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Kpathsea library

This manual documents how to install and use the Kpathsea library for
filename lookup.  It corresponds to version 3.5.6, released in
January 2007.

* Menu:

* Introduction::                Overview.
* Installation::                Compilation, installation, and bug reporting.

* Path searching::              How filename lookups work.
* TeX support::                 Special support for TeX-related file lookups.

* Programming::                 How to use Kpathsea features in your program.

* Index::                       General index.

File:,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Installation,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction

This manual corresponds to version 3.5.6 of the Kpathsea library,
released in January 2007.

   The library's fundamental purpose is to return a filename from a
list of directories specified by the user, similar to what shells do
when looking up program names to execute.

   The following software, all of which we maintain, uses this library:

   * Dviljk (see the `dvilj' man page)

   * Dvipsk (*note Introduction: (dvips)Top.)

   * GNU font utilities (*note Introduction: (fontu)Top.)

   * Web2c (*note Introduction: (web2c)Top.)

   * Xdvik (see the `xdvi' man page)

Other software that we do not maintain also uses it.

   We are still actively maintaining the library (and probably always
will be, despite our hopes).  If you have comments or suggestions,
please send them to us (*note Reporting bugs::).

   We distribute the library under the GNU Library General Public
License (LGPL).  In short, this means if you write a program using the
library, you must (offer to) distribute the source to the library,
along with any changes you have made, and allow anyone to modify the
library source and distribute their modifications.  It does not mean
you have to distribute the source to your program, although we hope you
will.  See the files `GPL' and `LGPL' for the text of the GNU licenses.

   If you know enough about TeX to be reading this manual, then you (or
your institution) should consider joining the TeX Users Group (if
you're already a member, great!).  TUG produces the periodical
`TUGboat', sponsors an annual meeting and publishes the proceedings,
and arranges courses on TeX for all levels of users throughout the
world.  Anyway, here is the address:

     TeX Users Group
     P.O. Box 2311
     Portland OR 97208-2311
     phone: +1 503 223-9994
     fax:   +1 503 223-3960
     email: <>

* Menu:

* History::

File:,  Node: History,  Up: Introduction

1.1 History

(This section is for those people who are curious about how the library
came about.)  (If you like to read historical accounts of software, we
urge you to seek out the GNU Autoconf manual and the "Errors of TeX"
paper by Don Knuth, published in `Software--Practice and Experience'
19(7), July 1989.)

   [Karl writes.]  My first ChangeLog entry for Web2c seems to be
February 1990, but I may have done some work before then.  In any case,
Tim Morgan and I were jointly maintaining it for a time.  (I should
mention here that Tim had made Web2c into a real distribution long
before I had ever used it or even heard of it, and Tom Rokicki did the
original implementation.  I was using `pxp' and `pc' on VAX 11/750's
and the hot new Sun 2 machines.)

   It must have been later in 1990 and 1991 that I started working on
`TeX for the Impatient'. Dvips, Xdvi, Web2c, and the GNU fontutils
(which I was also writing at the time) all used different environment
variables, and, more importantly, had different bugs in their path
searching. This became extremely painful, as I was stressing everything
to the limit working on the book.  I also desperately wanted to
implement subdirectory searching, since I couldn't stand putting
everything in one big directory, and also couldn't stand having to
explicitly specify `cm', `pandora', ... in a path.

   In the first incarnation, I just hacked separately on each
program--that was the original subdirectory searching code in both Xdvi
and Dvips, though I think Paul Vojta has completely rewritten Xdvi's
support by now.  That is, I tried to go with the flow in each program,
rather than changing the program's calling sequences to conform to
common routines.

   Then, as bugs inevitably appeared, I found I was fixing the same
thing three times (Web2c and fontutils were always sharing code, since I
maintained those--there was no Dvipsk or Xdvik or Dviljk at this
point).  After a while, I finally started sharing source files.  They
weren't yet a library, though.  I just kept things up to date with shell
scripts.  (I was developing on a 386 running ISC 2.2 at the time, and so
didn't have symbolic links.  An awful experience.)

   The ChangeLogs for Xdvik and Dvipsk record initial releases of those
distributions in May and June 1992.  I think it was because I was tired
of the different configuration strategies of each program, not so much
because of the path searching.  (Autoconf was being developed by David
MacKenzie and others, and I was adapting it to TeX and friends.)

   I started to make a separate library that other programs could link
with on my birthday in April 1993, according to the ChangeLog.  I don't
remember exactly why I finally took the time to make it a separate
library; a conversation with david zuhn that initiated it.  Just seemed
like it was time.

   Dviljk got started in March 1994 after I bought a Laserjet 4.
(Kpathsea work got suspended while Norm Walsh and I, with Gustaf
Neumann's help, implemented a way for TeX to get at all those neat
builtin LJ4 fonts ... such a treat to have something to typeset in
besides Palatino!)

   By spring of 1995, I had implemented just about all the
path-searching features in Kpathsea that I plan to, driven beyond my
initial goals by Thomas Esser and others.  I then started to integrate
Web2c with Kpathsea. After the release of a stable Web2c, I hope to be
able to stop development, and turn most of my attention back to making
fonts for GNU.  (Always assuming Micros**t hasn't completely
obliterated Unix by then, or that software patents haven't stopped
software development by anybody smaller than a company with a
million-dollar-a-year legal budget.  Which is actually what I think is
likely to happen, but that's another story...)

   [Olaf writes.]  At the end of 1997, UNIX is still alive and kicking,
individuals still develop software, and Web2c development still
continues.  Karl had been looking for some time for someone to take up
part of the burden, and I volunteered.

File:,  Node: Installation,  Next: Path searching,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Installation

(A copy of this chapter is in the distribution file `kpathsea/INSTALL'.)

The procedure for Kpathsea (and Web2c, etc.) configuration and
installation follows.  If you encounter trouble, see *Note Common
problems::, a copy of which is in the file `kpathsea/BUGS'.

* Menu:

* Simple installation::      If you just want to do it.
* Custom installation::      If you want to change things around.
* Security::                 Who can write what files, etc.
* TeX directory structure::  Managing the horde of TeX input files.
* unixtex.ftp::              Getting software via FTP, on CD-ROM, or on tape.
* Reporting bugs::           Where and how to report bugs.

File:,  Node: Simple installation,  Next: Custom installation,  Up: Installation

2.1 Simple installation

Installing TeX and friends for the first time can be a daunting
experience.  Thus, you may prefer to skip this whole thing and just get
precompiled executables: see *Note unixtex.ftp::.

   This section explains what to do if you wish to take the defaults for
everything, and generally to install in the simplest possible way.  Most
steps here refer to corresponding subsection in the next section which
explains how to override defaults and generally gives more details.

   By default everything will be installed under `/usr/local' and the
following discussion assumes this.  However, if you already have TeX
installed, its location is used to derive the directory under which
everything is to be installed.

  1. Be sure you have enough disk space: approximately 8 megabytes for
     the compressed archives, 15MB for sources, 50MB for compilation,
     40MB for the (initial) installed system (including library files).
     *Note Disk space::.

  2. Retrieve these distribution archives:
          These are the sources, which you will be compiling.

          This is a basic set of input files.  You should unpack it in
          the directory `/usr/local/share'; doing so will create a
          `texmf' subdirectory there.

     These archives are mirrored on the CTAN hosts, in the
     `systems/web2c' directory.

     *Note Kpathsea application distributions::.

  3. When using the default search paths, there is no need to edit any
     distribution files. *Note Changing search paths::.

  4. At the top level of the distribution, run `sh configure'.  (If you
     have the GNU Bash shell installed, run `bash configure'.)  *Note
     Running configure::.

  5. `make'. *Note Running make::.  If you are using a BSD 4.4 system
     such as FreeBSD or NetBSD, you may have to use GNU make (often
     installed in `/usr/local/bin'), not the BSD make.

  6. `make install'. *Note Installing files::.

  7. `make distclean'. *Note Cleaning up::.

  8. Set up a cron job to rebuild the filename database that makes
     searching faster.  This line will rebuild it every midnight:
          0 0 * * * cd /usr/local/share/texmf && /BINDIR/mktexlsr
     *Note Filename database generation::, and *Note Filename

  9. If you're installing Dvips, you also need to set up configuration
     files for your printers and make any additional PostScript fonts
     available.  *Note Installation: (dvips)Installation.  If you have
     any color printers, see *Note Color device configuration:
     (dvips)Color device configuration.

 10. The first time you run a DVI driver, a bunch of PK fonts will be
     built by Metafont via `mktexpk' (and added to the filename
     database).  This will take some time.  Don't be alarmed; they will
     created only this first time (unless something is wrong with your
     path definitions).

     By default, `mktexpk' will create these fonts in a hierarchy under
     `/var/tmp/texfonts'; it simply assumes that `/var/tmp' exists and
     is globally writable.  If you need a different arrangement, see
     *Note mktex configuration::.

     *Note mktex scripts::.

 11. For some simple tests, try `tex story \\bye' and `latex sample2e'.
     Then run `xdvi story' or `dvips sample2e' on the resulting DVI
     files to preview/print the documents.  *Note Installation

File:,  Node: Custom installation,  Next: Security,  Prev: Simple installation,  Up: Installation

2.2 Custom installation

Most sites need to modify the default installation procedure in some
way, perhaps merely changing the prefix from `/usr/local', perhaps
adding extra compiler or loader options to work around `configure'
bugs.  This section explains how to override default choices.  For
additional distribution-specific information:
   * `dviljk/INSTALL'.

   * *Note Installation: (dvips)Installation.

   * *Note Installation: (web2c)Installation.

   * `xdvik/INSTALL'.

   These instructions are for Unix systems.  Other operating-system
specific distributions have their own instructions.  The code base
itself supports Amiga, DOS, OS/2, and VMS.

   Following are the same steps as in the previous section (which
describes the simplest installation), but with much more detail.

* Menu:

* Disk space::
* Kpathsea application distributions::
* Changing search paths::
* Running configure::
* Running make::
* Installing files::
* Cleaning up::
* Filename database generation::
* mktex scripts::
* Installation testing::

File:,  Node: Disk space,  Next: Kpathsea application distributions,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.1 Disk space

Here is a table showing the disk space needed for each distribution
(described in the next section).  The `(totals)' line reflects the
`texk' source distribution and `texklib'; the individual distributions
don't enter into it.  Sizes are in megabytes.  All numbers are

Distribution   .tar.gz   Unpacked   Compiled   Installed
dviljk         .9        3.8
dvipsk         .9        3.2
xdvik          .7        2.5
web2c          1.3       5.0
web            1.9       6.5        -          -
texk           7.5       32.1       95.3       33.5
texklib        6.3       15.0       -          15.0
(totals)       14.6      47.1       95.3       48.5

File:,  Node: Kpathsea application distributions,  Next: Changing search paths,  Prev: Disk space,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.2 Kpathsea application distributions

The archive `' contains all of the
Kpathsea applications I maintain, and the library itself.  For example,
since NeXT does not generally support X11, you'd probably want to skip
`xdvik' (or simply remove it after unpacking `texk.tar.gz'.  If you are
not interested in all of them, you can also retrieve them separately:

     DVI to PCL, for LaserJet printers.

     DVI to PostScript, for previewers, printers, or PDF generation.

     The software needed to compile TeX and friends.

     The original WEB source files, also used in compilation.

     DVI previewing under the X window system.

   If you want to use the Babel LaTeX package for support of non-English
typesetting, you may need to retrieve additional files.  See the file
`install.txt' in the Babel distribution.

File:,  Node: Changing search paths,  Next: Running configure,  Prev: Kpathsea application distributions,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.3 Changing search paths

If the search paths for your installation differ from the standard TeX
directory structure (*note Introduction: (tds)Top.), edit the file
`kpathsea/' as desired, before running `configure'.  For
example, if you have all your fonts or macros in one big directory.

   You may also wish to edit the file `mktex.cnf', either before or
after installation, to control various aspects of `mktexpk' and
friends.  *Note mktex configuration::.

   You do not need to edit `' to change the default top-level
or other installation _directories_ (only the paths).  You can and
should do that when you run `configure' (next step).

   You also do not need to edit `' if you are willing to rely
on `texmf.cnf' at runtime to define the paths, and let the compile-time
default paths be incorrect.  Usually there is no harm in doing this.

   The section below explains default generation in more detail.

* Menu:

* Default path features::
* Default path generation::

File:,  Node: Default path features,  Next: Default path generation,  Up: Changing search paths Default path features

The purpose of having all the different files described in the section
above is to avoid having the same information in more than one place. If
you change the installation directories or top-level prefix at
`configure'-time, those changes will propagate through the whole
sequence.  And if you change the default paths in `', those
changes are propagated to the compile-time defaults.

   The Make definitions are all repeated in several Makefile's; but
changing the top-level `Makefile' should suffice, as it passes down all
the variable definitions, thus overriding the submakes.  (The
definitions are repeated so you can run Make in the subdirectories, if
you should have occasion to.)

   By default, the bitmap font paths end with `/$MAKETEX_MODE', thus
including the device name (usually a Metafont mode name such as
`ljfour').  This distinguishes two different devices with the same
resolution--a write/white from a write/black 300dpi printer, for

   However, since most sites don't have this complication, Kpathsea
(specifically, the `kpse_init_prog' function in `kpathsea/proginit.c')
has a special case: if the mode has not been explicitly set by the user
(or in a configuration file), it sets `MAKETEX_MODE' to `/'.  This
makes the default PK path, for example, expand into `.../pk//', so
fonts will be found even if there is no subdirectory for the mode (if
you arranged things that way because your site has only one printer,
for example) or if the program is mode-independent (e.g., `pktype').

   To make the paths independent of the mode, simply edit `'
before installation, or the installed `texmf.cnf', and remove the

   *Note mktex script arguments::, for how this interacts with

   *Note TeX directory structure: TeX directory structure, for a
description of the default arrangement of the input files that comprise
the TeX system.  The file `kpathsea/HIER' is a copy of that section.

File:,  Node: Default path generation,  Prev: Default path features,  Up: Changing search paths Default path generation

This section describes how the default paths are constructed.

   You may wish to ignore the whole mess and simply edit `texmf.cnf'
after it is installed, perhaps even copying it into place beforehand so
you can complete the installation, if it seems necessary.

   To summarize the chain of events that go into defining the default

  1. `configure' creates a `Makefile' from each `'.

  2. When Make runs in the `kpathsea' directory, it creates a file
     `texmf.sed' that substitutes the Make value of `$(var)' for a
     string `@var@'.  The variables in question are the one that define
     the installation directories.

  3. `texmf.sed' (together with a little extra magic--see
     `kpathsea/Makefile') is applied to `' to generate
     `texmf.cnf'.  This is the file that will eventually be installed
     and used.

  4. The definitions in `texmf.cnf' are recast as C `#define''s in
     `paths.h'.  These values will be the compile-time defaults; they
     are not used at runtime unless no `texmf.cnf' file can be found.

     (That's a lie: the compile-time defaults are what any extra :'s in
     `texmf.cnf' expand into; but the paths as distributed have no extra
     :'s, and there's no particular reason for them to.)

File:,  Node: Running configure,  Next: Running make,  Prev: Changing search paths,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.4 Running `configure'

Run `sh configure OPTIONS' (in the top-level directory, the one
containing `kpathsea/'), possibly using a shell other than `sh' (*note
configure shells::).

   `configure' adapts the source distribution to the present system via
`#define''s in `*/c-auto.h', which are created from the corresponding
`'.  It also creates a `Makefile' from the corresponding
`', doing `@VAR@' and `ac_include' substitutions).

   `configure' is the best place to control the configuration,
compilation, and installed location of the software, either via
command-line options, or by setting environment variables before
invoking it.  For example, you can disable `mktexpk' by default with
the option `--disable-mktexpk'.  *Note configure options::.

* Menu:

* configure shells::
* configure options::
* configure environment::
* configure scenarios::
* Shared library::

File:,  Node: configure shells,  Next: configure options,  Up: Running configure `configure' shells

Considerable effort has gone into trying to ensure that the `configure'
scripts can be run by most Bourne shell variants.  If `sh' runs into
trouble, your best bet is to use Bash, the GNU Bourne-again shell
(*note Top: (bash)Top.).

   Bourne shell variants for which problems have been reported in the
past are:
     Old versions of the Korn shell may fail to handle the scripts.
     The Korn shell may be installed as `/bin/sh' on AIX, in which case
     `/bin/bsh' may serve instead.

     Old versions of ash are unable to handle the scripts.  Ash is
     sometimes installed as `/bin/sh' on NetBSD, FreeBSD, and Linux
     systems.  `/bin/bash' should be available for those systems, but
     might not be part of a default installation.

`Ultrix /bin/sh'
     `/bin/sh' under Ultrix is a DEC-grown shell that is notably
     deficient in many ways.  `/bin/sh5' may be necessary.

File:,  Node: configure options,  Next: configure environment,  Prev: configure shells,  Up: Running configure `configure' options

For a complete list of all `configure' options, run `configure --help'
or see *Note Running `configure' scripts: (autoconf)Invoking configure,
(a copy is in the file `kpathsea/README.CONFIGURE').  The generic
options are listed first in the `--help' output, and the
package-specific options come last.  The environment variables
`configure' pays attention to are listed below.

   Options particularly likely to be useful are `--prefix',
`--datadir', and the like; see *Note configure scenarios::.

   This section gives pointers to descriptions of the `--with' and
`--enable' options to `configure' that Kpathsea-using programs accept.

     Enable or disable the dynamic generation programs.  *Note mktex

     Build Kpathsea as a shared library, and link against it.  Also
     build the usual static library.  *Note Shared library::.

     Build only the shared library.   Implies `--enable-shared'.

     Enables make targets that are useful for the maintainer and likely
     to be a pain for anyone else; the makefiles created when this
     option is enabled may not work at all for you.  You have been

File:,  Node: configure environment,  Next: configure scenarios,  Prev: configure options,  Up: Running configure `configure' environment

`configure' uses the value of the following environment variables in
determining your system's characteristics, and substitutes for them in

     The compiler to use: default is `gcc' if it's installed, otherwise

     Options to give the compiler: default is `-g -O2' for `gcc', `-g'
     otherwise.  `CFLAGS' comes after any other options.  You may need
     to include `-w' here if your compilations commonly have useless
     warnings (e.g., `NULL redefined'), or `configure' may fail to
     detect the presence of header files (it takes the messages on
     standard error to mean the header file doesn't exist).

     Options to pass to the compiler preprocessor; this matters most for
     configuration, not the actual source compilation.  The `configure'
     script often does only preprocessing (e.g., to check for the
     existence of #include files), and `CFLAGS' is not used for this.
     You may need to set this to something like
     `-I/usr/local/include/wwwhatever' if you have the libwww library
     installed for hyper-xdvik (see `xdvik/INSTALL').

     Additional preprocessor options, but not used by `configure'.
     Provided for enabling or disabling program features, as documented
     in the various program-specific installation instructions.  `DEFS'
     comes before any compiler options included by the distribution
     `Makefile's or by `configure'.

     Additional options to give to the loader.  `LDFLAGS' comes before
     any other linker options.

     Additional libraries to link with.

File:,  Node: configure scenarios,  Next: Shared library,  Prev: configure environment,  Up: Running configure `configure' scenarios

Here are some common installation scenarios:

   * Including X support in Metafont.  This is disabled by default,
     since many sites have no use for it, and it's a leading cause of
     configuration problems.
          configure --with-x

   * Putting the binaries, TeX files, GNU info files, etc. into a single
     TeX hierarchy, say `/here/texmf', requires overriding defaults in
          configure --prefix=/here/texmf --datadir=/here

   * You can compile on multiple architectures simultaneously either by
     building symbolic link trees with the `lndir' script from the X11
     distribution, or with the `--srcdir' option:
          configure --srcdir=SRCDIR

   * If you are installing binaries for multiple architectures into a
     single hierarchy, you will probably want to override the default
     `bin' and `lib' directories, something like this:
          configure --prefix=TEXMF --datadir=TEXMF \
            --bindir=TEXMF/ARCH/bin --libdir=TEXMF/ARCH/lib
          make texmf=TEXMF
     (Unless you make provisions for architecture-specific files in
     other ways, e.g., with Depot or an automounter.)

   * To compile with optimization (to compile without debugging, remove
     the `-g'):
          env CFLAGS="-g -O" sh configure ...
     For a potential problem if you optimize, see *Note TeX or Metafont
     failing: TeX or Metafont failing.

File:,  Node: Shared library,  Prev: configure scenarios,  Up: Running configure Shared library

You can compile Kpathsea as a shared library on a few systems, by
specifying the option `--enable-shared' when you run `configure'.

   The main advantage in doing this is that the executables can then
share the code, thus decreasing memory and disk space requirements.

   On some systems, you can record the location of shared libraries in a
binary, usually by giving certain options to the linker.  Then
individual users do not need to set their system's environment variable
(e.g., `LD_LIBRARY_PATH') to find shared libraries.  If you want to do
this, you will need to add the necessary options to `LDFLAGS' yourself;
for example, on Solaris, include something like `-R${prefix}/lib', on
IRIX or Linux, use `-rpath${prefix}/lib'.  (Unfortunately, making this
happen by default is very difficult, because of interactions with an
existing installed shared library.)

   Currently, shared library support is implemented only on Linux,
SunOS 4 (Solaris 1), SunOS 5 (Solaris 2), IRIX 5, and IRIX 6.  If you're
interested and willing in adding support for other systems, please see
the `configure' mode in the `klibtool' script, especially the
host-specific case statement around line 250.

File:,  Node: Running make,  Next: Installing files,  Prev: Running configure,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.5 Running `make'

`make' (still in the top-level directory).  This also creates the
`texmf.cnf' and `paths.h' files that define the default search paths,
and (by default) the `plain' and `latex' TeX formats.

   You can override directory names and other values at `make'-time.
`make/paths.make' lists the variables most commonly reset.  For
example, `make default_texsizes=600' changes the list of fallback

   You can also override each of `configure''s environment variables
(*note configure environment::).  The Make variables have the same

   Finally, you can supply additional options via the following
variables.  (`configure' does not use these.)

     Preprocessor options.

     Compiler options.

     Loader options (included at beginning of link commands).

     More loader options (included at end of link commands).

     Additional Make arguments passed to all sub-`make''s. You may need
     to include assignments to the other variables here via `XMAKEARGS';
     for example: `make XMAKEARGS="CFLAGS=-O XDEFS=-DA4"'.

   It's generally a bad idea to use a different compiler (`CC') or
libraries (`LIBS') for compilation than you did for configuration,
since the values `configure' determined may then be incorrect.

   Adding compiler options to change the "universe" you are using
(typically BSD vs. system V) is generally a cause of trouble.  It's
best to use the native environment, whatever that is; `configure' and
the software usually adapt best to that.  In particular, under Solaris
2.x, you should not use the BSD-compatibility library (`libucb') or
include files (`ucbinclude').

   If you want to use the Babel LaTeX package for support of non-English
typesetting, you need to modify some files before making the LaTeX
format.  See the file `install.txt' in the Babel distribution.

File:,  Node: Installing files,  Next: Cleaning up,  Prev: Running make,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.6 Installing files

The basic command is the usual `make install'.  For security issues,
*note Security::.

   The first time you install any manual in the GNU Info system, you
should add a line (you choose where) to the file `dir' in your
`$(infodir)' directory.  Sample text for this is given near the top of
the Texinfo source files (`kpathsea/kpathsea.texi',
`dvipsk/dvips.texi', and `web2c/doc/web2c.texi').  If you have a recent
version of the GNU Texinfo distribution installed
(`' or later), this
should happen automatically.

   On the offchance that this is your first Info installation, the
`dir' file I use is included in the distribution as `etc/dir-example'.

   You may wish to use one of the following targets, especially if you
are installing on multiple architectures:
   * `make install-exec' to install in architecture-dependent
     directories, i.e., ones that depend on the `$(exec_prefix)' Make
     variable.  This includes links to binaries, libraries, etc., not
     just "executables".

   * `make install-data' to install in architecture-independent
     directories, such as documentation, configuration files, pool
     files, etc.

   If you use the Andrew File System, the normal path (e.g.,
PREFIX/bin) only gets you to a read-only copy of the files, and you
must specify a different path for installation.  The best way to do this
is by setting the `prefix' variable on the `make' command line.  The
sequence becomes something like this:
     configure --prefix=/whatever
     make install prefix=/afs/.SYSTEM.NAME/system/1.3/@sys/whatever
   With AFS, you will definitely want to use relative filenames in
`ls-R' (*note Filename database::), not absolute filenames.  This is
done by default, but check anyway.

File:,  Node: Cleaning up,  Next: Filename database generation,  Prev: Installing files,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.7 Cleaning up

The basic command is `make distclean'.  This removes all files created
by the build.

   * `make mostlyclean' if you intend to compile on another
     architecture.  For Web2C, since the generated C files are portable,
     they are not removed.  If the `lex' vs. `flex' situation is going
     to be different on the next machine, `rm web2c/lex.yy.c'.

   * `make clean' to remove files created by compiling, but leave
     configuration files and Makefiles.

   * `make maintainer-clean' to remove everything that the Makefiles can
     rebuild.  This is more than `distclean' removes, and you should
     only use it if you are thoroughly conversant with (and have the
     necessary versions of) Autoconf.

   * `make extraclean' to remove other junk, e.g., core files, log
     files, patch rejects.  This is independent of the other `clean'

File:,  Node: Filename database generation,  Next: mktex scripts,  Prev: Cleaning up,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.8 Filename database generation

You will probably want to set up a `cron' entry on the appropriate
machine(s) to rebuild the filename database nightly or so, as in:
     0 0 * * * cd TEXMF && /BINDIR/mktexlsr
   *Note Filename database::.

   Although the `mktex...' scripts make every effort to add
newly-created files on the fly, it can't hurt to make sure you get a
fresh version every so often.

File:,  Node: mktex scripts,  Next: Installation testing,  Prev: Filename database generation,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.9 `mktex' scripts

If Kpathsea cannot otherwise find a file, for some file types it is
configured by default to invoke an external program to create it
dynamically (*note mktex configuration::).  This is most useful for
fonts (bitmaps, TFM's, and arbitrarily-sizable Metafont sources such as
the Sauter and EC fonts), since any given document can use fonts never
before referenced.  Trying to build all fonts in advance is therefore
impractical, if not impossible.

   The script is passed the name of the file to create and possibly
other arguments, as explained below.  It must echo the full pathname of
the file it created (and nothing else) to standard output; it can write
diagnostics to standard error.

* Menu:

* mktex configuration::
* mktex script names::
* mktex script arguments::

File:,  Node: mktex configuration,  Next: mktex script names,  Up: mktex scripts `mktex' configuration

The following file types can run an external program to create missing
files: `pk', `tfm', `mf', `tex'; the scripts are named `mktexpk',
`mktextfm', `mktexmf', and `mktextex'.

   In the absence of `configure' options specifying otherwise,
everything but `mktextex' will be enabled by default. The `configure'
options to change the defaults are:


   The `configure' setting is overridden if the environment variable or
configuration file value named for the script is set; e.g., `MKTEXPK'
(*note mktex script arguments::).

   As distributed, all the scripts source a file
`texmf/web2c/mktex.cnf' if it exists, so you can override various
defaults.  See `mktex.opt', for instance, which defines the default
mode, resolution, some special directory names, etc.  If you prefer not
to change the distributed scripts, you can simply create `mktex.cnf'
with the appropriate definitions (you do not need to create it if you
have nothing to put in it).  `mktex.cnf' has no special syntax; it's an
arbitrary Bourne shell script.  The distribution contains a sample
`mktex.cnf' for you to copy and modify as you please (it is not
installed anywhere).

   In addition, you can configure a number of features with the
`MT_FEATURES' variable, which you can define:
   * in `mktex.opt', as just mentioned;

   * by editing the file `mktex.opt', either before `make install' (in
     the source hierarchy) or after (in the installed hierarchy);

   * or in the environment.

   If none of the options below are enabled, `mktexpk', `mktextfm', and
`mktexmf' follow the following procedure to decide where fonts should
be installed.  Find the tree where the font's sources are, and test the
permissions of the `fonts' directory of that tree to determine whether
it is writable.  If it is, put the files in the tree in appropriate
locations.  If it isn't writable, see whether the tree is a system tree
(named in `SYSTEXMF').  If so, the `VARTEXFONTS' tree is used.  In all
other cases the working directory is used.

   The `appendonlydir' option is enabled by default.

     Tell `mktexdir' to create directories append-only, i.e., set their
     sticky bit (*note Mode Structure: (coreutils)Mode Structure.).
     This feature is silently ignored on non-Unix platforms (e.g.
     Windows/NT and MS-DOS) which don't support similar functionality.
     This feature is enabled by default.

     Use 8.3 names; e.g., `dpi600/' instead of `cmr10.600pk'.
     Note that this feature only affects filenames that would otherwise
     clash with other TeX-related filenames; `mktex' scripts do nothing
     about filenames which exceed the 8+3 MS-DOS limits but remain
     unique when truncated (by the OS) to these limits, and nether do
     the scripts care about possible clashes with files which aren't
     related with TeX.  For example, `cmr10.600pk' would clash with
     `cmr10.600gf' and is therefore changed when `dosnames' is in
     effect, but `mf.pool' and `mp.base' don't clash with any
     TeX-related files and are therefore unchanged.

     This feature is turned on by default on MS-DOS.  If you do not wish
     `dosnames' to be set on an MS-DOS platform, you need to set the
     `MT_FEATURES' environment variable to a value that doesn't include
     `dosnames'.  You can also change the default setting by editing
     `mktex.opt', but only if you use the `mktex' shell scripts; the
     emulation programs don't consult `mktex.opt'.

     Instead of deriving the location of a font in the destination tree
     from the location of the sources, the aliases and directory names
     from the Fontname distribution are used. (*note Introduction:

     Let mktexpk and mktextfm create metafont driver files in a
     temporary directory.  These will be used for just one metafont run
     and not installed permanently.

     Omit the directory level for the mode name; this is fine as long as
     you generate fonts for only one mode.

     Omit the font supplier name directory level.

     Omit the font typeface name directory level.

     Omit the font supplier and typeface name directory levels.  This
     feature is deprecated in favour of `stripsupplier' and

     When this option is enabled, fonts that would otherwise be written
     in system texmf tree go to the `VARTEXFONTS' tree instead.  The
     default value in `kpathsea/' is `/var/tmp/texfonts'.
     The `Linux File System Standard' recommends `/var/tex/fonts'.

     The `varfonts' setting in `MT_FEATURES' is overridden by the
     `USE_VARTEXFONTS' environment variable: if set to `1', the feature
     is enabled, and if set to `0', the feature is disabled.

     Force generated files that would go into a system tree (as defined
     by `SYSTEXMF') into `TEXMFVAR'. Starting with teTeX-3.0, the
     variable `TEXMFVAR' is always set.  The `varfonts' feature takes
     precedence if also set.

     The `texmfvar' setting in `MT_FEATURES' is overridden by the
     `USE_TEXMFVAR' environment variable: if set to `1', the feature is
     enabled, and if set to `0', the feature is disabled.

File:,  Node: mktex script names,  Next: mktex script arguments,  Prev: mktex configuration,  Up: mktex scripts `mktex' script names

The following table shows the default name of the script for each
possible file types.  (The source is the variable `kpse_make_specs' in

     Glyph fonts.

     TeX input files.

     Metafont input files.

     TFM files.

These names are overridden by an environment variable specific to the
program--for example, `DVIPSMAKEPK' for Dvipsk.

   If a `mktex...' script fails, the invocation is appended to a file
`missfont.log' (by default) in the current directory.  You can then
execute the log file to create the missing files after fixing the

   If the current directory is not writable and the environment
variable or configuration file value `TEXMFOUTPUT' is set, its value is
used.  Otherwise, nothing is written.  The name `missfont.log' is
overridden by the `MISSFONT_LOG' environment variable or configuration
file value.

File:,  Node: mktex script arguments,  Prev: mktex script names,  Up: mktex scripts `mktex' script arguments

The first argument to a `mktex' script is always the name of the file
to be created.

   In the default `mktexpk' implementation, additional arguments may
also be passed:

`--dpi NUM'
     Sets the resolution of the generated font to NUM.

`--mfmode NAME'
     Sets the Metafont mode to NAME.

`--bdpi NUM'
     Sets the the "base dpi" for the font.  This must match the mode
     being used.

`--mag STRING'
     A "magstep" string suitable for the Metafont `mag' variable.  This
     must match the combination of BDPI and DPI being used.

`--destdir STRING'
     A directory name. If the directory is absolute, it is used as-is.
     Otherwise, it is appended to the root destination directory set in
     the script.

File:,  Node: Installation testing,  Prev: mktex scripts,  Up: Custom installation

2.2.10 Installation testing

Besides the tests listed in *Note Simple installation::, you can try
running `make check'.  This includes the torture tests (trip, trap, and
mptrap) that come with Web2c (*note Triptrap: (web2c)Triptrap.).

File:,  Node: Security,  Next: TeX directory structure,  Prev: Custom installation,  Up: Installation

2.3 Security

None of the programs in the TeX system require any special system
privileges, so there's no first-level security concern of people gaining
illegitimate root access.

   A TeX document, however, can write to arbitrary files, e.g.,
`~/.rhosts', and thus an unwitting user who runs TeX on a random
document is vulnerable to a trojan horse attack.  This loophole is
closed by default, but you can be permissive if you so desire in
`texmf.cnf'.  *Note tex invocation: (web2c)tex invocation.  MetaPost has
the same issue.

   Dvips, Xdvi, and TeX can also execute shell commands under some
circumstances.  To disable this, see the `-R' option in *Note Option
details: (dvips)Option details, the xdvi man page, and *Note tex
invocation: (web2c)tex invocation, respectively.

   Another security issue arises because it's very useful--almost
necessary--to make arbitrary fonts on user demand with `mktexpk' and
friends.  Where do these files get installed?  By default, the
`mktexpk' distributed with Kpathsea assumes a world-writable `/var/tmp'
directory; this is a simple and convenient approach, but it may not
suit your situation because it means that a local cache of fonts is
created on every machine.

   To avoid this duplication, many people consider a shared, globally
writable font tree desirable, in spite of the potential security
problems.  To do this you should change the value of `VARTEXFONTS' in
`texmf.cnf' to refer to some globally known directory.  *Note mktex

   The first restriction you can apply is to make newly-created
directories under `texmf' be append-only with an option in `mktex.cnf'.
*Note mktex configuration::.

   Another approach is to establish a group (or user) for TeX files,
make the `texmf' tree writable only to that group (or user), and make
`mktexpk' et al. setgid to that group (or setuid to that user).  Then
users must invoke the scripts to install things.  (If you're worried
about the inevitable security holes in scripts, then you could write a
C wrapper to exec the script.)

   The `mktex...' scripts install files with the same read and write
permissions as the directory they are installed in.  The executable,
sgid, suid, and sticky bits are always cleared.

   Any directories created by the `mktex...' scripts have the same
permissions as their parent directory, unless the `appendonlydir'
feature is used, in which case the sticky bit is always set.

File:,  Node: TeX directory structure,  Next: unixtex.ftp,  Prev: Security,  Up: Installation

2.4 TeX directory structure

This section describes the default installation hierarchy of the
distribution.  It conforms to both the GNU coding standards and the TeX
directory structure (TDS) standard.  For rationale and further
explanation, please see those documents.  The GNU standard is available
as `' and
mirrors.  The TDS document is available from `CTAN:/tex-archive/tds'
(*note unixtex.ftp::).

   You can change the default paths in many ways (*note Changing search
paths::).  One common desire is to put everything (binaries and all)
under a single top-level directory such as `/usr/local/texmf' or
`/opt/texmf'--in the terms used below, make PREFIX and TEXMF the same.
For specific instructions on doing that, see *Note configure

   Here is a skeleton of the default directory structure, extracted from
the TDS document:

     PREFIX/      installation root (`/usr/local' by default)
      bin/         executables
      man/         man pages
      include/     C header files
      info/        GNU info files
      lib/         libraries (`libkpathsea.*')
      share/       architecture-independent files
       texmf/      TDS root
        bibtex/     BibTeX input files
         bib/        BibTeX databases
          base/       base distribution (e.g., `xampl.bib')
          misc/       single-file databases
          PKG/       name of a package
         bst/        BibTeX style files
          base/       base distribution (e.g., `plain.bst', `acm.bst')
          misc/       single-file styles
          PKG/       name of a package
        doc/         additional documentation
        dvips/       `.pro', `.ps', `'
        fonts/       font-related files
         TYPE/         file type (e.g., `tfm', `pk')
          MODE/          type of output device (types `pk' and `gf' only)
           SUPPLIER/       name of a font supplier (e.g., `public')
            TYPEFACE/        name of a typeface (e.g., `cm')
             dpiNNN/           font resolution (types `pk' and `gf' only)
        metafont/    Metafont (non-font) input files
         base/        base distribution (e.g., `')
         misc/        single-file packages (e.g., `')
         PKG/           name of a package (e.g., `mfpic')
        metapost/    MetaPost input files
         base/        base distribution (e.g., `')
         misc/        single-file packages
         PKG/           name of a package
         support/     support files for MetaPost-related utilities (e.g., `')
        mft/         `MFT' inputs (e.g., `plain.mft')
        tex/         TeX input files
         FORMAT/         name of a format (e.g., `plain')
          base/        base distribution for FORMAT (e.g., `plain.tex')
          misc/        single-file packages (e.g., `webmac.tex')
          local/       local additions to or local configuration files for FORMAT
          PKG/           name of a package (e.g., `graphics', `mfnfss')
         generic/     format-independent packages
          hyphen/      hyphenation patterns (e.g., `hyphen.tex')
          images/      image input files (e.g., Encapsulated PostScript)
          misc/        single-file format-independent packages (e.g., `null.tex').
          PKG/           name of a package (e.g., `babel')
        web2c/        implementation-dependent files (`.pool', `.fmt', `texmf.cnf', etc.)

   Some concrete examples for most file types:


File:,  Node: unixtex.ftp,  Next: Reporting bugs,  Prev: TeX directory structure,  Up: Installation

2.5 `unixtex.ftp': Obtaining TeX

This is `', last updated 26 December
2003.  Also available as `'.  The IP
address is currently `[]'.  It is also in Kpathsea source
distributions as `etc/unixtex.ftp' (although the network version is
usually newer).  Mail <> with comments or questions.

   Following are general instructions for Unix or other sites who wish
to acquire the Web2c distribution, (plain) TeX, LaTeX (2e), BibTeX,
Metafont, MetaPost, DVI processors for the X window system, PostScript,
the PCL language in the HP LaserJet, and related programs.  They are
oriented towards building from the original sources, though some
information on alternative packages is included in the last section.
See also `', the Web2c and Kpathsea home page.

   Please note that the Web2c distribution is a bare-bones distribution
in source form, and building a complete installation from it is a
non-trivial matter.  For most uses, it is a better idea to install a
distribution with pre-packaged binaries for your platform.  The
principal example of such a distribution is TeX Live
(`'), which is based on the Web2c sources.

   Please consider joining the TeX Users Group (TUG) or another user
group of your choice to help support the maintenance and development of
the programs you retrieve.  See `' for
information and the membership registration form, and
`' for a listing of all user groups.

   For actual installation instructions after obtaining the necessary
sources, see *Note Installation::.  A copy is in the distribution file

* Menu:

* Electronic distribution::  CTAN and so forth.
* CD-ROM distribution::
* Other TeX packages::

File:,  Node: Electronic distribution,  Next: CD-ROM distribution,  Up: unixtex.ftp

2.5.1 Electronic distribution

In many places we refer to CTAN:.  This is _both_ a host name and a
directory name.  Here are the primary locations:

     `'    (Vermont, USA)
     `'    (Germany)
     `'   (England)

CTAN has many mirrors worldwide; see the top-level file
`README.mirrors' from one of the sites above or see

   You can also access CTAN via the World Wide Web, electronic mail, or
NFS.  The same `README.mirrors' file explains how.

   You will need to retrieve some or all of the following archives,
depending on your needs (don't forget to set binary mode for file

     The original WEB source files, written primarily by Don Knuth.
     Required unless you already have this `web' version.  (The WEB
     sources change irregularly with respect to Web2c itself.)  Unpacks
     into `web2c-VERSION'.

     The Web2c system.  Required.  Also unpacks into `web2c-VERSION'.

     Additions to the Web2c system for building e-TeX.  Optional.
     Unpacks into `web2c-VERSION'.

     Additions to the texmf tree needed to build e-TeX.  Optional.
     Unpacks into `texmf/'.

     Documentation for e-TeX as an addition to the texmf tree.
     Optional.  Unpacks into `texmf/'.

     Additions to the Web2c system for building Omega.  Optional.
     Unpacks into `web2c-VERSION'.

     Additions to the texmf tree needed to build Omega.  Optional.
     Unpacks into `texmf/'.

     Documentation for Omega as an addition to the texmf tree.
     Optional.  Unpacks into `texmf/'.

     Additions to the Web2c system for building pdfTeX.  Optional.
     Unpacks into `web2c-VERSION'.

     Additions to the texmf tree needed to build pdfTeX.  Optional.
     Unpacks into `texmf/'.

     X window system DVI previewer.  Unpacks into `xdvik-VERSION'.

   Additional drivers, macro files, and other support are needed to
build a working system.  These are available in teTeX.

   All that said, the originating host for the software above is
`'.  You can retrieve these distributions (but not much
else) from the `tex/' directory on that host.

File:,  Node: CD-ROM distribution,  Next: Other TeX packages,  Prev: Electronic distribution,  Up: unixtex.ftp

2.5.2 CD-ROM distribution

Numerous organizations distribute various TeX CD-ROM's (and DVD's):

   * Virtually all the TeX user groups collaborate to produce the `TeX
     Live' distribution once a year; see `'
     for more information.

   * The Free Software Foundation's `Source Code CD-ROM' contains the
     minimal TeX source distribution described in the previous section
     (i.e., enough to print GNU documentation); email <>.

   * Most Linux distributions include some TeX package based on Web2c;
     see the Linux documentation file `Distribution-HOWTO' for a
     comparison of Linux distributions, available (for example) via

   If you know of additional TeX distributions to add to this list,
please inform <>.

File:,  Node: Other TeX packages,  Prev: CD-ROM distribution,  Up: unixtex.ftp

2.5.3 Other TeX packages

Many other TeX implementations are available in `CTAN:/systems',
including ready-to-run distributions for Unix, Amiga, Acorn, VMS,
Macintosh, DOS, and Windows (in various forms).  Although Web2c has
support in the source code for many operating systems, and in fact some
of the other distributions are based on it, it's unlikely to work as
distributed on anything but Unix.  (Please contribute improvements!)

   The principal user-oriented Unix distribution based on Web2c is the
teTeX distribution.  It includes complete sources, and runs on all
modern Unix variants, including Linux. It contains many TeX-related
programs besides those in the core Web2c.

   The host is the original source for the files
for which Donald Knuth is directly responsible: `tex.web', `plain.tex',
etc. However, unless you want to build your TeX library tree ab initio,
it is more reliable and less work to retrieve these files as part of
the above packages. In any case, labrea is not the canonical source for
anything except what was created by Stanford TeX project, so do not
rely on all the files available at that ftp site being up-to-date.

File:,  Node: Reporting bugs,  Prev: unixtex.ftp,  Up: Installation

2.6 Reporting bugs

(A copy of this chapter is in the file `kpathsea/BUGS'.)

If you have problems or suggestions, please report them to
<> using the bug checklist below.

   Please report bugs in the documentation; not only factual errors or
inconsistent behavior, but unclear or incomplete explanations, typos,
wrong fonts, ...

* Menu:

* Bug checklist::       What to include in a good bug report.
* Mailing lists::       Joining the bugs or announcements mailing lists.
* Debugging::           Analyzing runtime problems.
* Logging::             Recording searches.
* Common problems::     When things go wrong.

File:,  Node: Bug checklist,  Next: Mailing lists,  Up: Reporting bugs

2.6.1 Bug checklist

Before reporting a bug, please check below to be sure it isn't already
known (*note Common problems::).

   Bug reports should be sent via electronic mail to
<>, or by postal mail to 135 Center Hill Road /
Plymouth, MA 02360 / USA.

   The general principle is that a good bug report includes all the
information necessary for reproduction.  Therefore, to enable
investigation, your report should include the following:

   * The version number(s) of the program(s) involved, and of Kpathsea
     itself.  You can get the former by giving a sole option `--version'
     to the program, and the latter by running `kpsewhich --version'.
     The `NEWS' and `ChangeLog' files also contain the version number.

   * The hardware, operating system (including version number),
     compiler, and `make' program you are using (the output of `uname
     -a' is a start on the first two, though often incomplete).  If the
     bug involves the X window system, include X version and supplier
     information as well (examples: X11R6 from MIT; X11R4 from HP;
     OpenWindows 3.3 bundled with SunOS 4.1.4).

   * Any options you gave to `configure'.  This is recorded in the
     `config.status' files.

     If you are reporting a bug in `configure' itself, it's probably
     system-dependent, and it will be unlikely the maintainers can do
     anything useful if you merely report that thus-and-such is broken.
     Therefore, you need to do some additional work: for some bugs, you
     can look in the file `config.log' where the test that failed should
     appear, along with the compiler invocation and source program in
     question.  You can then compile it yourself by hand, and discover
     why the test failed.  Other `configure' bugs do not involve the
     compiler; in that case, the only recourse is to inspect the
     `configure' shell script itself, or the Autoconf macros that
     generated `configure'.

   * The log of all debugging output, if the bug is in path searching.
     You can get this by setting the environment variable
     `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' to `-1' before running the program.  Please look
     at the log yourself to make sure the behavior is really a bug
     before reporting it; perhaps "old" environment variable settings
     are causing files not to be found, for example.

   * The contents of any input files necessary to reproduce the bug.
     For bugs in DVI-reading programs, for example, this generally
     means a DVI file (and any EPS or other files it uses)--TeX source
     files are helpful, but the DVI file is necessary, because that's
     the actual program input.

     GNU `shar', available from `' is a
     convenient way of packaging multiple (possibly binary) files for
     electronic mail.  If you feel your input files are too big to send
     by email, you can ftp them to `' (that
     directory is writable, but not readable).

   * If you are sending a patch (do so if you can!), please do so in
     the form of a context diff (`diff -c') against the original
     distribution source.  Any other form of diff is either not as
     complete or harder for me to understand.  Please also include a
     `ChangeLog' entry.

   * If the bug involved is an actual crash (i.e., core dump), it is
     easy and useful to include a stack trace from a debugger (I
     recommend the GNU debugger GDB, available from
     `').  If the cause is apparent (a
     `NULL' value being dereferenced, for example), please send the
     details along.  If the program involved is TeX or Metafont, and
     the crash is happening at apparently-sound code, however, the bug
     may well be in the compiler, rather than in the program or the
     library (*note TeX or Metafont failing: TeX or Metafont failing.).

   * Any additional information that will be helpful in reproducing,
     diagnosing, or fixing the bug.

File:,  Node: Mailing lists,  Next: Debugging,  Prev: Bug checklist,  Up: Reporting bugs

2.6.2 Mailing lists

Web2c and Kpathsea in general are discussed on the mailing list
<>.  To join, email <> with
a line consisting of

     subscribe YOUATYOUR.ADDRESS

in the body of the message.

   You do not need to join to submit a report, nor will it affect
whether you get a response.  There is no Usenet newsgroup equivalent
(if you can be the one to set this up, email `tex-k-request').  Traffic
on the list is fairly light, and is mainly bug reports and enhancement
requests to the software.  The best way to decide if you want to join
or not is read some of the archives from

   Be aware that large data files are sometimes included in bug reports.
If this is a problem for you, do not join the list.

   If you only want announcements of new releases, not bug reports and
discussion, join <> (via mail to

   If you are looking for general TeX help, such as how to use LaTeX,
please use the mailing list <> mailing list, which is
gatewayed to the `comp.text.tex' Usenet newsgroup (or post to the
newsgroup; the gateway is bidirectional).

File:,  Node: Debugging,  Next: Logging,  Prev: Mailing lists,  Up: Reporting bugs

2.6.3 Debugging

Kpathsea provides a number of runtime debugging options, detailed below
by their names and corresponding numeric values.  When the files you
expect aren't being found, the thing to do is enable these options and
examine the output.

   You can set these with some runtime argument (e.g., `-d') to the
program; in that case, you should use the numeric values described in
the program's documentation (which, for Dvipsk and Xdvik, are different
than those below).  It's best to give the `-d' (or whatever) option
first, for maximal output.  Dvipsk and Xdvik have additional
program-specific debugging options as well.

   You can also set the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG'; in this
case, you should use the numbers below.  If you run the program under a
debugger and set the variable `kpathsea_debug', also use the numbers

   In any case, by far the simplest value to use is `-1', which will
turn on all debugging output.  This is usually better than guessing
which particular values will yield the output you need.

   Debugging output always goes to standard error, so you can redirect
it easily.  For example, in Bourne-compatible shells:
     dvips -d -1 ... 2>/tmp/debug

   It is sometimes helpful to run the standalone Kpsewhich utility
(*note Invoking kpsewhich::), instead of the original program.

   In any case, you can _not_ use the _names_ below; you must always
use somebody's numbers.  (Sorry.)  To set more than one option, just
sum the corresponding numbers.

     Report `stat'(2) calls. This is useful for verifying that your
     directory structure is not forcing Kpathsea to do many additional
     file tests (*note Slow path searching::, and *note Subdirectory
     expansion::). If you are using an up-to-date `ls-R' database
     (*note Filename database::), this should produce no output unless a
     nonexistent file that must exist is searched for.

     Report lookups in all hash tables: `ls-R' and `aliases' (*note
     Filename database::); font aliases (*note Fontmap::); and config
     file values (*note Config files::).  Useful when expected values
     are not being found, e.g.., file searches are looking at the disk
     instead of using `ls-R'.

     Report file openings and closings. Especially useful when your
     system's file table is full, for seeing which files have been
     opened but never closed. In case you want to set breakpoints in a
     debugger: this works by redefining `fopen' (`fclose') to be
     `kpse_fopen_trace' (`kpse_fclose_trace').

     Report general path information for each file type Kpathsea is
     asked to search. This is useful when you are trying to track down
     how a particular path got defined--from `texmf.cnf', `',
     an environment variable, the compile-time default, etc.  This is
     the contents of the `kpse_format_info_type' structure defined in

     Report the directory list corresponding to each path element
     Kpathsea searches. This is only relevant when Kpathsea searches
     the disk, since `ls-R' searches don't look through directory lists
     in this way.

     Report on each file search: the name of the file searched for, the
     path searched in, whether or not the file must exist (when drivers
     search for `cmr10.vf', it need not exist), and whether or not we
     are collecting all occurrences of the file in the path (as with,
     e.g., `texmf.cnf' and `'), or just the first (as with
     most lookups).  This can help you correlate what Kpathsea is doing
     with what is in your input file.

     Report the value of each variable Kpathsea looks up.  This is
     useful for verifying that variables do indeed obtain their correct

     Activates debugging printout specific to `gsftopk' program.

     If you use the optional `mktex' programs instead of the
     traditional shell scripts, this will report the name of the site
     file (`mktex.cnf' by default) which is read, directories created by
     `mktexdir', the full path of the `ls-R' database built by
     `mktexlsr', font map searches, `MT_FEATURES' in effect, parameters
     from `mktexnam', filenames added by `mktexupd', and some
     subsidiary commands run by the programs.

     When the optional `mktex' programs are used, this will print
     additional debugging info from functions internal to these

   Debugging output from Kpathsea is always written to standard error,
and begins with the string `kdebug:'. (Except for hash table buckets,
which just start with the number, but you can only get that output
running under a debugger. See comments at the `hash_summary_only'
variable in `kpathsea/db.c'.)

File:,  Node: Logging,  Next: Common problems,  Prev: Debugging,  Up: Reporting bugs

2.6.4 Logging

Kpathsea can record the time and filename found for each successful
search.  This may be useful in finding good candidates for deletion when
your filesystem is full, or in discovering usage patterns at your site.

   To do this, define the environment or config file variable
`TEXMFLOG'.  The value is the name of the file to append the
information to.  The file is created if it doesn't exist, and appended
to if it does.

   Each successful search turns into one line in the log file: two words
separated by a space. The first word is the time of the search, as the
integer number of seconds since "the epoch", i.e., UTC midnight 1
January 1970 (more precisely, the result of the `time' system call).
The second word is the filename.

   For example, after `setenv TEXMFLOG /tmp/log', running Dvips on
`story.dvi' appends the following lines:

     774455887 /usr/local/share/texmf/dvips/
     774455887 /usr/local/share/texmf/dvips/
     774455888 /usr/local/share/texmf/dvips/
     774455888 /usr/local/share/texmf/fonts/pk/ljfour/public/cm/cmbx10.600pk
     774455889 /usr/local/share/texmf/fonts/pk/ljfour/public/cm/cmsl10.600pk
     774455889 /usr/local/share/texmf/fonts/pk/ljfour/public/cm/cmr10.600pk
     774455889 /usr/local/share/texmf/dvips/

Only filenames that are absolute are recorded, to preserve some
semblance of privacy.

File:,  Node: Common problems,  Prev: Logging,  Up: Reporting bugs

2.6.5 Common problems

Here are some common problems with configuration, compilation, linking,
execution, ...

* Menu:

* Unable to find files::        If your program can't find fonts (or whatever).
* Slow path searching::         If it takes forever to find anything.
* Unable to generate fonts::    If mktexpk fails.
* TeX or Metafont failing::     Likely compiler bugs.

* Empty Makefiles::            	When configure produces empty makefiles.
* XtStrings::                   When _XtStrings is undefined.
* dlopen::                      When dlopen is undefined.
* ShellWidgetClass::            For dynamic linking troubles under OpenWindows.
* Pointer combination warnings::  For old compilers that don't grok char *.

File:,  Node: Unable to find files,  Next: Slow path searching,  Up: Common problems Unable to find files

If a program complains it cannot find fonts (or other input files), any
of several things might be wrong.  In any case, you may find the
debugging options helpful.  *Note Debugging::.

   * Perhaps you simply haven't installed all the necessary files; the
     basic fonts and input files are distributed separately from the
     programs.  *Note unixtex.ftp::.

   * You have (perhaps unknowingly) told Kpathsea to use search paths
     that don't reflect where the files actually are.  One common cause
     is having environment variables set from a previous installation,
     thus overriding what you carefully set in `texmf.cnf' (*note
     Supported file formats::).  System `/etc/profile' or other files
     such may be the culprit.

   * Your files reside in a directory that is only pointed to via a
     symbolic link, in a leaf directory and is not listed in `ls-R'.

     Unfortunately, Kpathsea's subdirectory searching has an
     irremediable deficiency: If a directory D being searched for
     subdirectories contains plain files and symbolic links to other
     directories, but no true subdirectories, D will be considered a
     leaf directory, i.e., the symbolic links will not be followed.
     *Note Subdirectory expansion::.

     You can work around this problem by creating an empty dummy
     subdirectory in D. Then D will no longer be a leaf, and the
     symlinks will be followed.

     The directory immediately followed by the `//' in the path
     specification, however, is always searched for subdirectories,
     even if it is a leaf.  Presumably you would not have asked for the
     directory to be searched for subdirectories if you didn't want it
     to be.

   * If the fonts (or whatever) don't already exist, `mktexpk' (or
     `mktexmf' or `mktextfm') will try to create them.  If these rather
     complicated shell scripts fail, you'll eventually get an error
     message saying something like `Can't find font FONTNAME'. The best
     solution is to fix (or at least report) the bug in `mktexpk'; the
     workaround is to generate the necessary fonts by hand with
     Metafont, or to grab them from a CTAN site (*note unixtex.ftp::).

   * There is a bug in the library. *Note Reporting bugs::.

File:,  Node: Slow path searching,  Next: Unable to generate fonts,  Prev: Unable to find files,  Up: Common problems Slow path searching

If your program takes an excessively long time to find fonts or other
input files, but does eventually succeed, here are some possible

   * Most likely, you just have a lot of directories to search, and that
     takes a noticeable time. The solution is to create and maintain a
     separate `ls-R' file that lists all the files in your main TeX
     hierarchy.  *Note Filename database::.  Kpathsea always uses `ls-R'
     if it's present; there's no need to recompile or reconfigure any
     of the programs.

   * Your recursively-searched directories (e.g.,
     `/usr/local/share/texmf/fonts//'), contain a mixture of files and
     directories. This prevents Kpathsea from using a useful
     optimization (*note Subdirectory expansion::).

     It is best to have only directories (and perhaps a `README') in the
     upper levels of the directory structure, and it's very important
     to have _only_ files, and no subdirectories, in the leaf
     directories where the dozens of TFM, PK, or whatever files reside.

   In any case, you may find the debugging options helpful in
determining precisely when the disk or network is being pounded.  *Note

File:,  Node: Unable to generate fonts,  Next: TeX or Metafont failing,  Prev: Slow path searching,  Up: Common problems Unable to generate fonts

Metafont outputs fonts in bitmap format, tuned for a particular device
at a particular resolution, in order to allow for the highest-possible
quality of output.  Some DVI-to-whatever programs, such as Dvips, try
to generate these on the fly when they are needed, but this generation
may fail in several cases.

   If `mktexpk' runs, but fails with this error:
     mktexpk: Can't guess mode for NNN dpi devices.
     mktexpk: Use a config file to specify the mode, or update me.
   you need to ensure the resolution and mode match; just specifying
the resolution, as in `-D 360', is not enough.

   You can specify the mode name with the `-mode' option on the Dvips
command line, or in a Dvips configuration file (*note Config files:
(dvips)Config files.), such as `' in your document directory,
`~/.dvipsrc' in your home directory, or in a system directory (again
named `').  (Other drivers use other files, naturally.)

   For example, if you need 360dpi fonts, you could include this in a
configuration file:
     D 360
     M lqmed

   If Metafont runs, but generates fonts at the wrong resolution or for
the wrong device, most likely `mktexpk''s built-in guess for the mode
is wrong, and you should override it as above.

   See `' for a list of resolutions and
mode names for most devices (additional submissions are welcome).

   If Metafont runs but generates fonts at a resolution of 2602dpi (and
prints out the name of each character as well as just a character
number, and maybe tries to display the characters), then your Metafont
base file probably hasn't been made properly.  (It's using the default
`proof' mode, instead of an actual device mode.)  To make a proper
`plain.base', assuming the local mode definitions are contained in a
file `', run the following command (assuming Unix):

     inimf "plain; input modes; dump"

Then copy the `plain.base' file from the current directory to where the
base files are stored on your system (`/usr/local/share/texmf/web2c' by
default), and make a link (either hard or soft) from `plain.base' to
`mf.base' in that directory.  *Note inimf invocation: (web2c)inimf

   If `mf' is a command not found at all by `mktexpk', then you need to
install Metafont (*note unixtex.ftp::).

File:,  Node: TeX or Metafont failing,  Next: Empty Makefiles,  Prev: Unable to generate fonts,  Up: Common problems TeX or Metafont failing

If TeX or Metafont get a segmentation fault or otherwise fail while
running a normal input file, the problem is usually a compiler bug
(unlikely as that may sound).  Even if the trip and trap tests are
passed, problems may lurk.  Optimization occasionally causes trouble in
programs other than TeX and Metafont themselves, too.

   Insufficient swap space may also cause core dumps or other erratic

   For a workaround, if you enabled any optimization flags, it's best to
omit optimization entirely.  In any case, the way to find the facts is
to run the program under the debugger and see where it's failing.

   Also, if you have trouble with a system C compiler, I advise trying
the GNU C compiler. And vice versa, unfortunately; but in that case I
also recommend reporting a bug to the GCC mailing list; see *Note Bugs:

   To report compiler bugs effectively requires perseverance and
perspicacity: you must find the miscompiled line, and that usually
involves delving backwards in time from the point of error, checking
through TeX's (or whatever program's) data structures.  Things are not
helped by all-too-common bugs in the debugger itself.  Good luck.

   One known cause of trouble is the way arrays are handled.  Some of
the Pascal arrays have a lower index other than 0, and the C code will
take the pointer to the allocated memory, subtract the lower index, and
use the resulting pointer for the array.  While this trick often works,
ANSI C doesn't guarantee that it will.  It it known to fail on HP-UX 10
mchines when the native compiler is used, unless the `+u' compiler
switch was specified.  Using GCC will work on this platform as well.

File:,  Node: Empty Makefiles,  Next: XtStrings,  Prev: TeX or Metafont failing,  Up: Common problems Empty Makefiles

On some systems (NetBSD, FreeBSD, AIX 4.1, and Mach10), `configure' may
fail to properly create the Makefiles. Instead, you get an error which
looks something like this:

     prompt$ ./configure
     creating Makefile
     sed: 1: "\\@^ac_include make/pat ...": \ can not be used as a string delimiter

   So far as I know, the bug here is in `/bin/sh' on these systems. I
don't have access to a machine running any of them, so if someone can
find a workaround that avoids the quoting bug, I'd be most grateful.
(Search for `ac_include' in the `configure' script to get to the
problematic code.)

   It should work to run `bash configure', instead of using `/bin/sh'.
You can get Bash from `' and mirrors.

   Another possible cause (reported for NeXT) is a bug in the `sed'
command.  In that case the error may look like this:

     Unrecognized command: \@^ac_include make/paths.make@r make/paths.make

   In this case, installing GNU `sed' should solve the problem.  You
can get GNU `sed' from the same places as Bash.

File:,  Node: XtStrings,  Next: dlopen,  Prev: Empty Makefiles,  Up: Common problems `XtStrings'

You may find that linking X programs results in an error from the linker
that `XtStrings' is undefined, something like this:

     gcc -o virmf ...
     .../x11.c:130: undefined reference to `XtStrings'

   This generally happens because of a mismatch between the X include
files with which you compiled and the X libraries with which you linked;
often, the include files are from MIT and the libraries from Sun.

   The solution is to use the same X distribution for compilation and
linking.  Probably `configure' was unable to guess the proper
directories from your installation.  You can use the `configure'
options `--x-includes=PATH' and `--x-libraries=PATH' to explicitly
specify them.

File:,  Node: dlopen,  Next: ShellWidgetClass,  Prev: XtStrings,  Up: Common problems `dlopen'

(This section adapted from the file `dlsym.c' in the X distribution.)

   The `Xlib' library uses the standard C function `wcstombs'.  Under
SunOS 4.1, `wcstombs' uses the `dlsym' interface defined in `'.
Unfortunately, the SunOS 4.1 distribution does not include a static
`libdl.a' library.

   As a result, if you try to link an X program statically under SunOS,
you may get undefined references to `dlopen', `dlsym', and `dlclose'.
One workaround is to include these definitions when you link:

     void *dlopen() { return 0; }
     void *dlsym()  { return 0; }
     int dlclose()  { return -1; }

These are contained in the `dlsym.c' file in the MIT X distribution.

File:,  Node: ShellWidgetClass,  Next: Pointer combination warnings,  Prev: dlopen,  Up: Common problems `ShellWidgetClass'

(This section adapted from the comp.sys.sun.admin FAQ.)

   If you are linking with Sun's OpenWindows libraries in SunOS 4.1.x,
you may get undefined symbols `_get_wmShellWidgetClass' and
`_get_applicationShellWidgetClass' when linking. This problem does not
arise using the standard MIT X libraries under SunOS.

   The cause is bugs in the `Xmu' shared library as shipped from Sun.
There are several fixes:

   * Install the free MIT distribution from `' and mirrors.

   * Get the OpenWindows patches listed below.

   * Statically link the `Xmu' library into the executable.

   * Avoid using `Xmu' at all. If you are compiling Metafont, see *Note
     Online Metafont graphics: (web2c)Online Metafont graphics. If you
     are compiling Xdvi, see the `-DNOTOOL' option in `xdvik/INSTALL'.

   * Ignore the errors. The binary runs fine regardless.

   Here is the information for getting the two patches:

     Patch ID: 100512-02
     Bug ID's: 1086793, 1086912, 1074766
     Description: 4.1.x OpenWindows 3.0 `libXt' jumbo patch

     Patch ID: 100573-03
     Bug ID: 1087332
     Description: 4.1.x OpenWindows 3.0 undefined symbols when using shared `libXmu'.

   The way to statically link with `libXmu' depends on whether you are
using a Sun compiler (e.g., `cc') or `gcc'. If the latter, alter the
`x_libs' Make variable to include

     -static -lXmu -dynamic

   If you are using the Sun compiler, use `-Bstatic' and `-Bdynamic'.

File:,  Node: Pointer combination warnings,  Prev: ShellWidgetClass,  Up: Common problems Pointer combination warnings

When compiling with old C compilers, you may get some warnings about
"illegal pointer combinations".  These are spurious; just ignore them.
I decline to clutter up the source with casts to get rid of them.

File:,  Node: Path searching,  Next: TeX support,  Prev: Installation,  Up: Top

3 Path searching

This chapter describes the generic path searching mechanism Kpathsea
provides.  For information about searching for particular file types
(e.g., TeX fonts), see the next chapter.

* Menu:

* Searching overview::          Basic scheme for searching.
* Path sources::                Where search paths can be defined.
* Path expansion::              Special constructs in search paths.
* Filename database::           Using an externally-built list to search.
* Invoking kpsewhich::          Standalone path lookup.

File:,  Node: Searching overview,  Next: Path sources,  Up: Path searching

3.1 Searching overview

A "search path" is a colon-separated list of "path elements", which are
directory names with a few extra frills.  A search path can come from
(a combination of) many sources; see below.  To look up a file `foo'
along a path `.:/dir', Kpathsea checks each element of the path in
turn: first `./foo', then `/dir/foo', returning the first match (or
possibly all matches).

   The "colon" and "slash" mentioned here aren't necessarily `:' and
`/' on non-Unix systems.  Kpathsea tries to adapt to other operating
systems' conventions.

   To check a particular path element E, Kpathsea first sees if a
prebuilt database (*note Filename database::) applies to E, i.e., if
the database is in a directory that is a prefix of E.  If so, the path
specification is matched against the contents of the database.

   If the database does not exist, or does not apply to this path
element, or contains no matches, the filesystem is searched (if this
was not forbidden by the specification with `!!' and if the file being
searched for must exist).  Kpathsea constructs the list of directories
that correspond to this path element, and then checks in each for the
file being searched for.  (To help speed future lookups of files in the
same directory, the directory in which a file is found is floated to the
top of the directory list.)

   The "file must exist" condition comes into play with VF files and
input files read by the TeX `\openin' command.  These files may not
exist (consider `cmr10.vf'), and so it would be wrong to search the
disk for them.  Therefore, if you fail to update `ls-R' when you
install a new VF file, it will never be found.

   Each path element is checked in turn: first the database, then the
disk.  If a match is found, the search stops and the result is
returned.  This avoids possibly-expensive processing of path
specifications that are never needed on a particular run.  (Unless the
search explicitly requested all matches.)

   Although the simplest and most common path element is a directory
name, Kpathsea supports additional features in search paths: layered
default values, environment variable names, config file values, users'
home directories, and recursive subdirectory searching.  Thus, we say
that Kpathsea "expands" a path element, meaning transforming all the
magic specifications into the basic directory name or names.  This
process is described in the sections below.  It happens in the same
order as the sections.

   Exception to all of the above: If the filename being searched for is
absolute or explicitly relative, i.e., starts with `/' or `./' or
`../', Kpathsea simply checks if that file exists.

   Ordinarily, if Kpathsea tries to access a file or directory that
cannot be read, it gives a warning.  This is so you will be alerted to
directories or files that accidentally lack read permission (for
example, a `lost+found').  If you prefer not to see these warnings,
include the value `readable' in the `TEX_HUSH' environment variable or
config file value.

   This generic path searching algorithm is implemented in
`kpathsea/pathsearch.c'.  It is employed by a higher-level algorithm
when searching for a file of a particular type (*note File lookup::,
and *Note Glyph lookup::).

File:,  Node: Path sources,  Next: Path expansion,  Prev: Searching overview,  Up: Path searching

3.2 Path sources

A search path can come from many sources.  In the order in which
Kpathsea uses them:

  1. A user-set environment variable, e.g., `TEXINPUTS'.  Environment
     variables with an underscore and the program name appended
     override; for example, `TEXINPUTS_latex' overrides `TEXINPUTS' if
     the program being run is named `latex'.

  2. A program-specific configuration file, e.g., an `S /a:/b' line in
     Dvips' `' (*note Config files: (dvips)Config files.).

  3. A line in a Kpathsea configuration file `texmf.cnf', e.g.,
     `TEXINPUTS=/c:/d' (see below).

  4. The compile-time default (specified in `kpathsea/paths.h').

   You can see each of these values for a given search path by using the
debugging options (*note Debugging::).

   These sources may be combined via default expansion (*note Default

* Menu:

* Config files::        Kpathsea's runtime config files (texmf.cnf).

File:,  Node: Config files,  Up: Path sources

3.2.1 Config files

As mentioned above, Kpathsea reads "runtime configuration files" named
`texmf.cnf' for search path and other definitions.  The search path
used to look for these configuration files is named `TEXMFCNF', and is
constructed in the usual way, as described above, except that
configuration files cannot be used to define the path, naturally; also,
an `ls-R' database is not used to search for them.

   Kpathsea reads _all_ `texmf.cnf' files in the search path, not just
the first one found; definitions in earlier files override those in
later files.  Thus, if the search path is `.:$TEXMF', values from
`./texmf.cnf' override those from `$TEXMF/texmf.cnf'.

   While (or instead of) reading this description, you may find it
helpful to look at the distributed `texmf.cnf', which uses or at least
mentions most features.  The format of `texmf.cnf' files follows:

   * Comments start with `%' and continue to the end of the line.

   * Blank lines are ignored.

   * A `\' at the end of a line acts as a continuation character, i.e.,
     the next line is appended.  Whitespace at the beginning of
     continuation lines is not ignored.

   * Each remaining line must look like


     where the `=' and surrounding whitespace is optional.

   * The VARIABLE name may contain any character other than whitespace,
     `=', or `.', but sticking to `A-Za-z_' is safest.

   * If `.PROGNAME' is present, the definition only applies if the
     program that is running is named (i.e., the last component of
     `argv[0]' is) PROGNAME or `PROGNAME.exe'.  This allows different
     flavors of TeX to have different search paths, for example.

   * VALUE may contain any characters except `%' and `@'.  (These
     restrictions are only necessary because of the processing done on
     `texmf.cnf' at build time, so you can stick those characters in
     after installation if you have to.)  The `$VAR.PROG' feature is
     not available on the right-hand side; instead, you must use an
     additional variable (see below for example).  A `;' in VALUE is
     translated to `:' if running under Unix; this is useful to write a
     single `texmf.cnf' which can be used under both Unix and NT.

   * All definitions are read before anything is expanded, so you can
     use variables before they are defined (like Make, unlike most other

Here is a configuration file fragment illustrating most of these points:

     % TeX input files -- i.e., anything to be found by \input or \openin ...
     latex209_inputs = .:$TEXMF/tex/latex209//:$TEXMF/tex//
     latex2e_inputs = .:$TEXMF/tex/latex//:$TEXMF/tex//
     TEXINPUTS = .:$TEXMF/tex//
     TEXINPUTS.latex209 = $latex209_inputs
     TEXINPUTS.latex2e = $latex2e_inputs
     TEXINPUTS.latex = $latex2e_inputs

   Although this format has obvious similarities to Bourne shell
scripts--change the comment character to `#', disallow spaces around
the `=', and get rid of the `.NAME' convention, and it could be run
through the shell.  But there seemed little advantage to doing this,
since all the information would have to passed back to Kpathsea and
parsed there anyway, since the `sh' process couldn't affect its
parent's environment.

   The implementation of all this is in `kpathsea/cnf.c'.

File:,  Node: Path expansion,  Next: Filename database,  Prev: Path sources,  Up: Path searching

3.3 Path expansion

Kpathsea recognizes certain special characters and constructions in
search paths, similar to that in shells.  As a general example:
`~$USER/{foo,bar}//baz' expands to all subdirectories under directories
`foo' and `bar' in $USER's home directory that contain a directory or
file `baz'.  These expansions are explained in the sections below.

* Menu:

* Default expansion::           a: or :a or a::b expands to a default.
* Variable expansion::          $foo and ${foo} expand to environment values.
* Tilde expansion::             ~ and ~user expand to home directories.
* Brace expansion::             a{foo,bar}b expands to afoob abarb.
* KPSE_DOT expansion::          . is replaced with $KPSE_DOT if it is defined.
* Subdirectory expansion::      a// and a//b recursively expand to subdirs.

File:,  Node: Default expansion,  Next: Variable expansion,  Up: Path expansion

3.3.1 Default expansion

If the highest-priority search path (*note Path sources::) contains an
"extra colon" (i.e., leading, trailing, or doubled), Kpathsea inserts
at that point the next-highest-priority search path that is defined.
If that inserted path has an extra colon, the same happens with the
next-highest.  (An extra colon in the compile-time default value has
unpredictable results, so installers beware.)

   For example, given an environment variable setting

     setenv TEXINPUTS /home/karl:

and a `TEXINPUTS' value from `texmf.cnf' of


then the final value used for searching will be:


   Put another way, default expansion works on "formats" (search
paths), and not directly on environment variables.  Example, showing
the trailing `:' ignored in the first case and expanded in the second:

     $ env TTFONTS=/tmp: kpsewhich --expand-path '$TTFONTS'
     $ env TTFONTS=/tmp: kpsewhich --show-path=.ttf

   Since Kpathsea looks for multiple configuration files, it would be
natural to expect that (for example) an extra colon in `./texmf.cnf'
would expand to the path in `$TEXMF/texmf.cnf'.  Or, with Dvips'
configuration files, that an extra colon in `config.$PRINTER' would
expand to the path in `'.  This doesn't happen.  It's not
clear this would be desirable in all cases, and trying to devise a way
to specify the path to which the extra colon should expand seemed truly

   Technicality: Since it would be useless to insert the default value
in more than one place, Kpathsea changes only one extra `:' and leaves
any others in place (they will eventually be ignored).  Kpathsea checks
first for a leading `:', then a trailing `:', then a doubled `:'.

   You can trace this by debugging "paths" (*note Debugging::).
Default expansion is implemented in the source file

File:,  Node: Variable expansion,  Next: Tilde expansion,  Prev: Default expansion,  Up: Path expansion

3.3.2 Variable expansion

`$foo' or `${foo}' in a path element is replaced by (1) the value of an
environment variable `foo' (if defined); (2) the value of `foo' from
`texmf.cnf' (if defined); (3) the empty string.

   If the character after the `$' is alphanumeric or `_', the variable
name consists of all consecutive such characters. If the character
after the `$' is a `{', the variable name consists of everything up to
the next `}' (braces may not be nested around variable names).
Otherwise, Kpathsea gives a warning and ignores the `$' and its
following character.

   You must quote the $'s and braces as necessary for your shell.
_Shell_ variable values cannot be seen by Kpathsea, i.e., ones defined
by `set' in C shells and without `export' in Bourne shells.

   For example, given
     setenv tex /home/texmf
     setenv TEXINPUTS .:$tex:${tex}prev
   the final `TEXINPUTS' path is the three directories:

   The `.PROGNAME' suffix on variables and `_PROGNAME' on environment
variable names are not implemented for general variable expansions.
These are only recognized when search paths are initialized (*note Path

   Variable expansion is implemented in the source file

File:,  Node: Tilde expansion,  Next: Brace expansion,  Prev: Variable expansion,  Up: Path expansion

3.3.3 Tilde expansion

A leading `~' in a path element is replaced by the value of the
environment variable `HOME', or `.' if `HOME' is not set.

   A leading `~USER' in a path element is replaced by USER's home
directory from the system `passwd' database.

   For example,
     setenv TEXINPUTS ~/mymacros:

will prepend a directory `mymacros' in your home directory to the
default path.

   As a special case, if a home directory ends in `/', the trailing
slash is dropped, to avoid inadvertently creating a `//' construct in
the path.  For example, if the home directory of the user `root' is
`/', the path element `~root/mymacros' expands to just `/mymacros', not

   Tilde expansion is implemented in the source file `kpathsea/tilde.c'.

File:,  Node: Brace expansion,  Next: KPSE_DOT expansion,  Prev: Tilde expansion,  Up: Path expansion

3.3.4 Brace expansion

`x{A,B}y' expands to `xAy:xBy'.  For example:


expands to `foo/1/baz:foo/2/baz'.  `:' is the path separator on the
current system; e.g., on a DOS system, it's `;'.

   Braces can be nested; for example, `x{A,B{1,2}}y' expands to

   Multiple non-nested braces are expanded from right to left; for
example, `x{A,B}{1,2}y' expands to `x{A,B}1y:x{A,B}2y', which expands
to `xA1y:xB1y:xA2y:xB2y'.

   This feature can be used to implement multiple TeX hierarchies, by
assigning a brace list to `$TEXMF', as mentioned in `'.

   You can also use the path separator in stead of the comma.  The last
example could have been written `x{A:B}{1:2}y'.

   Brace expansion is implemented in the source file
`kpathsea/expand.c'.  It is a modification of the Bash sources, and is
thus covered by the GNU General Public License, rather than the Library
General Public License that covers the rest of Kpathsea.

File:,  Node: KPSE_DOT expansion,  Next: Subdirectory expansion,  Prev: Brace expansion,  Up: Path expansion

3.3.5 `KPSE_DOT' expansion

When `KPSE_DOT' is defined in the environment, it names a directory
that should be considered the current directory for the purpose of
looking up files in the search paths.  This feature is needed by the
`mktex...' scripts *Note mktex scripts::, because these change the
working directory.  You should not ever define it yourself.

File:,  Node: Subdirectory expansion,  Prev: KPSE_DOT expansion,  Up: Path expansion

3.3.6 Subdirectory expansion

Two or more consecutive slashes in a path element following a directory
D is replaced by all subdirectories of D: first those subdirectories
directly under D, then the subsubdirectories under those, and so on.
At each level, the order in which the directories are searched is
unspecified.  (It's "directory order", and definitely not alphabetical.)

   If you specify any filename components after the `//', only
subdirectories which match those components are included.  For example,
`/a//b' would expand into directories `/a/1/b', `/a/2/b', `/a/1/1/b',
and so on, but not `/a/b/c' or `/a/1'.

   You can include multiple `//' constructs in the path.

   `//' at the beginning of a path is ignored; you didn't really want
to search every directory on the system, did you?

   I should mention one related implementation trick, which I took from
GNU find.  Matthew Farwell suggested it, and David MacKenzie
implemented it.

   The trick is that in every real Unix implementation (as opposed to
the POSIX specification), a directory which contains no subdirectories
will have exactly two links (namely, one for `.' and one for `..').
That is to say, the `st_nlink' field in the `stat' structure will be
two.  Thus, we don't have to stat everything in the bottom-level (leaf)
directories--we can just check `st_nlink', notice it's two, and do no
more work.

   But if you have a directory that contains a single subdirectory and
500 regular files, `st_nlink' will be 3, and Kpathsea has to stat every
one of those 501 entries.  Therein lies slowness.

   You can disable the trick by undefining `UNIX_ST_LINK' in
`kpathsea/config.h'. (It is undefined by default except under Unix.)

   Unfortunately, in some cases files in leaf directories are `stat''d:
if the path specification is, say, `$TEXMF/fonts//pk//', then files in
a subdirectory `.../pk', even if it is a leaf, are checked. The reason
cannot be explained without reference to the implementation, so read
`kpathsea/elt-dirs.c' (search for `may descend') if you are curious.
And if you can find a way to _solve_ the problem, please let me know.

   Subdirectory expansion is implemented in the source file

File:,  Node: Filename database,  Next: Invoking kpsewhich,  Prev: Path expansion,  Up: Path searching

3.4 Filename database (`ls-R')

Kpathsea goes to some lengths to minimize disk accesses for searches
(*note Subdirectory expansion::).  Nevertheless, at installations with
enough directories, searching each possible directory for a given file
can take an excessively long time (depending on the speed of the disk,
whether it's NFS-mounted, how patient you are, etc.).

   In practice, a font tree containing the standard PostScript and PCL
fonts is large enough for searching to be noticeably slow on typical
systems these days.  Therefore, Kpathsea can use an externally-built
"database" file named `ls-R' that maps files to directories, thus
avoiding the need to exhaustively search the disk.

   A second database file `aliases' allows you to give additional names
to the files listed in `ls-R'.  This can be helpful to adapt to "8.3"
filename conventions in source files.

   The `ls-R' and `aliases' features are implemented in the source file

* Menu:

* ls-R::                        The main filename database.
* Filename aliases::            Aliases for those names.
* Database format::             Syntax details of the database file.

File:,  Node: ls-R,  Next: Filename aliases,  Up: Filename database

3.4.1 `ls-R'

As mentioned above, you must name the main filename database `ls-R'.
You can put one at the root of each TeX installation hierarchy you wish
to search (`$TEXMF' by default); most sites have only one hierarchy.
Kpathsea looks for `ls-R' files along the `TEXMFDBS' path, so that
should presumably match the list of hierarchies.

   The recommended way to create and maintain `ls-R' is to run the
`mktexlsr' script, which is installed in `$(bindir)' (`/usr/local/bin'
by default).  That script goes to some trouble to follow symbolic links
as necessary, etc.  It's also invoked by the distributed `mktex...'

   At its simplest, though, you can build `ls-R' with the command
     cd /YOUR/TEXMF/ROOT && ls -LAR ./ >ls-R

presuming your `ls' produces the right output format (see the section
below).  GNU `ls', for example, outputs in this format.  Also presuming
your `ls' hasn't been aliased in a system file (e.g., `/etc/profile')
to something problematic, e.g., `ls --color=tty'.  In that case, you
will have to disable the alias before generating `ls-R'.  For the
precise definition of the file format, see *Note Database format::.

   Regardless of whether you use the supplied script or your own, you
will almost certainly want to invoke it via `cron', so when you make
changes in the installed files (say if you install a new LaTeX
package), `ls-R' will be automatically updated.

   The `-A' option to `ls' includes files beginning with `.' (except
for `.' and `..'), such as the file `.tex' included with the LaTeX
tools package.  (On the other hand, _directories_ whose names begin
with `.' are always ignored.)

   If your system does not support symbolic links, omit the `-L'.

   `ls -LAR /YOUR/TEXMF/ROOT' will also work.  But using `./' avoids
embedding absolute pathnames, so the hierarchy can be easily
transported.  It also avoids possible trouble with automounters or
other network filesystem conventions.

   Kpathsea warns you if it finds an `ls-R' file, but the file does not
contain any usable entries.  The usual culprit is running plain `ls -R'
instead of `ls -LR ./' or `ls -R /YOUR/TEXMF/ROOT'.  Another
possibility is some system directory name starting with a `.' (perhaps
if you are using AFS); Kpathsea ignores everything under such

   Because the database may be out-of-date for a particular run, if a
file is not found in the database, by default Kpathsea goes ahead and
searches the disk. If a particular path element begins with `!!',
however, _only_ the database will be searched for that element, never
the disk.  If the database does not exist, nothing will be searched.
Because this can surprise users ("I see the font `foo.tfm' when I do an
`ls'; why can't Dvips find it?"), it is not in any of the default
search paths.

File:,  Node: Filename aliases,  Next: Database format,  Prev: ls-R,  Up: Filename database

3.4.2 Filename aliases

In some circumstances, you may wish to find a file under several names.
For example, suppose a TeX document was created using a DOS system and
tries to read `longtabl.sty'.  But now it's being run on a Unix system,
and the file has its original name, `longtable.sty'.  The file won't be
found.  You need to give the actual file `longtable.sty' an alias

   You can handle this by creating a file `aliases' as a companion to
the `ls-R' for the hierarchy containing the file in question.  (You
must have an `ls-R' for the alias feature to work.)

   The format of `aliases' is simple: two whitespace-separated words
per line; the first is the real name `longtable.sty', and second is the
alias (`longtabl.sty').  These must be base filenames, with no
directory components.  `longtable.sty' must be in the sibling `ls-R'.

   Also, blank lines and lines starting with `%' or `#' are ignored in
`aliases', to allow for comments.

   If a real file `longtabl.sty' exists, it is used regardless of any

File:,  Node: Database format,  Prev: Filename aliases,  Up: Filename database

3.4.3 Database format

The "database" read by Kpathsea is a line-oriented file of plain text.
The format is that generated by GNU (and most other) `ls' programs
given the `-R' option, as follows.

   * Blank lines are ignored.

   * If a line begins with `/' or `./' or `../' and ends with a colon,
     it's the name of a directory.  (`../' lines aren't useful,
     however, and should not be generated.)

   * All other lines define entries in the most recently seen directory.
     /'s in such lines will produce possibly-strange results.

   * Files with no preceding directory line are ignored.

   For example, here's the first few lines of `ls-R' (which totals
about 30K bytes) on my system:




File:,  Node: Invoking kpsewhich,  Prev: Filename database,  Up: Path searching

3.5 `kpsewhich': Standalone path searching

The Kpsewhich program exercises the path searching functionality
independent of any particular application.  This can also be useful as a
sort of `find' program to locate files in your TeX hierarchies, perhaps
in administrative scripts.  It is used heavily in the distributed
`mktex...' scripts.

     kpsewhich OPTION... FILENAME...

   The options and filename(s) to look up can be intermixed.  Options
can start with either `-' or `--', and any unambiguous abbreviation is

* Menu:

* Path searching options::      Changing the mode, resolution, etc.
* Auxiliary tasks::             Path and variable expansion.
* Standard options::            --help and --version.

File:,  Node: Path searching options,  Next: Auxiliary tasks,  Up: Invoking kpsewhich

3.5.1 Path searching options

Kpsewhich looks up each non-option argument on the command line as a
filename, and returns the first file found.  There is no option to
return all the files with a particular name (you can run the Unix
`find' utility for that, *note Invoking find: (findutils)Invoking

   Various options alter the path searching behavior:

     Set the resolution to NUM; this only affects `gf' and `pk'
     lookups.  `-D' is a synonym, for compatibility with Dvips.
     Default is 600.

     Set the engine name to NAME.  By default it is not set.  The
     engine name is used in some search paths to allow files with the
     same name but used by different engines to coexist.

     Set the format for lookup to NAME.  By default, the format is
     guessed from the filename, with `tex' being used if nothing else
     fits.  The recognized filename extensions (including any leading
     `.') are also allowable NAMEs.

     All formats also have a name, which is the only way to specify
     formats with no associated suffix.  For example, for Dvips
     configuration files you can use `--format="dvips config"'.  (The
     quotes are for the sake of the shell.)

     Here's the current list of recognized names and the associated
     suffixes.  *Note Supported file formats::, for more information on
     each of these.
          gf: gf
          pk: pk
          bitmap font
          afm: .afm
          base: .base
          bib: .bib
          bst: .bst
          cnf: .cnf
          ls-R: ls-R
          fmt: .fmt
          map: .map
          mem: .mem
          mf: .mf
          mfpool: .pool
          mft: .mft
          mp: .mp
          mppool: .pool
          MetaPost support
          ocp: .ocp
          ofm: .ofm .tfm
          opl: .opl
          otp: .otp
          ovf: .ovf
          ovp: .ovp
          graphic/figure: .eps .epsi
          tex: .tex
          TeX system documentation
          texpool: .pool
          TeX system sources
          PostScript header/font: .pro
          Troff fonts
          tfm: .tfm
          type1 fonts: .pfa .pfb
          vf: .vf
          dvips config
          ist: .ist
          truetype fonts: .ttf .ttc
          type42 fonts
          web2c files
          other text files
          other binary files
          misc fonts
          web: .web
          cweb: .w .web
          enc: .enc
          cmap: .cmap
          sfd: .sfd
          opentype fonts
          pdftex config
          lig files: .lig

     This option and `--path' are mutually exclusive.

     After processing the command line, read additional filenames to
     look up from standard input.

     Turn on or off the `mktex' script associated with FILETYPE.  The
     only values that make sense for FILETYPE are `pk', `mf', `tex',
     and `tfm'. By default, all are off in Kpsewhich.  *Note mktex

     Set the mode name to STRING; this also only affects `gf' and `pk'
     lookups.  No default: any mode will be found.  *Note mktex script

     Do everything possible to find the files, notably including
     searching the disk.  By default, only the `ls-R' database is
     checked, in the interest of efficiency.

     Search along the path STRING (colon-separated as usual), instead
     of guessing the search path from the filename.  `//' and all the
     usual expansions are supported (*note Path expansion::).  This
     option and `--format' are mutually exclusive.  To output the
     complete directory expansion of a path, instead of doing a
     one-shot lookup, see `--expand-path' in the following section.

     Set the program name to NAME; default is `kpsewhich'.  This can
     affect the search paths via the `.PROGNAM' feature in
     configuration files (*note Config files::).

File:,  Node: Auxiliary tasks,  Next: Standard options,  Prev: Path searching options,  Up: Invoking kpsewhich

3.5.2 Auxiliary tasks

Kpsewhich provides some additional features not strictly related to path

   * `--debug=NUM' sets the debugging options to NUM.  *Note

   * `--var-value=VARIABLE' output the value of VARIABLE.

   * `--expand-braces=STRING' outputs the variable and brace expansion
     of STRING.  *Note Path expansion::.

   * `--expand-var=STRING' outputs the variable expansion of STRING.
     For example, the `mktex...' scripts run `kpsewhich
     --expand-var='$TEXMF'' to find the root of the TeX system
     hierarchy.  *Note Path expansion::.

   * `--expand-path=STRING' outputs the complete expansion of STRING as
     a colon-separated path.  This is useful to construct a search path
     for a program that doesn't accept recursive subdirectory
     specifications.  Nonexistent directories are culled from the

          $ kpsewhich --expand-path '/tmp'
          => /tmp
          $ kpsewhich --expand-path '/nonesuch'

     For one-shot uses of an arbitrary (not built in to Kpathsea) path,
     see `--path' in the previous section.

   * `--show-path=NAME' shows the path that would be used for file
     lookups of file type NAME.  Either a filename extension (`pk',
     `.vf', etc.) or an integer can be used, just as with `--format',
     described in the previous section.

File:,  Node: Standard options,  Prev: Auxiliary tasks,  Up: Invoking kpsewhich

3.5.3 Standard options

Kpsewhich accepts the standard GNU options:

   * `--help' prints a help message on standard output and exits.

   * `--version' prints the Kpathsea version number and exits.

File:,  Node: TeX support,  Next: Programming,  Prev: Path searching,  Up: Top

4 TeX support

Although the basic features in Kpathsea can be used for any type of path
searching, it came about (like all libraries) with a specific
application in mind: I wrote Kpathsea specifically for TeX system
programs.  I had been struggling with the programs I was using (Dvips,
Xdvi, and TeX itself) having slightly different notions of how to
specify paths; and debugging was painful, since no code was shared.

   Therefore, Kpathsea provides some TeX-specific formats and features.
Indeed, many of the supposedly generic path searching features were
provided because they seemed useful in that conTeXt (font lookup,

   Kpathsea provides a standard way to search for files of any of the
supported file types; glyph fonts are a bit different than all the rest.
Searches are based solely on filenames, not file contents--if a GF file
is named `cmr10.600pk', it will be found as a PK file.

* Menu:

* Supported file formats::      File types Kpathsea knows about.
* File lookup::                 Searching for most kinds of files.
* Glyph lookup::                Searching for bitmap fonts.
* Suppressing warnings::        Avoiding warnings via TEX_HUSH.

File:,  Node: Supported file formats,  Next: File lookup,  Up: TeX support

4.1 Supported file formats

Kpathsea has support for a number of file types.  Each file type has a
list of environment and config file variables that are checked to define
the search path, and most have a default suffix that plays a role in
finding files (see the next section).  Some also define additional
suffixes, and/or a program to be run to create missing files on the fly.

   Since environment variables containing periods, such as
`TEXINPUTS.latex', are not allowed on some systems, Kpathsea looks for
environment variables with an underscore, e.g., `TEXINPUTS_latex'
(*note Config files::).

   The following table lists the above information.

     (Adobe font metrics, *note Metric files: (dvips)Metric files.)
     `AFMFONTS'; suffix `.afm'.

     (Metafont memory dump, *note Memory dumps: (web2c)Memory dumps.)
     `MFBASES', `TEXMFINI'; suffix `.base'.

     (BibTeX bibliography source, *note bibtex invocation:
     (web2c)bibtex invocation.)  `BIBINPUTS', `TEXBIB'; suffix `.bib'.

     (BibTeX style file, *note Basic BibTeX style files: (web2c)Basic
     BibTeX style files.)  `BSTINPUTS'; suffix `.bst'.

     (character map files) `CMAPFONTS'; suffix `.cmap'.

     (Runtime configuration files, *note Config files::) `TEXMFCNF';
     suffix `.cnf'.

     (CWEB input files) `CWEBINPUTS'; suffixes `.w', `.web'; additional
     suffix `.ch'.

`dvips config'
     (Dvips `config.*' files, such as `', *note Config files:
     (dvips)Config files.)  `TEXCONFIG'.

`enc files'
     (encoding vectors) `ENCFONTS'; suffix `.enc'.

     (TeX memory dump, *note Memory dumps: (web2c)Memory dumps.)
     `TEXFORMATS', `TEXMFINI'; suffix `.fmt'.

     (generic font bitmap, *note Glyph files: (dvips)Glyph files.)

     (Encapsulated PostScript figures, *note PostScript figures:
     (dvips)PostScript figures.)  `TEXPICTS', `TEXINPUTS'; additional
     suffixes: `.eps', `.epsi'.

     (makeindex style files) `TEXINDEXSTYLE', `INDEXSTYLE'; suffix

`lig files'
     (ligature definition files) `LIGFONTS'; suffix `.lig'.

     (Filename databases, *note Filename database::) `TEXMFDBS'.

     (Fontmaps, *note Fontmap::) `TEXFONTMAPS'; suffix `.map'.

     (MetaPost memory dump, *note Memory dumps: (web2c)Memory dumps.)
     `MPMEMS', `TEXMFINI'; suffix `.mem'.

`MetaPost support'
     (MetaPost support files, used by DMP; *note dmp invocation:
     (web2c)dmp invocation.)  `MPSUPPORT'.

     (Metafont source, *note mf invocation: (web2c)mf invocation.)
     `MFINPUTS'; suffix `.mf'; dynamic creation program: `mktexmf'.

     (Metafont program strings, *note pooltype invocation:
     (web2c)pooltype invocation.)  `MFPOOL', `TEXMFINI'; suffix `.pool'.

     (`MFT' style file, *note mft invocation: (web2c)mft invocation.)
     `MFTINPUTS'; suffix `.mft'.

`misc fonts'
     (font-related files that don't fit the other categories)

     (MetaPost source, *note mpost invocation: (web2c)mpost invocation.)
     `MPINPUTS'; suffix `.mp'.

     (MetaPost program strings, *note pooltype invocation:
     (web2c)pooltype invocation.)  `MPPOOL', `TEXMFINI'; suffix `.pool'.

     (Omega compiled process files) `OCPINPUTS';
     suffix `.ocp'; dynamic creation program: `MakeOmegaOCP'.

     (Omega font metrics) `OFMFONTS', `TEXFONTS';
     suffixes `.ofm', `.tfm'; dynamic creation program: `MakeOmegaOFM'.

`opentype fonts'
     (OpenType fonts) `OPENTYPEFONTS'.

     (Omega property lists) `OPLFONTS', `TEXFONTS'; suffix `.opl'.

     (Omega translation process files) `OTPINPUTS'; suffix `.otp'.

     (Omega virtual fonts) `OVFFONTS', `TEXFONTS'; suffix `.ovf'.

     (Omega virtual property lists) `OVPFONTS', `TEXFONTS'; suffix

`pdftex config'
     (PDFTeX-specific configuration files) `PDFTEXCONFIG'.

     (packed bitmap fonts, *note Glyph files: (dvips)Glyph files.)
     `GLYPHFONTS', `TEXFONTS'; suffix `pk'; dynamic creation program:

`PostScript header'
     (downloadable PostScript, *note Header files: (dvips)Header files.)
     `TEXPSHEADERS', `PSHEADERS'; additional suffix `.pro'.

`subfont definition files'
     (subfont definition files) `SFDFONTS' suffix `.sfd'.

     (TeX source, *note tex invocation: (web2c)tex invocation.)
     `TEXINPUTS'; suffix `.tex'; additional suffixes: none, because
     such a list cannot be complete; dynamic creation program:

`TeX system documentation'
     (Documentation files for the TeX system) `TEXDOCS'.

`TeX system sources'
     (Source files for the TeX system) `TEXSOURCES'.

     (Architecture-independent executables distributed in the texmf
     tree) `TEXMFSCRIPTS'.

     (TeX program strings, *note pooltype invocation: (web2c)pooltype
     invocation.)  `TEXPOOL', `TEXMFINI'; suffix `.pool'.

     (TeX font metrics, *note Metric files: (dvips)Metric files.)
     `TFMFONTS', `TEXFONTS'; suffix `.tfm'; dynamic creation program:

`Troff fonts'
     (Troff fonts, used by DMP; *note DMP invocation: (web2c)DMP
     invocation.)  `TRFONTS'.

`truetype fonts'
     (TrueType outline fonts) `TTFONTS'; suffixes `.ttf', `.ttc'.

`type1 fonts'
     (Type 1 PostScript outline fonts, *note Glyph files: (dvips)Glyph
     suffixes `.pfa', `.pfb'.

`type42 fonts'
     (Type 42 PostScript outline fonts) `T42FONTS'.

     (virtual fonts, *note Virtual fonts: (dvips)Virtual fonts.)
     `VFFONTS', `TEXFONTS'; suffix `.vf'.

     (WEB input files) `WEBINPUTS'; suffix `.web'; additional suffix

`web2c files'
     (files specific to the web2c implementation) `WEB2C'.

   There are two special cases, because the paths and environment
variables always depend on the name of the program: the variable name is
constructed by converting the program name to upper case, and then
appending `INPUTS'.  Assuming the program is called `foo', this gives
us the following table.

`other text files'
     (text files used by `foo') `FOOINPUTS'.

`other binary files'
     (binary files used by `foo') `FOOINPUTS'.

   If an environment variable by these names are set, the corresponding
`texmf.cnf' definition won't be looked at (unless, as usual, the
environment variable value has an extra `:').  *Note Default

   For the font variables, the intent is that:
   * `TEXFONTS' is the default for everything.

   * `GLYPHFONTS' is the default for bitmap (or, more precisely,
     non-metric) files.

   * Each font format has a variable of its own.

   * Each program has its own font override path as well; e.g.,
     `DVIPSFONTS' for Dvipsk.  Again, this is for bitmaps, not metrics.

File:,  Node: File lookup,  Next: Glyph lookup,  Prev: Supported file formats,  Up: TeX support

4.2 File lookup

This section describes how Kpathsea searches for most files (bitmap font
searches are the exception, as described in the next section).

   Here is the search strategy for a file NAME:
  1. If the file format defines default suffixes, and the suffix of
     NAME name is not already a known suffix for that format, try the
     name with each default appended, and use alternative names found
     in the fontmaps if necessary.  We postpone searching the disk as
     long as possible.  Example: given `foo.sty', look for `foo.sty.tex'
     before `foo.sty'.  This is unfortunate, but allows us to find
     `' before `' if both exist and we were given

  2. Search for NAME, and if necessary for alternative names found in
     the fontmaps.  Again we avoid searching the disk if possible.
     Example: given `foo', we look for `foo'.

  3. If the file format defines a program to invoke to create missing
     files, run it (*note mktex scripts::).

   This is implemented in the routine `kpse_find_file' in
`kpathsea/tex-file.c'.  You can watch it in action with the debugging
options (*note Debugging::).

File:,  Node: Glyph lookup,  Next: Suppressing warnings,  Prev: File lookup,  Up: TeX support

4.3 Glyph lookup

This section describes how Kpathsea searches for a bitmap font in GF or
PK format (or either) given a font name (e.g., `cmr10') and a
resolution (e.g., 600).

   Here is an outline of the search strategy (details in the sections
below) for a file NAME at resolution DPI.  The search stops at the
first successful lookup.

  1. Look for an existing file NAME.DPIFORMAT in the specified

  2. If NAME is an alias for a file F in the fontmap file
     `', look for F.DPI.

  3. Run an external program (typically named `mktexpk') to generate
     the font (*note mktex scripts::)

  4. Look for FALLBACK.DPI, where FALLBACK is some last-resort font
     (typically `cmr10').

   This is implemented in `kpse_find_glyph_format' in

* Menu:

* Basic glyph lookup::          Features common to all glyph lookups.
* Fontmap::                     Aliases for fonts.
* Fallback font::               Resolutions and fonts of last resort.

File:,  Node: Basic glyph lookup,  Next: Fontmap,  Up: Glyph lookup

4.3.1 Basic glyph lookup

When Kpathsea looks for a bitmap font NAME at resolution DPI in a
format FORMAT, it first checks each directory in the search path for a
file `NAME.DPIFORMAT'; for example, `cmr10.600pk'.  Kpathsea looks for
a PK file first, then a GF file.

   If that fails, Kpathsea looks for `dpiDPI/NAME.FORMAT'; for example,
`dpi600/'. This is how fonts are typically stored on
filesystems (such as DOS) that permit only three-character extensions.

   If that fails, Kpathsea looks for a font with a close-enough DPI.
"Close enough" is defined by the macro `KPSE_BITMAP_TOLERANCE' in
`kpathsea/tex-glyph.h' to be `DPI / 500 + 1'.  This is slightly more
than the 0.2% minimum allowed by the DVI standard

File:,  Node: Fontmap,  Next: Fallback font,  Prev: Basic glyph lookup,  Up: Glyph lookup

4.3.2 Fontmap

If a bitmap font or metric file is not found with the original name (see
the previous section), Kpathsea looks through any "fontmap" files for
an "alias" for the original font name.  These files are named
`' and searched for along the `TEXFONTMAPS'
environment/config file variable.  All `' files that are
found are read; earlier definitions override later ones.

   This feature is intended to help in two respects:

  1. An alias name is limited in length only by available memory, not
     by your filesystem.  Therefore, if you want to ask for
     `Times-Roman' instead of `ptmr', you can (you get `ptmr8r').

  2. A few fonts have historically had multiple names: specifically,
     LaTeX's "circle font" has variously been known as `circle10',
     `lcircle10', and `lcirc10'.  Aliases can make all the names
     equivalent, so that it no longer matters what the name of the
     installed file is; TeX documents will find their favorite name.

   The format of fontmap files is straightforward:

   * Comments start with `%' and continue to the end of the line.

   * Blank lines are ignored.

   * Each nonblank line is broken up into a series of "words":   a
     sequence of non-whitespace characters.

   * If the first word is `include', the second word is used as   a
     filename, and it is searched for and read.

   * Otherwise, the first word on each line is the true filename;

   * the second word is the alias;

   * subsequent words are ignored.

   If an alias has an extension, it matches only those files with that
extension; otherwise, it matches anything with the same root, regardless
of extension.  For example, an alias `foo.tfm' matches only when
`foo.tfm' is being searched for; but an alias `foo' matches `foo.vf',
`foo.600pk', etc.

   As an example, here is an excerpt from the `' in the
Web2c distribution.  It makes the circle fonts equivalent and includes
automatically generated maps for most PostScript fonts available from
various font suppliers.

     circle10        lcircle10
     circle10        lcirc10
     lcircle10       circle10
     lcircle10       lcirc10
     lcirc10         circle10
     lcirc10         lcircle10

   Fontmaps are implemented in the file `kpathsea/fontmap.c'.  The
Fontname distribution has much more information on font naming (*note
Introduction: (fontname)Introduction.).

File:,  Node: Fallback font,  Prev: Fontmap,  Up: Glyph lookup

4.3.3 Fallback font

If a bitmap font cannot be found or created at the requested size,
Kpathsea looks for the font at a set of "fallback resolutions".  You
specify these resolutions as a colon-separated list (like search paths).
Kpathsea looks first for a program-specific environment variable (e.g.,
`DVIPSSIZES' for Dvipsk), then the environment variable `TEXSIZES',
then a default specified at compilation time (the Make variable
`default_texsizes').  You can set this list to be empty if you prefer
to find fonts at their stated size or not at all.

   Finally, if the font cannot be found even at the fallback
resolutions, Kpathsea looks for a fallback font, typically `cmr10'.
Programs must enable this feature by assigning to the global variable
`kpse_fallback_font' or calling `kpse_init_prog' (*note Calling
sequence::); the default is no fallback font.

File:,  Node: Suppressing warnings,  Prev: Glyph lookup,  Up: TeX support

4.4 Suppressing warnings

Kpathsea provides a way to suppress selected usually-harmless warnings;
this is useful at large sites where most users are not administrators,
and thus the warnings are merely a source of confusion, not a help.  To
do this, you set the environment variable or configuration file value
`TEX_HUSH' to a colon-separated list of values.  Here are the

     Suppress everything possible.

     Suppress mismatched font checksum warnings.

     Suppress warnings when a character is missing from a font that a
     DVI or VF file tries to typeset.

     Don't suppress any warnings.

     Suppress warnings about attempts to access a file whose permissions
     render it unreadable.

     Suppresses warnings about an unimplemented or unparsable
     `\special' command.

`tex-hush.c' defines the function that checks the variable value.  Each
driver implements its own checks where appropriate.

File:,  Node: Programming,  Next: Index,  Prev: TeX support,  Up: Top

5 Programming

This chapter is for programmers who wish to use Kpathsea.  *Note
Introduction::, for the conditions under which you may do so.

* Menu:

* Overview: Programming overview.         Introduction.
* Calling sequence::                      Specifics of what to call.
* Program-specific files::                How to handle these.
* Config: Programming with config files.  Getting info from texmf.cnf.

File:,  Node: Programming overview,  Next: Calling sequence,  Up: Programming

5.1 Programming overview

Aside from this manual, your best source of information is the source to
the programs I've modified to use Kpathsea (*note Introduction::).  Of
those, Dviljk is probably the simplest, and hence a good place to start.
Xdvik adds VF support and the complication of X resources.  Dvipsk adds
the complication of its own config files.  Web2c is source code I also
maintain, so it uses Kpathsea rather straightforwardly, but is of course
complicated by the Web to C translation.  Finally, Kpsewhich is a small
utility program whose sole purpose is to exercise the main
path-searching functionality.

   Beyond these examples, the `.h' files in the Kpathsea source
describe the interfaces and functionality (and of course the `.c' files
define the actual routines, which are the ultimate documentation).
`pathsearch.h' declares the basic searching routine.  `tex-file.h' and
`tex-glyph.h' define the interfaces for looking up particular kinds of
files.  In view of the way the headers depend on each other, it is
recommended to use `#include <kpathsea/kpathsea.h>', which includes
every Kpathsea header.

   If you want to include only specific headers, you should still
consider including `kpathsea/config.h' before including any other
Kpathsea header, as it provides symbols used in the other headers.
Note that `kpathsea/config.h' includes `kpathsea/c-auto.h', which is
generated by Autoconf.

   The library provides no way for an external program to register new
file types: `tex-file.[ch]' must be modified to do this. For example,
Kpathsea has support for looking up Dvips config files, even though no
program other than Dvips will likely ever want to do so.  I felt this
was acceptable, since along with new file types should also come new
defaults in `texmf.cnf' (and its descendant `paths.h'), since it's
simplest for users if they can modify one configuration file for all
kinds of paths.

   Kpathsea does not parse any formats itself; it barely opens any
files.  Its primary purpose is to return filenames.  The GNU font
utilities does contain libraries to read TFM, GF, and PK files, as do
the programs above, of course.

File:,  Node: Calling sequence,  Next: Program-specific files,  Prev: Programming overview,  Up: Programming

5.2 Calling sequence

The typical way to use Kpathsea in your program goes something like

  1. Call `kpse_set_program_name' with `argv[0]' as the first argument;
     the second argument is a string or `NULL'.  The second argument is
     used by Kpathsea as the program name for the `.PROGRAM' feature of
     config files (*note Config files::).  If the second argument is
     `NULL', the value of the first argument is used.  This function
     must be called before any other use of the Kpathsea library.

     If necessary, `kpse_set_program_name' sets the global variables
     `program_invocation_name' and `program_invocation_short_name'.
     These variables are used in the error message macros defined in
     `kpathsea/lib.h'.  It sets the global variable `kpse_program_name'
     to the program name it uses.  It also initializes debugging
     options based on the environment variable `KPATHSEA_DEBUG' (if
     that is set).  Finally, it sets the variables `SELFAUTOLOC',
     `SELFAUTODIR' and `SELFAUTOPARENT' to the location, parent and
     grandparent directory of the executable, removing `.' and `..'
     path elements and resolving symbolic links.  These are used in the
     default configuration file to allow people to invoke TeX from
     anywhere, specifically from a mounted CD-ROM.  (You can use
     `--expand-var=\$SELFAUTOLOC', etc., to see the values finds.)

  2. The `kpse_set_progname' is deprecated.  A call to
     `kpse_set_progname' with `argv[0]' is equivalent to a call of
     `kpse_set_program_name' with first argument `argv[0]' and second
     argument `NULL'.  The function is deprecated because it cannot
     ensure that the `.PROGRAM' feature of config files will always
     work (*note Config files::).

  3. Set debugging options. *Note Debugging::.  If your program doesn't
     have a debugging option already, you can define one and set
     `kpathsea_debug' to the number that the user supplies (as in Dviljk
     and Web2c), or you can just omit this altogether (people can
     always set `KPATHSEA_DEBUG').  If you do have runtime debugging
     already, you need to merge Kpathsea's options with yours (as in
     Dvipsk and Xdvik).

  4. If your program has its own configuration files that can define
     search paths, you should assign those paths to the `client_path'
     member in the appropriate element of the `kpse_format_info' array.
     (This array is indexed by file type; see `tex-file.h'.)  See
     `resident.c' in Dvipsk for an example.

  5. Call `kpse_init_prog' (see `proginit.c'). It's useful for the DVI
     drivers, at least, but for other programs it may be simpler to
     extract the parts of it that actually apply.  This does not
     initialize any paths, it just looks for (and sets) certain
     environment variables and other random information.  (A search
     path is always initialized at the first call to find a file of
     that type; this eliminates much useless work, e.g., initializing
     the BibTeX search paths in a DVI driver.)

  6. The routine to actually find a file of type FORMAT is
     `kpse_find_FORMAT', defined in `tex-file.h'. These are macros that
     expand to a call to `kpse_find_file'.  You can call, say,
     `kpse_find_tfm' after doing only the first of the initialization
     steps above--Kpathsea automatically reads the `texmf.cnf' generic
     config files, looks for environment variables, and does expansions
     at the first lookup.

  7. To find PK and/or GF bitmap fonts, the routines are `kpse_find_pk',
     `kpse_find_gf' and `kpse_find_glyph', defined in `tex-glyph.h'.
     These return a structure in addition to the resultant filename,
     because fonts can be found in so many ways. See the documentation
     in the source.

  8. To actually open a file, not just return a filename, call
     `kpse_open_file'.  This function takes the name to look up and a
     Kpathsea file format as arguments, and returns the usual `FILE *'.
     It always assumes the file must exist, and thus will search the
     disk if necessary (unless the search path specified `!!', etc.).
     In other words, if you are looking up a VF or some other file that
     need not exist, don't use this.

   Kpathsea also provides many utility routines. Some are generic: hash
tables, memory allocation, string concatenation and copying, string
lists, reading input lines of arbitrary length, etc. Others are
filename-related: default path, tilde, and variable expansion, `stat'
calls, etc. (Perhaps someday I'll move the former to a separate

   The `c-*.h' header files can also help your program adapt to many
different systems.  You will almost certainly want to use Autoconf for
configuring your software if you use Kpathsea; I strongly recommend
using Autoconf regardless.  It is available from

File:,  Node: Program-specific files,  Next: Programming with config files,  Prev: Calling sequence,  Up: Programming

5.3 Program-specific files

Many programs will need to find some configuration files.  Kpathsea
contains some support to make it easy to place them in their own
directories.  The Standard TeX directory structure (*note Introduction:
(tds)Top.), specifies that such files should go into a subdirectory
named after the program, like `texmf/ttf2pk'.

   Two special formats, `kpse_program_text_format' and
`kpse_program_binary_format' exist, which use `.:$TEXMF/PROGRAM//' as
their compiled-in search path.  To override this default, you can use
the variable `PROGRAMINPUTS' in the environment and/or `texmf.cnf'.
That is to say, the name of the variable is constructed by converting
the name of the program to upper case, and appending `INPUTS'.

   The only difference between these two formats is whether
`kpse_open_file' will open the files it finds in text or binary mode.

File:,  Node: Programming with config files,  Prev: Program-specific files,  Up: Programming

5.4 Programming with config files

You can (and probably should) use the same `texmf.cnf' configuration
file that Kpathsea uses for your program.  This helps installers by
keeping all configuration in one place.

   To retrieve a value VAR from config files, the best way is to call
`kpse_var_value' on the string `VAR'.  This will look first for an
environment variable VAR, then a config file value.  The result will be
the value found or `NULL'.  This function is declared in
`kpathsea/variable.h'.  For an example, see the `shell_escape' code in

   The routine to do variable expansion in the context of a search path
(as opposed to simply retrieving a value) is `kpse_var_expand', also
declared in `kpathsea/variable.h'.  It's generally only necessary to
set the search path structure components as explained in the previous
section, rather than using this yourself.

   If for some reason you want to retrieve a value _only_ from a config
file, not automatically looking for a corresponding environment
variable, call `kpse_cnf_get' (declared in `kpathsea/cnf.h') with the
string VAR.

   No initialization calls are needed.

File:,  Node: Index,  Prev: Programming,  Up: Top


* Menu:

* !! in path specifications:             ls-R.                (line  52)
* $ expansion:                           Variable expansion.  (line   6)
* --color=tty:                           ls-R.                (line  21)
* --debug=NUM:                           Auxiliary tasks.     (line   9)
* --disable-static:                      configure options.   (line  31)
* --dpi=NUM:                             Path searching options.
                                                              (line  15)
* --enable options:                      configure options.   (line  16)
* --enable-maintainer-mode:              configure options.   (line  34)
* --enable-shared <1>:                   Shared library.      (line   6)
* --enable-shared:                       configure options.   (line  27)
* --engine=NAME:                         Path searching options.
                                                              (line  20)
* --expand-braces=STRING:                Auxiliary tasks.     (line  14)
* --expand-path=STRING:                  Auxiliary tasks.     (line  22)
* --expand-var=STRING:                   Auxiliary tasks.     (line  17)
* --format=NAME:                         Path searching options.
                                                              (line  25)
* --help:                                Standard options.    (line   8)
* --interactive:                         Path searching options.
                                                              (line  93)
* --mode=STRING:                         Path searching options.
                                                              (line 104)
* --must-exist:                          Path searching options.
                                                              (line 109)
* --path=STRING:                         Path searching options.
                                                              (line 114)
* --progname=NAME:                       Path searching options.
                                                              (line 122)
* --show-path=NAME:                      Auxiliary tasks.     (line  36)
* --srcdir, for building multiple architectures: configure scenarios.
                                                              (line  18)
* --var-value=VARIABLE:                  Auxiliary tasks.     (line  12)
* --version:                             Standard options.    (line  10)
* --with options:                        configure options.   (line  16)
* --with-mktextex-default:               mktex configuration. (line  14)
* --without-mktexmf-default:             mktex configuration. (line  14)
* --without-mktexpk-default:             mktex configuration. (line  14)
* --without-mktextfm-default:            mktex configuration. (line  14)
* -1 debugging value:                    Debugging.           (line  23)
* -A option to ls:                       ls-R.                (line  33)
* -Bdynamic:                             ShellWidgetClass.    (line  45)
* -Bstatic:                              ShellWidgetClass.    (line  45)
* -D NUM:                                Path searching options.
                                                              (line  15)
* -dynamic:                              ShellWidgetClass.    (line  43)
* -g, compiling without:                 configure scenarios. (line  32)
* -L option to ls:                       ls-R.                (line  38)
* -mktex=FILETYPE:                       Path searching options.
                                                              (line  98)
* -no-mktex=FILETYPE:                    Path searching options.
                                                              (line  98)
* -O, compiling with:                    configure scenarios. (line  32)
* -static:                               ShellWidgetClass.    (line  43)
* . directories, ignored:                ls-R.                (line  33)
* . files:                               ls-R.                (line  33)
* .2602gf:                               Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  36)
* .afm:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  20)
* .base:                                 Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  24)
* .bib:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  28)
* .bst:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  32)
* .cmap:                                 Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  36)
* .cnf:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  39)
* .enc:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  51)
* .eps:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  62)
* .epsi:                                 Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  62)
* .fmt:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  54)
* .ist:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  67)
* .lig:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  71)
* .map:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  77)
* .mem:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  80)
* .mf:                                   Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  88)
* .mft:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  96)
* .mp:                                   Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 104)
* .ocp:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 112)
* .ofm:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 116)
* .opl:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 123)
* .otp:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 126)
* .ovf:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 129)
* .ovp:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 132)
* .pfa:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 184)
* .pfb:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 184)
* .pk:                                   Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 139)
* .pool:                                 Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  92)
* .pro:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 145)
* .rhosts, writable by TeX:              Security.            (line  10)
* .sfd:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 149)
* .tex:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 152)
* .tex file, included in ls-R:           ls-R.                (line  33)
* .tfm:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 172)
* .ttc:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 181)
* .ttf:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 181)
* .vf:                                   Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 192)
* .w:                                    Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  43)
* .web:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  43)
* / may not be /:                        Searching overview.  (line  13)
* /, trailing in home directory:         Tilde expansion.     (line  18)
* //:                                    Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line   6)
* /afs/... , installing into:            Installing files.    (line  32)
* /etc/profile:                          Unable to find files.
                                                              (line  14)
* /etc/profile and aliases:              ls-R.                (line  21)
* /var/tmp/texfonts:                     mktex configuration. (line 107)
* 2602gf:                                Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  36)
* 8.3 filenames, using:                  mktex configuration. (line  62)
* : may not be ::                        Searching overview.  (line  13)
* :: expansion:                          Default expansion.   (line   6)
* @VAR@ substitutions:                   Running configure.   (line   6)
* \, line continuation in texmf.cnf:     Config files.        (line  26)
* \openin:                               Searching overview.  (line  31)
* \special, suppressing warnings about:  Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  31)
* absolute filenames:                    Searching overview.  (line  52)
* ac_include, Autoconf extension:        Running configure.   (line   6)
* access warnings:                       Searching overview.  (line  56)
* Acorn TeX implementations:             Other TeX packages.  (line   6)
* AFMFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  20)
* AFS:                                   Installing files.    (line  32)
* AIX 4.1 configure error:               Empty Makefiles.     (line   6)
* AIX shells and configure:              configure shells.    (line  14)
* aliases for fonts:                     Fontmap.             (line   6)
* aliases, for filenames:                Filename aliases.    (line   6)
* all:                                   Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  13)
* alphabetical order, not:               Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line   6)
* Amiga support:                         Custom installation. (line  19)
* Amiga TeX implementations:             Other TeX packages.  (line   6)
* Andrew File System, installing with:   Installing files.    (line  32)
* announcement mailing list:             Mailing lists.       (line   6)
* ANSI C:                                TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line  30)
* append-only directories and mktexpk:   Security.            (line  36)
* appendonlydir:                         mktex configuration. (line  54)
* architecture-(in)dependent files, installing only: Installing files.
                                                              (line  21)
* architectures, compiling multiple:     configure scenarios. (line  18)
* arguments to mktex:                    mktex script arguments.
                                                              (line   6)
* argv[0]:                               Calling sequence.    (line   9)
* ash, losing with configure:            configure shells.    (line  19)
* autoconf, recommended:                 Calling sequence.    (line  90)
* automounter, and configuration:        configure scenarios. (line  29)
* automounter, and ls-R:                 ls-R.                (line  40)
* auxiliary tasks:                       Auxiliary tasks.     (line   6)
* Babel <1>:                             Running make.        (line  51)
* Babel:                                 Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line  28)
* Bach, Johann Sebastian:                Default expansion.   (line  41)
* backbone of CTAN:                      Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line   6)
* backslash-newline:                     Config files.        (line  26)
* bash, recommended for running configure: configure shells.  (line   6)
* basic glyph lookup:                    Basic glyph lookup.  (line   6)
* Berry, Karl:                           History.             (line  12)
* BIBINPUTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  28)
* binary mode, for file transfers:       Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line  20)
* blank lines, in texmf.cnf:             Config files.        (line  24)
* brace expansion:                       Brace expansion.     (line   6)
* BSD universe:                          Running make.        (line  44)
* bsh, ok with configure:                configure shells.    (line  14)
* BSTINPUTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  32)
* bug address:                           Reporting bugs.      (line   8)
* bug checklist:                         Bug checklist.       (line   6)
* bug mailing list:                      Mailing lists.       (line   6)
* bugs, reporting:                       Reporting bugs.      (line   6)
* c-*.h:                                 Calling sequence.    (line  90)
* c-auto.h:                              Programming overview.
                                                              (line  25)
*                             Running configure.   (line   6)
* cache of fonts, local:                 Security.            (line  22)
* calling sequence:                      Calling sequence.    (line   6)
* CC:                                    configure environment.
                                                              (line  10)
* cc warnings:                           Pointer combination warnings.
                                                              (line   6)
* cc, compiling with:                    configure environment.
                                                              (line  11)
* CD-ROM distributions:                  CD-ROM distribution. (line   6)
* CFLAGS:                                configure environment.
                                                              (line  14)
* ChangeLog entry:                       Bug checklist.       (line  63)
* checklist for bug reports:             Bug checklist.       (line   6)
* checksum:                              Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  16)
* circle fonts:                          Fontmap.             (line  19)
* clean Make target:                     Cleaning up.         (line  15)
* client_path in kpse_format_info:       Calling sequence.    (line  45)
* CMAPFONTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  36)
* cmr10, as fallback font:               Fallback font.       (line  15)
* cmr10.vf:                              Searching overview.  (line  31)
* cnf.c:                                 Config files.        (line  75)
* cnf.h:                                 Programming with config files.
                                                              (line  23)
* code sharing:                          Shared library.      (line   9)
* color printers, configuring:           Simple installation. (line  60)
* comments, in fontmap files:            Fontmap.             (line  28)
* comments, in texmf.cnf:                Config files.        (line  22)
* comments, making:                      Introduction.        (line  27)
* common features in glyph lookup:       Basic glyph lookup.  (line   6)
* common problems:                       Common problems.     (line   6)
* comp.sys.sun.admin FAQ:                ShellWidgetClass.    (line   6)
* comp.text.tex:                         Mailing lists.       (line  29)
* compilation:                           Installation.        (line   6)
* compilation value, source for path:    Path sources.        (line  20)
* compiler bugs:                         TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line   6)
* compiler bugs, finding:                TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line  24)
* compiler options, additional:          Running make.        (line  27)
* compiler options, specifying:          configure environment.
                                                              (line  15)
* compiler, changing:                    Running make.        (line  40)
* compiling on HP-UX:                    TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line  30)
* conditions for use:                    Introduction.        (line  31)
* config files:                          Config files.        (line   6)
* config files, for Kpathsea-using programs: Calling sequence.
                                                              (line  45)
* config files, programming with:        Programming with config files.
                                                              (line   6)
* config.h:                              Programming overview.
                                                              (line  25)
* config.log:                            Bug checklist.       (line  29)
*, search path for:            Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  47)
* config.status:                         Bug checklist.       (line  32)
* configuration:                         Installation.        (line   6)
* configuration bugs:                    Bug checklist.       (line  32)
* configuration compiler options:        configure environment.
                                                              (line  23)
* configuration file, source for path:   Path sources.        (line  17)
* configuration files as shell scripts.: Config files.        (line  67)
* configuration of mktex scripts:        mktex configuration. (line   6)
* configuration of optional features:    configure options.   (line  16)
* configure error from sed:              Empty Makefiles.     (line   6)
* configure options:                     configure options.   (line   6)
* configure options for mktex scripts:   mktex configuration. (line  14)
* configure, running:                    Running configure.   (line   6)
* context diff:                          Bug checklist.       (line  63)
* continuation character:                Config files.        (line  26)
* core dumps, reporting:                 Bug checklist.       (line  69)
* CPPFLAGS:                              configure environment.
                                                              (line  22)
* crashes, reporting:                    Bug checklist.       (line  69)
* CTAN, defined:                         Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line   6)
* CTAN.sites:                            Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line  13)
* custom installation:                   Custom installation. (line   6)
* CWEBINPUTS:                            Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  43)
* database search:                       Searching overview.  (line  17)
* database, for filenames:               Filename database.   (line   6)
* database, format of:                   Database format.     (line   6)
* debug.h:                               Debugging.           (line   6)
* debugger:                              Bug checklist.       (line  69)
* debugging:                             Debugging.           (line   6)
* debugging options, in Kpathsea-using program: Calling sequence.
                                                              (line  37)
* debugging output:                      Debugging.           (line  27)
* debugging with -g, disabling:          configure scenarios. (line  32)
* DEC shells and configure:              configure shells.    (line  25)
* default expansion:                     Default expansion.   (line   6)
* default path features:                 Default path features.
                                                              (line   6)
* default paths, changing:               Default path generation.
                                                              (line   6)
* default paths, how they're made:       Default path generation.
                                                              (line  12)
* default_texsizes:                      Fallback font.       (line   6)
* DEFS:                                  configure environment.
                                                              (line  31)
* depot:                                 configure scenarios. (line  29)
* device, wrong:                         Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  29)
* directories, changing default installation: Default path generation.
                                                              (line   6)
* directories, making append-only:       mktex configuration. (line  55)
* directory permissions:                 Security.            (line  51)
* directory structure, for TeX files:    TeX directory structure.
                                                              (line   6)
* disabling mktex scripts:               mktex configuration. (line   6)
* disk search:                           Searching overview.  (line  22)
* disk searching, avoiding:              ls-R.                (line  52)
* disk space, needed:                    Disk space.          (line   6)
* disk usage, reducing:                  Logging.             (line   6)
* distclean Make target:                 Cleaning up.         (line   6)
* distributions, compiling simultaneously: Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* distributions, not compiling:          Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* distributions, on CD-ROM:              CD-ROM distribution. (line   6)
* distributions, via ftp:                Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line   6)
* dlclose:                               dlopen.              (line   6)
* dlopen:                                dlopen.              (line   6)
* dlsym:                                 dlopen.              (line   6)
* dlsym.c:                               dlopen.              (line  21)
* doc files:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 158)
* DOS compatible names:                  mktex configuration. (line  62)
* DOS support:                           Custom installation. (line  19)
* DOS TeX implementations:               Other TeX packages.  (line   6)
* dosnames:                              mktex configuration. (line  61)
* dot files:                             ls-R.                (line  33)
* doubled colons:                        Default expansion.   (line   6)
* dpiNNN directories:                    mktex configuration. (line  62)
* DVI drivers:                           Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line  12)
* DVILJMAKEPK:                           mktex script names.  (line  22)
* DVILJSIZES:                            Fallback font.       (line   6)
* DVIPSFONTS:                            Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 227)
* DVIPSHEADERS:                          Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 184)
* DVIPSMAKEPK:                           mktex script names.  (line  22)
* DVIPSSIZES:                            Fallback font.       (line   6)
* dynamic creation of files:             mktex scripts.       (line   6)
* dynamic linking problems with OpenWin libraries: ShellWidgetClass.
                                                              (line   6)
* EC fonts, and dynamic source creation: mktex scripts.       (line   6)
* elt-dirs.c:                            Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line  41)
* email CTAN access:                     Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line  17)
* enabling mktex scripts:                mktex configuration. (line   6)
* ENCFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  51)
* engine name:                           Path searching options.
                                                              (line  20)
* environment variable, source for path: Path sources.        (line   9)
* environment variables for TeX:         Supported file formats.
                                                              (line   6)
* environment variables in paths:        Variable expansion.  (line   6)
* environment variables, old:            Unable to find files.
                                                              (line  14)
* epoch, seconds since:                  Logging.             (line  15)
* error message macros:                  Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* excessive startup time:                Slow path searching. (line   6)
* expand.c:                              Brace expansion.     (line  26)
* expanding symlinks:                    Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* expansion, default:                    Default expansion.   (line   6)
* expansion, path element:               Searching overview.  (line  43)
* expansion, search path:                Path expansion.      (line   6)
* expansion, subdirectory:               Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line   6)
* expansion, tilde:                      Tilde expansion.     (line   6)
* expansion, variable:                   Variable expansion.  (line   6)
* explicitly relative filenames:         Searching overview.  (line  52)
* externally-built filename database:    Filename database.   (line   6)
* extra colons:                          Default expansion.   (line   6)
* extraclean Make target:                Cleaning up.         (line  23)
* failed mktex... script invocation:     mktex script names.  (line  25)
* fallback font:                         Fallback font.       (line   6)
* fallback resolutions:                  Fallback font.       (line   6)
* fallback resolutions, overriding:      Running make.        (line  10)
* FAQ, comp.sys.sun.admin:               ShellWidgetClass.    (line   6)
* FAQ, Kpathsea:                         Common problems.     (line   6)
* Farwell, Matthew:                      Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line  22)
* features, of default paths:            Default path features.
                                                              (line   6)
* file formats, supported:               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line   6)
* file lookup:                           File lookup.         (line   6)
* file permissions:                      Security.            (line  47)
* file types, registering new:           Programming overview.
                                                              (line  31)
* filename aliases:                      Filename aliases.    (line   6)
* filename database:                     Filename database.   (line   6)
* filename database generation:          Filename database generation.
                                                              (line   6)
* filenames, absolute or explicitly relative: Searching overview.
                                                              (line  52)
* files, unable to find:                 Unable to find files.
                                                              (line   6)
* filesystem search:                     Searching overview.  (line  22)
* floating directories:                  Searching overview.  (line  22)
* font alias files:                      Fontmap.             (line   6)
* font generation failures:              Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line   6)
* font of last resort:                   Fallback font.       (line   6)
* font set, infinite:                    mktex scripts.       (line   6)
* fontmap files:                         Fontmap.             (line   6)
* fontmaps:                              mktex configuration. (line  80)
* fontname:                              mktex configuration. (line  81)
* fontnames, arbitrary length:           Fontmap.             (line  15)
* fonts, being created:                  Simple installation. (line  79)
* FOOINPUTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 209)
* fopen, redefined:                      Debugging.           (line  54)
* format of external database:           Database format.     (line   6)
* Free Software Foundation:              CD-ROM distribution. (line  12)
* FreeBSD configure error:               Empty Makefiles.     (line   6)
* FreeBSD shells and configure:          configure shells.    (line  19)
* FSF Source Code CD-ROM:                CD-ROM distribution. (line  12)
* ftp retrieval:                         Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line   6)
*                           unixtex.ftp.         (line   6)
* fundamental purpose of Kpathsea:       Introduction.        (line   6)
* gcc, compiling with:                   configure environment.
                                                              (line  11)
* gdb, recommended:                      Bug checklist.       (line  69)
* generation of filename database:       Filename database generation.
                                                              (line   6)
* get_applicationShellWidgetClass:       ShellWidgetClass.    (line   6)
* get_wmShellWidgetClass:                ShellWidgetClass.    (line   6)
* gf:                                    Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  58)
* GFFONTS:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  58)
* globally writable directories:         Security.            (line  30)
* glyph lookup:                          Glyph lookup.        (line   6)
* glyph lookup bitmap tolerance:         Basic glyph lookup.  (line  15)
* GLYPHFONTS:                            Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  58)
* GNU C compiler bugs:                   TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line  19)
* GNU General Public License:            Introduction.        (line  31)
* group-writable directories:            Security.            (line  40)
* GSFTOPK_DEBUG (128):                   Debugging.           (line  88)
* hash table buckets, printing:          Debugging.           (line 105)
* hash table routines:                   Calling sequence.    (line  83)
* hash_summary_only variable for debugging: Debugging.        (line 105)
* help, mailing list for general TeX:    Mailing lists.       (line  29)
* HIER:                                  Default path features.
                                                              (line  41)
* history of Kpathsea:                   History.             (line   6)
* home directories in paths:             Tilde expansion.     (line   6)
* HOME, as ~ expansion:                  Tilde expansion.     (line   6)
* HP-UX, compiling on:                   TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line  30)
* identifiers, characters valid in:      Config files.        (line  36)
* illegal pointer combination warnings:  Pointer combination warnings.
                                                              (line   6)
* include fontmap directive:             Fontmap.             (line  33)
* INDEXSTYLE:                            Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  67)
*                     Mailing lists.       (line  29)
* input lines, reading:                  Calling sequence.    (line  83)
* install-data Make target:              Installing files.    (line  28)
* install-exec Make target:              Installing files.    (line  23)
* installation:                          Installation.        (line   6)
* installation testing:                  Installation testing.
                                                              (line   6)
* installation, architecture-(in)dependent files only: Installing files.
                                                              (line  21)
* installation, changing default directories: Default path generation.
                                                              (line   6)
* installation, customized:              Custom installation. (line   6)
* installation, getting executables instead of: Simple installation.
                                                              (line   6)
* installation, simple:                  Simple installation. (line   6)
* installing files:                      Installing files.    (line   6)
* interactive query:                     Path searching options.
                                                              (line  93)
* interface, not frozen:                 Introduction.        (line  27)
* introduction:                          Introduction.        (line   6)
* kdebug::                               Debugging.           (line 105)
* kdefault.c:                            Default expansion.   (line  48)
* Knuth, Donald E.:                      History.             (line   6)
* Knuth, Donald E., archive of programs by: Other TeX packages.
                                                              (line  18)
* Knuth, Donald E., original author:     Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line  25)
* Korn shell, losing with configure:     configure shells.    (line  14)
* Kpathsea config file, source for path: Path sources.        (line  17)
* Kpathsea version number:               Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* kpathsea.h:                            Programming overview.
                                                              (line  16)
* kpathsea/HIER:                         Default path features.
                                                              (line  41)
* kpathsea/README.CONFIGURE:             Running configure.   (line  15)
* KPATHSEA_DEBUG:                        Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* kpathsea_debug:                        Debugging.           (line  18)
* KPATHSEA_DEBUG:                        Debugging.           (line  18)
* kpathsea_debug:                        Debugging.           (line   6)
* kpathsea_debug variable:               Calling sequence.    (line  37)
* KPSE_BITMAP_TOLERANCE:                 Basic glyph lookup.  (line  15)
* kpse_cnf_get:                          Programming with config files.
                                                              (line  23)
* KPSE_DEBUG_EXPAND (16):                Debugging.           (line  68)
* KPSE_DEBUG_FOPEN (4):                  Debugging.           (line  53)
* KPSE_DEBUG_HASH (2):                   Debugging.           (line  46)
* KPSE_DEBUG_PATHS (8):                  Debugging.           (line  60)
* KPSE_DEBUG_SEARCH (32):                Debugging.           (line  74)
* KPSE_DEBUG_STAT (1):                   Debugging.           (line  38)
* KPSE_DEBUG_VARS (64):                  Debugging.           (line  83)
* KPSE_DOT expansion:                    KPSE_DOT expansion.  (line   6)
* kpse_fallback_font:                    Fallback font.       (line  15)
* kpse_find_*:                           Calling sequence.    (line  60)
* kpse_find_file <1>:                    Calling sequence.    (line  60)
* kpse_find_file:                        File lookup.         (line  26)
* kpse_find_glyph_format:                Glyph lookup.        (line  26)
* kpse_format_info:                      Calling sequence.    (line  45)
* kpse_format_info_type:                 Debugging.           (line  61)
* kpse_init_prog:                        Calling sequence.    (line  51)
* kpse_init_prog, and MAKETEX_MODE:      Default path features.
                                                              (line  25)
* kpse_make_specs:                       mktex script names.  (line   6)
* kpse_open_file:                        Calling sequence.    (line  74)
* kpse_program_name:                     Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* kpse_set_progname:                     Calling sequence.    (line  30)
* kpse_set_program_name:                 Calling sequence.    (line   9)
* kpse_var_value:                        Programming with config files.
                                                              (line  10)
* kpsewhich:                             Invoking kpsewhich.  (line   6)
* Kpsewhich, and debugging:              Debugging.           (line  31)
* ksh, losing with configure:            configure shells.    (line  14)
*                   Other TeX packages.  (line  18)
* LaserJet drive:                        Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line  13)
* last-resort font:                      Fallback font.       (line   6)
* LaTeX help mailing list:               Mailing lists.       (line  29)
* lcircle10:                             Fontmap.             (line  19)
* LDFLAGS:                               configure environment.
                                                              (line  38)
* leading colons:                        Default expansion.   (line   6)
* leaf directories wrongly guessed:      Unable to find files.
                                                              (line  21)
* leaf directory trick:                  Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line  22)
* libdl.a:                               dlopen.              (line   6)
* libraries, changing:                   Running make.        (line  40)
* libraries, specifying additional:      configure environment.
                                                              (line  43)
* LIBS:                                  configure environment.
                                                              (line  42)
* libucb, avoiding:                      Running make.        (line  44)
* license for using the library:         Introduction.        (line  31)
* LIGFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  71)
* lines, reading arbitrary-length:       Calling sequence.    (line  83)
* Linux File System Standard:            mktex configuration. (line 107)
* Linux shells and configure:            configure shells.    (line  19)
* Linux, using Web2c:                    CD-ROM distribution. (line  16)
* lndir for building symlink trees:      configure scenarios. (line  18)
* loader options:                        configure environment.
                                                              (line  39)
* loader options, final:                 Running make.        (line  33)
* loader options, initial:               Running make.        (line  30)
* local cache of fonts:                  Security.            (line  22)
* log file:                              Logging.             (line   6)
* logging successful searches:           Logging.             (line   6)
* lost+found directory:                  Searching overview.  (line  56)
* lostchar:                              Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  19)
* ls-R:                                  Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  74)
* ls-R and AFS:                          Installing files.    (line  40)
* ls-R database file:                    ls-R.                (line   6)
* ls-R, simplest build:                  ls-R.                (line  18)
* Mach10 configure error:                Empty Makefiles.     (line   6)
* Macintosh TeX implementations:         Other TeX packages.  (line   6)
* MacKenzie, David <1>:                  Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line  22)
* MacKenzie, David:                      History.             (line  45)
* magic characters:                      Searching overview.  (line  13)
* mailing lists:                         Mailing lists.       (line   6)
* maintainer-clean Make target:          Cleaning up.         (line  18)
* Make arguments, additional:            Running make.        (line  36)
* make, running:                         Running make.        (line   6)
*                           Running configure.   (line   6)
* Makefiles, empty:                      Empty Makefiles.     (line   6)
* MAKETEX_DEBUG (512):                   Debugging.           (line  91)
* MAKETEX_FINE_DEBUG (1024):             Debugging.           (line 100)
* MAKETEX_MODE:                          Default path features.
                                                              (line  19)
* memory allocation routines:            Calling sequence.    (line  83)
* metafont driver files:                 mktex configuration. (line  87)
* Metafont failures:                     TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line   6)
* Metafont installation:                 Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  52)
* Metafont making too-large fonts:       Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  36)
* Metafont using the wrong device:       Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  29)
* MFBASES:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  24)
* MFINPUTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  88)
* MFPOOL:                                Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  92)
* MFTINPUTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  96)
* mirrors, FTP:                          Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line  13)
* MISCFONTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 100)
* mismatched checksum warnings:          Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  17)
* missfont.log:                          mktex script names.  (line  25)
* MISSFONT_LOG:                          mktex script names.  (line  30)
* missing character warnings:            Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  20)
* mktex script configuration:            mktex configuration. (line   6)
* mktex script names:                    mktex script names.  (line   6)
* mktex scripts:                         mktex scripts.       (line   6)
* mktex.cnf:                             mktex configuration. (line  23)
* mktex.opt:                             mktex configuration. (line  34)
* mktexdir:                              mktex configuration. (line  55)
* mktexmf:                               mktex script names.  (line  17)
* mktexpk:                               mktex script names.  (line  11)
* mktexpk , initial runs:                Simple installation. (line  79)
* mktexpk can't guess mode:              Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  12)
* mktextex:                              mktex script names.  (line  14)
* mktextfm:                              mktex script names.  (line  20)
* mode directory, omitting:              mktex configuration. (line  92)
* Morgan, Tim:                           History.             (line  12)
* mostlyclean Make target:               Cleaning up.         (line  10)
* MPINPUTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 104)
* MPMEMS:                                Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  80)
* MPPOOL:                                Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 108)
* MPSUPPORT:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  84)
* MT_FEATURES:                           mktex configuration. (line  34)
* multiple architectures, compiling on:  configure scenarios. (line  18)
* multiple architectures, directories for: configure scenarios.
                                                              (line  23)
* multiple architectures, installing on: Installing files.    (line  21)
* multiple TeX hierarchies:              Brace expansion.     (line  20)
* must exist:                            Searching overview.  (line  31)
* names for mktex scripts:               mktex script names.  (line   6)
* NetBSD configure error:                Empty Makefiles.     (line   6)
* NetBSD shells and configure:           configure shells.    (line  19)
* Neumann, Gustaf:                       History.             (line  57)
* newsgroup for TeX:                     Mailing lists.       (line  29)
* NeXT sed error:                        Empty Makefiles.     (line   6)
* NeXT, lacking X11:                     Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* NFS and ls-R:                          ls-R.                (line  40)
* NFS CTAN access:                       Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line  17)
* nomfdrivers:                           mktex configuration. (line  86)
* nomode:                                mktex configuration. (line  91)
* non-English typesetting:               Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line  28)
* non-Unix operating systems:            Custom installation. (line  19)
* none:                                  Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  23)
* null pointers, dereferencing:          Bug checklist.       (line  69)
* numeric debugging values:              Debugging.           (line  34)
* obtaining TeX:                         unixtex.ftp.         (line   6)
* obtaining Web2c by ftp:                Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line   6)
* obtaining Web2c on CD-ROM:             CD-ROM distribution. (line   6)
* OCPINPUTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 112)
* OFMFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 116)
* online Metafont display, spurious:     Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  36)
* OPENTYPEFONTS:                         Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 120)
* OpenWin libraries, dynamic linking problems: ShellWidgetClass.
                                                              (line   6)
* optimization caveat:                   TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line  15)
* optimization, enabling:                configure scenarios. (line  32)
* options for debugging:                 Debugging.           (line   6)
* options to configure:                  configure options.   (line  16)
* OS/2 support:                          Custom installation. (line  19)
* other TeX distributions:               Other TeX packages.  (line   6)
* OTPINPUTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 126)
* overview of path searching:            Searching overview.  (line   6)
* overview of programming with Kpathsea: Programming overview.
                                                              (line   6)
* OVFFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 129)
* OVPFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 132)
* patches, Sun OpenWin:                  ShellWidgetClass.    (line  29)
* path expansion:                        Path expansion.      (line   6)
* path searching:                        Path searching.      (line   6)
* path searching options:                Path searching options.
                                                              (line   6)
* path searching, overview:              Searching overview.  (line   6)
* path searching, standalone:            Invoking kpsewhich.  (line   6)
* path sources:                          Path sources.        (line   6)
* paths, changing default <1>:           Default path generation.
                                                              (line   6)
* paths, changing default:               Changing search paths.
                                                              (line   6)
* paths, device name included in:        Default path features.
                                                              (line  19)
* paths.h:                               Default path generation.
                                                              (line  27)
* paths.h, creating:                     Running make.        (line   6)
* pathsearch.h:                          Programming overview.
                                                              (line  16)
* pc Pascal compiler:                    History.             (line  12)
* PCL driver:                            Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line  13)
* PDF generation:                        Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line  16)
* PDFTEXCONFIG:                          Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 136)
* permission denied:                     Searching overview.  (line  56)
* permissions, directory:                Security.            (line  51)
* permissions, file:                     Security.            (line  47)
* PKFONTS:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 139)
* plain.base:                            Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  46)
* pointer combination warnings:          Pointer combination warnings.
                                                              (line   6)
* PostScript driver:                     Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line  16)
* PostScript fonts, additional:          Simple installation. (line  60)
* precompiled executables, instead of installation: Simple installation.
                                                              (line   6)
* precompiled Unix binaries:             Other TeX packages.  (line  13)
* preprocessor options:                  configure environment.
                                                              (line  32)
* preprocessor options, additional:      Running make.        (line  24)
* printer configuration files:           Simple installation. (line  60)
* privacy, semblance of:                 Logging.             (line  32)
* problems, common:                      Common problems.     (line   6)
* proginit.c:                            Default path features.
                                                              (line  25)
* proginit.h:                            Calling sequence.    (line  51)
* program-varying paths:                 Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  12)
* program_invocation_name:               Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* program_invocation_short_name:         Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* programming overview:                  Programming overview.
                                                              (line   6)
* programming with config files:         Programming with config files.
                                                              (line   6)
* programming with Kpathsea:             Calling sequence.    (line   6)
* programs using the library:            Introduction.        (line  13)
* proof mode:                            Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line  36)
* PSHEADERS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 145)
* pxp Pascal preprocessor:               History.             (line  12)
* quoting variable values:               Variable expansion.  (line  17)
* readable:                              Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  26)
* reading arbitrary-length lines:        Calling sequence.    (line  83)
* README.CONFIGURE:                      Running configure.   (line  15)
* README.mirrors:                        Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line  13)
* recording successful searches:         Logging.             (line   6)
* relative filenames:                    Searching overview.  (line  52)
* relative filenames in ls-R:            Installing files.    (line  40)
* reporting bugs:                        Reporting bugs.      (line   6)
* resident.c:                            Calling sequence.    (line  45)
* resolution, setting:                   Path searching options.
                                                              (line  15)
* resolutions, last-resort:              Fallback font.       (line   6)
* retrieving TeX:                        unixtex.ftp.         (line   6)
* right-hand side of variable assignments: Config files.      (line  44)
* Rokicki, Tom:                          History.             (line  12)
* root user:                             Tilde expansion.     (line  18)
* runtime configuration files:           Config files.        (line   6)
* runtime debugging:                     Debugging.           (line   6)
* Sauter fonts, and dynamic source creation: mktex scripts.   (line   6)
* scripts for file creation:             mktex scripts.       (line   6)
* search path, defined:                  Searching overview.  (line   6)
* search paths, changing default:        Changing search paths.
                                                              (line   6)
* searching for files:                   File lookup.         (line   6)
* searching for glyphs:                  Glyph lookup.        (line   6)
* searching overview:                    Searching overview.  (line   6)
* searching the database:                Searching overview.  (line  17)
* searching the disk:                    Searching overview.  (line  22)
* security considerations:               Security.            (line   6)
* sed error from configure:              Empty Makefiles.     (line   6)
* SELFAUTODIR:                           Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* SELFAUTOLOC:                           Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* SELFAUTOPARENT:                        Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* sending patches:                       Bug checklist.       (line  63)
* setgid scripts:                        Security.            (line  40)
* SFDFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 149)
* sh5, ok with configure:                configure shells.    (line  25)
* shar, recommended:                     Bug checklist.       (line  57)
* shared library, making:                Shared library.      (line   6)
* shell scripts as configuration files:  Config files.        (line  67)
* shell variables:                       Variable expansion.  (line  17)
* shell_escape, example for code:        Programming with config files.
                                                              (line  10)
* shells and configure:                  configure shells.    (line   6)
* simple installation:                   Simple installation. (line   6)
* site overrides for mktex...:           mktex configuration. (line  23)
* size of distribution archives:         Disk space.          (line   6)
* skeleton TeX directory:                TeX directory structure.
                                                              (line   6)
* slow startup time:                     Slow path searching. (line   6)
* Solaris BSD compatibility, not:        Running make.        (line  44)
* source files:                          Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 161)
* sources for search paths:              Path sources.        (line   6)
* special:                               Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  30)
* st_nlink:                              Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line  26)
* stack trace:                           Bug checklist.       (line  69)
* standalone path searching:             Invoking kpsewhich.  (line   6)
* standard error and debugging output:   Debugging.           (line  27)
* standard options:                      Standard options.    (line   6)
* startup time, excessive:               Slow path searching. (line   6)
* static linking:                        ShellWidgetClass.    (line  39)
* static linking and dlsym:              dlopen.              (line   6)
* string routines:                       Calling sequence.    (line  83)
* strip:                                 mktex configuration. (line 101)
* stripsupplier:                         mktex configuration. (line  95)
* striptypeface:                         mktex configuration. (line  98)
* subdirectory searching:                Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line   6)
* suggestions, making:                   Introduction.        (line  27)
* Sun 2:                                 History.             (line  12)
* Sun OpenWin patches:                   ShellWidgetClass.    (line  29)
* supplier directory, omitting:          mktex configuration. (line  96)
* supported file formats:                Supported file formats.
                                                              (line   6)
* suppressing warnings:                  Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line   6)
* symbolic link trees, for multiple architectures: configure scenarios.
                                                              (line  18)
* symbolic links not found:              Unable to find files.
                                                              (line  21)
* symbolic links, and ls-R:              ls-R.                (line  38)
* symlinks, resolving:                   Calling sequence.    (line  16)
* system C compiler bugs:                TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line  19)
* system dependencies:                   Running configure.   (line   6)
* system V universe:                     Running make.        (line  44)
* T1FONTS:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 184)
* T1INPUTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 184)
* T42FONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 189)
* TDS:                                   TeX directory structure.
                                                              (line   6)
* testing, post-installation:            Installation testing.
                                                              (line   6)
* tests, simple:                         Simple installation. (line  79)
* teTeX:                                 Other TeX packages.  (line  13)
* TeX directory structure:               TeX directory structure.
                                                              (line   6)
* TeX distributions besides Web2c:       Other TeX packages.  (line   6)
* TeX environment variables:             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line   6)
* TeX failures:                          TeX or Metafont failing.
                                                              (line   6)
* TeX file lookup:                       File lookup.         (line   6)
* TeX glyph lookup:                      Glyph lookup.        (line   6)
* TeX help mailing list:                 Mailing lists.       (line  29)
* TeX hierarchy, one:                    configure scenarios. (line  13)
* TeX Live CD-ROM:                       CD-ROM distribution. (line   8)
* TeX support:                           TeX support.         (line   6)
* TeX Users Group:                       Introduction.        (line  39)
*             Mailing lists.       (line  25)
* tex-file.c:                            File lookup.         (line  26)
* tex-file.h:                            Programming overview.
                                                              (line  16)
* tex-glyph.c:                           Glyph lookup.        (line  26)
* tex-glyph.h:                           Programming overview.
                                                              (line  16)
*            Mailing lists.       (line   7)
* (bug address):      Reporting bugs.      (line   8)
* tex-make.c:                            mktex script names.  (line   6)
* TEX_HUSH <1>:                          Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line   6)
* TEX_HUSH:                              Searching overview.  (line  56)
* TEXBIB:                                Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  28)
* TEXCONFIG:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  47)
* TEXDOCS:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 158)
* TEXFONTMAPS:                           Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  77)
* TEXFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  58)
*                          Fontmap.             (line   6)
* TEXFORMATS:                            Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  54)
* TEXINDEXSTYLE:                         Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  67)
* TEXINPUTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  62)
* TEXMF:                                 TeX directory structure.
                                                              (line   6)
* texmf.cnf, and variable expansion:     Variable expansion.  (line   6)
* texmf.cnf, creating:                   Running make.        (line   6)
* texmf.cnf, definition for:             Config files.        (line   6)
* texmf.cnf, generated:                  Default path generation.
                                                              (line  22)
* texmf.cnf, source for path:            Path sources.        (line  17)
*                              Default path generation.
                                                              (line  22)
*, editing:                     Changing search paths.
                                                              (line   6)
* texmf.sed:                             Default path generation.
                                                              (line  17)
* TEXMFCNF <1>:                          Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  39)
* TEXMFCNF:                              Config files.        (line   6)
* TEXMFDBS <1>:                          Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  74)
* TEXMFDBS:                              ls-R.                (line   6)
* TEXMFINI:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  24)
* TEXMFLOG:                              Logging.             (line  10)
* TEXMFOUTPUT:                           mktex script names.  (line  30)
* TEXMFSCRIPTS:                          Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 164)
* TEXMFVAR:                              mktex configuration. (line 117)
* texmfvar:                              mktex configuration. (line 116)
* TEXPICTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line  62)
* TEXPKS:                                Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 139)
* TEXPOOL:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 168)
* TEXPSHEADERS:                          Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 145)
* TEXSIZES:                              Fallback font.       (line   6)
* TEXSOURCES:                            Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 161)
* TFMFONTS:                              Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 172)
* tilde expansion:                       Tilde expansion.     (line   6)
* tilde.c:                               Tilde expansion.     (line  24)
* time system call:                      Logging.             (line  15)
* tolerance for glyph lookup:            Basic glyph lookup.  (line  15)
* total disk space:                      Disk space.          (line   6)
* trailing / in home directory:          Tilde expansion.     (line  18)
* trailing colons:                       Default expansion.   (line   6)
* TRFONTS:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 177)
* trick for detecting leaf directories:  Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line  22)
* trojan horse attack:                   Security.            (line  10)
* TTFONTS:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 181)
*                               unixtex.ftp.         (line   6)
*                           Introduction.        (line  46)
* typeface directory, omitting:          mktex configuration. (line  99)
* ucbinclude, avoiding:                  Running make.        (line  44)
* Ultrix shells and configure:           configure shells.    (line  25)
* unable to find files:                  Unable to find files.
                                                              (line   6)
* unable to generate fonts:              Unable to generate fonts.
                                                              (line   6)
* uname:                                 Bug checklist.       (line  22)
* universe, BSD vs. system V:            Running make.        (line  44)
* UNIX_ST_LINK:                          Subdirectory expansion.
                                                              (line  38)
* unixtex.ftp:                           unixtex.ftp.         (line   6)
* unknown special warnings:              Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  31)
* unreadable file warnings:              Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line  27)
* unreadable files:                      Searching overview.  (line  56)
* unusable ls-R warning:                 ls-R.                (line  45)
* usage patterns, finding:               Logging.             (line   6)
* USE_TEXMFVAR:                          mktex configuration. (line 122)
* USE_VARTEXFONTS:                       mktex configuration. (line 112)
* Usenet TeX newsgroup:                  Mailing lists.       (line  29)
* varfonts:                              mktex configuration. (line 106)
* variable expansion:                    Variable expansion.  (line   6)
* variable.c:                            Variable expansion.  (line  32)
* variable.h:                            Programming with config files.
                                                              (line  10)
* VARTEXFONTS:                           mktex configuration. (line 107)
* VAX 11/750:                            History.             (line  12)
* version number, of Kpathsea:           Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* version numbers, determining:          Bug checklist.       (line  17)
* VF files, not found:                   Searching overview.  (line  31)
* VFFONTS:                               Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 192)
* VMS support:                           Custom installation. (line  19)
* VMS TeX implementations:               Other TeX packages.  (line   6)
* Vojta, Paul:                           History.             (line  30)
* Walsh, Norman:                         History.             (line  57)
* warning about unusable ls-R:           ls-R.                (line  45)
* warnings, file access:                 Searching overview.  (line  56)
* warnings, pointer combinations:        Pointer combination warnings.
                                                              (line   6)
* warnings, suppressing:                 Suppressing warnings.
                                                              (line   6)
* wcstombs:                              dlopen.              (line   6)
* WEB2C:                                 Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 200)
* Weber, Olaf:                           History.             (line  74)
* WEBINPUTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 196)
* whitespace, in fontmap files:          Fontmap.             (line  28)
* whitespace, not ignored on continuation lines: Config files.
                                                              (line  26)
* Windows TeX implementations:           Other TeX packages.  (line   6)
* World Wide Web CTAN access:            Electronic distribution.
                                                              (line  17)
*                           unixtex.ftp.         (line   6)
* X11 previewer:                         Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line  25)
* X11, lacking on NeXT:                  Kpathsea application distributions.
                                                              (line   6)
* XCFLAGS:                               Running make.        (line  26)
* XCPPFLAGS:                             Running make.        (line  22)
* XDEFS:                                 Running make.        (line  23)
* XDVIFONTS:                             Supported file formats.
                                                              (line 227)
* XDVIMAKEPK:                            mktex script names.  (line  22)
* XDVISIZES:                             Fallback font.       (line   6)
* XLDFLAGS:                              Running make.        (line  29)
* XLOADLIBES:                            Running make.        (line  32)
* XMAKEARGS:                             Running make.        (line  35)
* Xmu library problems:                  ShellWidgetClass.    (line  13)
* XtStrings:                             XtStrings.           (line   6)
* zuhn, david:                           History.             (line  51)
* { expansion:                           Brace expansion.     (line   6)
* ~ expansion:                           Tilde expansion.     (line   6)