rounded corners.

File: latex.info,  Node: \put,  Next: \shortstack,  Prev: \oval,  Up: picture

2.6.14.10 \put
..............

`\put(x coord,y coord){ ...  }'

   The `\put' command places the item specified by the mandatory
argument at the given coordinates.

File: latex.info,  Node: \shortstack,  Next: \vector,  Prev: \put,  Up: picture

2.6.14.11 \shortstack
.....................

`\shortstack[position]{...  \\ ...  \\ ...}'

   The `\shortstack' command produces a stack of objects.  The valid
positions are:

   * `r' - Moves the objects to the right of the stack

   * `l' - Moves the objects to the left of the stack

   * `c' - Moves the objects to the centre of the stack (default)

File: latex.info,  Node: \vector,  Prev: \shortstack,  Up: picture

2.6.14.12 \vector
.................

`\vector(x slope,y slope){length}'

   The `\vector' command draws a line with an arrow of the specified
length and slope.  The `x' and `y' values must lie between -4 and +4,
inclusive.

File: latex.info,  Node: quotation,  Next: quote,  Prev: picture,  Up: Environments

2.6.15 quotation
----------------

      \begin{quotation}
       text
      \end{quotation}

   The margins of the `quotation' environment are indented on the left
and the right.  The text is justified at both margins and there is
paragraph indentation.  Leaving a blank line between text produces a new
paragraph.

File: latex.info,  Node: quote,  Next: tabbing,  Prev: quotation,  Up: Environments

2.6.16 quote
------------

      \begin{quote}
       text
      \end{quote}

   The margins of the `quote' environment are indented on the left and
the right.  The text is justified at both margins.  Leaving a blank line
between text produces a new paragraph.

File: latex.info,  Node: tabbing,  Next: table,  Prev: quote,  Up: Environments

2.6.17 tabbing
--------------

      \begin{tabbing}
      text \= more text \= still more text \= last text \\
      second row \>  \> more \\
      .
      .
      .
      \end{tabbing}

   The `tabbing' environment provides a way to align text in columns.
It works by setting tab stops and tabbing to them much the way you do
with an ordinary typewriter.

   It is best suited for cases where the width of each column is
constant and known in advance.

   This environment can be broken across pages, unlike the `tabular'
environment.

   The following commands can be used inside a `tabbing' enviroment:

`\='
     Sets a tab stop at the current position.

`\>'
     Advances to the next tab stop.

`\<'
     This command allows you to put something to the left of the local
     margin without changing the margin.  Can only be used at the start
     of the line.

`\+'
     Moves the left margin of the next and all the following commands
     one tab stop to the right.

`\-'
     Moves the left margin of the next and all the following commands
     one tab stop to the left.

`\''
     Moves everything that you have typed so far in the current column,
     i.e. everything from the most recent `\>', `\<', `\'', `\\', or
     `\kill' command, to the right of the previous column, flush
     against the current column's tab stop.

`\`'
     Allows you to put text flush right against any tab stop, including
     tab stop 0.  However, it can't move text to the right of the last
     column because there's no tab stop there.  The `\`' command moves
     all the text that follows it, up to the `\\' or `\end{tabbing}'
     command that ends the line, to the right margin of the tabbing
     environment.  There must be no `\>' or `\'' command between the
     `\`' and the command that ends the line.

`\kill'
     Sets tab stops without producing text.  Works just like  `\\'
     except that it throws away the current line instead of producing
     output for it.  The effect of any `\=', `\+' or `\-' commands in
     that line remain in effect.

`\pushtabs'
     Saves all current tab stop positions. Useful for temporarily
     changing tab stop positions in the middle of a `tabbing'
     environment.

`\poptabs'
     Restores the tab stop positions saved by the last `\pushtabs'.

`\a'
     In a `tabbing' environment, the commands `\=', `\'' and `\`' do
     not produce accents as normal. Instead, the commands `\a=', `\a''
     and `\a`' are used.

   This example typesets a Pascal function in a traditional format:

             \begin{tabbing}
             function \= fact(n : integer) : integer;\\
                      \> begin \= \+ \\
                            \> if \= n $>$ 1 then \+ \\
                                     fact := n * fact(n-1) \- \\
                               else \+ \\
                                     fact := 1; \-\- \\
                         end;\\
             \end{tabbing}

File: latex.info,  Node: table,  Next: tabular,  Prev: tabbing,  Up: Environments

2.6.18 table
------------

      \begin{table}[placement]

       body of the table

      \caption{table title}
      \end{table}

   Tables  are objects  that  are not part  of the normal  text,  and
are usually  "floated"  to a convenient  place,  like  the top  of a
page.  Tables will not be split between two pages.

   The optional argument `[placement]' determines where LaTeX will try
to place your table.  There are four places where LaTeX can possibly put
a float:

   * `h' : Here - at the position in the text where the table
     environment appears.

   * `t' : Top - at the top of a text page.

   * `b' : Bottom - at the bottom of a text page.

   * `p' : Page of floats - on a separate float page, which is a page
     containing no text, only floats.

   The standard `report' and `article' classes use the default
placement `[tbp]'.

   The body of the table is made up of whatever text, LaTeX commands,
etc., you wish.  The `\caption' command allows you to title your table.

File: latex.info,  Node: tabular,  Next: thebibliography,  Prev: table,  Up: Environments

2.6.19 tabular
--------------

      \begin{tabular}[pos]{cols}
      column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
      .
      .
      .
      \end{tabular}

   or

      \begin{tabular*}{width}[pos]{cols}
      column 1 entry & column 2 entry ... & column n entry \\
      .
      .
      .
      \end{tabular*}

   These environments produce a box consisting of a sequence of rows of
items, aligned vertically in columns.  The mandatory and optional
arguments consist of:

`width'
     Specifies the width of the `tabular*' environment.  There must be
     rubber space between columns that can stretch to fill out the
     specified width.

`pos'
     Specifies the vertical position; default is alignment on the
     centre of the environment.

        * `t' - align on top row

        * `b' - align on bottom row

`cols'
     Specifies the column formatting.  It consists of a sequence of the
     following specifiers, corresponding to the sequence of columns and
     intercolumn material.

        * `l' - A column of left-aligned items.

        * `r' - A column of right-aligned items.

        * `c' - A column of centred items.

        * `|' - A vertical line the full height and depth of the
          environment.

        * `@{text}' - This inserts `text' in every row.  An @-expression
          suppresses the intercolumn space normally inserted between
          columns; any desired space between the inserted text and the
          adjacent items must be included in text.  An
          `\extracolsep{wd}' command in an @-expression causes an extra
          space of width `wd' to appear to the left of all subsequent
          columns, until countermanded by another `\extracolsep'
          command.  Unlike ordinary intercolumn space, this extra space
          is not suppressed by an @-expression.  An `\extracolsep'
          command can be used only in an @-expression in the `cols'
          argument.

        * `p{wd}' - Produces a column with each item typeset in a
          parbox of width `wd', as if it were the argument of a
          `\parbox[t]{wd}' command.  However, a `\\' may not appear in
          the item, except in the following situations:
            1. inside an environment like `minipage', `array', or
               `tabular'.

            2. inside an explicit `\parbox'.

            3. in the scope of a `\centering', `\raggedright', or
               `\raggedleft' declaration.  The latter declarations must
               appear inside braces or an environment when used in a
               `p'-column element.

        * `*{num}{cols}' - Equivalent to `num' copies of `cols', where
          `num' is any positive integer and `cols' is any list of
          column-specifiers, which may contain another `*-expression'.



   These commands can be used inside a `tabular' environment:

* Menu:

* \cline::              Draw a horizontal line spanning some columns.
* \hline::              Draw a horizontal line spanning all columns.
* \multicolumn::        Make an item spanning several columns.
* \vline::              Draw a vertical line.

File: latex.info,  Node: \cline,  Next: \hline,  Up: tabular

2.6.19.1 \cline
...............

`\cline{i-j}'

   The `\cline' command draws horizontal lines across the columns
specified, beginning in column `i' and ending in column `j', which are
identified in the mandatory argument.

File: latex.info,  Node: \hline,  Next: \multicolumn,  Prev: \cline,  Up: tabular

2.6.19.2 \hline
...............

The `\hline' command will draw a horizontal line the width of the
table.  It's most commonly used to draw a line at the top, bottom, and
between the rows of the table.

File: latex.info,  Node: \multicolumn,  Next: \vline,  Prev: \hline,  Up: tabular

2.6.19.3 \multicolumn
.....................

`\multicolumn{cols}{pos}{text}'

   The `\multicolumn' is used to make an entry that spans several
columns.  The first mandatory argument, `cols', specifies the number of
columns to span.  The second mandatory argument, `pos', specifies the
formatting of the entry; `c' for centred, `l' for flushleft, `r' for
flushright.  The third mandatory argument, `text', specifies what text
is to make up the entry.

File: latex.info,  Node: \vline,  Prev: \multicolumn,  Up: tabular

2.6.19.4 \vline
...............

The `\vline' command will draw a vertical line extending the full
height and depth of its row.  An `\hfill' command can be used to move
the line to the edge of the column.  It can also be used in an
@-expression.

File: latex.info,  Node: thebibliography,  Next: theorem,  Prev: tabular,  Up: Environments

2.6.20 thebibliography
----------------------

      \begin{thebibliography}{widest-label}
      \bibitem[label]{cite_key}
      .
      .
      .
      \end{thebibliography}

   The `thebibliography' environment produces a bibliography or
reference list.  In the `article' class, this reference list is
labelled "References"; in the `report' class, it is labelled
"Bibliography".

   * `widest-label': Text that, when printed, is approximately as wide
     as the widest item label produces by the `\bibitem' commands.

* Menu:

* \bibitem::            Specify a bibliography item.
* \cite::               Refer to a bibliography item.
* \nocite::             Include an item in the bibliography.
* Using BibTeX::        Automatic generation of bibliographies.

File: latex.info,  Node: \bibitem,  Next: \cite,  Up: thebibliography

2.6.20.1 \bibitem
.................

`\bibitem[label]{cite_key}'

   The `\bibitem' command generates an entry labelled by `label'.  If
the `label' argument is missing, a number is generated as the `label',
using the `enumi' counter.  The `cite_key' is any sequence of letters,
numbers, and punctuation symbols not containing a comma.  This command
writes an entry on the `.aux' file containing `cite_key' and the item's
`label'.  When this `.aux' file is read by the `\begin{document}'
command, the item's `label' is associated with `cite_key', causing the
reference to `cite_key' by a `\cite' command to produce the associated
`label'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \cite,  Next: \nocite,  Prev: \bibitem,  Up: thebibliography

2.6.20.2 \cite
..............

`\cite[text]{key_list}'

   The `key_list' argument is a list of citation keys.  This command
generates an in-text citation to the references associated with the keys
in `key_list' by entries on the `.aux' file read by the
`\begin{document}' command.

   The optional `text' argument will appear after the citation, i.e.
`\cite[p. 2]{knuth}' might produce `[Knuth, p. 2]'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \nocite,  Next: Using BibTeX,  Prev: \cite,  Up: thebibliography

2.6.20.3 \nocite
................

`\nocite{key_list}'

   The `\nocite' command produces no text, but writes `key_list', which
is a list of one or more citation keys, on the `.aux' file.

File: latex.info,  Node: Using BibTeX,  Prev: \nocite,  Up: thebibliography

2.6.20.4 Using BibTeX
.....................

If you use the BibTeX program by Oren Patashnik (highly recommended if
you need a bibliography of more than a couple of titles) to maintain
your bibliography, you don't use the `thebibliography' environment.
Instead, you include the lines

             \bibliographystyle{style}
             \bibliography{bibfile}

   where `style' refers to a file `style.bst', which defines how your
citations will look. The standard styles distributed with BibTeX are:

`alpha'
     Sorted alphabetically. Labels are formed from name of author and
     year of publication.

`plain'
     Sorted alphabetically. Labels are numeric.

`unsrt'
     Like `plain', but entries are in order of citation.

`abbrv'
     Like `plain', but more compact labels.

   In addition, numerous other BibTeX style files exist tailored to the
demands of various publications.

   The argument to `\bibliography' refers to the file `bibfile.bib',
which should contain your database in BibTeX format. Only the entries
referred to via `\cite' and `\nocite' will be listed in the
bibliography.

File: latex.info,  Node: theorem,  Next: titlepage,  Prev: thebibliography,  Up: Environments

2.6.21 theorem
--------------

      \begin{theorem}
       theorem text
      \end{theorem}

   The `theorem' environment produces "Theorem x" in boldface followed
by your theorem text.

File: latex.info,  Node: titlepage,  Next: verbatim,  Prev: theorem,  Up: Environments

2.6.22 titlepage
----------------

      \begin{titlepage}
       text
      \end{titlepage}

   The `titlepage' environment creates a title page, i.e.  a page with
no printed page number or heading.  It also causes the following page
to be numbered page one.  Formatting the title page is left to you.  The
`\today' command comes in handy for title pages.

   Note that you can use the `\maketitle' (*note \maketitle::) command
to produce a standard title page.

File: latex.info,  Node: verbatim,  Next: verse,  Prev: titlepage,  Up: Environments

2.6.23 verbatim
---------------

      \begin{verbatim}
       text
      \end{verbatim}

   The `verbatim' environment is a paragraph-making environment that
gets LaTeX to print exactly what you type in.  It turns LaTeX into a
typewriter with carriage returns and blanks having the same effect that
they would on a typewriter.

* Menu:

* \verb::       The macro form of the `verbatim' environment.

File: latex.info,  Node: \verb,  Up: verbatim

2.6.23.1 \verb
..............

`\verb char literal_text char'

   `\verb*char literal_text char'

   Typesets `literal_text' exactly as typed, including special
characters and spaces, using a typewriter (`\tt') type style.  There
may be no space between `\verb' or `\verb*' and `char' (space is shown
here only for clarity).  The `*-form' differs only in that spaces are
printed as a special character.

File: latex.info,  Node: verse,  Prev: verbatim,  Up: Environments

2.6.24 verse
------------

      \begin{verse}
       text
      \end{verse}

   The `verse' environment is designed for poetry, though you may find
other uses for it.

   The margins are indented on the left and the right. Separate the
lines of each stanza with `\\', and use one or more blank lines to
separate the stanzas.

File: latex.info,  Node: Footnotes,  Next: Layout,  Prev: Environments,  Up: Commands

2.7 Footnotes
=============

Footnotes can be produced in one of two ways.  They can be produced
with one command, the `\footnote' command.  They can also be produced
with two commands, the `\footnotemark' and the `\footnotetext'
commands.  See the specific command for information on why you would
use one over the other.

* Menu:

* \footnote::           Insert a footnote.
* \footnotemark::       Insert footnote mark only.
* \footnotetext::       Insert footnote text only.

File: latex.info,  Node: \footnote,  Next: \footnotemark,  Prev: Footnotes,  Up: Footnotes

2.7.1 \footnote
---------------

`\footnote[number]{text}'

   The `\footnote' command places the numbered footnote `text' at the
bottom of the current page.  The optional argument, `number', is used
to change the default footnote number.  This command can only be used
in outer paragraph mode; i.e., you cannot use it in sectioning commands
like `\chapter', in figures, tables or in a `tabular' environment.

File: latex.info,  Node: \footnotemark,  Next: \footnotetext,  Prev: \footnote,  Up: Footnotes

2.7.2 \footnotemark
-------------------

The `\footnotemark' command puts the footnote `number' in the text.
This command can be used in inner paragraph mode.  The text of the
footnote is supplied by the `\footnotetext' command.

   This command can be used to produce several consecutive footnote
markers referring to the same footnote by using

   `\footnotemark[\value{footnote}]'

   after the first `\footnote' command.

File: latex.info,  Node: \footnotetext,  Prev: \footnotemark,  Up: Footnotes

2.7.3 \footnotetext
-------------------

`\footnotetext[number]{text}'

   The `\footnotetext' command produces the `text' to be placed at the
bottom of the page.  This command can come anywhere after the
`\footnotemark' command.  The `\footnotetext' command must appear in
outer paragraph mode.

   The optional argument, `number', is used to change the default
footnote number.

File: latex.info,  Node: Layout,  Next: Lengths,  Prev: Footnotes,  Up: Commands

2.5 Layout
==========

Miscellaneous commands for controlling the general layout of the page.

* Menu:

* \flushbottom::        Make all text pages the same height.
* \onecolumn::          Use one-column layout.
* \raggedbottom::       Allow text pages of differing height.
* \twocolumn::          Use two-column layout.

File: latex.info,  Node: \flushbottom,  Next: \onecolumn,  Up: Layout

2.5.1 \flushbottom
------------------

The `\flushbottom' declaration makes all text pages the same height,
adding extra vertical space when necessary to fill out the page.

   This is the standard if twocolumn mode is selected.

File: latex.info,  Node: \onecolumn,  Next: \raggedbottom,  Prev: \flushbottom,  Up: Layout

2.5.2 \onecolumn
----------------

The `\onecolumn' declaration starts a new page and produces
single-column output.

File: latex.info,  Node: \raggedbottom,  Next: \twocolumn,  Prev: \onecolumn,  Up: Layout

2.5.3 \raggedbottom
-------------------

The `\raggedbottom' declaration makes all pages the height of the text
on that page.  No extra vertical space is added.

File: latex.info,  Node: \twocolumn,  Prev: \raggedbottom,  Up: Layout

2.5.4 \twocolumn
----------------

`\twocolumn[text]'

   The `\twocolumn' declaration starts a new page and produces
two-column output. If the optional `text' argument is present, it is
typeset in one-column mode.

File: latex.info,  Node: Lengths,  Next: Letters,  Prev: Layout,  Up: Commands

2.8 Lengths
===========

A `length' is a measure of distance.  Many LaTeX commands take a length
as an argument.

* Menu:

* \newlength::          Define a new length.
* \setlength::          Set the value of a length.
* \addtolength::        Add a quantity to a length.
* \settodepth::         Set a length to the depth of something.
* \settoheight::        Set a length to the height of something.
* \settowidth::         Set a length to the width of something.
* Predefined lengths::  Lengths that are, like, predefined.

File: latex.info,  Node: \newlength,  Next: \setlength,  Prev: Lengths,  Up: Lengths

2.8.1 \newlength
----------------

`\newlength{\gnat}'

   The `\newlength' command defines the mandatory argument, `\gnat', as
a `length' command with a value of `0in'.  An error occurs if a `\gnat'
command already exists.

File: latex.info,  Node: \setlength,  Next: \addtolength,  Prev: \newlength,  Up: Lengths

2.8.2 \setlength
----------------

`\setlength{\gnat}{length}'

   The `\setlength' command is used to set the value of a `length'
command.  The `length' argument can be expressed in any terms of length
LaTeX understands, i.e., inches (`in'), millimetres (`mm'), points
(`pt'), etc.

File: latex.info,  Node: \addtolength,  Next: \settodepth,  Prev: \setlength,  Up: Lengths

2.8.3 \addtolength
------------------

`\addtolength{\gnat}{length}'

   The `\addtolength' command increments a "length command" by the
amount specified in the `length' argument.  It can be a negative amount.

File: latex.info,  Node: \settodepth,  Next: \settoheight,  Prev: \addtolength,  Up: Lengths

2.8.4 \settodepth
-----------------

`\settodepth{\gnat}{text}'

   The `\settodepth' command sets the value of a `length' command equal
to the depth of the `text' argument.

File: latex.info,  Node: \settoheight,  Next: \settowidth,  Prev: \settodepth,  Up: Lengths

2.8.5 \settoheight
------------------

`\settoheight{\gnat}{text}'

   The `\settoheight' command sets the value of a `length' command
equal to the height of the `text' argument.

File: latex.info,  Node: \settowidth,  Next: Predefined lengths,  Prev: \settoheight,  Up: Lengths

2.8.6 \settowidth
-----------------

`\settowidth{\gnat}{text}'

   The `\settowidth' command sets the value of a `length' command equal
to the width of the `text' argument.

File: latex.info,  Node: Predefined lengths,  Prev: \settowidth,  Up: Lengths

2.8.7 Predefined lengths
------------------------

`\width'

   `\height'

   `\depth'

   `\totalheight'

   These length parameters can be used in the arguments of the
box-making commands *Note Spaces & Boxes::. They specify the natural
width etc. of the text in the box. `\totalheight' equals `\height' +
`\depth'. To make a box with the text stretched to double the natural
size, e.g., say

   `\makebox[2\width]{Get a stretcher}'

File: latex.info,  Node: Letters,  Next: Line & Page Breaking,  Prev: Lengths,  Up: Commands

2.9 Letters
===========

You can use LaTeX to typeset letters, both personal and business.  The
`letter' document class is designed to make a number of letters at
once, although you can make just one if you so desire.

   Your `.tex' source file has the same minimum commands as the other
document classes, i.e., you must have the following commands as a
minimum:

      \documentclass{letter}
      \begin{document}
       ... letters ...
      \end{document}

   Each letter is a `letter' environment, whose argument is the name
and address of the recipient.  For example, you might have:

      \begin{letter}{Mr. Joe Smith\\ 2345 Princess St.
           \\ Edinburgh, EH1 1AA}
        ...
      \end{letter}

   The letter itself begins with the `\opening' command.  The text of
the letter follows.  It is typed as ordinary LaTeX input.  Commands that
make no sense in a letter, like `\chapter', do not work.  The letter
closes with a `\closing' command.

   After the `closing', you can have additional material.  The `\cc'
command produces the usual "cc: ...".  There's also a similar `\encl'
command for a list of enclosures. With both these commands, use `\\' to
separate the items.

   These commands are used with the `letter' class:

* Menu:

* \address::            Your return address.
* \cc::                 Cc list.
* \closing::            Saying goodbye.
* \encl::               List of enclosed material.
* \location::           Your organisation's address.
* \makelabels::         Making address labels.
* \name::               Your name, for the return address.
* \opening::            Saying hello.
* \ps::                 Adding a postscript.
* \signature::          Your signature.
* \startbreaks::        Allow page breaks.
* \stopbreaks::         Disallow page breaks.
* \telephone::          Your phone number.

File: latex.info,  Node: \address,  Next: \cc,  Prev: Letters,  Up: Letters

2.9.1 \address
--------------

`\address{Return address}'

   The return address, as it should appear on the letter and the
envelope.  Separate lines of the address should be separated by `\\'
commands.  If you do not make an `\address' declaration, then the
letter will be formatted for copying onto your organisation's standard
letterhead.  (*Note Overview::, for details on your local
implementation).  If you give an `\address' declaration, then the
letter will be formatted as a personal letter.

File: latex.info,  Node: \cc,  Next: \closing,  Prev: \address,  Up: Letters

2.9.2 \cc
---------

`\cc{Kate Schechter\\Rob McKenna}'

   Generate a list of other persons the letter was sent to. Each name is
printed on a separate line.

File: latex.info,  Node: \closing,  Next: \encl,  Prev: \cc,  Up: Letters

2.9.3 \closing
--------------

`\closing{text}'

   The letter closes with a `\closing' command, i.e.,
      \closing{Best Regards,}

File: latex.info,  Node: \encl,  Next: \location,  Prev: \closing,  Up: Letters

2.9.4 \encl
-----------

`\encl{CV\\Certificates}'

   Generate a list of enclosed material.

File: latex.info,  Node: \location,  Next: \makelabels,  Prev: \encl,  Up: Letters

2.9.5 \location
---------------

`\location{address}'

   This modifies your organisation's standard address.  This only
appears if the `firstpage' pagestyle is selected.

File: latex.info,  Node: \makelabels,  Next: \name,  Prev: \location,  Up: Letters

2.9.6 \makelabels
-----------------

`\makelabels{number}'

   If you issue this command in the preamble, LaTeX will create a sheet
of address labels. This sheet will be output before the letters.

File: latex.info,  Node: \name,  Next: \opening,  Prev: \makelabels,  Up: Letters

2.9.7 \name
-----------

`\name{June Davenport}'

   Your name, used for printing on the envelope together with the return
address.

File: latex.info,  Node: \opening,  Next: \ps,  Prev: \name,  Up: Letters

2.9.8 \opening
--------------

`\opening{text}'

   The letter begins with the `\opening' command.  The mandatory
argument, `text', is whatever text you wish to start your letter, i.e.,
      \opening{Dear Joe,}

File: latex.info,  Node: \ps,  Next: \signature,  Prev: \opening,  Up: Letters

2.9.9 \ps
---------

`\ps'

   Use this command before a postscript.

File: latex.info,  Node: \signature,  Next: \startbreaks,  Prev: \ps,  Up: Letters

2.9.10 \signature
-----------------

`\signature{Harvey Swick}'

   Your name, as it should appear at the end of the letter underneath
the space for your signature.  Items that should go on separate lines
should be separated by `\\' commands.

File: latex.info,  Node: \startbreaks,  Next: \stopbreaks,  Prev: \signature,  Up: Letters

2.9.11 \startbreaks
-------------------

`\startbreaks'

   Used after a `\stopbreaks' command to allow page breaks again.

File: latex.info,  Node: \stopbreaks,  Next: \telephone,  Prev: \startbreaks,  Up: Letters

2.9.12 \stopbreaks
------------------

`\stopbreaks'

   Inhibit page breaks until a `\startbreaks' command occurs.

File: latex.info,  Node: \telephone,  Prev: \stopbreaks,  Up: Letters

2.9.13 \telephone
-----------------

`\telephone{number}'

   This is your telephone number.  This only appears if the `firstpage'
pagestyle is selected.

File: latex.info,  Node: Line & Page Breaking,  Next: Making Paragraphs,  Prev: Letters,  Up: Commands

2.10 Line & Page Breaking
=========================

The first thing LaTeX does when processing ordinary text is to
translate your input file into a string of glyphs and spaces.  To
produce a printed document, this string must be broken into lines, and
these lines must be broken into pages.  In some environments, you do the
line breaking yourself with the `\\' command, but LaTeX usually does it
for you.

* Menu:

* \\::                  Start a new line.
* \- (hyphenation)::    Insert explicit hyphenation.
* \cleardoublepage::    Start a new right-hand page.
* \clearpage::          Start a new page.
* \enlargethispage::    Enlarge the current page a bit.
* \fussy::              Be fussy about line breaking.
* \hyphenation::        Tell LaTeX how to hyphenate a word.
* \linebreak::          Break the line.
* \newline::            Break the line prematurely.
* \newpage::            Start a new page.
* \nolinebreak::        Don't break the current line.
* \nopagebreak::        Don't make a page break here.
* \pagebreak::          Please make a page break here.
* \sloppy::             Be sloppy about line breaking.

File: latex.info,  Node: \\,  Next: \- (hyphenation),  Prev: Line & Page Breaking,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.1 \\
---------

`\\[*][extra-space]'

   The `\\' command tells LaTeX to start a new line.  It has an
optional argument, `extra-space', that specifies how much extra
vertical space is to be inserted before the next line.  This can be a
negative amount.

   The `\\*' command is the same as the ordinary `\\' command except
that it tells LaTeX not to start a new page after the line.

File: latex.info,  Node: \- (hyphenation),  Next: \cleardoublepage,  Prev: \\,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.2 \-
---------

The `\-' command tells LaTeX that it may hyphenate the word at that
point.  LaTeX is very good at hyphenating, and it will usually find all
correct hyphenation points.  The `\-' command is used for the
exceptional cases.

   Note that when you insert `\-' commands in a word, the word will
only be hyphenated at those points and not at any of the hyphenation
points that LaTeX might otherwise have chosen.

File: latex.info,  Node: \cleardoublepage,  Next: \clearpage,  Prev: \- (hyphenation),  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.3 \cleardoublepage
-----------------------

The `\cleardoublepage' command ends the current page and causes all
figures and tables that have so far appeared in the input to be printed.
In a two-sided printing style, it also makes the next page a right-hand
(odd-numbered) page, producing a blank page if necessary.

File: latex.info,  Node: \clearpage,  Next: \enlargethispage,  Prev: \cleardoublepage,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.4 \clearpage
-----------------

The `\clearpage' command ends the current page and causes all figures
and tables that have so far appeared in the input to be printed.

File: latex.info,  Node: \enlargethispage,  Next: \fussy,  Prev: \clearpage,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.5 \enlargethispage
-----------------------

`\enlargethispage{size}'

   `\enlargethispage*{size}'

   Enlarge the `\textheight' for the current page by the specified
amount; e.g. `\enlargethispage{\baselineskip}' will allow one
additional line.

   The starred form tries to squeeze the material together on the page
as much as possible. This is normally used together with an explicit
`\pagebreak'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \fussy,  Next: \hyphenation,  Prev: \enlargethispage,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.6 \fussy
-------------

`\fussy'

   This declaration (which is the default) makes TeX more fussy about
line breaking. This can avoids too much space between words, but may
produce overfull boxes.

   This command cancels the effect of a previous  `\sloppy' command.
*Note \sloppy::

File: latex.info,  Node: \hyphenation,  Next: \linebreak,  Prev: \fussy,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.7 \hyphenation
-------------------

`\hyphenation{words}'

   The `\hyphenation' command declares allowed hyphenation points,
where `words' is a list of words, separated by spaces, in which each
hyphenation point is indicated by a `-' character.

File: latex.info,  Node: \linebreak,  Next: \newline,  Prev: \hyphenation,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.8 \linebreak
-----------------

`\linebreak[number]'

   The `\linebreak' command tells LaTeX to break the current line at
the point of the command.  With the optional argument, `number', you
can convert the `\linebreak' command from a demand to a request.  The
number must be a number from 0 to 4.  The higher the number, the more
insistent the request is.

   The `\linebreak' command causes LaTeX to stretch the line so it
extends to the right margin.

File: latex.info,  Node: \newline,  Next: \newpage,  Prev: \linebreak,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.9 \newline
---------------

The `\newline' command breaks the line right where it is. It can only
be used in paragraph mode.

File: latex.info,  Node: \newpage,  Next: \nolinebreak,  Prev: \newline,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.10 \newpage
----------------

The `\newpage' command ends the current page.

File: latex.info,  Node: \nolinebreak,  Next: \nopagebreak,  Prev: \newpage,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.11 \nolinebreak
--------------------

`\nolinebreak[number]'

   The `\nolinebreak' command prevents LaTeX from breaking the current
line at the point of the command.  With the optional argument,
`number', you can convert the `\nolinebreak' command from a demand to a
request.  The number must be a number from 0 to 4.  The higher the
number, the more insistent the request is.

File: latex.info,  Node: \nopagebreak,  Next: \pagebreak,  Prev: \nolinebreak,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.12 \nopagebreak
--------------------

`\nopagebreak[number]'

   The `\nopagebreak' command prevents LaTeX from breaking the current
page at the point of the command.  With the optional argument,
`number', you can convert the `\nopagebreak' command from a demand to a
request.  The number must be a number from 0 to 4.  The higher the
number, the more insistent the request is.

File: latex.info,  Node: \pagebreak,  Next: \sloppy,  Prev: \nopagebreak,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.13 \pagebreak
------------------

`\pagebreak[number]'

   The `\pagebreak' command tells LaTeX to break the current page at
the point of the command.  With the optional argument, `number', you
can convert the `\pagebreak' command from a demand to a request.  The
number must be a number from 0 to 4.  The higher the number, the more
insistent the request is.

File: latex.info,  Node: \sloppy,  Prev: \pagebreak,  Up: Line & Page Breaking

2.10.14 \sloppy
---------------

`\sloppy'

   This declaration makes TeX less fussy about line breaking. This can
prevent overfull boxes, but may leave too much space between words.

   Lasts until a `\fussy' command is issued. *Note \fussy::.

File: latex.info,  Node: Making Paragraphs,  Next: Margin Notes,  Prev: Line & Page Breaking,  Up: Commands

2.11 Making Paragraphs
======================

A paragraph is ended by one or more completely blank lines -- lines not
containing even a `%'.  A blank line should not appear where a new
paragraph cannot be started, such as in math mode or in the argument of
a sectioning command.

* Menu:

* \indent::     Indent this paragraph.
* \noindent::   Do not indent this paragraph.
* \par::        Another way of writing a blank line.

File: latex.info,  Node: \indent,  Next: \noindent,  Prev: Making Paragraphs,  Up: Making Paragraphs

2.11.1 \indent
--------------

`\indent'

   This produces a horizontal space whose width equals the width of the
paragraph indentation.  It is used to add paragraph indentation where it
would otherwise be suppressed.

File: latex.info,  Node: \noindent,  Next: \par,  Prev: \indent,  Up: Making Paragraphs

2.11.2 \noindent
----------------

`\noindent'

   When used at the beginning of the paragraph, it suppresses the
paragraph indentation.  It has no effect when used in the middle of a
paragraph.

File: latex.info,  Node: \par,  Prev: \noindent,  Up: Making Paragraphs

2.11.3 \par
-----------

Equivalent to a blank line; often used to make command or environment
definitions easier to read.

File: latex.info,  Node: Margin Notes,  Next: Math Formulae,  Prev: Making Paragraphs,  Up: Commands

2.12 Margin Notes
=================

The command `\marginpar[left]{right}' creates a note in the margin.
The first line will be at the same height as the line in the text where
the `\marginpar' occurs.

   When you only specify the mandatory argument `right', the text will
be placed

   * in the right margin for one-sided layout

   * in the outside margin for two-sided layout

   * in the nearest margin for two-column layout.

   By issuing the command `\reversemarginpar', you can force the
marginal notes to go into the opposite (inside) margin.

   When you specify both arguments, `left' is used for the left margin,
and `right' is used for the right margin.

   The first word will normally not be hyphenated; you can enable
hyphenation by prefixing the first word with a `\hspace{0pt}' command.

File: latex.info,  Node: Math Formulae,  Next: Modes,  Prev: Margin Notes,  Up: Commands

2.13 Math Formulae
==================

There are three environments that put LaTeX in math mode:

`math'
     For Formulae that appear right in the text.

`displaymath'
     For Formulae that appear on their own line.

`equation'
     The same as the displaymath environment except that it adds an
     equation number in the right margin.

   The `math' environment can be used in both paragraph and LR mode,
but the `displaymath' and `equation' environments can be used only in
paragraph mode.  The `math' and `displaymath' environments are used so
often that they have the following short forms:

         \(...\)     instead of     \begin{math}...\end{math}

         \[...\]     instead of     \begin{displaymath}...\end{displaymath}

   In fact, the `math' environment is so common that it has an even
shorter form:

         $ ... $     instead of     \(...\)

* Menu:

* Subscripts & Superscripts::   Also known as exponent or index.
* Math Symbols::                Various mathematical squiggles.
* Spacing in Math Mode::        Thick, medium, thin and negative spaces.
* Math Miscellany::             Stuff that doesn't fit anywhere else.

File: latex.info,  Node: Subscripts & Superscripts,  Next: Math Symbols,  Prev: Math Formulae,  Up: Math Formulae

2.13.1 Subscripts & Superscripts
--------------------------------

To get an expression exp to appear as a subscript, you just type
`_{'exp`}'.  To get exp to appear as a superscript, you type
`^{'exp`}'. LaTeX handles superscripted superscripts and all of that
stuff in the natural way.  It even does the right thing when something
has both a subscript and a superscript.

File: latex.info,  Node: Math Symbols,  Next: Spacing in Math Mode,  Prev: Subscripts & Superscripts,  Up: Math Formulae

2.13.2 Math Symbols
-------------------

LaTeX provides almost any mathematical symbol you're likely to need. The
commands for generating them can be used only in math mode.  For
example, if you include `$\pi$' in your source, you will get the symbol
"pi" in your output.

File: latex.info,  Node: Spacing in Math Mode,  Next: Math Miscellany,  Prev: Math Symbols,  Up: Math Formulae

2.13.3 Spacing in Math Mode
---------------------------

In a `math' environment, LaTeX ignores the spaces you type and puts in
the spacing that it thinks is best.  LaTeX formats mathematics the way
it's done in mathematics texts.  If you want different spacing, LaTeX
provides the following four commands for use in math mode:

  1. `\;' - a thick space

  2. `\:' - a medium space

  3. `\,' - a thin space

  4. `\!' - a negative thin space

File: latex.info,  Node: Math Miscellany,  Prev: Spacing in Math Mode,  Up: Math Formulae

2.13.4 Math Miscellany
----------------------

`\cdots'
     Produces a horizontal ellipsis where the dots are raised to the
     centre of the line.

`\ddots'
     Produces a diagonal ellipsis.

`\frac{num}{den}'
     Produces the fraction `num' divided by `den'.

`\ldots'
     Produces an ellipsis.  This command works in any mode, not just
     math mode.

`\overbrace{text}'
     Generates a brace over text.

`\overline{text}'
     Causes the argument text to be overlined.

`\sqrt[root]{arg}'
     Produces the square root of its argument.  The optional argument,
     `root', determines what root to produce, i.e., the cube root of
     `x+y' would be typed as `$\sqrt[3]{x+y}$'.

`\underbrace{text}'
     Generates text with a brace underneath.

`\underline{text}'
     Causes the argument text to be underlined.  This command can also
     be used in paragraph and LR modes.

`\vdots'
     Produces a vertical ellipsis.


File: latex.info,  Node: Modes,  Next: Page Styles,  Prev: Math Formulae,  Up: Commands

2.14 Modes
==========

When LaTeX is processing your input text, it is always in one of three
modes:

   * Paragraph mode

   * Math mode

   * Left-to-right mode, called LR mode for short

   LaTeX changes mode only when it goes up or down a staircase to a
different level, though not all level changes produce mode changes.
Mode changes occur only when entering or leaving an environment, or when
LaTeX is processing the argument of certain text-producing commands.

   "Paragraph mode" is the most common; it's the one LaTeX is in when
processing ordinary text.  In that mode, LaTeX breaks your text into
lines and breaks the lines into pages.  LaTeX is in "math mode" when
it's generating a mathematical formula.  In "LR mode", as in paragraph
mode, LaTeX considers the output that it produces to be a string of
words with spaces between them.  However, unlike paragraph mode, LaTeX
keeps going from left to right; it never starts a new line in LR mode.
Even if you put a hundred words into an `\mbox', LaTeX would keep
typesetting them from left to right inside a single box, and then
complain because the resulting box was too wide to fit on the line.

   LaTeX is in LR mode when it starts making a box with an `\mbox'
command.  You can get it to enter a different mode inside the box - for
example, you can make it enter math mode to put a formula in the box.
There are also several text-producing commands and environments for
making a box that put LaTeX in paragraph mode.  The box make by one of
these commands or environments will be called a `parbox'.  When LaTeX
is in paragraph mode while making a box, it is said to be in "inner
paragraph mode".  Its normal paragraph mode, which it starts out in, is
called "outer paragraph mode".

File: latex.info,  Node: Page Styles,  Next: Sectioning,  Prev: Modes,  Up: Commands

2.15 Page Styles
================

The `\documentclass' command determines the size and position of the
page's head and foot.  The page style determines what goes in them.

* Menu:

* \maketitle::          Generate a title page.
* \pagenumbering::      Set the style used for page numbers.
* \pagestyle::		Change the headings/footings style.
* \thispagestyle::      Change the headings/footings style for this page.

File: latex.info,  Node: \maketitle,  Next: \pagenumbering,  Prev: Page Styles,  Up: Page Styles

2.15.1 \maketitle
-----------------

`\maketitle'

   The `\maketitle' command generates a title on a separate title page
- except in the `article' class, where the title normally goes at the
top of the first page.  Information used to produce the title is
obtained from the following declarations:

   *Note Page Styles::, for the commands to give the information.

* Menu:

* \author::     Who wrote this stuff?
* \date::       The date the document was created.
* \thanks::     A special form of footnote.
* \title::      How to set the document title.

File: latex.info,  Node: \author,  Next: \date,  Prev: \maketitle,  Up: \maketitle

2.15.2 \author
--------------

`\author{names}'

   The `\author' command declares the author(s), where `names' is a
list of authors separated by `\and' commands.  Use `\\' to separate
lines within a single author's entry - for example, to give the
author's institution or address.

File: latex.info,  Node: \date,  Next: \thanks,  Prev: \author,  Up: \maketitle

2.15.3 \date
------------

`\date{text}'

   The `\date' command declares text to be the document's date.  With
no `\date' command, the current date is used.

File: latex.info,  Node: \thanks,  Next: \title,  Prev: \date,  Up: \maketitle

2.15.4 \thanks
--------------

`\thanks{text}'

   The `\thanks' command produces a `\footnote' to the title.

File: latex.info,  Node: \title,  Prev: \thanks,  Up: \maketitle

2.15.5 \title
-------------

`\title{text}'

   The `\title' command declares `text' to be the title.  Use `\\' to
tell LaTeX where to start a new line in a long title.

File: latex.info,  Node: \pagenumbering,  Next: \pagestyle,  Prev: \maketitle,  Up: Page Styles

2.15.6 \pagenumbering
---------------------

`\pagenumbering{num_style}'

   Specifies the style of page numbers.  Possible values of `num_style'
are:

   * `arabic' - Arabic numerals

   * `roman' - Lowercase Roman numerals

   * `Roman' - Uppercase Roman numerals

   * `alph' - Lowercase letters

   * `Alph' - Uppercase letters

File: latex.info,  Node: \pagestyle,  Next: \thispagestyle,  Prev: \pagenumbering,  Up: Page Styles

2.15.7 \pagestyle
-----------------

`\pagestyle{option}'

   The `\pagestyle' command changes the style from the current page on
throughout the remainder of your document.

   The valid options are:

   * `plain' - Just a plain page number.

   * `empty' - Produces empty heads and feet - no page numbers.

   * `headings' - Puts running headings on each page.  The document
     style specifies what goes in the headings.

   * `myheadings' - You specify what is to go in the heading with the
     `\markboth' or the `\markright' commands.

* Menu:

* \markboth::           Set left and right headings.
* \markright::          Set right heading only.

File: latex.info,  Node: \markboth,  Next: \markright,  Prev: \pagestyle,  Up: \pagestyle

2.15.8 \markboth
----------------

     \markboth{left head}{right head}

   The `\markboth' command is used in conjunction with the page style
`myheadings' for setting both the left and the right heading.  You
should note that a "left-hand heading" is generated by the last
`\markboth' command before the end of the page, while a "right-hand
heading" is generated by the first `\markboth' or `\markright' that
comes on the page if there is one, otherwise by the last one before the
page.

File: latex.info,  Node: \markright,  Prev: \markboth,  Up: \pagestyle

2.15.9 \markright
-----------------

     \markright{right head}

   The `\markright' command is used in conjunction with the page style
`myheadings' for setting the right heading, leaving the left heading
unchanged.  You should note that a "left-hand heading" is generated by
the last `\markboth' command before the end of the page, while a
"right-hand heading" is generated by the first `\markboth' or
`\markright' that comes on the page if there is one, otherwise by the
last one before the page.

File: latex.info,  Node: \thispagestyle,  Prev: \pagestyle,  Up: Page Styles

2.15.10 \thispagestyle
----------------------

`\thispagestyle{option}'

   The `\thispagestyle' command works in the same manner as the
`\pagestyle' command except that it changes the style for the current
page only.

File: latex.info,  Node: Sectioning,  Next: Spaces & Boxes,  Prev: Page Styles,  Up: Commands

2.16 Sectioning
===============

Sectioning commands provide the means to structure your text into units.

   * `\part'

   * `\chapter' (report and book class only)

   * `\section'

   * `\subsection'

   * `\subsubsection'

   * `\paragraph'

   * `\subparagraph'

   All sectioning commands take the same general form, i.e.,

   `\chapter[optional]{title}'

   In addition to providing the heading in the text, the mandatory
argument of the sectioning command can appear in two other places:

  1. The table of contents

  2. The running head at the top of the page

   You may not want the same thing to appear in these other two places
as appears in the text heading.  To handle this situation, the
sectioning commands have an `optional' argument that provides the text
for these other two purposes.

   All sectioning commands have `*'-forms that print a title, but do
not include a number and do not make an entry in the table of contents.

   `\appendix'

   The `\appendix' command changes the way sectional units are
numbered.  The `\appendix' command generates no text and does not
affect the numbering of parts.  The normal use of this command is
something like

     \chapter{The First Chapter}
     ...
     \appendix
     \chapter{The First Appendix}

File: latex.info,  Node: Spaces & Boxes,  Next: Special Characters,  Prev: Sectioning,  Up: Commands

2.17 Spaces & Boxes
===================

All the predefined length parameters (*note Predefined lengths::) can be
used in the arguments of the box-making commands.

* Menu:

Horizontal space
* \dotfill::            Stretchable horizontal dots.
* \hfill::              Stretchable horizontal space.
* \hrulefill::          Stretchable horizontal rule.
* \hspace::             Fixed horizontal space.
Vertical space
* \addvspace::          Fixed vertical space.
* \bigskip::            Fixed vertical space.
* \medskip::            Fixed vertical space.
* \smallskip::          Fixed vertical space.
* \vfill::              Stretchable vertical space.
* \vspace::             Fixed vertical space.
Boxes
* \fbox::               Framebox.
* \framebox::           Framebox, adjustable position.
* lrbox::               An environment like \sbox.
* \makebox::            Box, adjustable position.
* \mbox::               Box.
* \newsavebox::         Declare a name for saving a box.
* \parbox::             Box with text in paragraph mode.
* \raisebox::           Raise or lower text.
* \rule::               Lines and squares.
* \savebox::            Like \makebox, but save the text for later use.
* \sbox::               Like \mbox, but save the text for later use.
* \usebox::             Print saved text.

File: latex.info,  Node: \dotfill,  Next: \hfill,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.1 \dotfill
---------------

The `\dotfill' command produces a "rubber length" that produces dots
instead of just spaces.

File: latex.info,  Node: \hfill,  Next: \hrulefill,  Prev: \dotfill,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.2 \hfill
-------------

The `\hfill' fill command produces a "rubber length" which can stretch
or shrink horizontally.  It will be filled with spaces.

File: latex.info,  Node: \hrulefill,  Next: \hspace,  Prev: \hfill,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.3 \hrulefill
-----------------

The `\hrulefill' fill command produces a "rubber length" which can
stretch or shrink horizontally.  It will be filled with a horizontal
rule.

File: latex.info,  Node: \hspace,  Next: \addvspace,  Prev: \hrulefill,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.4 \hspace
--------------

`\hspace[*]{length}'

   The `\hspace' command adds horizontal space.  The length of the
space can be expressed in any terms that LaTeX understands, i.e.,
points, inches, etc.  You can add negative as well as positive space
with an `\hspace' command.  Adding negative space is like backspacing.

   LaTeX removes horizontal space that comes at the end of a line.  If
you don't want LaTeX to remove this space, include the optional `*'
argument.  Then the space is never removed.

File: latex.info,  Node: \addvspace,  Next: \bigskip,  Prev: \hspace,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.5 \addvspace
-----------------

`\addvspace{length}'

   The `\addvspace' command normally adds a vertical space of height
length.  However, if vertical space has already been added to the same
point in the output by a previous `\addvspace' command, then this
command will not add more space than needed to make the natural length
of the total vertical space equal to `length'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \bigskip,  Next: \medskip,  Prev: \addvspace,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.6 \bigskip
---------------

The `\bigskip' command is equivalent to `\vspace{bigskipamount}' where
`bigskipamount' is determined by the document class.

File: latex.info,  Node: \medskip,  Next: \smallskip,  Prev: \bigskip,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.7 \medskip
---------------

The `\medskip' command is equivalent to `\vspace{medskipamount}' where
`medskipamount' is determined by the document class.

File: latex.info,  Node: \smallskip,  Next: \vfill,  Prev: \medskip,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.8 \smallskip
-----------------

`\smallskip'

   The `\smallskip' command is equivalent to `\vspace{smallskipamount}'
where `smallskipamount' is determined by the document class.

File: latex.info,  Node: \vfill,  Next: \vspace,  Prev: \smallskip,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.9 \vfill
-------------

The `\vfill' fill command produces a rubber length which can stretch or
shrink vertically.

File: latex.info,  Node: \vspace,  Next: \fbox,  Prev: \vfill,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.10 \vspace
---------------

`\vspace[*]{length}'

   The `\vspace' command adds vertical space.  The length of the space
can be expressed in any terms that LaTeX understands, i.e., points,
inches, etc.  You can add negative as well as positive space with an
`\vspace' command.

   LaTeX removes vertical space that comes at the end of a page.  If you
don't want LaTeX to remove this space, include the optional `*'
argument.  Then the space is never removed.

File: latex.info,  Node: \fbox,  Next: \framebox,  Prev: \vspace,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.11 \fbox
-------------

`\fbox{text}'

   The `\fbox' command is exactly the same as the `\mbox' command,
except that it puts a frame around the outside of the box that it
creates.

File: latex.info,  Node: \framebox,  Next: lrbox,  Prev: \fbox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.12 \framebox
-----------------

`\framebox[width][position]{text}'

   The `\framebox' command is exactly the same as the `\makebox'
command, except that it puts a frame around the outside of the box that
it creates.

   The framebox command produces a rule of thickness `\fboxrule', and
leaves a space `\fboxsep' between the rule and the contents of the box.

File: latex.info,  Node: lrbox,  Next: \makebox,  Prev: \framebox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.13 lrbox
-------------

`\begin{lrbox}{cmd} text \end{lrbox}'

   This is the environment form of `\sbox'.

   The text inside the environment is saved in the box `cmd', which
must have been declared with `\newsavebox'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \makebox,  Next: \mbox,  Prev: lrbox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.14 \makebox
----------------

`\makebox[width][position]{text}'

   The `\makebox' command creates a box just wide enough to contain the
`text' specified.  The width of the box is specified by the optional
`width' argument.  The position of the text within the box is
determined by the optional `position' argument.

   * `c' -- centred (default)

   * `l' -- flushleft

   * `r' -- flushright

   * `s' -- stretch from left to right margin. The text must contain
     stretchable space for this to work.

   *Note \makebox (picture)::.

File: latex.info,  Node: \mbox,  Next: \newsavebox,  Prev: \makebox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.15 \mbox
-------------

`\mbox{text}'

   The `\mbox' command creates a box just wide enough to hold the text
created by its argument.

   Use this command to prevent text from being split across lines.

File: latex.info,  Node: \newsavebox,  Next: \parbox,  Prev: \mbox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.16 \newsavebox
-------------------

`\newsavebox{cmd}'

   Declares `cmd', which must be a command name that is not already
defined, to be a bin for saving boxes.

File: latex.info,  Node: \parbox,  Next: \raisebox,  Prev: \newsavebox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.17 \parbox
---------------

`\parbox[position][height][inner-pos]{width}{text}'

   A `parbox' is a box whose contents are created in `paragraph' mode.
The `\parbox' has two mandatory arguments:

   * `width' - specifies the width of the parbox, and

   * `text' - the text that goes inside the parbox.

   LaTeX will position a `parbox' so its centre lines up with the
centre of the text line.  The optional position argument allows you to
line up either the top or bottom line in the parbox (default is top).

   If the height argument is not given, the box will have the natural
height of the text.

   The inner-pos argument controls the placement of the text inside the
box. If it is not specified, position is used.

   * `t' -- text is placed at the top of the box.

   * `c' -- text is centred in the box.

   * `b' -- text is placed at the bottom of the box.

   * `s' -- stretch vertically. The text must contain vertically
     stretchable space for this to work.

   A `\parbox' command is used for a parbox containing a small piece of
text, with nothing fancy inside.  In particular, you shouldn't use any
of the paragraph-making environments inside a `\parbox' argument.  For
larger pieces of text, including ones containing a paragraph-making
environment, you should use a `minipage' environment *Note minipage::.

File: latex.info,  Node: \raisebox,  Next: \rule,  Prev: \parbox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.18 \raisebox
-----------------

`\raisebox{distance}[extend-above][extend-below]{text}'

   The `\raisebox' command is used to raise or lower text.  The first
mandatory argument specifies how high the text is to be raised (or
lowered if it is a negative amount).  The text itself is processed in
`LR mode'.

   Sometimes it's useful to make LaTeX think something has a different
size than it really does - or a different size than LaTeX would
normally think it has.  The `\raisebox' command lets you tell LaTeX how
tall it is.

   The first optional argument, `extend-above', makes LaTeX think that
the text extends above the line by the amount specified.  The second
optional argument, `extend-below', makes LaTeX think that the text
extends below the line by the amount specified.

File: latex.info,  Node: \rule,  Next: \savebox,  Prev: \raisebox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.19 \rule
-------------

`\rule[raise-height]{width}{thickness}'

   The `\rule' command is used to produce horizontal lines.  The
arguments are defined as follows:

   * `raise-height' - specifies how high to raise the rule (optional)

   * `width' - specifies the length of the rule (mandatory)

   * `thickness' - specifies the thickness of the rule (mandatory)

File: latex.info,  Node: \savebox,  Next: \sbox,  Prev: \rule,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.20 \savebox
----------------

      \savebox{cmd}[width][pos]{text}

   This command typeset `text' in a box just as for `\makebox'.
However, instead of printing the resulting box, it saves it in bin
`cmd', which must have been declared with `\newsavebox'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \sbox,  Next: \usebox,  Prev: \savebox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.21 \sbox
-------------

`\sbox{text}'

   This commands typeset `text' in a box just as for `\mbox'.  However,
instead of printing the resulting box, it saves it in bin `cmd', which
must have been declared with `\newsavebox'.

File: latex.info,  Node: \usebox,  Prev: \sbox,  Up: Spaces & Boxes

2.17.22 \usebox
---------------

`\usebox{cmd}'

   Prints the box most recently saved in bin `cmd' by a `\savebox'
command.

File: latex.info,  Node: Special Characters,  Next: Splitting the Input,  Prev: Spaces & Boxes,  Up: Commands

2.18 Special Characters
=======================

The following characters play a special role in LaTeX and are called
"special printing characters", or simply "special characters".

                            # $ % & ~ _ ^ \ { }

   Whenever you put one of these special characters into your file, you
are doing something special.  If you simply want the character to be
printed just as any other letter, include a `\' in front of the
character.  For example, `\$' will produce `$' in your output.

   One exception to this rule is the `\' itself because `\\' has its
own special meaning.  A `\' is produced by typing `$\backslash$' in
your file.

   Also, `\~' means `place a tilde accent over the following letter',
so you will probably want to use `\verb' instead.

   In addition, you can access any character of a font once you know its
number by using the `\symbol' command. For example, the character used
for displaying spaces in the `\verb*' command has the code decimal 32,
so it can be typed as `\symbol{32}'.

   You can also specify octal numbers with `'' or hexadecimal numbers
with `"', so the previous example could also be written as
`\symbol{'40}' or `\symbol{"20}'.

File: latex.info,  Node: Splitting the Input,  Next: Starting & Ending,  Prev: Special Characters,  Up: Commands

2.19 Splitting the Input
========================

A large document requires a lot of input.  Rather than putting the whole
input in a single large file, it's more efficient to split it into
several smaller ones.  Regardless of how many separate files you use,
there is one that is the root file; it is the one whose name you type
when you run LaTeX.

* Menu:

* \include::            Conditionally include a file.
* \includeonly::        Determine which files are included.
* \input::              Unconditionally include a file.

File: latex.info,  Node: \include,  Next: \includeonly,  Prev: Splitting the Input,  Up: Splitting the Input

2.19.1 \include
---------------

`\include{file}'

   The `\include' command is used in conjunction with the
`\includeonly' command for selective inclusion of files.  The `file'
argument is the first name of a file, denoting `file.tex'.  If `file'
is one the file names in the file list of the `\includeonly' command or
if there is no `\includeonly' command, the `\include' command is
equivalent to

     \clearpage \input{file} \clearpage

   except that if the file `file.tex' does not exist, then a warning
message rather than an error is produced.  If the file is not in the
file list, the `\include' command is equivalent to `\clearpage'.

   The `\include' command may not appear in the preamble or in a file
read by another `\include' command.

File: latex.info,  Node: \includeonly,  Next: \input,  Prev: \include,  Up: Splitting the Input

2.19.2 \includeonly
-------------------

`\includeonly{'file_list`}'

   The `\includeonly' command controls which files will be read in by
an `\include' command.  file_list should be a comma-separated list of
filenames. Each filename must match exactly a filename specified in a
`\include' command. This command can only appear in the preamble.

File: latex.info,  Node: \input,  Prev: \includeonly,  Up: Splitting the Input

2.19.3 \input
-------------

`\input{file}'

   The `\input' command causes the indicated `file' to be read and
processed, exactly as if its contents had been inserted in the current
file at that point.  The file name may be a complete file name with
extension or just a first name, in which case the file `file.tex' is
used.

File: latex.info,  Node: Starting & Ending,  Next: Table of Contents,  Prev: Splitting the Input,  Up: Commands

2.20 Starting & Ending
======================

Your input file must contain the following commands as a minimum:

      \documentclass{class}
      \begin{document}
        ... your text goes here ...
      \end{document}

   where the `class' selected is one of the valid classes for LaTeX.
*Note Document Classes::, (and *note Overview::), for details of the
various document classes available locally.

   You may include other LaTeX commands between the `\documentclass'
and the `\begin{document}' commands (i.e., in the `preamble').

File: latex.info,  Node: Table of Contents,  Next: Terminal Input/Output,  Prev: Starting & Ending,  Up: Commands

2.21 Table of Contents
======================

A table of contents is produced with the `\tableofcontents' command.
You put the command right where you want the table of contents to go;
LaTeX does the rest for you.  It produces a heading, but it does not
automatically start a new page.  If you want a new page after the table
of contents, include a `\newpage' command after the `\tableofcontents'
command.

   There are similar commands `\listoffigures' and `\listoftables'  for
producing a list of figures and a list of tables, respectively.
Everything works exactly the same as for the table of contents.

   NOTE: If you want any of these items to be generated, you cannot have
the `\nofiles' command in your document.

* Menu:

* \addcontentsline::    Add an entry to table of contents etc.
* \addtocontents::      Add text directly to table of contents file etc.

File: latex.info,  Node: \addcontentsline,  Next: \addtocontents,  Prev: Table of Contents,  Up: Table of Contents

2.21.1 \addcontentsline
-----------------------

`\addcontentsline{file}{sec_unit}{entry}'

   The `\addcontentsline' command adds an entry to the specified list
or table where:

   * `file' is the extension of the file on which information is to be
     written: `toc' (table of contents), `lof' (list of figures), or
     `lot' (list of tables).

   * `sec_unit' controls the formatting of the entry.  It should be one
     of the following, depending upon the value of the file argument:
       1. `toc' -- the name of the sectional unit, such as part or
          subsection.

       2. `lof' -- figure

       3. `lot' -- table

   * `entry' is the text of the entry.

File: latex.info,  Node: \addtocontents,  Prev: \addcontentsline,  Up: Table of Contents

2.21.2 \addtocontents
---------------------

`\addtocontents{file}{text}'

   The `\addtocontents' command adds text (or formatting commands)
directly to the file that generates the table of contents or list of
figures or tables.

   * `file' is the extension of the file on which information is to be
     written: `toc' (table of contents), `lof' (list of figures), or
     `lot' (list of tables).

   * `text' is the information to be written.

File: latex.info,  Node: Terminal Input/Output,  Next: Typefaces,  Prev: Table of Contents,  Up: Commands

2.22 Terminal Input/Output
==========================

* Menu:

* \typein::             Read text from the terminal.
* \typeout::            Write text to the terminal.

File: latex.info,  Node: \typein,  Next: \typeout,  Up: Terminal Input/Output

2.22.1 \typein
--------------

`\typein[cmd]{msg}'

   Prints `msg' on the terminal and causes LaTeX to stop and wait for
you to type a line of input, ending with return.  If the `cmd' argument
is missing, the typed input is processed as if it had been included in
the input file in place of the `\typein' command.  If the `cmd'
argument is present, it must be a command name.  This command name is
then defined or redefined to be the typed input.

File: latex.info,  Node: \typeout,  Prev: \typein,  Up: Terminal Input/Output

2.22.2 \typeout
---------------

`\typeout{msg}'

   Prints `msg' on the terminal and in the `log' file.  Commands in
`msg' that are defined with `\newcommand' or `\renewcommand' are
replaced by their definitions before being printed.

   LaTeX's usual rules for treating multiple spaces as a single space
and ignoring spaces after a command name apply to `msg'.  A `\space'
command in `msg' causes a single space to be printed. A `^^J' in `msg'
prints a newline.

File: latex.info,  Node: Typefaces,  Prev: Terminal Input/Output,  Up: Commands

2.23 Typefaces
==============

The `typeface' is specified by giving the "size" and "style".  A
typeface is also called a "font".

* Menu:

* Styles::                      Select roman, italics etc.
* Sizes::                       Select point size.
* Low-level font commands::     Commands for wizards.

File: latex.info,  Node: Styles,  Next: Sizes,  Prev: Typefaces,  Up: Typefaces

2.23.1 \Styles
--------------

The following type style commands are supported by LaTeX.

   These commands are used like `\textit{italics text}'. The
corresponding command in parenthesis is the "declaration form", which
takes no arguments. The scope of the declaration form lasts until the
next type style command or the end of the current group.

   The declaration forms are cumulative; i.e., you can say
`\sffamily\bfseries' to get sans serif boldface.

   You can also use the environment form of the declaration forms; e.g.
`\begin{ttfamily}...\end{ttfamily}'.

`\textrm (\rmfamily)'
     Roman.

`\textit (\itshape)'

`\emph'
     Emphasis (toggles between \textit and \textrm).

`\textmd (\mdseries)'
     Medium weight (default). The opposite of boldface.

`\textbf (\bfseries)'
     Boldface.

`\textup (\upshape)'
     Upright (default). The opposite of slanted.

`\textsl (\slshape)'
     Slanted.

`\textsf (\sffamily)'
     Sans serif.

`\textsc (\scshape)'
     Small caps.

`\texttt (\ttfamily)'
     Typewriter.

`\textnormal (\normalfont)'
     Main document font.

`\mathrm'
     Roman, for use in math mode.

`\mathbf'
     Boldface, for use in math mode.

`\mathsf'
     Sans serif, for use in math mode.

`\mathtt'
     Typewriter, for use in math mode.

`\mathit'
     Italics, for use in math mode, e.g. variable names with several
     letters.

`\mathnormal'
     For use in math mode, e.g. inside another type style declaration.

`\mathcal'
     `Calligraphic' letters, for use in math mode.

   In addition, the command `\mathversion{bold}' can be used for
switching to bold letters and symbols in formulas.
`\mathversion{normal}' restores the default.

File: latex.info,  Node: Sizes,  Next: Low-level font commands,  Prev: Styles,  Up: Typefaces

2.23.2 Sizes
------------

The following standard type size commands are supported by LaTeX.

   The commands as listed here are "declaration forms". The scope of the
declaration form lasts until the next type style command or the end of
the current group.

   You can also use the environment form of these commands; e.g.
`\begin{tiny}...\end{tiny}'.

`\tiny'

`\scriptsize'

`\footnotesize'

`\small'

`\normalsize'
     (default)

`\large'

`\Large'

`\LARGE'

`\huge'

`\Huge'

File: latex.info,  Node: Low-level font commands,  Prev: Sizes,  Up: Typefaces

2.23.3 Low-level font commands
------------------------------

These commands are primarily intended for writers of macros and
packages.  The commands listed here are only a subset of the available
ones. For full details, you should consult Chapter 7 of `The LaTeX
Companion'.

`\fontencoding{enc}'
     Select font encoding. Valid encodings include `OT1' and `T1'.

`\fontfamily{family}'
     Select font family. Valid families include:

        * `cmr'  for Computer Modern Roman

        * `cmss' for Computer Modern Sans Serif

        * `cmtt' for Computer Modern Typewriter

     and numerous others.

`\fontseries{series}'
     Select font series. Valid series include:

        * `m'  Medium (normal)

        * `b'  Bold

        * `c'  Condensed

        * `bc' Bold condensed

        * `bx' Bold extended

     and various other combinations.

`\fontshape{shape}'
     Select font shape. Valid shapes are:

        * `n'  Upright (normal)

        * `it' Italic

        * `sl' Slanted (oblique)

        * `sc' Small caps

        * `ui' Upright italics

        * `ol' Outline

     The two last shapes are not available for most font families.

`\fontsize{size}{skip}'
     Set font size. The first parameter is the font size to switch to;
     the second is the `\baselineskip' to use. The unit of both
     parameters defaults to pt. A rule of thumb is that the
     baselineskip should be 1.2 times the font size.

`\selectfont'
     The changes made by calling the four font commands described above
     do not come into effect until `\selectfont' is called.

`\usefont{enc}{family}{series}{shape}'
     Equivalent to calling `\fontencoding', `\fontfamily',
     `\fontseries' and `\fontshape' with the given parameters, followed
     by `\selectfont'.

File: latex.info,  Node: Parameters,  Next: Concept Index,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Top

3 Parameters
************

The input file specification indicates the file to be formatted; TeX
uses `.tex' as a default file extension.  If you omit the input file
entirely, TeX accepts input from the terminal.  You specify command
options by supplying a string as a parameter to the command; e.g.

   `latex ``\scrollmode\input foo.tex'''

   will process `foo.tex' without pausing after every error.

   Output files are always created in the current directory. When you
fail to specify an input file name, TeX bases the output names on the
file specification associated with the logical name TEX_OUTPUT,
typically `texput.log'.

File: latex.info,  Node: Command Index,  Prev: Concept Index,  Up: Top

Command Index
*************

[index]
* Menu:

* $:                                     Math Formulae.        (line  6)
* \!:                                    Spacing in Math Mode. (line 11)
* \' (tabbing):                          tabbing.              (line 46)
* \(:                                    Math Formulae.        (line  6)
* \):                                    Math Formulae.        (line  6)
* \+:                                    tabbing.              (line 38)
* \,:                                    Spacing in Math Mode. (line 11)
* \- (hyphenation):                      \- (hyphenation).     (line  6)
* \- (tabbing):                          tabbing.              (line 42)
* \;:                                    Spacing in Math Mode. (line 11)
* \<:                                    tabbing.              (line 33)
* \=:                                    tabbing.              (line 27)
* \>:                                    tabbing.              (line 30)
* \[:                                    Math Formulae.        (line  6)
* \\:                                    \\.                   (line  6)
* \]:                                    Math Formulae.        (line  6)
* \` (tabbing):                          tabbing.              (line 52)
* \a:                                    tabbing.              (line 75)
* \addcontentsline:                      \addcontentsline.     (line  6)
* \address:                              \address.             (line  6)
* \addtocontents:                        \addtocontents.       (line  6)
* \addtocounter:                         \addtocounter.        (line  6)
* \addtolength:                          \addtolength.         (line  6)
* \addvspace:                            \addvspace.           (line  6)
* \Alph:                                 \alph.                (line  6)
* \alph:                                 \alph.                (line  6)
* \appendix:                             Sectioning.           (line 41)
* \arabic:                               \arabic.              (line  6)
* \author:                               \author.              (line  6)
* \backslash:                            Special Characters.   (line 23)
* \begin:                                Environments.         (line  6)
* \bfseries:                             Styles.               (line 31)
* \bibitem:                              \bibitem.             (line  6)
* \bibliography:                         Using BibTeX.         (line  6)
* \bibliographystyle:                    Using BibTeX.         (line  6)
* \bigskip:                              \bigskip.             (line  6)
* \caption:                              figure.               (line 13)
* \cc:                                   \cc.                  (line  6)
* \cdots:                                Math Miscellany.      (line  7)
* \centering:                            \centering.           (line  6)
* \chapter:                              Sectioning.           (line  6)
* \circle:                               \circle.              (line  6)
* \cite:                                 \cite.                (line  6)
* \cleardoublepage:                      \cleardoublepage.     (line  6)
* \clearpage:                            \clearpage.           (line  6)
* \cline:                                \cline.               (line  6)
* \closing:                              \closing.             (line  6)
* \COLON:                                Spacing in Math Mode. (line 11)
* \dashbox:                              \dashbox.             (line  6)
* \date:                                 \date.                (line  6)
* \ddots:                                Math Miscellany.      (line 11)
* \depth:                                Predefined lengths.   (line 10)
* \documentclass:                        Document Classes.     (line  6)
* \dotfill:                              \dotfill.             (line  6)
* \emph:                                 Styles.               (line 25)
* \encl:                                 \encl.                (line  6)
* \end:                                  Environments.         (line  6)
* \enlargethispage:                      \enlargethispage.     (line  6)
* \fbox:                                 \fbox.                (line  6)
* \flushbottom:                          \flushbottom.         (line  6)
* \fnsymbol:                             \fnsymbol.            (line  6)
* \fontencoding:                         Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line 12)
* \fontfamily:                           Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line 15)
* \fontseries:                           Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line 26)
* \fontshape:                            Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line 41)
* \fontsize:                             Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line 58)
* \footnote:                             \footnote.            (line  6)
* \footnotemark:                         \footnotemark.        (line  6)
* \footnotesize:                         Sizes.                (line 20)
* \footnotetext:                         \footnotetext.        (line  6)
* \frac:                                 Math Miscellany.      (line 14)
* \frame:                                \frame.               (line  6)
* \framebox <1>:                         \framebox.            (line  6)
* \framebox:                             \framebox (picture).  (line  6)
* \fussy:                                \fussy.               (line  6)
* \height:                               Predefined lengths.   (line  8)
* \hfill:                                \hfill.               (line  6)
* \hline:                                \hline.               (line  6)
* \hrulefill:                            \hrulefill.           (line  6)
* \hspace:                               \hspace.              (line  6)
* \Huge:                                 Sizes.                (line 35)
* \huge:                                 Sizes.                (line 33)
* \hyphenation:                          \hyphenation.         (line  6)
* \include:                              \include.             (line  6)
* \includeonly:                          \includeonly.         (line  6)
* \indent:                               \indent.              (line  6)
* \input:                                \input.               (line  6)
* \item:                                 itemize.              (line  6)
* \itshape:                              Styles.               (line 23)
* \kill:                                 tabbing.              (line 61)
* \label:                                \label.               (line  6)
* \LARGE:                                Sizes.                (line 31)
* \Large:                                Sizes.                (line 29)
* \large:                                Sizes.                (line 27)
* \ldots:                                Math Miscellany.      (line 17)
* \lefteqn:                              eqnarray.             (line 22)
* \line:                                 \line.                (line  6)
* \linebreak:                            \linebreak.           (line  6)
* \linethickness:                        \linethickness.       (line  6)
* \listoffigures:                        Table of Contents.    (line 13)
* \listoftables:                         Table of Contents.    (line 13)
* \location:                             \location.            (line  6)
* \makebox:                              \makebox.             (line  6)
* \makebox (picture):                    \makebox (picture).   (line  6)
* \makelabels:                           \makelabels.          (line  6)
* \maketitle:                            \maketitle.           (line  6)
* \markboth:                             \markboth.            (line  6)
* \markright:                            \markright.           (line  6)
* \mathbf:                               Styles.               (line 55)
* \mathcal:                              Styles.               (line 71)
* \mathit:                               Styles.               (line 64)
* \mathnormal:                           Styles.               (line 68)
* \mathrm:                               Styles.               (line 52)
* \mathsf:                               Styles.               (line 58)
* \mathtt:                               Styles.               (line 61)
* \mathversion:                          Styles.               (line 73)
* \mbox:                                 \mbox.                (line  6)
* \mdseries:                             Styles.               (line 28)
* \medskip:                              \medskip.             (line  6)
* \multicolumn:                          \multicolumn.         (line  6)
* \multiput:                             \multiput.            (line  6)
* \name:                                 \name.                (line  6)
* \newcommand:                           \newcommand.          (line  6)
* \newcounter:                           \newcounter.          (line  6)
* \newenvironment:                       \newenvironment.      (line  6)
* \newfont:                              \newfont.             (line  6)
* \newlength:                            \newlength.           (line  6)
* \newline:                              \newline.             (line  6)
* \newpage:                              \newpage.             (line  6)
* \newsavebox:                           \newsavebox.          (line  6)
* \newtheorem:                           \newtheorem.          (line  6)
* \nocite:                               \nocite.              (line  6)
* \nofiles:                              Table of Contents.    (line 18)
* \noindent:                             \noindent.            (line  6)
* \nolinebreak:                          \nolinebreak.         (line  6)
* \nopagebreak:                          \nopagebreak.         (line  6)
* \normalfont:                           Styles.               (line 49)
* \normalsize:                           Sizes.                (line 24)
* \onecolumn:                            \onecolumn.           (line  6)
* \opening:                              \opening.             (line  6)
* \oval:                                 \oval.                (line  6)
* \overbrace:                            Math Miscellany.      (line 21)
* \overline:                             Math Miscellany.      (line 24)
* \pagebreak:                            \pagebreak.           (line  6)
* \pagenumbering:                        \pagenumbering.       (line  6)
* \pageref:                              \pageref.             (line  6)
* \pagestyle:                            \pagestyle.           (line  6)
* \par:                                  \par.                 (line  6)
* \paragraph:                            Sectioning.           (line  6)
* \parbox:                               \parbox.              (line  6)
* \poptabs:                              tabbing.              (line 72)
* \ps:                                   \ps.                  (line  6)
* \pushtabs:                             tabbing.              (line 67)
* \put:                                  \put.                 (line  6)
* \raggedbottom:                         \raggedbottom.        (line  6)
* \raggedleft:                           \raggedleft.          (line  6)
* \raggedright:                          \raggedright.         (line  6)
* \raisebox:                             \raisebox.            (line  6)
* \ref:                                  \ref.                 (line  6)
* \refstepcounter:                       \refstepcounter.      (line  6)
* \rmfamily:                             Styles.               (line 20)
* \Roman:                                \roman.               (line  6)
* \roman:                                \roman.               (line  6)
* \rule:                                 \rule.                (line  6)
* \savebox:                              \savebox.             (line  6)
* \sbox:                                 \sbox.                (line  6)
* \scriptsize:                           Sizes.                (line 18)
* \scshape:                              Styles.               (line 43)
* \selectfont:                           Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line 64)
* \setcounter:                           \setcounter.          (line  6)
* \setlength:                            \setlength.           (line  6)
* \settodepth:                           \settodepth.          (line  6)
* \settoheight:                          \settoheight.         (line  6)
* \settowidth:                           \settowidth.          (line  6)
* \sffamily:                             Styles.               (line 40)
* \shortstack:                           \shortstack.          (line  6)
* \signature:                            \signature.           (line  6)
* \sloppy:                               \sloppy.              (line  6)
* \slshape:                              Styles.               (line 37)
* \small:                                Sizes.                (line 22)
* \smallskip:                            \smallskip.           (line  6)
* \sqrt:                                 Math Miscellany.      (line 27)
* \startbreaks:                          \startbreaks.         (line  6)
* \stepcounter:                          \stepcounter.         (line  6)
* \stopbreaks:                           \stopbreaks.          (line  6)
* \subparagraph:                         Sectioning.           (line  6)
* \subsection:                           Sectioning.           (line  6)
* \subsubsection:                        Sectioning.           (line  6)
* \symbol:                               Special Characters.   (line 23)
* \tableofcontents:                      Table of Contents.    (line  6)
* \telephone:                            \telephone.           (line  6)
* \textbf:                               Styles.               (line 31)
* \textit:                               Styles.               (line 23)
* \textmd:                               Styles.               (line 28)
* \textnormal:                           Styles.               (line 49)
* \textrm:                               Styles.               (line 20)
* \textsc:                               Styles.               (line 43)
* \textsf:                               Styles.               (line 40)
* \textsl:                               Styles.               (line 37)
* \texttt:                               Styles.               (line 46)
* \textup:                               Styles.               (line 34)
* \thanks:                               \thanks.              (line  6)
* \thispagestyle:                        \thispagestyle.       (line  6)
* \tiny:                                 Sizes.                (line 16)
* \title:                                \title.               (line  6)
* \today:                                titlepage.            (line 13)
* \totalheight:                          Predefined lengths.   (line 12)
* \ttfamily:                             Styles.               (line 46)
* \twocolumn:                            \twocolumn.           (line  6)
* \typein:                               \typein.              (line  6)
* \typeout:                              \typeout.             (line  6)
* \underbrace:                           Math Miscellany.      (line 32)
* \underline:                            Math Miscellany.      (line 35)
* \upshape:                              Styles.               (line 34)
* \usebox:                               \usebox.              (line  6)
* \usecounter:                           \usecounter.          (line  6)
* \usefont:                              Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line 68)
* \usepackage:                           Document Classes.     (line 68)
* \value:                                \value.               (line  6)
* \vdots:                                Math Miscellany.      (line 39)
* \vector:                               \vector.              (line  6)
* \verb:                                 \verb.                (line  6)
* \vfill:                                \vfill.               (line  6)
* \vline:                                \vline.               (line  6)
* \vspace:                               \vspace.              (line  6)
* \width:                                Predefined lengths.   (line  6)
* ^:                                     Subscripts & Superscripts.
                                                               (line  6)
* _:                                     Subscripts & Superscripts.
                                                               (line  6)
* array:                                 array.                (line  6)
* center:                                center.               (line  6)
* description:                           description.          (line  6)
* enumerate:                             enumerate.            (line  6)
* eqnarray:                              eqnarray.             (line  6)
* equation:                              equation.             (line  6)
* figure:                                figure.               (line  6)
* flushleft:                             flushleft.            (line  6)
* flushright:                            flushright.           (line  6)
* itemize:                               itemize.              (line  6)
* letter:                                letter.               (line  6)
* list:                                  list.                 (line  6)
* lrbox:                                 lrbox.                (line  6)
* minipage:                              minipage.             (line  6)
* picture:                               picture.              (line  6)
* quotation:                             quotation.            (line  6)
* quote:                                 quote.                (line  6)
* tabbing:                               tabbing.              (line  6)
* table:                                 table.                (line  6)
* tabular:                               tabular.              (line  6)
* thebibliography:                       thebibliography.      (line  6)
* theorem:                               theorem.              (line  6)
* titlepage:                             titlepage.            (line  6)
* verbatim:                              verbatim.             (line  6)
* verse:                                 verse.                (line  6)


File: latex.info,  Node: Concept Index,  Next: Command Index,  Prev: Parameters,  Up: Top

Concept Index
*************

[index]
* Menu:

* Accessing any character of a font:     Special Characters.   (line 23)
* Aligning Equations:                    eqnarray.             (line  6)
* Appendix, creating:                    Sectioning.           (line 41)
* Arrays, math:                          array.                (line  6)
* article class:                         Document Classes.     (line  6)
* Author, for titlepage:                 \author.              (line  6)
* Bibliography, creating (automatically): Using BibTeX.        (line  6)
* Bibliography, creating (manually):     thebibliography.      (line  6)
* BibTeX, using:                         Using BibTeX.         (line  6)
* book class:                            Document Classes.     (line  6)
* Boxes:                                 Spaces & Boxes.       (line  6)
* Cc list:                               \cc.                  (line  6)
* Centering text:                        \centering.           (line  6)
* Centering text, environment for:       center.               (line  6)
* Characters, reserved:                  Special Characters.   (line  6)
* Characters, special:                   Special Characters.   (line  6)
* Classes of document:                   Document Classes.     (line  6)
* Commands, defining new ones:           \newcommand.          (line  6)
* Computer programs, typesetting:        verbatim.             (line  6)
* Counters, a list of:                   Counters.             (line  6)
* Counters, creating:                    \newcounter.          (line  6)
* Counters, getting the value of:        \value.               (line  6)
* Counters, setting:                     \setcounter.          (line  6)
* Creating letters:                      Letters.              (line  6)
* Creating pictures:                     picture.              (line  6)
* Creating tables:                       table.                (line  6)
* Cross referencing:                     Cross References.     (line  6)
* Cross referencing using page number:   \pageref.             (line  6)
* Cross referencing using section number: \ref.                (line  6)
* Date, for titlepage:                   \date.                (line  6)
* Defining a new command:                \newcommand.          (line  6)
* Defining new environments:             \newenvironment.      (line  6)
* Defining new fonts:                    \newfont.             (line  6)
* Defining new theorems:                 \newtheorem.          (line  6)
* Displaying quoted text:                quote.                (line  6)
* Displaying quoted text with paragraph indentation: quotation.
                                                               (line  6)
* Document Classes:                      Document Classes.     (line  6)
* Enclosed material:                     \encl.                (line  6)
* Ending & Starting:                     Starting & Ending.    (line  6)
* Enlarge current page:                  \enlargethispage.     (line  6)
* Environments:                          Environments.         (line  6)
* Environments, defining:                \newenvironment.      (line  6)
* Equations, aligning:                   eqnarray.             (line  6)
* Equations, environment for:            equation.             (line  6)
* exponent:                              Math Formulae.        (line 32)
* Figures, footnotes in:                 minipage.             (line  6)
* Flushing a page:                       \clearpage.           (line  6)
* Font commands, low-level:              Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line  6)
* Font Sizes:                            Sizes.                (line  6)
* Font Styles:                           Styles.               (line  6)
* Fonts:                                 Typefaces.            (line  6)
* Fonts, new commands for:               \newfont.             (line  6)
* Footnotes in figures:                  minipage.             (line  6)
* Footnotes, creating:                   Footnotes.            (line  6)
* Formatting Text:                       \centering.           (line  6)
* Formulae, environment for:             equation.             (line  6)
* Formulae, maths:                       Math Formulae.        (line  6)
* Global options:                        Document Classes.     (line 75)
* Greek letters:                         Math Symbols.         (line  6)
* Hyphenation, defining:                 \hyphenation.         (line  6)
* Hyphenation, forcing:                  \- (hyphenation).     (line  6)
* Indent, forcing:                       \indent.              (line  6)
* Indent, suppressing:                   \noindent.            (line  6)
* Input file, splitting:                 Splitting the Input.  (line  6)
* Input/Output:                          Terminal Input/Output.
                                                               (line  6)
* Inserting figures:                     figure.               (line  6)
* Justification, ragged left:            \raggedleft.          (line  6)
* Justification, ragged right:           \raggedright.         (line  6)
* Labelled lists, creating:              description.          (line  6)
* LaTeX overview:                        Overview.             (line  6)
* Layout commands:                       Layout.               (line  3)
* Left-justifying text:                  \raggedright.         (line  6)
* Left-justifying text, environment for: flushleft.            (line  6)
* Left-to-right mode:                    Modes.                (line  6)
* Lengths, adding to:                    \addtolength.         (line  6)
* Lengths, defining a new:               \newlength.           (line  6)
* Lengths, defining and using:           Lengths.              (line  6)
* Lengths, predefined:                   Predefined lengths.   (line  6)
* Lengths, setting value of:             \setlength.           (line  6)
* letter class:                          Document Classes.     (line  6)
* Letters:                               Letters.              (line  6)
* Letters, ending:                       \closing.             (line  6)
* Letters, starting:                     \opening.             (line  6)
* Line Breaking:                         Line & Page Breaking. (line  6)
* Line breaks:                           \linebreak.           (line  6)
* Lines in tables:                       tabular.              (line  6)
* Lining text up in columns using tab stops: tabbing.          (line  6)
* Lining text up in tables:              tabular.              (line  6)
* Lists of items:                        itemize.              (line  6)
* Lists of items, generic:               list.                 (line  6)
* Lists of items, numbered:              enumerate.            (line  6)
* Loading additional packages:           Document Classes.     (line 71)
* Low-level font commands:               Low-level font commands.
                                                               (line  6)
* LR mode:                               Modes.                (line  6)
* Making a title page:                   titlepage.            (line  6)
* Making paragraphs:                     Making Paragraphs.    (line  6)
* Margin Notes:                          Margin Notes.         (line  6)
* Math Formulae:                         Math Formulae.        (line  6)
* Math mode:                             Modes.                (line  6)
* Math mode, entering:                   Math Formulae.        (line  6)
* Math mode, spacing:                    Spacing in Math Mode. (line  6)
* Maths Miscellany:                      Math Miscellany.      (line  6)
* Maths symbols:                         Math Symbols.         (line  6)
* Minipage, creating a:                  minipage.             (line  6)
* Modes:                                 Modes.                (line  6)
* Multicolumn text:                      \twocolumn.           (line  6)
* New line, starting:                    \\.                   (line  6)
* New line, starting (paragraph mode):   \newline.             (line  6)
* New Page:                              \newpage.             (line  6)
* Notes in the margin:                   Margin Notes.         (line  6)
* Options, global:                       Document Classes.     (line 75)
* Overview of LaTeX:                     Overview.             (line  6)
* Packages, loading:                     Document Classes.     (line 71)
* Page break, forcing:                   \pagebreak.           (line  6)
* Page Breaking:                         Line & Page Breaking. (line  6)
* Page Formatting:                       Line & Page Breaking. (line  6)
* Page numbering:                        \pagenumbering.       (line  6)
* Page styles:                           Page Styles.          (line  6)
* Paragraph mode:                        Modes.                (line  6)
* Paragraph, starting a new:             \par.                 (line  6)
* Paragraphs:                            Making Paragraphs.    (line  6)
* Pictures, creating:                    picture.              (line  6)
* Poetry, an environment for:            verse.                (line  6)
* Predefined lengths:                    Predefined lengths.   (line  6)
* Programs, typesetting:                 verbatim.             (line  6)
* Quoted text with paragraph indentation, displaying: quotation.
                                                               (line  6)
* Quoted text, displaying:               quote.                (line  6)
* Ragged left text:                      \raggedleft.          (line  6)
* Ragged left text, environment for:     flushright.           (line  6)
* Ragged right text:                     \raggedright.         (line  6)
* Ragged right text, environment for:    flushleft.            (line  6)
* Remarks in the margin:                 Margin Notes.         (line  6)
* report class:                          Document Classes.     (line  6)
* Reserved Characters:                   Special Characters.   (line  6)
* Right-justifying text:                 \raggedleft.          (line  6)
* Right-justifying text, environment for: flushright.          (line  6)
* Sectioning:                            Sectioning.           (line  6)
* Simulating typed text:                 verbatim.             (line  6)
* Sizes of text:                         Sizes.                (line  6)
* Space, inserting vertical:             \addvspace.           (line  6)
* Spaces:                                Spaces & Boxes.       (line  6)
* Spacing, within Math mode:             Spacing in Math Mode. (line  6)
* Special Characters:                    Special Characters.   (line  6)
* Splitting the input file:              Splitting the Input.  (line  6)
* Starting & Ending:                     Starting & Ending.    (line  6)
* Starting on a  right-hand page:        \cleardoublepage.     (line  6)
* Styles of text:                        Styles.               (line  6)
* Styles, page:                          Page Styles.          (line  6)
* Subscript:                             Subscripts & Superscripts.
                                                               (line  6)
* Superscript:                           Subscripts & Superscripts.
                                                               (line  6)
* Symbols:                               Math Symbols.         (line  6)
* Tab stops, using:                      tabbing.              (line  6)
* Table of Contents, creating:           Table of Contents.    (line  6)
* Tables, creating:                      table.                (line  6)
* Terminal Input/Output:                 Terminal Input/Output.
                                                               (line  6)
* Thanks, for titlepage:                 \thanks.              (line  6)
* Theorems, defining:                    \newtheorem.          (line  6)
* Theorems, typesetting:                 theorem.              (line  6)
* Title making:                          \maketitle.           (line  6)
* Title pages, creating:                 titlepage.            (line  6)
* Title, for titlepage:                  \title.               (line  6)
* Typed text, simulating:                verbatim.             (line  6)
* Typeface Sizes:                        Sizes.                (line  6)
* Typeface Styles:                       Styles.               (line  6)
* Typefaces:                             Typefaces.            (line  6)
* Using BibTeX:                          Using BibTeX.         (line  6)
* Variables, a list of:                  Counters.             (line  6)
* Verbatim text:                         \verb.                (line  6)
* Vertical space, inserting:             \addvspace.           (line  6)