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File: idlwave,  Node: Top,  Next: Introduction,  Prev: (dir),  Up: (dir)

   IDLWAVE is a package which supports editing source code written in
the Interactive Data Language (IDL), and running IDL as an inferior

   This file documents IDLWAVE, a major mode for editing IDL files with
Emacs, and interacting with an IDL shell run as a subprocess.

   This is edition 6.1 of the IDLWAVE User Manual for IDLWAVE 6.1.

   Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007,
2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Introduction::                What IDLWAVE is, and what it is not
* IDLWAVE in a Nutshell::       One page quick-start guide
* Getting Started::             Tutorial
* The IDLWAVE Major Mode::      The mode for editing IDL programs
* The IDLWAVE Shell::           The mode for running IDL as an inferior program
* Acknowledgements::            Who did what
* Sources of Routine Info::     How does IDLWAVE know about routine XYZ
* HTML Help Browser Tips::
* Configuration Examples::      The user is king
* Windows and MacOS::           What still works, and how
* Troubleshooting::             When good computers turn bad
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Index::                       Fast access

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Getting Started (Tutorial)

* Lesson I -- Development Cycle::
* Lesson II -- Customization::
* Lesson III -- User Catalog::

The IDLWAVE Major Mode

* Code Formatting::             Making code look nice
* Routine Info::                Calling Sequence and Keyword List
* Online Help::                 One key press from source to help
* Completion::                  Completing routine names and Keywords
* Routine Source::              Finding routines, the easy way
* Resolving Routines::          Force the Shell to compile a routine
* Code Templates::              Frequent code constructs
* Abbreviations::               Abbreviations for common commands
* Actions::                     Changing case, Padding, End checking
* Doc Header::                  Inserting a standard header
* Motion Commands::             Moving through the structure of a program
* Misc Options::                Things that fit nowhere else

Code Formatting

* Code Indentation::            Reflecting the logical structure
* Continued Statement Indentation::
* Comment Indentation::         Special indentation for comment lines
* Continuation Lines::          Splitting statements over lines
* Syntax Highlighting::         Font-lock support
* Octals and Highlighting::     Why "123 causes problems

Online Help

* Help with HTML Documentation::
* Help with Source::


* Case of Completed Words::     CaseOFcomPletedWords
* Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity::  obj->Method, what?
* Object Method Completion in the Shell::
* Class and Keyword Inheritance::  obj->Method, _EXTRA=e
* Structure Tag Completion::    Completing state.Tag


* Block Boundary Check::        Is the END statement correct?
* Padding Operators::           Enforcing space around `=' etc
* Case Changes::                Enforcing upper case keywords


* Starting the Shell::          How to launch IDL as a subprocess
* Using the Shell::             Interactively working with the Shell
* Commands Sent to the Shell::
* Debugging IDL Programs::
* Examining Variables::
* Custom Expression Examination::

Debugging IDL Programs

* A Tale of Two Modes::
* Debug Key Bindings::
* Breakpoints and Stepping::
* Compiling Programs::
* Walking the Calling Stack::
* Electric Debug Mode::

Sources of Routine Info

* Routine Definitions::         Where IDL Routines are defined.
* Routine Information Sources::  So how does IDLWAVE know about...
* Catalogs::
* Load-Path Shadows::           Routines defined in several places
* Documentation Scan::          Scanning the IDL Manuals


* Library Catalogs::
* User Catalog::

File: idlwave,  Node: Introduction,  Next: IDLWAVE in a Nutshell,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction

IDLWAVE is a package which supports editing source files written in the
Interactive Data Language (IDL), and running IDL as an inferior
shell(1).  It is a feature-rich replacement for the IDLDE development
environment included with IDL, and uses the full power of Emacs to make
editing and running IDL programs easier, quicker, and more structured.

   IDLWAVE consists of two main parts: a major mode for editing IDL
source files (`idlwave-mode') and a mode for running the IDL program as
an inferior shell (`idlwave-shell-mode').  Although one mode can be
used without the other, both work together closely to form a complete
development environment. Here is a brief summary of what IDLWAVE does:

   * Smart code indentation and automatic-formatting.

   * Three level syntax highlighting support.

   * Context-sensitive display of calling sequences and keywords for
     more than 1000 native IDL routines, extendible to any additional
     number of local routines, and already available with many
     pre-scanned libraries.

   * Fast, context-sensitive online HTML help, or source-header help for
     undocumented routines.

   * Context sensitive completion of routine names, keywords, system
     variables, class names and much more.

   * Easy insertion of code templates and abbreviations of common

   * Automatic corrections to enforce a variety of customizable coding

   * Integrity checks and auto-termination of logical blocks.

   * Routine name space conflict search with likelihood-of-use ranking.

   * Support for `imenu' (Emacs) and `func-menu' (XEmacs).

   * Documentation support.

   * Running IDL as an inferior Shell with history search, command line
     editing and all the completion and routine info capabilities
     present in IDL source buffers.

   * Full handling of debugging with breakpoints, with interactive
     setting of break conditions, and easy stepping through code.

   * Compilation, execution and interactive single-keystroke debugging
     of programs directly from the source buffer.

   * Quick, source-guided navigation of the calling stack, with variable
     inspection, etc.

   * Examining variables and expressions with a mouse click.

   * And much, much more...

   Here are a number of screenshots showing IDLWAVE in action:

   * An IDLWAVE buffer (

   * A keyword being completed

   * Online help text.

   * Routine information displayed

   * Debugging code stopped at a breakpoint

   IDLWAVE is the distant successor to the `idl.el' and `idl-shell.el'
files written by Chris Chase.  The modes and files had to be renamed
because of a name space conflict with CORBA's `idl-mode', defined in
Emacs in the file `cc-mode.el'.

   In this manual, each section ends with a list of related user
options.  Don't be confused by the sheer number of options available --
in most cases the default settings are just fine.  The variables are
listed here to make sure you know where to look if you want to change
anything.  For a full description of what a particular variable does
and how to configure it, see the documentation string of that variable
(available with `C-h v').  Some configuration examples are also given
in the appendix.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) IDLWAVE can also be used for editing source files for the
related WAVE/CL language, but with only limited support.

File: idlwave,  Node: IDLWAVE in a Nutshell,  Next: Getting Started,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 IDLWAVE in a Nutshell

Editing IDL Programs

<TAB>       Indent the current line relative to context.
`C-M-\'     Re-indent all lines in the current region.
`C-M-q'     Re-indent all lines in the current routine.
`C-u <TAB>' Re-indent all lines in the current statement.
`M-<RET>'   Start a continuation line, splitting the current line at
`M-;'       Start new comment at line beginning or after code, or
            (un)comment highlighted region.
`M-q'       Fill the current comment paragraph.
`C-c ?'     Display calling sequence and keywords for the procedure or
            function call at point.
`M-?'       Load context sensitive online help for nearby routine,
            keyword, etc.
`M-<TAB>'   Complete a procedure name, function name or keyword in the
`C-c C-i'   Update IDLWAVE's knowledge about functions and procedures.
`C-c C-v'   Visit the source code of a procedure/function.
`C-u C-c    Visit the source code of a procedure/function in this buffer.
`C-c C-h'   Insert a standard documentation header.
`C-c <RET>' Insert a new timestamp and history item in the documentation

Running the IDLWAVE Shell, Debugging Programs

`C-c C-s'   Start IDL as a subprocess and/or switch to the shell buffer.
<Up>, `M-p' Cycle back through IDL command history.
<Down>,`M-n'Cycle forward.
`<TAB>'     Complete a procedure name, function name or keyword in the
            shell buffer.
`C-c C-d    Save and compile the source file in the current buffer.
`C-c C-d    Compile and run the current region.
`C-c C-d    Go to next syntax error.
`C-c C-d    Switch to electric debug mode.
`C-c C-d    Set a breakpoint at the nearest viable source line.
`C-c C-d    Clear the nearest breakpoint.
`C-c C-d [' Go to the previous breakpoint.
`C-c C-d ]' Go to the next breakpoint.
`C-c C-d    Print the value of the expression near point in IDL.

Commonly used Settings in `.emacs'

     ;; Change the indentation preferences
     ;; Start autoloading routine info after 2 idle seconds
     (setq idlwave-init-rinfo-when-idle-after 2)
     ;; Pad operators with spaces
     (setq idlwave-do-actions t
           idlwave-surround-by-blank t)
     ;; Syntax Highlighting
     (add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)
     ;; Automatically start the shell when needed
     (setq idlwave-shell-automatic-start t)
     ;; Bind debugging commands with CONTROL and SHIFT modifiers
     (setq idlwave-shell-debug-modifiers '(control shift))

File: idlwave,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: The IDLWAVE Major Mode,  Prev: IDLWAVE in a Nutshell,  Up: Top

3 Getting Started (Tutorial)

* Menu:

* Lesson I -- Development Cycle::
* Lesson II -- Customization::
* Lesson III -- User Catalog::

File: idlwave,  Node: Lesson I -- Development Cycle,  Next: Lesson II -- Customization,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Getting Started

3.1 Lesson I: Development Cycle

The purpose of this tutorial is to guide you through a very basic
development cycle using IDLWAVE.  We will paste a simple program into a
buffer and use the shell to compile, debug and run it.  On the way we
will use many of the important IDLWAVE commands.  Note, however, that
IDLWAVE has many more capabilities than covered here, which can be
discovered by reading the entire manual, or hovering over the shoulder
of your nearest IDLWAVE guru for a few days.

   It is assumed that you have access to Emacs or XEmacs with the full
IDLWAVE package including online help.  We also assume that you are
familiar with Emacs and can read the nomenclature of key presses in
Emacs (in particular, `C' stands for <CONTROL> and `M' for <META>
(often the <ALT> key carries this functionality)).

   Open a new source file by typing:

     C-x C-f <RET>

   A buffer for this file will pop up, and it should be in IDLWAVE mode,
indicated in the mode line just below the editing window.  Also, the
menu bar should contain `IDLWAVE'.

   Now cut-and-paste the following code, also available as
`' in the IDLWAVE distribution.

     function daynr,d,m,y
       ;; compute a sequence number for a date
       ;; works 1901-2099.
       if y lt 100 then y = y+1900
       if m le 2 then delta = 1 else delta = 0
       m1 = m + delta*12 + 1
       y1 = y * delta
       return, d + floor(m1*30.6)+floor(y1*365.25)+5

     function weekday,day,month,year
       ;; compute weekday number for date
       nr = daynr(day,month,year)
       return, nr mod 7

     pro plot_wday,day,month
       ;; Plot the weekday of a date in the first 10 years of this century.
       years = 2000,+indgen(10)
       wdays = intarr(10)
       for i=0,n_elements(wdays)-1 do begin
           wdays[i] =  weekday(day,month,years[i])
       plot,years,wdays,YS=2,YT="Wday (0=Sunday)"

   The indentation probably looks funny, since it's different from the
settings you use, so use the <TAB> key in each line to automatically
line it up (or, more quickly, _select_ the entire buffer with `C-x h',
and indent the whole region with `C-M-\').  Notice how different
syntactical elements are highlighted in different colors, if you have
set up support for font-lock.

   Let's check out two particular editing features of IDLWAVE.  Place
the cursor after the `end' statement of the `for' loop and press <SPC>.
IDLWAVE blinks back to the beginning of the block and changes the
generic `end' to the specific `endfor' automatically (as long as the
variable `idlwave-expand-generic-end' is turned on -- *note Lesson II
-- Customization::).  Now place the cursor in any line you would like
to split and press `M-<RET>'.  The line is split at the cursor
position, with the continuation `$' and indentation all taken care of.
Use `C-/' to undo the last change.

   The procedure `plot_wday' is supposed to plot the day of the week of
a given date for the first 10 years of the 21st century.  As in most
code, there are a few bugs, which we are going to use IDLWAVE to help
us fix.

   First, let's launch the IDLWAVE shell.  You do this with the command
`C-c C-s'.  The Emacs window will split or another window will popup to
display IDL running in a shell interaction buffer.  Type a few commands
like `print,!PI' to convince yourself that you can work there just as
well as in a terminal, or the IDLDE.  Use the arrow keys to cycle
through your command history.  Are we having fun now?

   Now go back to the source window and type `C-c C-d C-c' to compile
the program.  If you watch the shell buffer, you see that IDLWAVE types
`.run ""' for you.  But the compilation fails because there
is a comma in the line `years=...'.  The line with the error is
highlighted and the cursor positioned at the error, so remove the comma
(you should only need to hit `Delete'!).  Compile again, using the same
keystrokes as before.  Notice that the file is automatically saved for
you.  This time everything should work fine, and you should see the
three routines compile.

   Now we want to use the command to plot the day of the week on January
1st.  We could type the full command ourselves, but why do that?  Go
back to the shell window, type `plot_' and hit <TAB>.  After a bit of a
delay (while IDLWAVE initializes its routine info database, if
necessary), the window will split to show all procedures it knows
starting with that string, and `plot_wday' should be one of them.
Saving the buffer alerted IDLWAVE about this new routine.  Click with
the middle mouse button on `plot_wday' and it will be copied to the
shell buffer, or if you prefer, add `w' to `plot_' to make it
unambiguous (depending on what other routines starting with `plot_' you
have installed on your system), hit <TAB> again, and the full routine
name will be completed.  Now provide the two arguments:


and press <RET>.  This fails with an error message telling you the `YT'
keyword to plot is ambiguous.  What are the allowed keywords again?  Go
back to the source window and put the cursor into the `plot' line and
press `C-c ?'.  This shows the routine info window for the plot
routine, which contains a list of keywords, along with the argument
list.  Oh, we wanted `YTITLE'.  Fix that up.  Recompile with `C-c C-d
C-c'. Jump back into the shell with `C-c C-s', press the <UP> arrow to
recall the previous command and execute again.

   This time we get a plot, but it is pretty ugly -- the points are all
connected with a line.  Hmm, isn't there a way for `plot' to use
symbols instead?  What was that keyword?  Position the cursor on the
plot line after a comma (where you'd normally type a keyword), and hit
`M-<Tab>'.  A long list of plot's keywords appears.  Aha, there it is,
`PSYM'.  Middle click to insert it.  An `=' sign is included for you
too.  Now what were the values of `PSYM' supposed to be?  With the
cursor on or after the keyword, press `M-?' for online help
(alternatively, you could have right clicked on the colored keyword
itself in the completion list).  A browser will pop up showing the HTML
documentation for the `PYSM' keyword.  OK, let's use diamonds=4.  Fix
this, recompile (you know the command by now: `C-c C-d C-c'), go back
to the shell (if it's vanished, you know what to do: `C-c C-s') and
execute again.  Now things look pretty good.

   Let's try a different day -- how about April fool's day?


   Oops, this looks very wrong.  All April Fool's days cannot be
Fridays!  We've got a bug in the program, perhaps in the `daynr'
function.  Let's put a breakpoint on the last line there.  Position the
cursor on the `return, d+...' line and press `C-c C-d C-b'.  IDL sets a
breakpoint (as you see in the shell window), and the break line is
indicated.  Back to the shell buffer, re-execute the previous command.
IDL stops at the line with the breakpoint.  Now hold down the SHIFT key
and click with the middle mouse button on a few variables there: `d',
`y', `m', `y1', etc.  Maybe `d' isn't the correct type.  CONTROL-SHIFT
middle-click on it for help.  Well, it's an integer, so that's not the
problem.  Aha, `y1' is zero, but it should be the year, depending on
delta.  Shift click `delta' to see that it's 0.  Below, we see the
offending line: `y1=y*delta...' the multiplication should have been a
minus sign!  Hit `q' to exit the debugging mode, and fix the line to

     y1 = y - delta

   Now remove all breakpoints: `C-c C-d C-a'.  Recompile and rerun the
command.  Everything should now work fine.  How about those leap years?
Change the code to plot 100 years and see that every 28 years, the
sequence of weekdays repeats.

File: idlwave,  Node: Lesson II -- Customization,  Next: Lesson III -- User Catalog,  Prev: Lesson I -- Development Cycle,  Up: Getting Started

3.2 Lesson II: Customization

Emacs is probably the most customizable piece of software ever written,
and it would be a shame if you did not make use of this to adapt IDLWAVE
to your own preferences.  Customizing Emacs or IDLWAVE is accomplished
by setting Lisp variables in the `.emacs' file in your home directory
-- but do not be dismayed; for the most part, you can just copy and
work from the examples given here.

   Let's first use a boolean variable.  These are variables which you
turn on or off, much like a checkbox. A value of `t' means on, a value
of `nil' means off.  Copy the following line into your `.emacs' file,
exit and restart Emacs.

     (setq idlwave-reserved-word-upcase t)

   When this option is turned on, each reserved word you type into an
IDL source buffer will be converted to upper case when you press <SPC>
or <RET> right after the word.  Try it out!  `if' changes to `IF',
`begin' to `BEGIN'.  If you don't like this behavior, remove the option
again from your `.emacs' file and restart Emacs.

   You likely have your own indentation preferences for IDL code.  For
example, some may prefer to indent the main block of an IDL program
slightly from the margin and use only 3 spaces as indentation between
`BEGIN' and `END'.  Try the following lines in `.emacs':

     (setq idlwave-main-block-indent 1)
     (setq idlwave-block-indent 3)
     (setq idlwave-end-offset -3)

   Restart Emacs, and re-indent the program we developed in the first
part of this tutorial with `C-c h' and `C-M-\'.  You may want to keep
these lines in `.emacs', with values adjusted to your likings.  If you
want to get more information about any of these variables, type, e.g.,
`C-h v idlwave-main-block-indent <RET>'.  To find which variables can
be customized, look for items marked `User Option:' throughout this

   If you cannot seem to master this Lisp customization in `.emacs',
there is another, more user-friendly way to customize all the IDLWAVE
variables.  You can access it through the IDLWAVE menu in one of the
`.pro' buffers, menu item `Customize->Browse IDLWAVE Group'. Here
you'll be presented with all the various variables grouped into
categories.  You can navigate the hierarchy (e.g. `IDLWAVE Code
Formatting->Idlwave Abbrev And Indent Action->Idlwave Expand Generic
End' to turn on `END' expansion), read about the variables, change
them, and `Save for Future Sessions'.  Few of these variables need
customization, but you can exercise considerable control over IDLWAVE's
functionality with them.

   You may also find the key bindings used for the debugging commands
too long and complicated.  Often we have heard complaints along the
lines of, "Do I really have to go through the finger gymnastics of `C-c
C-d C-c' to run a simple command?"  Due to Emacs rules and conventions,
shorter bindings cannot be set by default, but you can easily enable
them.  First, there is a way to assign all debugging commands in a
single sweep to another simpler combination.  The only problem is that
we have to use something which Emacs does not need for other important
commands.  One good option is to execute debugging commands by holding
down <CONTROL> and <SHIFT> while pressing a single character: `C-S-b'
for setting a breakpoint, `C-S-c' for compiling the current source
file, `C-S-a' for deleting all breakpoints (try it, it's easier).  You
can enable this with:

     (setq idlwave-shell-debug-modifiers '(shift control))

If you have a special keyboard with, for example, a <SUPER> key, you
could even shorten that:

     (setq idlwave-shell-debug-modifiers '(super))

to get compilation on `S-c'.  Often, a modifier key like <SUPER> or
<HYPER> is bound or can be bound to an otherwise unused key on your
keyboard -- consult your system documentation.

   You can also assign specific commands to keys.  This you must do in
the _mode-hook_, a special function which is run when a new IDLWAVE
buffer gets set up.  The possibilities for key customization are
endless.  Here we set function keys f4-f8 to common debugging commands.

     ;; First for the source buffer
     (add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook
        (lambda ()
         (local-set-key [f4] 'idlwave-shell-retall)
         (local-set-key [f5] 'idlwave-shell-break-here)
         (local-set-key [f6] 'idlwave-shell-clear-current-bp)
         (local-set-key [f7] 'idlwave-shell-cont)
         (local-set-key [f8] 'idlwave-shell-clear-all-bp)))
     ;; Then for the shell buffer
     (add-hook 'idlwave-shell-mode-hook
        (lambda ()
         (local-set-key [f4] 'idlwave-shell-retall)
         (local-set-key [f5] 'idlwave-shell-break-here)
         (local-set-key [f6] 'idlwave-shell-clear-current-bp)
         (local-set-key [f7] 'idlwave-shell-cont)
         (local-set-key [f8] 'idlwave-shell-clear-all-bp)))

File: idlwave,  Node: Lesson III -- User Catalog,  Prev: Lesson II -- Customization,  Up: Getting Started

3.3 Lesson III: User and Library Catalogs

We have already used the routine info display in the first part of this
tutorial.  This was the invoked using `C-c ?', and displays information
about the IDL routine near the cursor position.  Wouldn't it be nice to
have the same kind of information available for your own routines and
for the huge amount of code in major libraries like JHUPL or the
IDL-Astro library?  In many cases, you may already have this
information.  Files named `.idlwave_catalog' in library directories
contain scanned information on the routines in that directory; many
popular libraries ship with these "library catalogs" pre-scanned.
Users can scan their own routines in one of two ways: either using the
supplied tool to scan directories and build their own
`.idlwave_catalog' files, or using the built-in method to create a
single "user catalog", which we'll show here.  *Note Catalogs::, for
more information on choosing which method to use.

   To build a user catalog, select `Routine Info/Select Catalog
Directories' from the IDLWAVE entry in the menu bar.  If necessary,
start the shell first with `C-c C-s' (*note Starting the Shell::).
IDLWAVE will find out about the IDL `!PATH' variable and offer a list
of directories on the path.  Simply select them all (or whichever you
want -- directories with existing library catalogs will not be selected
by default) and click on the `Scan&Save' button.  Then go for a cup of
coffee while IDLWAVE collects information for each and every IDL
routine on your search path.  All this information is written to the
file `.idlwave/idlusercat.el' in your home directory and will from now
on automatically load whenever you use IDLWAVE.  You may find it
necessary to rebuild the catalog on occasion as your local libraries
change, or build a library catalog for those directories instead.
Invoke routine info (`C-c ?') or completion (`M-<TAB>') on any routine
or partial routine name you know to be located in the library.  E.g.,
if you have scanned the IDL-Astro library:


   expands to `readfits('.  Then try

         a=readfits(<C-c ?>

   and you get:

     Usage:    Result = READFITS(filename, header, heap)

   I hope you made it until here.  Now you are set to work with IDLWAVE.
On the way you will want to change other things, and to learn more
about the possibilities not discussed in this short tutorial.  Read the
manual, look at the documentation strings of interesting variables
(with `C-h v idlwave<-variable-name> <RET>') and ask the remaining
questions on the newsgroup `comp.lang.idl-pvwave'.

File: idlwave,  Node: The IDLWAVE Major Mode,  Next: The IDLWAVE Shell,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Top

4 The IDLWAVE Major Mode

The IDLWAVE major mode supports editing IDL source files.  In this
chapter we describe the main features of the mode and how to customize

* Menu:

* Code Formatting::             Making code look nice
* Routine Info::                Calling Sequence and Keyword List
* Online Help::                 One key press from source to help
* Completion::                  Completing routine names and Keywords
* Routine Source::              Finding routines, the easy way
* Resolving Routines::          Force the Shell to compile a routine
* Code Templates::              Frequent code constructs
* Abbreviations::               Abbreviations for common commands
* Actions::                     Changing case, Padding, End checking
* Doc Header::                  Inserting a standard header
* Motion Commands::             Moving through the structure of a program
* Misc Options::                Things that fit nowhere else

File: idlwave,  Node: Code Formatting,  Next: Routine Info,  Prev: The IDLWAVE Major Mode,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.1 Code Formatting

* Menu:

* Code Indentation::            Reflecting the logical structure
* Continued Statement Indentation::
* Comment Indentation::         Special indentation for comment lines
* Continuation Lines::          Splitting statements over lines
* Syntax Highlighting::         Font-lock support
* Octals and Highlighting::     Why "123 causes problems

   The IDL language, with its early roots in FORTRAN, modern
implementation in C, and liberal borrowing of features of many vector
and other languages along its 25+ year history, has inherited an
unusual mix of syntax elements.  Left to his or her own devices, a
novice IDL programmer will often conjure code which is very difficult
to read and impossible to adapt.  Much can be gleaned from studying
available IDL code libraries for coding style pointers, but, due to the
variety of IDL syntax elements, replicating this style can be
challenging at best.  Luckily, IDLWAVE understands the structure of IDL
code very well, and takes care of almost all formatting issues for you.
After configuring it to match your coding standards, you can rely on it
to help keep your code neat and organized.

File: idlwave,  Node: Code Indentation,  Next: Continued Statement Indentation,  Prev: Code Formatting,  Up: Code Formatting

4.1.1 Code Indentation

Like all Emacs programming modes, IDLWAVE performs code indentation.
The <TAB> key indents the current line relative to context.  <LFD>
insert a newline and indents the new line.  The indentation is governed
by a number of variables.  IDLWAVE indents blocks (between
`PRO'/`FUNCTION'/`BEGIN' and `END'), and continuation lines.

   To re-indent a larger portion of code (e.g. when working with foreign
code written with different conventions), use `C-M-\' (`indent-region')
after marking the relevant code.  Useful marking commands are `C-x h'
(the entire file) or `C-M-h' (the current subprogram).  The command
`C-M-q' reindents the entire current routine.  *Note Actions::, for
information how to impose additional formatting conventions on foreign

 -- User Option: idlwave-main-block-indent (`2')
     Extra indentation for the main block of code.  That is the block
     between the FUNCTION/PRO statement and the END statement for that
     program unit.

 -- User Option: idlwave-block-indent (`3')
     Extra indentation applied to block lines.  If you change this, you
     probably also want to change `idlwave-end-offset'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-end-offset (`-3')
     Extra indentation applied to block END lines.  A value equal to
     negative `idlwave-block-indent' will make END lines line up with
     the block BEGIN lines.

File: idlwave,  Node: Continued Statement Indentation,  Next: Comment Indentation,  Prev: Code Indentation,  Up: Code Formatting

4.1.2 Continued Statement Indentation

Continuation lines (following a line ending with `$') can receive a
fixed indentation offset from the main level, but in several situations
IDLWAVE can use a special form of indentation which aligns continued
statements more naturally.  Special indentation is calculated for
continued routine definition statements and calls, enclosing parentheses
(like function calls, structure/class definitions, explicit structures
or lists, etc.), and continued assignments.  An attempt is made to line
up with the first non-whitespace character after the relevant opening
punctuation mark (`,',`(',`{',`[',`=').  For lines without any
non-comment characters on the line with the opening punctuation, the
continued line(s) are aligned just past the punctuation.  An example:

     function foo, a, b,  $
                   c, d
       bar =  sin( a + b + $
                   c + d)
   The only drawback to this special continued statement indentation is
that it consumes more space, e.g., for long function names or left hand
sides of an assignment:

     function thisfunctionnameisverylongsoitwillleavelittleroom, a, b, $
                                                                 c, d

   You can instruct IDLWAVE when to avoid using this special
continuation indentation by setting the variable
`idlwave-max-extra-continuation-indent', which specifies the maximum
additional indentation beyond the basic indent to be tolerated,
otherwise defaulting to a fixed-offset from the enclosing indent (the
size of which offset is set in `idlwave-continuation-indent').  As a
special case, continuations of routine calls without any arguments or
keywords will _not_ align the continued line, under the assumption that
you continued because you needed the space.

   Also, since the indentation level can be somewhat dynamic in
continued statements with special continuation indentation, especially
if `idlwave-max-extra-continuation-indent' is small, the key `C-u
<TAB>' will re-indent all lines in the current statement.  Note that
`idlwave-indent-to-open-paren', if non-`nil', overrides the
`idlwave-max-extra-continuation-indent' limit, for parentheses only,
forcing them always to line up.

 -- User Option: idlwave-continuation-indent (`2')
     Extra indentation applied to normal continuation lines.

 -- User Option: idlwave-max-extra-continuation-indent (`20')
     The maximum additional indentation (over the basic
     continuation-indent) that will be permitted for special continues.
     To effectively disable special continuation indentation, set to
     `0'.  To enable it constantly, set to a large number (like `100').
     Note that the indentation in a long continued statement never
     decreases from line to line, outside of nested parentheses

 -- User Option: idlwave-indent-to-open-paren (`t')
     Non-`nil' means indent continuation lines to innermost open
     parenthesis, regardless of whether the
     `idlwave-max-extra-continuation-indent' limit is satisfied.

File: idlwave,  Node: Comment Indentation,  Next: Continuation Lines,  Prev: Continued Statement Indentation,  Up: Code Formatting

4.1.3 Comment Indentation

In IDL, lines starting with a `;' are called _comment lines_.  Comment
lines are indented as follows:

`;;;'   The indentation of lines starting with three semicolons remains
`;;'    Lines starting with two semicolons are indented like the
        surrounding code.
`;'     Lines starting with a single semicolon are indented to a minimum

The indentation of comments starting in column 0 is never changed.

 -- User Option: idlwave-no-change-comment
     The indentation of a comment starting with this regexp will not be

 -- User Option: idlwave-begin-line-comment
     A comment anchored at the beginning of line.

 -- User Option: idlwave-code-comment
     A comment that starts with this regexp is indented as if it is a
     part of IDL code.

File: idlwave,  Node: Continuation Lines,  Next: Syntax Highlighting,  Prev: Comment Indentation,  Up: Code Formatting

4.1.4 Continuation Lines and Filling

In IDL, a newline character terminates a statement unless preceded by a
`$'.  If you would like to start a continuation line, use `M-<RET>',
which calls the command `idlwave-split-line'.  It inserts the
continuation character `$', terminates the line and indents the new
line.  The command `M-<RET>' can also be invoked inside a string to
split it at that point, in which case the `+' concatenation operator is

   When filling comment paragraphs, IDLWAVE overloads the normal filling
functions and uses a function which creates the hanging paragraphs
customary in IDL routine headers.  When `auto-fill-mode' is turned on
(toggle with `C-c C-a'), comments will be auto-filled.  If the first
line of a paragraph contains a match for `idlwave-hang-indent-regexp'
(a dash-space by default), subsequent lines are positioned to line up
after it, as in the following example.

     ; x - an array containing
     ;     lots of interesting numbers.
     ; y - another variable where
     ;     a hanging paragraph is used
     ;     to describe it.

   You can also refill a comment at any time paragraph with `M-q'.
Comment delimiting lines as in the above example, consisting of one or
more `;' followed by one or more of the characters `+=-_*', are kept in
place, as is.

 -- User Option: idlwave-fill-comment-line-only (`t')
     Non-`nil' means auto fill will only operate on comment lines.

 -- User Option: idlwave-auto-fill-split-string (`t')
     Non-`nil' means auto fill will split strings with the IDL `+'

 -- User Option: idlwave-split-line-string (`t')
     Non-`nil' means `idlwave-split-line' will split strings with `+'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-hanging-indent (`t')
     Non-`nil' means comment paragraphs are indented under the hanging
     indent given by `idlwave-hang-indent-regexp' match in the first
     line of the paragraph.

 -- User Option: idlwave-hang-indent-regexp (`"- "')
     Regular expression matching the position of the hanging indent in
     the first line of a comment paragraph.

 -- User Option: idlwave-use-last-hang-indent (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means use last match on line for `idlwave-indent-regexp'.

File: idlwave,  Node: Syntax Highlighting,  Next: Octals and Highlighting,  Prev: Continuation Lines,  Up: Code Formatting

4.1.5 Syntax Highlighting

Highlighting of keywords, comments, strings etc. can be accomplished
with `font-lock'.  If you are using `global-font-lock-mode' (in Emacs),
or have `font-lock' turned on in any other buffer in XEmacs, it should
also automatically work in IDLWAVE buffers.  If you'd prefer invoking
font-lock individually by mode, you can enforce it in `idlwave-mode'
with the following line in your `.emacs':

     (add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)

IDLWAVE supports 3 increasing levels of syntax highlighting.  The
variable `font-lock-maximum-decoration' determines which level is
selected.  Individual categories of special tokens can be selected for
highlighting using the variable `idlwave-default-font-lock-items'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-default-font-lock-items
     Items which should be fontified on the default fontification level

File: idlwave,  Node: Octals and Highlighting,  Prev: Syntax Highlighting,  Up: Code Formatting

4.1.6 Octals and Highlighting

A rare syntax highlighting problem results from an extremely unfortunate
notation for octal numbers in IDL: `"123'.  This unpaired quotation
mark is very difficult to parse, given that it can be mixed on a single
line with any number of strings.  Emacs will incorrectly identify this
as a string, and the highlighting of following lines of code can be
distorted, since the string is never terminated.

   One solution to this involves terminating the mistakenly identified
string yourself by providing a closing quotation mark in a comment:

       string("305B) + $ ;" <--- for font-lock
        ' is an Angstrom.'

A far better solution is to abandon this notation for octals
altogether, and use the more sensible alternative IDL provides:

        string('305'OB) + ' is an Angstrom.'

This simultaneously solves the font-lock problem and is more consistent
with the notation for hexadecimal numbers, e.g. `'C5'XB'.

File: idlwave,  Node: Routine Info,  Next: Online Help,  Prev: Code Formatting,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.2 Routine Info

IDL comes bundled with more than one thousand procedures, functions and
object methods, and large libraries typically contain hundreds or even
thousands more (each with a few to tens of keywords and arguments).
This large command set can make it difficult to remember the calling
sequence and keywords for the routines you use, but IDLWAVE can help.
It builds up routine information from a wide variety of sources;
IDLWAVE in fact knows far more about the `.pro' routines on your system
than IDL itself!  It maintains a list of all built-in routines, with
calling sequences and keywords(1).  It also scans Emacs buffers for
routine definitions, queries the IDLWAVE-Shell for information about
routines currently compiled there, and automatically locates library
and user-created catalogs.  This information is updated automatically,
and so should usually be current.  To force a global update and refresh
the routine information, use `C-c C-i' (`idlwave-update-routine-info').

   To display the information about a routine, press `C-c ?', which
calls the command `idlwave-routine-info'.  When the current cursor
position is on the name or in the argument list of a procedure or
function, information will be displayed about the routine.  For example,
consider the indicated cursor positions in the following line:

     plot,x,alog(x+5*sin(x) + 2),
       |  |   |   |   |  |  |    |
       1  2   3   4   5  6  7    8

   On positions 1,2 and 8, information about the `plot' procedure will
be shown.  On positions 3,4, and 7, the `alog' function will be
described, while positions 5 and 6 will investigate the `sin' function.

   When you ask for routine information about an object method, and the
method exists in several classes, IDLWAVE queries for the class of the
object, unless the class is already known through a text property on the
`->' operator (*note Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity::),
or by having been explicitly included in the call (e.g.

   The description displayed contains the calling sequence, the list of
keywords and the source location of this routine.  It looks like this:

     Usage:    XMANAGER, NAME, ID
               JUST_REG MODAL NO_BLOCK
     Source:   SystemLib   [LCSB] /soft1/idl53/lib/

   If a definition of this routine exists in several files accessible to
IDLWAVE, several `Source' lines will point to the different files.
This may indicate that your routine is shadowing a system library
routine, which may or may not be what you want (*note Load-Path
Shadows::).  The information about the calling sequence and keywords is
derived from the first source listed.  Library routines are available
only if you have scanned your local IDL directories or are using
pre-scanned libraries (*note Catalogs::).  The source entry consists of
a _source category_, a set of _flags_ and the path to the _source
file_.  The following default categories exist:

System      A system routine of unknown origin.  When the system library
            has been scanned as part of a catalog (*note Catalogs::),
            this category will automatically split into the next two.
Builtin     A builtin system routine with no source code available.
SystemLib   A library system routine in the official lib directory
Obsolete    A library routine in the official lib directory
Library     A routine in a file on IDL's search path `!PATH'.
Other       Any other routine with a file not known to be on the search
Unresolved  An otherwise unknown routine the shell lists as unresolved
            (referenced, but not compiled).

   Any routines discovered in library catalogs (*note Library
Catalogs::), will display the category assigned during creation, e.g.
`NasaLib'.  For routines not discovered in this way, you can create
additional categories based on the routine's filename using the
variable `idlwave-special-lib-alist'.

   The flags `[LCSB]' indicate the source of the information IDLWAVE
has regarding the file: from a library catalog (`[L---]'), from a user
catalog (`[-C--]', from the IDL Shell (`[--S-]') or from an Emacs
buffer (`[---B]').  Combinations are possible (a compiled library
routine visited in a buffer might read `[L-SB]').  If a file contains
multiple definitions of the same routine, the file name will be
prefixed with `(Nx)' where `N' is the number of definitions.

   Some of the text in the `*Help*' routine info buffer will be active
(it is highlighted when the mouse moves over it).  Typically, clicking
with the right mouse button invokes online help lookup, and clicking
with the middle mouse button inserts keywords or visits files:

Usage       If online help is installed, a click with the _right_ mouse
            button on the Usage: line will access the help for the
            routine (*note Online Help::).
Keyword     Online help about keywords is also available with the
            _right_ mouse button.  Clicking on a keyword with the
            _middle_ mouse button will insert this keyword in the buffer
            from where `idlwave-routine-info' was called.  Holding down
            <SHIFT> while clicking also adds the initial `/'.
Source      Clicking with the _middle_ mouse button on a `Source' line
            finds the source file of the routine and visits it in
            another window.  Another click on the same line switches
            back to the buffer from which `C-c ?' was called.  If you
            use the _right_ mouse button, the source will not be visited
            by a buffer, but displayed in the online help window.
Classes     The Classes line is only included in the routine info window
            if the current class inherits from other classes.  You can
            click with the _middle_ mouse button to display routine info
            about the current method in other classes on the inheritance
            chain, if such a method exists there.

 -- User Option: idlwave-resize-routine-help-window (`t')
     Non-`nil' means resize the Routine-info `*Help*' window to fit the

 -- User Option: idlwave-special-lib-alist
     Alist of regular expressions matching special library directories.

 -- User Option: idlwave-rinfo-max-source-lines (`5')
     Maximum number of source files displayed in the Routine Info

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This list is created by scanning the IDL manuals and might
contain (very few) errors.  Please report any errors to the maintainer,
so that they can be fixed.

File: idlwave,  Node: Online Help,  Next: Completion,  Prev: Routine Info,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.3 Online Help

For IDL system routines, extensive documentation is supplied with IDL.
IDLWAVE can access the HTML version of this documentation very quickly
and accurately, based on the local context.  This can be _much_ faster
than using the IDL online help application, because IDLWAVE usually
gets you to the right place in the documentation directly -- e.g. a
specific keyword of a routine -- without any additional browsing and

   For this online help to work, an HTML version of the IDL
documentation is required.  Beginning with IDL 6.2, HTML documentation
is distributed directly with IDL, along with an XML-based catalog of
routine information.  By default, IDLWAVE automatically attempts to
convert this XML catalog into a format Emacs can more easily
understand, and caches this information in your
`idlwave_config_directory' (`~/.idlwave/', by default).  It also
re-scans the XML catalog if it is newer than the current cached
version.  You can force rescan with the menu entry `IDLWAVE->Routine
Info->Rescan XML Help Catalog'.

   Before IDL 6.2, the HTML help was not distributed with IDL, and was
not part of the standalone IDLWAVE distribution, but had to be
downloaded separately.  This is no longer necessary: all help and
routine information is supplied with IDL versions 6.2 and later.

   There are a variety of options for displaying the HTML help: see
below.  Help for routines without HTML documentation is also available,
by using the routine documentation header and/or routine source.

   In any IDL program (or, as with most IDLWAVE commands, in the IDL
Shell), press `M-?' (`idlwave-context-help'), or click with `S-Mouse-3'
to access context sensitive online help.  The following locations are
recognized context for help:

Routine names      The name of a routine (function, procedure, method).
Keyword Parameters A keyword parameter of a routine.
System Variables   System variables like `!DPI'.
System Variable    System variables tags like `!D.X_SIZE'.
IDL Statements     Statements like `PRO', `REPEAT', `COMPILE_OPT', etc.
IDL Controls       Control structures like `FOR', `SWITCH', etc.
Class names        A class name in an `OBJ_NEW' call.
Class Init         Beyond the class name in an `OBJ_NEW' call.
Executive Command  An executive command like `.RUN'.  Mostly useful in
                   the shell.
Structure Tags     Structure tags like `state.xsize'
Class Tags         Class tags like `self.value'.
Default            The routine that would be selected for routine info

   Note that the `OBJ_NEW' function is special in that the help
displayed depends on the cursor position.  If the cursor is on the
`OBJ_NEW', this function is described.  If it is on the class name
inside the quotes, the documentation for the class is pulled up.  If
the cursor is _after_ the class name, anywhere in the argument list,
the documentation for the corresponding `Init' method and its keywords
is targeted.

   Apart from an IDLWAVE buffer or shell, there are two more places from
which online help can be accessed.

   * Online help for routines and keywords can be accessed through the
     Routine Info display.  Click with `Mouse-3' on an item to see the
     corresponding help (*note Routine Info::).

   * When using completion and Emacs pops up a `*Completions*' buffer
     with possible completions, clicking with `Mouse-3' on a completion
     item invokes help on that item (*note Completion::).  Items for
     which help is available in the online system documentation (vs.
     just the program source itself) will be emphasized (e.g. colored
   In both cases, a blue face indicates that the item is documented in
the IDL manual, but an attempt will be made to visit non-blue items
directly in the originating source file.

* Menu:

* Help with HTML Documentation::
* Help with Source::

File: idlwave,  Node: Help with HTML Documentation,  Next: Help with Source,  Prev: Online Help,  Up: Online Help

4.3.1 Help with HTML Documentation

Help using the HTML documentation is invoked with the built-in Emacs
command `browse-url', which displays the relevant help topic in a
browser of your choosing.  Beginning with version 6.2, IDL comes with
the help browser _IDL Assistant_, which it uses by default for
displaying online help on all supported platforms.  This browser offers
topical searches, an index, and is also now the default and recommended
IDLWAVE help browser.  The variable `idlwave-help-use-assistant'
controls whether this browser is used.  Note that, due to limitations
in the Assistant, invoking help within IDLWAVE and `? topic' within IDL
will result in two running copies of Assistant.

   Aside from the IDL Assistant, there are many possible browsers to
choose among, with differing advantages and disadvantages.  The variable
`idlwave-help-browser-function' controls which browser help is sent to
(as long as `idlwave-help-use-assistant' is not set).  This function is
used to set the variable `browse-url-browser-function' locally for
IDLWAVE help only.  Customize the latter variable to see what choices
of browsers your system offers.  Certain browsers like `w3' (bundled
with many versions of Emacs) and `w3m' (`')
are run within Emacs, and use Emacs buffers to display the HTML help.
This can be convenient, especially on small displays, and images can
even be displayed in-line on newer Emacs versions.  However, better
formatting results are often achieved with external browsers, like
Mozilla.  IDLWAVE assumes any browser function containing "w3" is
displayed in a local buffer.  If you are using another Emacs-local
browser for which this is not true, set the variable

   With IDL 6.2 or later, it is important to ensure that the variable
`idlwave-system-directory' is set (*note Catalogs::).  One easy way to
ensure this is to run the IDL Shell (`C-c C-s').  It will be queried
for this directory, and the results will be cached to file for
subsequent use.

   *Note HTML Help Browser Tips::, for more information on selecting and
configuring a browser for use with IDL's HTML help system.

 -- User Option: idlwave-html-system-help-location `help/online_help'
     Relative directory of the system-supplied HTML help directory,
     considered with respect to `idlwave-system-directory'.  Relevant
     for IDL 6.2 and greater.  Should not change.

 -- User Option: idlwave-html-help-location `/usr/local/etc/'
     The directory where the `idl_html_help' HTML directory live.
     Obsolete and ignored for IDL 6.2 and greater
     (`idlwave-html-system-help-location' is used instead).

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-use-assistant `t'
     If set, use the IDL Assistant if possible for online HTML help,
     otherwise use the browser function specified in

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-browser-function
     The browser function to use to display IDLWAVE HTML help.  Should
     be one of the functions available for setting
     `browse-url-browser-function', which see.

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-browser-is-local
     Is the browser selected in `idlwave-help-browser-function' run in a
     local Emacs buffer or window?  Defaults to `t' if the function
     contains "-w3".

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-link-face
     The face for links to IDLWAVE online help.

File: idlwave,  Node: Help with Source,  Prev: Help with HTML Documentation,  Up: Online Help

4.3.2 Help with Source

For routines which are not documented in an HTML manual (for example
personal or library routines), the source code itself is used as help
text.  If the requested information can be found in a (more or less)
standard DocLib file header, IDLWAVE shows the header (scrolling down to
a keyword, if appropriate).  Otherwise the routine definition statement
(`pro'/`function') is shown.  The doclib header sections which are
searched for include `NAME' and `KEYWORDS'.  Localization support can
be added by customizing the `idlwave-help-doclib-name' and
`idlwave-help-doclib-keyword' variables.

   Help is also available for class structure tags (`self.TAG'), and
generic structure tags, if structure tag completion is enabled (*note
Structure Tag Completion::).  This is implemented by visiting the tag
within the class or structure definition source itself.  Help is not
available on built-in system class tags.

   The help window is normally displayed in the same frame, but can be
popped-up in a separate frame.  The following commands can be used to
navigate inside the help system for source files:

`<SPACE>'   Scroll forward one page.
`<RET>'     Scroll forward one line.
`<DEL>'     Scroll back one page.
`h'         Jump to DocLib Header of the routine whose source is
            displayed as help.
`H'         Jump to the first DocLib Header in the file.
`.' (Dot)   Jump back and forth between the routine definition (the
            `pro'/`function' statement) and the description of the help
            item in the DocLib header.
`F'         Fontify the buffer like source code.  See the variable
`q'         Kill the help window.

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-use-dedicated-frame (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means use a separate frame for Online Help if possible.

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-frame-parameters
     The frame parameters for the special Online Help frame.

 -- User Option: idlwave-max-popup-menu-items (`20')
     Maximum number of items per pane in pop-up menus.

 -- User Option: idlwave-extra-help-function
     Function to call for help if the normal help fails.

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-fontify-source-code (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means fontify source code displayed as help.

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-source-try-header (`t')
     Non-`nil' means try to find help in routine header when displaying
     source file.

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-doclib-name (`"name"')
     The case-insensitive heading word in doclib headers to locate the
     _name_ section.  Can be a regexp, e.g. `"\\(name\\|nom\\)"'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-doclib-keyword (`"KEYWORD"')
     The case-insensitive heading word in doclib headers to locate the
     _keywords_ section.  Can be a regexp.

File: idlwave,  Node: Completion,  Next: Routine Source,  Prev: Online Help,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.4 Completion

IDLWAVE offers completion for class names, routine names, keywords,
system variables, system variable tags, class structure tags, regular
structure tags and file names.  As in many programming modes, completion
is bound to `M-<TAB>' (or simply `<TAB>' in the IDLWAVE Shell -- *note
Using the Shell::).  Completion uses exactly the same internal
information as routine info, so when necessary (rarely) it can be
updated with `C-c C-i' (`idlwave-update-routine-info').

   The completion function is context sensitive and figures out what to
complete based on the location of the point.  Here are example lines and
what `M-<TAB>' would try to complete when the cursor is on the position
marked with a `_':

     plo_                    Procedure
     x = a_                  Function
     plot,xra_               Keyword of `plot' procedure
     plot,x,y,/x_            Keyword of `plot' procedure
     plot,min(_              Keyword of `min' function
     obj -> a_               Object method (procedure)
     a[2,3] = obj -> a_      Object method (function)
     x = obj_new('IDL_       Class name
     x = obj_new('MyCl',a_   Keyword to `Init' method in class `MyCl'
     pro A_                  Class name
     pro _                   Fill in `Class::' of first method in this file
     !v_                     System variable
     !version.t_             Structure tag of system variable
     self.g_                 Class structure tag in methods
     state.w_                Structure tag, if tag completion enabled
     name = 'a_              File name (default inside quotes)

   The only place where completion is ambiguous is procedure/function
_keywords_ versus _functions_.  After `plot,x,_', IDLWAVE will always
assume a keyword to `plot'.  However, a function is also a possible
completion here.  You can force completion of a function name at such a
location by using a prefix arg: `C-u M-<TAB>'.

   Giving two prefix arguments (`C-u C-u M-<TAB>') prompts for a
regular expression to search among the commands to be completed.  As an
example, completing a blank line in this way will allow you to search
for a procedure matching a regexp.

   If the list of completions is too long to fit in the `*Completions*'
window, the window can be scrolled by pressing `M-<TAB>' repeatedly.
Online help (if installed) for each possible completion is available by
clicking with `Mouse-3' on the item.  Items for which system online
help (from the IDL manual) is available will be emphasized (e.g.
colored blue).  For other items, the corresponding source code or
DocLib header will be used as the help text.

   Completion is not a blocking operation -- you are free to continue
editing, enter commands, or simply ignore the `*Completions*' buffer
during a completion operation.  If, however, the most recent command
was a completion, `C-g' will remove the buffer and restore the window
configuration.  You can also remove the buffer at any time with no
negative consequences.

 -- User Option: idlwave-keyword-completion-adds-equal (`t')
     Non-`nil' means completion automatically adds `=' after completed

 -- User Option: idlwave-function-completion-adds-paren (`t')
     Non-`nil' means completion automatically adds `(' after completed
     function.  A value of `2' means also add the closing parenthesis
     and position the cursor between the two.

 -- User Option: idlwave-completion-restore-window-configuration (`t')
     Non-`nil' means restore window configuration after successful

 -- User Option: idlwave-highlight-help-links-in-completion (`t')
     Non-`nil' means highlight completions for which system help is

* Menu:

* Case of Completed Words::     CaseOFcomPletedWords
* Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity::  obj->Method, what?
* Object Method Completion in the Shell::
* Class and Keyword Inheritance::  obj->Method, _EXTRA=e
* Structure Tag Completion::    Completing state.Tag

File: idlwave,  Node: Case of Completed Words,  Next: Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity,  Prev: Completion,  Up: Completion

4.4.1 Case of Completed Words

IDL is a case-insensitive language, so casing is a matter of style
only.  IDLWAVE helps maintain a consistent casing style for completed
items.  The case of the completed words is determined by what is
already in the buffer.  As an exception, when the partial word being
completed is all lower case, the completion will be lower case as well.
If at least one character is upper case, the string will be completed
in upper case or mixed case, depending on the value of the variable
`idlwave-completion-case'.  The default is to use upper case for
procedures, functions and keywords, and mixed case for object class
names and methods, similar to the conventions in the IDL manuals.  For
instance, to enable mixed-case completion for routines in addition to
classes and methods, you need an entry such as `(routine . preserve)'
in that variable.  To enable total control over the case of completed
items, independent of buffer context, set
`idlwave-completion-force-default-case' to non-`nil'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-completion-case
     Association list setting the case
     (UPPER/lower/Capitalized/MixedCase...)  of completed words.

 -- User Option: idlwave-completion-force-default-case (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means completion will always honor the settings in
     `idlwave-completion-case'.  When nil (the default), entirely lower
     case strings will always be completed to lower case, no matter
     what the settings in `idlwave-completion-case'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-complete-empty-string-as-lower-case (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means the empty string is considered lower case for

File: idlwave,  Node: Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity,  Next: Object Method Completion in the Shell,  Prev: Case of Completed Words,  Up: Completion

4.4.2 Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity

An object method is not uniquely determined without the object's class.
Since the class is almost always omitted in the calling source (as
required to obtain the true benefits of object-based programming),
IDLWAVE considers all available methods in all classes as possible
method name completions.  The combined list of keywords of the current
method in _all_ known classes which contain that method will be
considered for keyword completion.  In the `*Completions*' buffer, the
matching classes will be shown next to each item (see option
`idlwave-completion-show-classes').  As a special case, the class of an
object called `self' is always taken to be the class of the current
routine, when in an IDLWAVE buffer.  All inherits classes are
considered as well.

   You can also call `idlwave-complete' with a prefix arg: `C-u
M-<TAB>'.  IDLWAVE will then prompt you for the class in order to
narrow down the number of possible completions.  The variable
`idlwave-query-class' can be configured to make such prompting the
default for all methods (not recommended), or selectively for very
common methods for which the number of completing keywords would be too
large (e.g. `Init,SetProperty,GetProperty').

   After you have specified the class for a particular statement (e.g.
when completing the method), IDLWAVE can remember it for the rest of the
editing session.  Subsequent completions in the same statement (e.g.
keywords) can then reuse this class information.  This works by placing
a text property on the method invocation operator `->', after which the
operator will be shown in a different face (bold by default).  The
variable `idlwave-store-inquired-class' can be used to turn it off or

 -- User Option: idlwave-completion-show-classes (`1')
     Non-`nil' means show up to that many classes in `*Completions*'
     buffer when completing object methods and keywords.

 -- User Option: idlwave-completion-fontify-classes (`t')
     Non-`nil' means fontify the classes in completions buffer.

 -- User Option: idlwave-query-class (`nil')
     Association list governing query for object classes during

 -- User Option: idlwave-store-inquired-class (`t')
     Non-`nil' means store class of a method call as text property on

 -- User Option: idlwave-class-arrow-face
     Face to highlight object operator arrows `->' which carry a saved
     class text property.

File: idlwave,  Node: Object Method Completion in the Shell,  Next: Class and Keyword Inheritance,  Prev: Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity,  Up: Completion

4.4.3 Object Method Completion in the Shell

In the IDLWAVE Shell (*note The IDLWAVE Shell::), objects on which
methods are being invoked have a special property: they must exist as
variables, and so their class can be determined (for instance, using the
`obj_class()' function).  In the Shell, when attempting completion,
routine info, or online help within a method routine, a query is sent to
determine the class of the object.  If this query is successful, the
class found will be used to select appropriate completions, routine
info, or help.  If unsuccessful, information from all known classes will
be used (as in the buffer).

File: idlwave,  Node: Class and Keyword Inheritance,  Next: Structure Tag Completion,  Prev: Object Method Completion in the Shell,  Up: Completion

4.4.4 Class and Keyword Inheritance

Class inheritance affects which methods are called in IDL.  An object of
a class which inherits methods from one or more superclasses can
override that method by defining its own method of the same name, extend
the method by calling the method(s) of its superclass(es) in its
version, or inherit the method directly by making no modifications.
IDLWAVE examines class definitions during completion and routine
information display, and records all inheritance information it finds.
This information is displayed if appropriate with the calling sequence
for methods (*note Routine Info::), as long as variable
`idlwave-support-inheritance' is non-`nil'.

   In many class methods, _keyword_ inheritance (`_EXTRA' and
`_REF_EXTRA') is used hand-in-hand with class inheritance and method
overriding.  E.g., in a `SetProperty' method, this technique allows a
single call `obj->SetProperty' to set properties up the entire class
inheritance chain.  This is often referred to as _chaining_, and is
characterized by chained method calls like

   IDLWAVE can accommodate this special synergy between class and
keyword inheritance: if `_EXTRA' or `_REF_EXTRA' is detected among a
method's keyword parameters, all keywords of superclass versions of the
method being considered can be included in completion.  There is of
course no guarantee that this type of keyword chaining actually occurs,
but for some methods it's a very convenient assumption.  The variable
`idlwave-keyword-class-inheritance' can be used to configure which
methods have keyword inheritance treated in this simple, class-driven
way.  By default, only `Init' and `(Get|Set)Property' are.  The
completion buffer will label keywords based on their originating class.

 -- User Option: idlwave-support-inheritance (`t')
     Non-`nil' means consider inheritance during completion, online
     help etc.

 -- User Option: idlwave-keyword-class-inheritance
     A list of regular expressions to match methods for which simple
     class-driven keyword inheritance will be used for Completion.

File: idlwave,  Node: Structure Tag Completion,  Prev: Class and Keyword Inheritance,  Up: Completion

4.4.5 Structure Tag Completion

In many programs, especially those involving widgets, large structures
(e.g. the `state' structure) are used to communicate among routines.
It is very convenient to be able to complete structure tags, in the
same way as for instance variables (tags) of the `self' object (*note
Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity::).  Add-in code for
structure tag completion is available in the form of a loadable
completion module: `idlw-complete-structtag.el'.  Tag completion in
structures is highly ambiguous (much more so than `self' completion),
so `idlw-complete-structtag' makes an unusual and very specific
assumption: the exact same variable name is used to refer to the
structure in all parts of the program.  This is entirely unenforced by
the IDL language, but is a typical convention.  If you consistently
refer to the same structure with the same variable name (e.g. `state'),
structure tags which are read from its definition in the same file can
be used for completion.

   Structure tag completion is not enabled by default.  To enable it,
simply add the following to your `.emacs':

        (add-hook 'idlwave-load-hook
                  (lambda () (require 'idlw-complete-structtag)))

   Once enabled, you'll also be able to access online help on the
structure tags, using the usual methods (*note Online Help::).  In
addition, structure variables in the shell will be queried for tag
names, similar to the way object variables in the shell are queried for
method names.  So, e.g.:

     IDL> st.[Tab]

will complete with all structure fields of the structure `st'.

File: idlwave,  Node: Routine Source,  Next: Resolving Routines,  Prev: Completion,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.5 Routine Source

In addition to clicking on a Source: line in the routine info window,
there is another way to quickly visit the source file of a routine.
The command `C-c C-v' (`idlwave-find-module') asks for a module name,
offering the same default as `idlwave-routine-info' would have used,
taken from nearby buffer contents.  In the minibuffer, specify a
complete routine name (including any class part).  IDLWAVE will display
the source file in another window, positioned at the routine in
question.  You can also limit this to a routine in the current buffer
only, with completion, and a context-sensitive default, by using a
single prefix (`C-u C-c C-v') or the convenience binding `C-c C-t'.

   Since getting the source of a routine into a buffer is so easy with
IDLWAVE, too many buffers visiting different IDL source files are
sometimes created.  The special command `C-c C-k'
(`idlwave-kill-autoloaded-buffers') can be used to easily remove these

File: idlwave,  Node: Resolving Routines,  Next: Code Templates,  Prev: Routine Source,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.6 Resolving Routines

The key sequence `C-c =' calls the command `idlwave-resolve' and sends
the line `RESOLVE_ROUTINE, 'ROUTINE_NAME'' to IDL in order to resolve
(compile) it.  The default routine to be resolved is taken from
context, but you get a chance to edit it.  Usually this is not
necessary, since IDL automatically discovers routines on its path.

   `idlwave-resolve' is one way to get a library module within reach of
IDLWAVE's routine info collecting functions.  A better way is to keep
routine information available in catalogs (*note Catalogs::).  Routine
info on modules will then be available without the need to compile the
modules first, and even without a running shell.

   *Note Sources of Routine Info::, for more information on the ways
IDLWAVE collects data about routines, and how to update this

File: idlwave,  Node: Code Templates,  Next: Abbreviations,  Prev: Resolving Routines,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.7 Code Templates

IDLWAVE can insert IDL code templates into the buffer.  For a few
templates, this is done with direct key bindings:

`C-c C-c'   `CASE' statement template
`C-c C-f'   `FOR' loop template
`C-c C-r'   `REPEAT' loop template
`C-c C-w'   `WHILE' loop template

   All code templates are also available as abbreviations (*note

File: idlwave,  Node: Abbreviations,  Next: Actions,  Prev: Code Templates,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.8 Abbreviations

Special abbreviations exist to enable rapid entry of commonly used
commands.  Emacs abbreviations are expanded by typing text into the
buffer and pressing <SPC> or <RET>.  The special abbreviations used to
insert code templates all start with a `\' (the backslash), or,
optionally, any other character set in `idlwave-abbrev-start-char'.
IDLWAVE ensures that abbreviations are only expanded where they should
be (i.e., not in a string or comment), and permits the point to be
moved after an abbreviation expansion -- very useful for positioning
the mark inside of parentheses, etc.

   Special abbreviations are pre-defined for code templates and other
useful items.  To visit the full list of abbreviations, use `M-x

   Template abbreviations:

`\pr'       `PROCEDURE' template
`\fu'       `FUNCTION' template
`\c'        `CASE' statement template
`\f'        `FOR' loop template
`\r'        `REPEAT' loop template
`\w'        `WHILE' loop template
`\i'        `IF' statement template
`\elif'     `IF-ELSE' statement template

   String abbreviations:

`\ap'       `arg_present()'
`\b'        `begin'
`\cb'       `byte()'
`\cc'       `complex()'
`\cd'       `double()'
`\cf'       `float()'
`\cl'       `long()'
`\co'       `common'
`\cs'       `string()'
`\cx'       `fix()'
`\e'        `else'
`\ec'       `endcase'
`\ee'       `endelse'
`\ef'       `endfor'
`\ei'       `endif else if'
`\el'       `endif else'
`\en'       `endif'
`\er'       `endrep'
`\es'       `endswitch'
`\ew'       `endwhile'
`\g'        `goto,'
`\h'        `help,'
`\ik'       `if keyword_set() then'
`\iap'      `if arg_present() then'
`\ine'      `if n_elements() eq 0 then'
`\inn'      `if n_elements() ne 0 then'
`\k'        `keyword_set()'
`\n'        `n_elements()'
`\np'       `n_params()'
`\oi'       `on_ioerror,'
`\or'       `openr,'
`\ou'       `openu,'
`\ow'       `openw,'
`\p'        `print,'
`\pt'       `plot,'
`\pv'       `ptr_valid()'
`\re'       `read,'
`\rf'       `readf,'
`\rt'       `return'
`\ru'       `readu,'
`\s'        `size()'
`\sc'       `strcompress()'
`\sl'       `strlowcase()'
`\sm'       `strmid()'
`\sn'       `strlen()'
`\sp'       `strpos()'
`\sr'       `strtrim()'
`\st'       `strput()'
`\su'       `strupcase()'
`\t'        `then'
`\u'        `until'
`\wc'       `widget_control,'
`\wi'       `widget_info()'
`\wu'       `writeu,'

You can easily add your own abbreviations or override existing abbrevs
with `define-abbrev' in your mode hook, using the convenience function

     (add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook
               (lambda ()
                 (idlwave-define-abbrev "wb" "widget_base()"
                          (idlwave-keyword-abbrev 1))
                 (idlwave-define-abbrev "ine" "IF N_Elements() EQ 0 THEN"
                          (idlwave-keyword-abbrev 11))))

   Notice how the abbreviation (here _wb_) and its expansion
(_widget_base()_) are given as arguments, and the single argument to
`idlwave-keyword-abbrev' (here _1_) specifies how far back to move the
point upon expansion (in this example, to put it between the

   The abbreviations are expanded in upper or lower case, depending upon
the variables `idlwave-abbrev-change-case' and, for reserved word
templates, `idlwave-reserved-word-upcase' (*note Case Changes::).

 -- User Option: idlwave-abbrev-start-char (`"\"')
     A single character string used to start abbreviations in abbrev
     mode.  Beware of common characters which might naturally occur in
     sequence with abbreviation strings.

 -- User Option: idlwave-abbrev-move (`t')
     Non-`nil' means the abbrev hook can move point, e.g. to end up
     between the parentheses of a function call.

File: idlwave,  Node: Actions,  Next: Doc Header,  Prev: Abbreviations,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.9 Actions

_Actions_ are special formatting commands which are executed
automatically while you write code in order to check the structure of
the program or to enforce coding standards.  Most actions which have
been implemented in IDLWAVE are turned off by default, assuming that the
average user wants her code the way she writes it.  But if you are a
lazy typist and want your code to adhere to certain standards, actions
can be helpful.

   Actions can be applied in three ways:

   * Some actions are applied directly while typing.  For example,
     pressing `=' can run a check to make sure that this operator is
     surrounded by spaces and insert these spaces if necessary.
     Pressing <SPC> after a reserved word can call a command to change
     the word to upper case.

   * When a line is re-indented with <TAB>, actions can be applied to
     the entire line.  To enable this, the variable `idlwave-do-actions'
     must be non-`nil'.

   * Actions can also be applied to a larger piece of code, e.g. to
     convert foreign code to your own style.  To do this, mark the
     relevant part of the code and execute `M-x expand-region-abbrevs'.
     Useful marking commands are `C-x h' (the entire file) or `C-M-h'
     (the current subprogram). *Note Code Indentation::, for
     information how to adjust the indentation of the code.

 -- User Option: idlwave-do-actions (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means performs actions when indenting.  Individual action
     settings are described below and set separately.

* Menu:

* Block Boundary Check::        Is the END statement correct?
* Padding Operators::           Enforcing space around `=' etc
* Case Changes::                Enforcing upper case keywords

File: idlwave,  Node: Block Boundary Check,  Next: Padding Operators,  Prev: Actions,  Up: Actions

4.9.1 Block Boundary Check

Whenever you type an `END' statement, IDLWAVE finds the corresponding
start of the block and the cursor blinks back to that location for a
second.  If you have typed a specific `END', like `ENDIF' or `ENDCASE',
you get a warning if that terminator does not match the type of block
it terminates.

   Set the variable `idlwave-expand-generic-end' in order to have all
generic `END' statements automatically expanded to the appropriate
type.  You can also type `C-c ]' to close the current block by
inserting the appropriate `END' statement.

 -- User Option: idlwave-show-block (`t')
     Non-`nil' means point blinks to block beginning for

 -- User Option: idlwave-expand-generic-end (`t')
     Non-`nil' means expand generic END to ENDIF/ENDELSE/ENDWHILE etc.

 -- User Option: idlwave-reindent-end (`t')
     Non-`nil' means re-indent line after END was typed.

File: idlwave,  Node: Padding Operators,  Next: Case Changes,  Prev: Block Boundary Check,  Up: Actions

4.9.2 Padding Operators

Some operators can be automatically surrounded by spaces.  This can
happen when the operator is typed, or later when the line is indented.
IDLWAVE can pad the operators `<', `>', `,', `=', and `->', as well as
the modified assignment operators (`AND=', `OR=', etc.).  This feature
is turned off by default.  If you want to turn it on, customize the
variables `idlwave-surround-by-blank' and `idlwave-do-actions' and turn
both on.  You can also define similar actions for other operators by
using the function `idlwave-action-and-binding' in the mode hook.  For
example, to enforce space padding of the `+' and `*' operators (outside
of strings and comments, of course), try this in `.emacs'

     (add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook
       (lambda ()
          (setq idlwave-surround-by-blank t)  ; Turn this type of actions on
          (idlwave-action-and-binding "*" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))
          (idlwave-action-and-binding "+" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))))

   Note that the modified assignment operators which begin with a word
(`AND=', `OR=', `NOT=', etc.) require a leading space to be recognized
(e.g `vAND=4' would be interpreted as a variable `vAND').  Also note
that, since e.g., `>' and `>=' are both valid operators, it is
impossible to surround both by blanks while they are being typed.
Similarly with `&' and `&&'.  For these, a compromise is made: the
padding is placed on the left, and if the longer operator is keyed in,
on the right as well (otherwise you must insert spaces to pad right
yourself, or press simply press Tab to repad everything if
`idlwave-do-actions' is on).

 -- User Option: idlwave-surround-by-blank (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means enable `idlwave-surround'.  If non-`nil', `=',
     `<', `>', `&', `,', `->', and the modified assignment operators
     (`AND=', `OR=', etc.) are surrounded with spaces by

 -- User Option: idlwave-pad-keyword (`t')
     Non-`nil' means space-pad the `=' in keyword assignments.

File: idlwave,  Node: Case Changes,  Prev: Padding Operators,  Up: Actions

4.9.3 Case Changes

Actions can be used to change the case of reserved words or expanded
abbreviations by customizing the variables `idlwave-abbrev-change-case'
and `idlwave-reserved-word-upcase'.  If you want to change the case of
additional words automatically, put something like the following into
your `.emacs' file:

     (add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook
       (lambda ()
          ;;  Capitalize system vars
          (idlwave-action-and-binding idlwave-sysvar '(capitalize-word 1) t)
          ;;  Capitalize procedure name
          (idlwave-action-and-binding "\\<\\(pro\\|function\\)\\>[ \t]*\\<"
                                      '(capitalize-word 1) t)
          ;;  Capitalize common block name
          (idlwave-action-and-binding "\\<common\\>[ \t]+\\<"
                                      '(capitalize-word 1) t)))

   For more information, see the documentation string for the function
`idlwave-action-and-binding'.  For information on controlling the case
of routines, keywords, classes, and methods as they are completed, see
*note Completion::.

 -- User Option: idlwave-abbrev-change-case (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means all abbrevs will be forced to either upper or lower
     case.  Valid values are `nil', `t', and `down'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-reserved-word-upcase (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means reserved words will be made upper case via abbrev

File: idlwave,  Node: Doc Header,  Next: Motion Commands,  Prev: Actions,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.10 Documentation Header

The command `C-c C-h' inserts a standard routine header into the
buffer, with the usual fields for documentation (a different header can
be specified with `idlwave-file-header').  One of the keywords is
`MODIFICATION HISTORY' under which the changes to a routine can be
recorded.  The command `C-c C-m' jumps to the `MODIFICATION HISTORY' of
the current routine or file and inserts the user name with a timestamp.

 -- User Option: idlwave-file-header
     The doc-header template or a path to a file containing it.

 -- User Option: idlwave-header-to-beginning-of-file (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means the documentation header will always be at start
     of file.

 -- User Option: idlwave-timestamp-hook
     The hook function used to update the timestamp of a function.

 -- User Option: idlwave-doc-modifications-keyword
     The modifications keyword to use with the log documentation

 -- User Option: idlwave-doclib-start
     Regexp matching the start of a document library header.

 -- User Option: idlwave-doclib-end
     Regexp matching the start of a document library header.

File: idlwave,  Node: Motion Commands,  Next: Misc Options,  Prev: Doc Header,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.11 Motion Commands

IDLWAVE supports both `Imenu' and `Func-menu', two packages which make
it easy to jump to the definitions of functions and procedures in the
current file with a pop-up selection.  To bind `Imenu' to a
mouse-press, use in your `.emacs':

     (define-key global-map [S-down-mouse-3] 'imenu)

   In addition, `Speedbar' support allows convenient navigation of a
source tree of IDL routine files, quickly stepping to routine
definitions.  See `Tools->Display Speedbar'.

   Several commands allow you to move quickly through the structure of
an IDL program:

`C-M-a'     Beginning of subprogram
`C-M-e'     End of subprogram
`C-c {'     Beginning of block (stay inside the block)
`C-c }'     End of block (stay inside the block)
`C-M-n'     Forward block (on same level)
`C-M-p'     Backward block (on same level)
`C-M-d'     Down block (enters a block)
`C-M-u'     Backward up block (leaves a block)
`C-c C-n'   Next Statement

File: idlwave,  Node: Misc Options,  Prev: Motion Commands,  Up: The IDLWAVE Major Mode

4.12 Miscellaneous Options

 -- User Option: idlwave-help-application
     The external application providing reference help for programming.

 -- User Option: idlwave-startup-message (`t')
     Non-`nil' means display a startup message when `idlwave-mode'' is
     first called.

 -- User Option: idlwave-mode-hook
     Normal hook.  Executed when a buffer is put into `idlwave-mode'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-load-hook
     Normal hook.  Executed when `idlwave.el' is loaded.

File: idlwave,  Node: The IDLWAVE Shell,  Next: Acknowledgements,  Prev: The IDLWAVE Major Mode,  Up: Top

5 The IDLWAVE Shell

The IDLWAVE shell is an Emacs major mode which permits running the IDL
program as an inferior process of Emacs, and works closely with the
IDLWAVE major mode in buffers.  It can be used to work with IDL
interactively, to compile and run IDL programs in Emacs buffers and to
debug these programs.  The IDLWAVE shell is built on `comint', an Emacs
packages which handles the communication with the IDL program.
Unfortunately, IDL for Windows does not have command-prompt versions and
thus do not allow the interaction with Emacs -- so the IDLWAVE shell
currently only works under Unix and MacOSX.

* Menu:

* Starting the Shell::          How to launch IDL as a subprocess
* Using the Shell::             Interactively working with the Shell
* Commands Sent to the Shell::
* Debugging IDL Programs::
* Examining Variables::
* Custom Expression Examination::

File: idlwave,  Node: Starting the Shell,  Next: Using the Shell,  Prev: The IDLWAVE Shell,  Up: The IDLWAVE Shell

5.1 Starting the Shell

The IDLWAVE shell can be started with the command `M-x idlwave-shell'.
In `idlwave-mode' the function is bound to `C-c C-s'.  It creates a
buffer `*idl*' which is used to interact with the shell.  If the shell
is already running, `C-c C-s' will simply switch to the shell buffer.
The command `C-c C-l' (`idlwave-shell-recenter-shell-window') displays
the shell window without selecting it.  The shell can also be started
automatically when another command tries to send a command to it.  To
enable auto start, set the variable `idlwave-shell-automatic-start' to

   In order to create a separate frame for the IDLWAVE shell buffer,
call `idlwave-shell' with a prefix argument: `C-u C-c C-s' or `C-u C-c
C-l'.  If you always want a dedicated frame for the shell window,
configure the variable `idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame'.

   To launch a quick IDLWAVE shell directly from a shell prompt without
an IDLWAVE buffer (e.g., as a replacement for running inside an xterm),
define a system alias with the following content:

     emacs -geometry 80x32 -eval "(idlwave-shell 'quick)"

   Replace the `-geometry 80x32' option with `-nw' if you prefer the
Emacs process to run directly inside the terminal window.

   To use IDLWAVE with ENVI or other custom packages which change the
`IDL> ' prompt, you must change the `idlwave-shell-prompt-pattern',
which defaults to `"^ ?IDL> "'.  Normally, you can just replace the
`IDL' in this expression with the prompt you see.  A suitable pattern
which matches the prompt for both ENVI and IDL simultaneously is `"^
?\\(ENVI\\|IDL\\)> "'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-explicit-file-name (`idl')
     This is the command to run IDL.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-command-line-options
     A list of command line options for calling the IDL program.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-prompt-pattern
     Regexp to match IDL prompt at beginning of a line.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-process-name
     Name to be associated with the IDL process.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-automatic-start (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means attempt to invoke idlwave-shell if not already

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-initial-commands
     Initial commands, separated by newlines, to send to IDL.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-save-command-history (`t')
     Non-`nil' means preserve command history between sessions.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-command-history-file
     The file in which the command history of the idlwave shell is
     saved.  Unless it's an absolute path, it goes in

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means IDLWAVE should use a special frame to display the
     shell buffer.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-window (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means use a dedicated window for the shell, taking care
     not it replace it with other buffers.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-frame-parameters
     The frame parameters for a dedicated idlwave-shell frame.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-raise-frame (`t')
     Non-`nil' means `idlwave-shell' raises the frame showing the shell

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-temp-pro-prefix
     The prefix for temporary IDL files used when compiling regions.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-mode-hook
     Hook for customizing `idlwave-shell-mode'.

File: idlwave,  Node: Using the Shell,  Next: Commands Sent to the Shell,  Prev: Starting the Shell,  Up: The IDLWAVE Shell

5.2 Using the Shell

The IDLWAVE shell works in the same fashion as other shell modes in
Emacs.  It provides command history, command line editing and job
control.  The <UP> and <DOWN> arrows cycle through the input history
just like in an X terminal(1).  The history is preserved between emacs
and IDL sessions.  Here is a list of commonly used commands:

<UP>,     Cycle backwards in input history
<DOWN>,   Cycle forwards in input history
`M-r'     Previous input matching a regexp
`M-s'     Next input matching a regexp
`return'  Send input or copy line to current prompt
`C-c C-a' Beginning of line; skip prompt
`C-c C-u' Kill input to beginning of line
`C-c C-w' Kill word before cursor
`C-c C-c' Send ^C
`C-c C-z' Send ^Z
`C-c C-\' Send ^\
`C-c C-o' Delete last batch of process output
`C-c C-r' Show last batch of process output
`C-c C-l' List input history

   In addition to these standard `comint' commands,
`idlwave-shell-mode' provides many of the same commands which simplify
writing IDL code available in IDLWAVE buffers.  This includes
abbreviations, online help, and completion.  See *note Routine Info::
and *note Online Help:: and *note Completion:: for more information on
these commands.

`<TAB>'   Completion of file names (between quotes and after executive
          commands `.run' and `.compile'), routine names, class names,
          keywords, system variables, system variable tags etc.
`M-<TAB>' Same as <TAB>
`C-c ?'   Routine Info display (`idlwave-routine-info')
`M-?'     IDL online help on routine
`C-c C-i' Update routine info from buffers and shell
`C-c C-v' Find the source file of a routine (`idlwave-find-module')
`C-c C-t' Find the source file of a routine in the currently visited file
`C-c ='   Compile a library routine (`idlwave-resolve')

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-arrows-do-history (`t')
     Non-`nil' means <UP> and <DOWN> arrows move through command
     history like xterm.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-comint-settings
     Alist of special settings for the comint variables in the IDLWAVE

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-file-name-chars
     The characters allowed in file names, as a string.  Used for file
     name completion.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-graphics-window-size
     Size of IDL graphics windows popped up by special IDLWAVE command.

   IDLWAVE works in line input mode: You compose a full command line,
using all the power Emacs gives you to do this.  When you press <RET>,
the whole line is sent to IDL.  Sometimes it is necessary to send single
characters (without a newline), for example when an IDL program is
waiting for single character input with the `GET_KBRD' function.  You
can send a single character to IDL with the command `C-c C-x'
(`idlwave-shell-send-char').  When you press `C-c C-y'
(`idlwave-shell-char-mode-loop'), IDLWAVE runs a blocking loop which
accepts characters and immediately sends them to IDL.  The loop can be
exited with `C-g'.  It terminates also automatically when the current
IDL command is finished.  Check the documentation of the two variables
described below for a way to make IDL programs trigger automatic
switches of the input mode.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-use-input-mode-magic (`nil')
     Non-`nil' means IDLWAVE should check for input mode spells in

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-input-mode-spells
     The three regular expressions which match the magic spells for
     input modes.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This is different from normal Emacs/Comint behavior, but more
like an xterm.  If you prefer the default comint functionality, check
the variable `idlwave-shell-arrows-do-history'.

File: idlwave,  Node: Commands Sent to the Shell,  Next: Debugging IDL Programs,  Prev: Using the Shell,  Up: The IDLWAVE Shell

5.3 Commands Sent to the Shell

The IDLWAVE buffers and shell interact very closely.  In addition to the
normal commands you enter at the `IDL>' prompt, many other special
commands are sent to the shell, sometimes as a direct result of invoking
a key command, menu item, or toolbar button, but also automatically, as
part of the normal flow of information updates between the buffer and

   The commands sent include `breakpoint', `.step' and other debug
commands (*note Debugging IDL Programs::), `.run' and other compilation
statements (*note Compiling Programs::), examination commands like
`print' and `help' (*note Examining Variables::), and other special
purpose commands designed to keep information on the running shell

   By default, much of this background shell input and output is hidden
from the user, but this is configurable.  The custom variable
`idlwave-abbrev-show-commands' allows you to configure which commands
sent to the shell are shown there.  For a related customization for
separating the output of _examine_ commands, see *note Examining

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-show-commands (`'(run misc breakpoint)')
     A list of command types to echo in the shell when sent.  Possible
     values are `run' for `.run', `.compile' and other run commands,
     `misc' for lesser used commands like `window', `retall',`close',
     etc., `breakpoint' for breakpoint setting and clearing commands,
     and `debug' for other debug, stepping, and continue commands.  In
     addition, if the variable is set to the single symbol
     `'everything', all the copious shell input is displayed (which is
     probably only useful for debugging purposes).  N.B. For hidden
     commands which produce output by side-effect, that output remains
     hidden (e.g., stepping through a `print' command).  As a special
     case, any error message in the output will be displayed (e.g.,
     stepping to an error).

File: idlwave,  Node: Debugging IDL Programs,  Next: Examining Variables,  Prev: Commands Sent to the Shell,  Up: The IDLWAVE Shell

5.4 Debugging IDL Programs

Programs can be compiled, run, and debugged directly from the source
buffer in Emacs, walking through arbitrarily deeply nested code,
printing expressions and skipping up and down the calling stack along
the way.  IDLWAVE makes compiling and debugging IDL programs far less
cumbersome by providing a full-featured, key/menu/toolbar-driven
interface to commands like `breakpoint', `.step', `.run', etc.  It can
even perform complex debug operations not natively supported by IDL
(like continuing to the line at the cursor).

   The IDLWAVE shell installs key bindings both in the shell buffer and
in all IDL code buffers of the current Emacs session, so debug commands
work in both places (in the shell, commands operate on the last file
compiled).  On Emacs versions which support it, a debugging toolbar is
also installed.  The toolbar display can be toggled with `C-c C-d C-t'

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-use-toolbar (`t')
     Non-`nil' means use the debugging toolbar in all IDL related

* Menu:

* A Tale of Two Modes::
* Debug Key Bindings::
* Breakpoints and Stepping::
* Compiling Programs::
* Walking the Calling Stack::
* Electric Debug Mode::

File: idlwave,  Node: A Tale of Two Modes,  Next: Debug Key Bindings,  Prev: Debugging IDL Programs,  Up: Debugging IDL Programs

5.4.1 A Tale of Two Modes

The many debugging, compiling, and examination commands provided in
IDLWAVE are available simultaneously through two different interfaces:
the original, multi-key command interface, and the new Electric Debug
Mode.  The functionality they offer is similar, but the way you interact
with them is quite different.  The main difference is that, in Electric
Debug Mode, the source buffers are made read-only, and single
key-strokes are used to step through, examine expressions, set and
remove breakpoints, etc.  The same variables, prefix arguments, and
settings apply to both versions, and both can be used interchangeably.
By default, when breakpoints are hit, Electric Debug Mode is enabled.
The traditional interface is described first.  *Note Electric Debug
Mode::, for more on that mode.  Note that electric debug mode can be
prevented from activating automatically by customizing the variable

File: idlwave,  Node: Debug Key Bindings,  Next: Breakpoints and Stepping,  Prev: A Tale of Two Modes,  Up: Debugging IDL Programs

5.4.2 Debug Key Bindings

The standard debugging key bindings are always available by default on
the prefix key `C-c C-d', so, for example, setting a breakpoint is done
with `C-c C-d C-b', and compiling a source file with `C-c C-d C-c'.
You can also easily configure IDLWAVE to use one or more modifier keys
not in use by other commands, in lieu of the prefix `C-c C-d' (though
these bindings will typically also be available -- see
`idlwave-shell-activate-prefix-keybindings').  For example, if you
include in `.emacs':

     (setq idlwave-shell-debug-modifiers '(control shift))

a breakpoint can then be set by pressing `b' while holding down `shift'
and `control' keys, i.e. `C-S-b'.  Compiling a source file will be on
`C-S-c', deleting a breakpoint `C-S-d', etc.  In the remainder of this
chapter we will assume that the `C-c C-d' bindings are active, but each
of these bindings will have an equivalent shortcut if modifiers are
given in the `idlwave-shell-debug-modifiers' variable (*note Lesson II
-- Customization::).  A much simpler and faster form of debugging for
running code is also available by default -- see *note Electric Debug

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-prefix-key (`C-c C-d')
     The prefix key for the debugging map

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-activate-prefix-keybindings (`t')
     Non-`nil' means debug commands will be bound to the prefix key,
     like `C-c C-d C-b'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-debug-modifiers (`nil')
     List of modifier keys to use for additional, alternative binding of
     debugging commands in the shell and source buffers.  Can be one or
     more of `control', `meta', `super', `hyper', `alt', and `shift'.

File: idlwave,  Node: Breakpoints and Stepping,  Next: Compiling Programs,  Prev: Debug Key Bindings,  Up: Debugging IDL Programs

5.4.3 Breakpoints and Stepping

IDLWAVE helps you set breakpoints and step through code.  Setting a
breakpoint in the current line of the source buffer is accomplished
with `C-c C-d C-b' (`idlwave-shell-break-here').  With a prefix arg of
1 (i.e. `C-1 C-c C-d C-b'), the breakpoint gets a `/ONCE' keyword,
meaning that it will be deleted after first use.  With a numeric prefix
greater than one (e.g. `C-4 C-c C-d C-b'), the breakpoint will only be
active the `nth' time it is hit.  With a single non-numeric prefix
(i.e. `C-u C-c C-d C-b'), prompt for a condition -- an IDL expression
to be evaluated and trigger the breakpoint only if true.  To clear the
breakpoint in the current line, use `C-c C-d C-d'
(`idlwave-clear-current-bp').  When executed from the shell window, the
breakpoint where IDL is currently stopped will be deleted.  To clear
all breakpoints, use `C-c C-d C-a' (`idlwave-clear-all-bp').
Breakpoints can also be disabled and re-enabled: `C-c C-d C-\'

   Breakpoint lines are highlighted or indicated with an icon in the
source code (different icons for conditional, after, and other break
types).  Disabled breakpoints are _grayed out_ by default.  Note that
IDL places breakpoints as close as possible on or after the line you
specify.  IDLWAVE queries the shell for the actual breakpoint location
which was set, so the exact line you specify may not be marked.  You can
re-sync the breakpoint list and update the display at any time (e.g., if
you add or remove some on the command line) using `C-c C-d C-l'.

   In recent IDLWAVE versions, the breakpoint line is highlighted when
the mouse is moved over it, and a tooltip pops up describing the break
details.  `Mouse-3' on the breakpoint line pops up a menu of breakpoint
actions, including clearing, disabling, and adding or changing break
conditions or "after" break count.

   Once the program has stopped somewhere, you can step through it.  The
most important stepping commands are `C-c C-d C-s' to execute one line
of IDL code ("step into"); `C-c C-d C-n' to step a single line,
treating procedure and function calls as a single step ("step over");
`C-c C-d C-h' to continue execution to the line at the cursor and `C-c
C-d C-r' to continue execution.  *Note Commands Sent to the Shell::,
for information on displaying or hiding the breakpoint and stepping
commands the shell receives.  Here is a summary of the breakpoint and
stepping commands:

`C-c C-d C-b'     Set breakpoint (`idlwave-shell-break-here')
`C-c C-d C-i'     Set breakpoint in module named here
`C-c C-d C-d'     Clear current breakpoint
`C-c C-d C-a'     Clear all breakpoints (`idlwave-shell-clear-all-bp')
`C-c C-d ['       Go to the previous breakpoint
`C-c C-d ]'       Go to the next breakpoint
`C-c C-d C-\'     Disable/Enable current breakpoint
`C-c C-d C-j'     Set a breakpoint at the beginning of the enclosing
`C-c C-d C-s'     Step, into function calls (`idlwave-shell-step')
`C-c C-d C-n'     Step, over function calls (`idlwave-shell-stepover')
`C-c C-d C-k'     Skip one statement (`idlwave-shell-skip')
`C-c C-d C-u'     Continue to end of block (`idlwave-shell-up')
`C-c C-d C-m'     Continue to end of function (`idlwave-shell-return')
`C-c C-d C-o'     Continue past end of function (`idlwave-shell-out')
`C-c C-d C-h'     Continue to line at cursor position
`C-c C-d C-r'     Continue execution to next breakpoint, if any
`C-c C-d C-up'    Show higher level in calling stack
`C-c C-d C-down'  Show lower level in calling stack

   All of these commands have equivalents in Electric Debug Mode, which
provides faster single-key access (*note Electric Debug Mode::).

   The line where IDL is currently stopped, at breakpoints, halts, and
errors, etc., is marked with a color overlay or arrow, depending on the
setting in `idlwave-shell-mark-stop-line'.  If an overlay face is used
to mark the stop line (as it is by default), when stepping through
code, the face color is temporarily changed to gray, until IDL completes
the next command and moves to the new line.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-mark-breakpoints (`t')
     Non-`nil' means mark breakpoints in the source file buffers.  The
     value indicates the preferred method.  Valid values are `nil',
     `t', `face', and `glyph'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-breakpoint-face
     The face for breakpoint lines in the source code if
     `idlwave-shell-mark-breakpoints' has the value `face'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-breakpoint-popup-menu (`t')
     Whether to pop-up a menu and present a tooltip description on
     breakpoint lines.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-mark-stop-line (`t')
     Non-`nil' means mark the source code line where IDL is currently
     stopped.  The value specifies the preferred method.  Valid values
     are `nil', `t', `arrow', and `face'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-overlay-arrow (`">"')
     The overlay arrow to display at source lines where execution
     halts, if configured in `idlwave-shell-mark-stop-line'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-stop-line-face
     The face which highlights the source line where IDL is stopped, if
     configured in `idlwave-shell-mark-stop-line'.

File: idlwave,  Node: Compiling Programs,  Next: Walking the Calling Stack,  Prev: Breakpoints and Stepping,  Up: Debugging IDL Programs

5.4.4 Compiling Programs

In order to compile the current buffer under the IDLWAVE shell, press
`C-c C-d C-c' (`idlwave-save-and-run').  This first saves the current
buffer and then sends the command `.run path/to/file' to the shell.
You can also execute `C-c C-d C-c' from the shell buffer, in which case
the most recently compiled buffer will be saved and re-compiled.

   When developing or debugging a program, it is often necessary to
execute the same command line many times.  A convenient way to do this
is `C-c C-d C-y' (`idlwave-shell-execute-default-command-line').  This
command first resets IDL from a state of interrupted execution by
closing all files and returning to the main interpreter level.  Then a
default command line is send to the shell.  To edit the default command
line, call `idlwave-shell-execute-default-command-line' with a prefix
argument: `C-u C-c C-d C-y'.  If no default command line has been set
(or you give two prefix arguments), the last command on the `comint'
input history is sent.

   For quickly compiling and running the currently marked region as a
main level program `C-c C-d C-e' (`idlwave-shell-run-region') is very
useful.  A temporary file is created holding the contents of the
current region (with `END' appended), and run from the shell.

File: idlwave,  Node: Walking the Calling Stack,  Next: Electric Debug Mode,  Prev: Compiling Programs,  Up: Debugging IDL Programs

5.4.5 Walking the Calling Stack

While debugging a program, it can be very useful to check the context in
which the current routine was called, for instance to help understand
the value of the arguments passed.  To do so conveniently you need to
examine the calling stack.  If execution is stopped somewhere deep in a
program, you can use the commands `C-c C-d C-<UP>'
(`idlwave-shell-stack-up') and `C-c C-d C-<DOWN>'
(`idlwave-shell-stack-down'), or the corresponding toolbar buttons, to
move up or down through the calling stack.  The mode line of the shell
window will indicate the position within the stack with a label like
`[-3:MYPRO]'.  The line of IDL code at that stack position will be
highlighted.  If you continue execution, IDLWAVE will automatically
return to the current level. *Note Examining Variables::, for
information how to examine the value of variables and expressions on
higher calling stack levels.

File: idlwave,  Node: Electric Debug Mode,  Prev: Walking the Calling Stack,  Up: Debugging IDL Programs

5.4.6 Electric Debug Mode

Even with a convenient debug key prefix enabled, repetitive stepping,
variable examination (*note Examining Variables::), and other debugging
activities can be awkward and slow using commands which require multiple
keystrokes.  Luckily, there's a better way, inspired by the lisp e-debug
mode, and available through the _Electric Debug Mode_.  By default, as
soon as a breakpoint is hit, this minor mode is enabled.  The buffer
showing the line where execution has halted is switched to Electric
Debug Mode.  This mode is visible as `*Debugging*' in the mode line,
and a different face (violet by default, if color is available) for the
line stopped at point.  The buffer is made read-only and
single-character bindings for the most commonly used debugging commands
are enabled.  These character commands (a list of which is available
with `C-?') are:

`a'            Clear all breakpoints (`idlwave-shell-clear-all-bp')
`b'            Set breakpoint, `C-u b' for a conditional break, `C-n b'
               for nth hit (`idlwave-shell-break-here')
`d'            Clear current breakpoint
`e'            Prompt for expression to print
`h'            Continue to the line at cursor position
`i'            Set breakpoint in module named here
`['            Go to the previous breakpoint in the file
`]'            Go to the next breakpoint in the file
`\'            Disable/Enable current breakpoint
`j'            Set breakpoint at beginning of enclosing routine
`k'            Skip one statement (`idlwave-shell-skip')
`m'            Continue to end of function (`idlwave-shell-return')
`n'            Step, over function calls (`idlwave-shell-stepover')
`o'            Continue past end of function (`idlwave-shell-out')
`p'            Print expression near point or in region with `C-u p'
`q'            End the debugging session and return to the Shell's main
               level (`idlwave-shell-retall')
`r'            Continue execution to next breakpoint, if any
`s' or         Step, into function calls (`idlwave-shell-step')
`t'            Print a calling-level traceback in the shell
`u'            Continue to end of block (`idlwave-shell-up')
`v'            Turn Electric Debug Mode off
`x'            Examine expression near point (or in region with `C-u x')
               with shortcut of examine type.
`z'            Reset IDL (`idlwave-shell-reset')
`+' or `='     Show higher level in calling stack
`-' or `_'     Show lower level in calling stack
`?'            Help on expression near point or in region with `C-u ?'
`C-?'          Show help on the commands available.

   Most single-character electric debug bindings use the final keystroke
of the equivalent multiple key commands (which are of course also still
available), but some differ (e.g. `e',`t',`q',`x').  Some have
additional convenience bindings (like `<SPACE>' for stepping).  All
prefix and other argument options described in this section for the
commands invoked by electric debug bindings are still valid.  For
example, `C-u b' sets a conditional breakpoint, just as it did with
`C-u C-c C-d C-b'.

   You can toggle the electric debug mode at any time in a buffer using
`C-c C-d C-v' (`v' to turn it off while in the mode), or from the Debug
menu.  Normally the mode will be enabled and disabled at the
appropriate times, but occasionally you might want to edit a file while
still debugging it, or switch to the mode for conveniently setting lots
of breakpoints.

   To quickly abandon a debugging session and return to normal editing
at the Shell's main level, use `q' (`idlwave-shell-retall').  This
disables electric debug mode in all IDLWAVE buffers(1).  Help is
available for the command shortcuts with `C-?'.  If you find this mode
gets in your way, you can keep it from automatically activating by
setting the variable `idlwave-shell-automatic-electric-debug' to `nil',
or `'breakpoint'.  If you'd like the convenient electric debug
shortcuts available also when run-time errors are encountered, set to

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-automatic-electric-debug (`'breakpoint')
     Whether to enter electric debug mode automatically when a
     breakpoint or run-time error is encountered, and then disable it
     in all buffers when the $MAIN$ level is reached (either through
     normal program execution, or retall).  In addition to `nil' for
     never, and `t' for both breakpoints and errors, this can be
     `'breakpoint' (the default) to enable it only at breakpoint halts.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-electric-stop-color (Violet)
     Default color of the stopped line overlay when in electric debug

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-electric-stop-line-face
     The face to use for the stopped line.  Defaults to a face similar
     to the modeline, with color `idlwave-shell-electric-stop-color'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-electric-zap-to-file (`t')
     If set, when entering electric debug mode, select the window
     displaying the file where point is stopped.  This takes point away
     from the shell window, but is useful for immediate stepping, etc.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Note that this binding is not symmetric: `C-c C-d C-q' is bound
to `idlwave-shell-quit', which quits your IDL session.

File: idlwave,  Node: Examining Variables,  Next: Custom Expression Examination,  Prev: Debugging IDL Programs,  Up: The IDLWAVE Shell

5.5 Examining Variables

Do you find yourself repeatedly typing, e.g. `print,n_elements(x)', and
similar statements to remind yourself of the
type/size/structure/value/etc. of variables and expressions in your code
or at the command line?  IDLWAVE has a suite of special commands to
automate these types of variable or expression examinations.  They work
by sending statements to the shell formatted to include the indicated
expression, and can be accessed in several ways.

   These _examine_ commands can be used in the shell or buffer at any
time (as long as the shell is running), and are very useful when
execution is stopped in a buffer due to a triggered breakpoint or error,
or while composing a long command in the IDLWAVE shell.  In the latter
case, the command is sent to the shell and its output is visible, but
point remains unmoved in the command being composed -- you can inspect
the constituents of a command you're building without interrupting the
process of building it!  You can even print arbitrary expressions from
older input or output further up in the shell window -- any expression,
variable, number, or function you see can be examined.

   If the variable `idlwave-shell-separate-examine-output' is non-`nil'
(the default), all examine output will be sent to a special `*Examine*'
buffer, rather than the shell.  The output of prior examine commands is
saved in this buffer.  In this buffer <c> clears the contents, and <q>
hides the buffer.

   The two most basic examine commands are bound to `C-c C-d C-p', to
print the expression at point, and `C-c C-d ?', to invoke help on this
expression(1).  The expression at point is either an array expression
or a function call, or the contents of a pair of parentheses.  The
chosen expression is highlighted, and simultaneously the resulting
output is highlighted in the shell or separate output buffer.  Calling
the above commands with a prefix argument will use the current region
as expression instead of using the one at point. which can be useful
for examining complicated, multi-line expressions.  Two prefix
arguments (`C-u C-u C-c C-d C-p') will prompt for an expression to
print directly.  By default, when invoking print, only an initial
portion of long arrays will be printed, up to

   For added speed and convenience, there are mouse bindings which allow
you to click on expressions and examine their values.  Use `S-Mouse-2'
to print an expression and `C-M-Mouse-2' to invoke help (i.e. you need
to hold down <META> and <CONTROL> while clicking with the middle mouse
button).  If you simply click, the nearest expression will be selected
in the same manner as described above.  You can also _drag_ the mouse
in order to highlight exactly the specific expression or sub-expression
you want to examine.  For custom expression examination, and the
powerful customizable pop-up examine selection, *Note Custom Expression

   The same variable inspection commands work both in the IDL Shell and
IDLWAVE buffers, and even for variables at higher levels of the calling
stack.  For instance, if you're stopped at a breakpoint in a routine,
you can examine the values of variables and expressions inside its
calling routine, and so on, all the way up through the calling stack.
Simply step up the stack, and print variables as you see them (*note
Walking the Calling Stack::, for information on stepping back through
the calling stack).  The following restrictions apply for all levels
except the current:

   * Array expressions must use the `[ ]' index delimiters.  Identifiers
     with a `( )' will be interpreted as function calls.

   * N.B.: printing values of expressions on higher levels of the
     calling stack uses the _unsupported_ IDL routine `ROUTINE_NAMES',
     which may or may not be available in future versions of IDL.
     Caveat Examinor.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-expression-face
     The face for `idlwave-shell-expression-overlay'.  Allows you to
     choose the font, color and other properties for the expression
     printed by IDL.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-output-face
     The face for `idlwave-shell-output-overlay'.  Allows to choose the
     font, color and other properties for the most recent output of IDL
     when examining an expression."

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-separate-examine-output (`t')
     If non-`nil', re-direct the output of examine commands to a special
     `*Examine*' buffer, instead of in the shell itself.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-max-print-length (200)
     The maximum number of leading array entries to print, when
     examining array expressions.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Available as `p' and `?' in Electric Debug Mode (*note Electric
Debug Mode::)

File: idlwave,  Node: Custom Expression Examination,  Prev: Examining Variables,  Up: The IDLWAVE Shell

5.6 Custom Expression Examination

The variety of possible variable and expression examination commands is
endless (just look, for instance, at the keyword list to
`widget_info()').  Rather than attempt to include them all, IDLWAVE
provides two easy methods to customize your own commands, with a special
mouse examine command, and two macros for generating your own examine
key and mouse bindings.

   The most powerful and flexible mouse examine command of all is
available on `C-S-Mouse-2'.  Just as for all the other mouse examine
commands, it permits click or drag expression selection, but instead of
sending hard-coded commands to the shell, it pops-up a customizable
selection list of examine functions to choose among, configured with
the `idlwave-shell-examine-alist' variable(1).  This variable is a list
of key-value pairs (an _alist_ in Emacs parlance), where the key gives
a name to be shown for the examine command, and the value is the
command strings itself, in which the text `___' (three underscores)
will be replaced by the selected expression before being sent to the
shell.  An example might be key `Structure Help' with value
`help,___,/STRUCTURE'.  In that case, you'd be prompted with _Structure
Help_, which might send something like `help,var,/STRUCTURE' to the
shell for output.  `idlwave-shell-examine-alist' comes configured by
default with a large list of examine commands, but you can easily
customize it to add your own.

   In addition to configuring the functions available to the pop-up
mouse command, you can easily create your own customized bindings to
inspect expressions using the two convenience macros
`idlwave-shell-examine' and `idlwave-shell-mouse-examine'.  These
create keyboard or mouse-based custom inspections of variables, sharing
all the same properties of the built-in examine commands.  Both
functions take a single string argument sharing the syntax of the
`idlwave-shell-examine-alist' values, e.g.:

     (add-hook 'idlwave-shell-mode-hook
               (lambda ()
                 (idlwave-shell-define-key-both [s-down-mouse-2]
                                       "print, size(___,/DIMENSIONS)"))
                 (idlwave-shell-define-key-both [f9] (idlwave-shell-examine
                                            "print, size(___,/DIMENSIONS)"))
                 (idlwave-shell-define-key-both [f10] (idlwave-shell-examine
                 (idlwave-shell-define-key-both [f11] (idlwave-shell-examine

Now pressing <f9>, or middle-mouse dragging with the <SUPER> key
depressed, will print the dimensions of the nearby or highlighted
expression.  Pressing <f10> will give the type string, and <f11> will
show the contents of a nearby structure.  As you can see, the
possibilities are only marginally finite.

 -- User Option: idlwave-shell-examine-alist
     An alist of examine commands in which the keys name the command and
     are displayed in the selection pop-up, and the values are custom
     IDL examine command strings to send, after all instances of `___'
     (three underscores) are replaced by the indicated expression.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) In Electric Debug Mode (*note Electric Debug Mode::), the key
`x' provides a single-character shortcut interface to the same examine
functions for the expression at point or marked by the region.

File: idlwave,  Node: Acknowledgements,  Next: Sources of Routine Info,  Prev: The IDLWAVE Shell,  Up: Top

6 Acknowledgements

The main contributors to the IDLWAVE package have been:

   - Chris Chase (, the original author.  Chris
     wrote `idl.el' and `idl-shell.el' and maintained them for several

   - Carsten Dominik ( was in charge of the
     package from version 3.0, during which time he overhauled almost
     everything, modernized IDLWAVE with many new features, and
     developed the manual.

   - J.D. Smith (, the current
     maintainer, as of version 4.10, helped shape object method
     completion and most new features introduced in versions 4.x, and
     introduced many new features for IDLWAVE versions 5.x and 6.x.

The following people have also contributed to the development of IDLWAVE
with patches, ideas, bug reports and suggestions.

   - Ulrik Dickow <>

   - Eric E. Dors <>

   - Stein Vidar H. Haugan <>

   - David Huenemoerder <>

   - Kevin Ivory <>

   - Dick Jackson <>

   - Xuyong Liu <>

   - Simon Marshall <>

   - Craig Markwardt <>

   - Laurent Mugnier <>

   - Lubos Pochman <>

   - Bob Portmann <>

   - Patrick M. Ryan <>

   - Marty Ryba <>

   - Phil Williams <>

   - Phil Sterne <>

   - Paul Sorenson <>

   Doug Dirks was instrumental in providing the crucial IDL XML catalog
to support HTML help with IDL v6.2 and later, and Ali Bahrami provided
scripts and documentation to interface with the IDL Assistant.

Thanks to everyone!

File: idlwave,  Node: Sources of Routine Info,  Next: HTML Help Browser Tips,  Prev: Acknowledgements,  Up: Top

Appendix A Sources of Routine Info

In *note Routine Info:: and *note Completion:: we showed how IDLWAVE
displays the calling sequence and keywords of routines, and completes
routine names and keywords.  For these features to work, IDLWAVE must
know about the accessible routines.

* Menu:

* Routine Definitions::         Where IDL Routines are defined.
* Routine Information Sources::  So how does IDLWAVE know about...
* Catalogs::
* Load-Path Shadows::           Routines defined in several places
* Documentation Scan::          Scanning the IDL Manuals

File: idlwave,  Node: Routine Definitions,  Next: Routine Information Sources,  Prev: Sources of Routine Info,  Up: Sources of Routine Info

A.1 Routine Definitions

Routines which can be used in an IDL program can be defined in several

  1. _Builtin routines_ are defined inside IDL itself.  The source code
     of such routines is not available, but instead are learned about
     through the IDL documentation.

  2. Routines which are _part of the current program_, are defined in a
     file explicitly compiled by the user.  This file may or may not be
     located on the IDL search path.

  3. _Library routines_ are defined in files located on IDL's search
     path.  When a library routine is called for the first time, IDL
     will find the source file and compile it dynamically.  A special
     sub-category of library routines are the _system routines_
     distributed with IDL, and usually available in the `lib'
     subdirectory of the IDL distribution.

  4. External routines written in other languages (like Fortran or C)
     can be called with `CALL_EXTERNAL', linked into IDL via
     `LINKIMAGE', or included as dynamically loaded modules (DLMs).
     Currently IDLWAVE cannot provide routine info and completion for
     such external routines, except by querying the Shell for calling
     information (DLMs only).

File: idlwave,  Node: Routine Information Sources,  Next: Catalogs,  Prev: Routine Definitions,  Up: Sources of Routine Info

A.2 Routine Information Sources

To maintain the most comprehensive information about all IDL routines
on a system, IDLWAVE collects data from many sources:

  1. It has a _builtin list_ with information about the routines IDL
     ships with.  IDLWAVE 6.1 is distributed with a list of 4346
     routines and object methods, reflecting IDL version 6.3.  As of
     IDL v6.2, the routine info is distributed directly with IDL in the
     form of an XML catalog which IDLWAVE scans.  Formerly, this list
     was created by scanning the IDL manuals to produce the file

  2. IDLWAVE _scans_ all its _buffers_ in the current Emacs session for
     routine definitions.  This is done automatically when routine
     information or completion is first requested by the user.  Each new
     buffer and each buffer saved after making changes is also scanned.
     The command `C-c C-i' (`idlwave-update-routine-info') can be used
     at any time to rescan all buffers.

  3. If you have an IDLWAVE-Shell running in the Emacs session, IDLWAVE
     will _query the shell_ for compiled routines and their arguments.
     This happens automatically when routine information or completion
     is first requested by the user.  Each time an Emacs buffer is
     compiled with `C-c C-d C-c', the routine info for that file is
     queried.  Though rarely necessary, the command `C-c C-i'
     (`idlwave-update-routine-info') can be used to explicitly update
     the shell routine data.

  4. Many popular libraries are distributed with routine information
     already scanned into _library catalogs_ (*note Library
     Catalogs::).  These per-directory catalog files can also be built
     by the user with the supplied `idlwave_catalog' tool.  They are
     automatically discovered by IDLWAVE.

  5. IDLWAVE can scan selected directories of source files and store the
     result in a single _user catalog_ file which will be automatically
     loaded just like `idlw-rinfo.el'. *Note User Catalog::, for
     information on how to scan files in this way.

   Loading all the routine and catalog information can be a time
consuming process, especially over slow networks.  Depending on the
system and network configuration it could take up to 30 seconds (though
locally on fast systems is usually only a few seconds).  In order to
minimize the wait time upon your first completion or routine info
command in a session, IDLWAVE uses Emacs idle time to do the
initialization in six steps, yielding to user input in between.  If
this gets into your way, set the variable
`idlwave-init-rinfo-when-idle-after' to 0 (zero).  The more routines
documented in library and user catalogs, the slower the loading will
be, so reducing this number can help alleviate any long load times.

 -- User Option: idlwave-init-rinfo-when-idle-after (`10')
     Seconds of idle time before routine info is automatically

 -- User Option: idlwave-scan-all-buffers-for-routine-info (`t')
     Non-`nil' means scan all buffers for IDL programs when updating

 -- User Option: idlwave-query-shell-for-routine-info (`t')
     Non-`nil' means query the shell for info about compiled routines.

 -- User Option: idlwave-auto-routine-info-updates
     Controls under what circumstances routine info is updated

File: idlwave,  Node: Catalogs,  Next: Load-Path Shadows,  Prev: Routine Information Sources,  Up: Sources of Routine Info

A.3 Catalogs

_Catalogs_ are files containing scanned information on individual
routines, including arguments and keywords, calling sequence, file path,
class and procedure vs. function type, etc.  They represent a way of
extending the internal built-in information available for IDL system
routines (*note Routine Info::) to other source collections.

   Starting with version 5.0, there are two types of catalogs available
with IDLWAVE.  The traditional _user catalog_ and the newer _library
catalogs_.  Although they can be used interchangeably, the library
catalogs are more flexible, and preferred.  There are few occasions
when a user catalog might be preferred -- read below.  Both types of
catalogs can coexist without causing problems.

   To facilitate the catalog systems, IDLWAVE stores information it
gathers from the shell about the IDL search paths, and can write this
information out automatically, or on-demand (menu `Debug->Save Path
Info').  On systems with no shell from which to discover the path
information (e.g. Windows), a library path must be specified in
`idlwave-library-path' to allow library catalogs to be located, and to
setup directories for user catalog scan (*note User Catalog:: for more
on this variable).  Note that, before the shell is running, IDLWAVE can
only know about the IDL search path by consulting the file pointed to
by `idlwave-path-file' (`~/.idlwave/idlpath.el', by default).  If
`idlwave-auto-write-path' is enabled (which is the default), the paths
are written out whenever the IDLWAVE shell is started.

 -- User Option: idlwave-auto-write-path (`t')
     Write out information on the !PATH and !DIR paths from IDL
     automatically when they change and when the Shell is closed.
     These paths are needed to locate library catalogs.

 -- User Option: idlwave-library-path
     IDL library path for Windows and MacOS.  Under Unix/MacOSX, will be
     obtained from the Shell when run.

 -- User Option: idlwave-system-directory
     The IDL system directory for Windows and MacOS.  Also needed for
     locating HTML help and the IDL Assistant for IDL v6.2 and later.
     Under Unix/MacOSX, will be obtained from the Shell and recorded,
     if run.

 -- User Option: idlwave-config-directory (`~/.idlwave')
     Default path where IDLWAVE saves configuration information, a user
     catalog (if any), and a cached scan of the XML catalog (IDL v6.2
     and later).

* Menu:

* Library Catalogs::
* User Catalog::

File: idlwave,  Node: Library Catalogs,  Next: User Catalog,  Prev: Catalogs,  Up: Catalogs

A.3.1 Library Catalogs

Library catalogs consist of files named `.idlwave_catalog' stored in
directories containing `.pro' routine files.  They are discovered on
the IDL search path and loaded automatically when routine information
is read.  Each catalog file documents the routines found in that
directory -- one catalog per directory.  Every catalog has a library
name associated with it (e.g. _AstroLib_).  This name will be shown
briefly when the catalog is found, and in the routine info of routines
it documents.

   Many popular libraries of routines are shipped with IDLWAVE catalog
files by default, and so will be automatically discovered.  Library
catalogs are scanned externally to Emacs using a tool provided with
IDLWAVE.  Each catalog can be re-scanned independently of any other.
Catalogs can easily be made available system-wide with a common source
repository, providing uniform routine information, and lifting the
burden of scanning from the user (who may not even know they're using a
scanned catalog).  Since all catalogs are independent, they can be
re-scanned automatically to gather updates, e.g. in a `cron' job.
Scanning is much faster than with the built-in user catalog method.  One
minor disadvantage: the entire IDL search path is scanned for catalog
files every time IDLWAVE starts up, which might be slow if accessing IDL
routines over a slow network.

   A Perl tool to create library catalogs is distributed with IDLWAVE:
`idlwave_catalog'.  It can be called quite simply:
     idlwave_catalog MyLib

This will scan all directories recursively beneath the current and
populate them with `.idlwave_catalog' files, tagging the routines found
there with the name library "MyLib".  The full usage information:

     Usage: idlwave_catalog  [-l] [-v] [-d] [-s] [-f] [-h] libname
            libname - Unique name of the catalog (4 or more alphanumeric
                 -l - Scan local directory only, otherwise recursively
                      catalog all directories at or beneath this one.
                 -v - Print verbose information.
                 -d - Instead of scanning, delete all .idlwave_catalog files
                      here or below.
                 -s - Be silent.
                 -f - Force overwriting any catalogs found with a different
                      library name.
                 -h - Print this usage.

   To re-load the library catalogs on the IDL path, force a system
routine info update using a single prefix to
`idlwave-update-routine-info': `C-u C-c C-i'.

 -- User Option: idlwave-use-library-catalogs (`t')
     Whether to search for and load library catalogs.  Disable if load
     performance is a problem and/or the catalogs are not needed.

File: idlwave,  Node: User Catalog,  Prev: Library Catalogs,  Up: Catalogs

A.3.2 User Catalog

The user catalog is the old routine catalog system.  It is produced
within Emacs, and stored in a single file in the user's home directory
(`.idlwave/idlusercat.el' by default).  Although library catalogs are
more flexible, there may be reasons to prefer a user catalog instead,

   * The scan is internal to Emacs, so you don't need a working Perl
     installation, as you do for library catalogs.

   * Can be used to scan directories for which the user has no write

   * Easy widget-based path selection.

   However, no routine info is available in the user catalog by default;
the user must actively complete a scan.  In addition, this type of
catalog is all or nothing: if a single routine changes, the entire
catalog must be rescanned to update it.  Creating the user catalog is
also much slower than scanning library catalogs.

   You can scan any of the directories on the currently known path.
Under Windows and MacOS (not OSX), you need to specify the IDL search
path in the variable `idlwave-library-path', and the location of the IDL
directory (the value of the `!DIR' system variable) in the variable
`idlwave-system-directory', like this(1):

     (setq idlwave-library-path
             '("+c:/RSI/IDL56/lib/" "+c:/user/me/idllibs"))
     (setq idlwave-system-directory "c:/RSI/IDL56/")

Under GNU/Linux and UNIX, these values will be automatically gathered
from the IDLWAVE shell, if run.

   The command `M-x idlwave-create-user-catalog-file' (or the menu item
`IDLWAVE->Routine Info->Select Catalog Directories') can then be used
to create a user catalog.  It brings up a widget in which you can
select some or all directories on the search path.  Directories which
already contain a library catalog are marked with `[LIB]', and need not
be scanned (although there is no harm if you do so, other than the
additional memory used for the duplication).

   After selecting directories, click on the `[Scan & Save]' button in
the widget to scan all files in the selected directories and write out
the resulting routine information.  In order to update the library
information using the directory selection, call the command
`idlwave-update-routine-info' with a double prefix argument:
`C-u C-u C-c C-i'.  This will rescan files in the previously selected
directories, write an updated version of the user catalog file and
rebuild IDLWAVE's internal lists.  If you give three prefix arguments
`C-u C-u C-u C-c C-i', updating will be done with a background job(2).
You can continue to work, and the library catalog will be re-read when
it is ready.  If you find you need to update the user catalog often,
you should consider building a library catalog for your routines
instead (*note Library Catalogs::).

 -- User Option: idlwave-special-lib-alist
     Alist of regular expressions matching special library directories
     for labeling in routine-info display.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The initial `+' leads to recursive expansion of the path, just
like in IDL

   (2) Unix systems only, I think.

File: idlwave,  Node: Load-Path Shadows,  Next: Documentation Scan,  Prev: Catalogs,  Up: Sources of Routine Info

A.4 Load-Path Shadows

IDLWAVE can compile a list of routines which are (re-)defined in more
than one file.  Since one definition will hide (shadow) the others
depending on which file is compiled first, such multiple definitions are
called "load-path shadows".  IDLWAVE has several routines to scan for
load path shadows.  The output is placed into the special buffer
`*Shadows*'.  The format of the output is identical to the source
section of the routine info buffer (*note Routine Info::).  The
different definitions of a routine are ordered by _likelihood of use_.
So the first entry will be most likely the one you'll get if an
unsuspecting command uses that routine.  Before listing shadows, you
should make sure that routine info is up-to-date by pressing `C-c C-i'.
Here are the different routines (also available in the Menu
`IDLWAVE->Routine Info'):

`M-x idlwave-list-buffer-load-path-shadows'
     This commands checks the names of all routines defined in the
     current buffer for shadowing conflicts with other routines
     accessible to IDLWAVE.  The command also has a key binding: `C-c

`M-x idlwave-list-shell-load-path-shadows'.
     Checks all routines compiled under the shell for shadowing.  This
     is very useful when you have written a complete application.  Just
     compile the application, use `RESOLVE_ALL' to compile any routines
     used by your code, update the routine info inside IDLWAVE with
     `C-c C-i' and then check for shadowing.

`M-x idlwave-list-all-load-path-shadows'
     This command checks all routines accessible to IDLWAVE for

   For these commands to work fully you need to scan the entire load
path in either a user or library catalog.  Also, IDLWAVE should be able
to distinguish between the system library files (normally installed in
`/usr/local/rsi/idl/lib') and any site specific or user specific files.
Therefore, such local files should not be installed inside the `lib'
directory of the IDL directory.  This is also advisable for many other

   Users of Windows and MacOS (not X) also must set the variable
`idlwave-system-directory' to the value of the `!DIR' system variable
in IDL.  IDLWAVE appends `lib' to the value of this variable and
assumes that all files found on that path are system routines.

   Another way to find out if a specific routine has multiple
definitions on the load path is routine info display (*note Routine

File: idlwave,  Node: Documentation Scan,  Prev: Load-Path Shadows,  Up: Sources of Routine Info

A.5 Documentation Scan

*Starting with version 6.2, IDL is distributed directly with HTML
online help, and an XML-based catalog of routine information*.  This
makes scanning the manuals with the tool `get_html_rinfo', and the
`idlw-rinfo.el' file it produced, as described here, entirely
unnecessary.  The information is left here for users wishing to produce
a catalog of older IDL versions' help.

   IDLWAVE derives its knowledge about system routines from the IDL
manuals.  The file `idlw-rinfo.el' contains the routine information for
the IDL system routines, and links to relevant sections of the HTML
documentation.  The Online Help feature of IDLWAVE requires HTML
versions of the IDL manuals to be available; the HTML documentation is
not distributed with IDLWAVE by default, but must be downloaded

   The HTML files and related images can be produced from the `idl.chm'
HTMLHelp file distributed with IDL using the free Microsoft HTML Help
Workshop.  If you are lucky, the maintainer of IDLWAVE will always have
access to the newest version of IDL and provide updates.  The IDLWAVE
distribution also contains the Perl program `get_html_rinfo' which
constructs the `idlw-rinfo.el' file by scanning the HTML documents
produced from the IDL documentation.  Instructions on how to use
`get_html_rinfo' are in the program itself.

File: idlwave,  Node: HTML Help Browser Tips,  Next: Configuration Examples,  Prev: Sources of Routine Info,  Up: Top

Appendix B HTML Help Browser Tips

There are a wide variety of possible browsers to use for displaying the
online HTML help available with IDLWAVE (starting with version 5.0).
Since IDL v6.2, a single cross-platform HTML help browser, the _IDL
Assistant_ is distributed with IDL.  If this help browser is available,
it is the preferred choice, and the default.  The variable
`idlwave-help-use-assistant', enabled by default, controls whether this
help browser is used.  If you use the IDL Assistant, the tips here are
not relevant.

   Since IDLWAVE runs on a many different system types, a single browser
configuration is not possible, but choices abound.  On many systems,
the default browser configured in `browse-url-browser-function', and
hence inherited by default by `idlwave-help-browser-function', is
Netscape.  Unfortunately, the HTML manuals decompiled from the original
source contain formatting structures which Netscape 4.x does not handle
well, though they are still readable.  A much better choice is Mozilla,
or one of the Mozilla-derived browsers such as Galeon
( (GNU/Linux), Camino
( (MacOSX), or Firebird
( (all platforms).  Newer
versions of Emacs provide a browser-function choice
`browse-url-gnome-moz' which uses the Gnome-configured browser.

   Note that the HTML files decompiled from the help sources contain
specific references to the `Symbol' font, which by default is not
permitted in normal encodings (it's invalid, technically).  Though it
only impacts a few symbols, you can trick Mozilla-based browsers into
recognizing `Symbol' by following the directions here
(  With this fix in
place, HTML help pages look almost identical to their PDF equivalents
(yet can be bookmarked, browsed as history, searched, etc.).

Individual platform recommendations:

   * Unix/MacOSX: The `w3m' ( browser and its
     associated `emacs-w3m' ( emacs mode
     provide in-buffer browsing with image display, and excellent speed
     and formatting.  Both the Emacs mode and the browser itself must be
     downloaded separately.  To use this browser, include

          (setq idlwave-help-browser-function 'w3m-browse-url)

     in your `.emacs'.  Setting a few other nice `w3m' options cuts
     down on screen clutter:

          (setq w3m-use-tab nil
                w3m-use-header-line nil
                w3m-use-toolbar nil)

     If you use a dedicated frame for help, you might want to add the
     following, to get consistent behavior with the `q' key:

          ;; Close my help window when w3m closes.
          (defadvice w3m-close-window (after idlwave-close activate)
            (if (boundp 'idlwave-help-frame)

     Note that you can open the file in an external browser from within
     `w3m' using `M'.

File: idlwave,  Node: Configuration Examples,  Next: Windows and MacOS,  Prev: HTML Help Browser Tips,  Up: Top

Appendix C Configuration Examples

Question: You have all these complicated configuration options in your
package, but which ones do _you_ as the maintainer actually set in your
own configuration?

Answer: Not many, beyond custom key bindings.  I set most defaults the
way that seems best.  However, the default settings do not turn on
features which:

   - are not self-evident (i.e. too magic) when used by an unsuspecting

   - are too intrusive.

   - will not work properly on all Emacs installations.

   - break with widely used standards.

   - use function or other non-standard keys.

   - are purely personal customizations, like additional key bindings,
     and library names.

To see what I mean, here is the _entire_ configuration the old
maintainer had in his `.emacs':

     (setq idlwave-shell-debug-modifiers '(control shift)
           idlwave-store-inquired-class t
           idlwave-shell-automatic-start t
           idlwave-main-block-indent 2
           idlwave-init-rinfo-when-idle-after 2
           idlwave-help-dir "~/lib/emacs/idlwave"
           idlwave-special-lib-alist '(("/idl-astro/" . "AstroLib")
                                       ("/jhuapl/" . "JHUAPL-Lib")
                                       ("/dominik/lib/idl/" . "MyLib")))

   However, if you are an Emacs power-user and want IDLWAVE to work
completely differently, you can change almost every aspect of it.  Here
is an example of a much more extensive configuration of IDLWAVE.  The
user is King!

     ;;; Settings for IDLWAVE mode

     (setq idlwave-block-indent 3)           ; Indentation settings
     (setq idlwave-main-block-indent 3)
     (setq idlwave-end-offset -3)
     (setq idlwave-continuation-indent 1)
     (setq idlwave-begin-line-comment "^;[^;]")  ; Leave ";" but not ";;"
                                                 ; anchored at start of line.
     (setq idlwave-surround-by-blank t)      ; Turn on padding ops =,<,>
     (setq idlwave-pad-keyword nil)          ; Remove spaces for keyword '='
     (setq idlwave-expand-generic-end t)     ; convert END to ENDIF etc...
     (setq idlwave-reserved-word-upcase t)   ; Make reserved words upper case
                                             ; (with abbrevs only)
     (setq idlwave-abbrev-change-case nil)   ; Don't force case of expansions
     (setq idlwave-hang-indent-regexp ": ")  ; Change from "- " for auto-fill
     (setq idlwave-show-block nil)           ; Turn off blinking to begin
     (setq idlwave-abbrev-move t)            ; Allow abbrevs to move point
     (setq idlwave-query-class '((method-default . nil) ; No query for method
                                 (keyword-default . nil); or keyword completion
                                 ("INIT" . t)           ; except for these
                                 ("CLEANUP" . t)
                                 ("SETPROPERTY" .t)
                                 ("GETPROPERTY" .t)))

     ;; Using w3m for help (must install w3m and emacs-w3m)
     (autoload 'w3m-browse-url "w3m" "Interface for w3m on Emacs." t)
     (setq idlwave-help-browser-function 'w3m-browse-url
           w3m-use-tab nil ; no tabs, location line, or toolbar
           w3m-use-header-line nil
           w3m-use-toolbar nil)

     ;; Close my help window or frame when w3m closes with `q'
     (defadvice w3m-close-window (after idlwave-close activate)
       (if (boundp 'idlwave-help-frame)

     ;; Some setting can only be done from a mode hook.  Here is an example:
     (add-hook 'idlwave-mode-hook
       (lambda ()
         (setq case-fold-search nil)          ; Make searches case sensitive
         ;; Run other functions here
         (font-lock-mode 1)                   ; Turn on font-lock mode
         (idlwave-auto-fill-mode 0)           ; Turn off auto filling
         (setq idlwave-help-browser-function 'browse-url-w3)

         ;; Pad with 1 space (if -n is used then make the
         ;; padding a minimum of n spaces.)  The defaults use -1
         ;; instead of 1.
         (idlwave-action-and-binding "=" '(idlwave-expand-equal 1 1))
         (idlwave-action-and-binding "<" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))
         (idlwave-action-and-binding ">" '(idlwave-surround 1 1 '(?-)))
         (idlwave-action-and-binding "&" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))

         ;; Only pad after comma and with exactly 1 space
         (idlwave-action-and-binding "," '(idlwave-surround nil 1))
         (idlwave-action-and-binding "&" '(idlwave-surround 1 1))

         ;; Pad only after `->', remove any space before the arrow
         (idlwave-action-and-binding "->"  '(idlwave-surround 0 -1 nil 2))

         ;; Set some personal bindings
         ;; (In this case, makes `,' have the normal self-insert behavior.)
         (local-set-key "," 'self-insert-command)
         (local-set-key [f5] 'idlwave-shell-break-here)
         (local-set-key [f6] 'idlwave-shell-clear-current-bp)

         ;; Create a newline, indenting the original and new line.
         ;; A similar function that does _not_ reindent the original
         ;; line is on "\C-j" (The default for emacs programming modes).
         (local-set-key "\n" 'idlwave-newline)
         ;; (local-set-key "\C-j" 'idlwave-newline) ; My preference.

         ;; Some personal abbreviations
         (define-abbrev idlwave-mode-abbrev-table
           (concat idlwave-abbrev-start-char "wb") "widget_base()"
           (idlwave-keyword-abbrev 1))
         (define-abbrev idlwave-mode-abbrev-table
           (concat idlwave-abbrev-start-char "on") "obj_new()"
           (idlwave-keyword-abbrev 1))

     ;;; Settings for IDLWAVE SHELL mode

     (setq idlwave-shell-overlay-arrow "=>")        ; default is ">"
     (setq idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame t)     ; Make a dedicated frame
     (setq idlwave-shell-prompt-pattern "^WAVE> ")  ; default is "^IDL> "
     (setq idlwave-shell-explicit-file-name "wave")
     (setq idlwave-shell-process-name "wave")
     (setq idlwave-shell-use-toolbar nil)           ; No toolbar

     ;; Most shell interaction settings can be done from the shell-mode-hook.
     (add-hook 'idlwave-shell-mode-hook
               (lambda ()
                 ;; Set up some custom key and mouse examine commands
                 (idlwave-shell-define-key-both [s-down-mouse-2]
                                       "print, size(___,/DIMENSIONS)"))
                 (idlwave-shell-define-key-both [f9] (idlwave-shell-examine
                                            "print, size(___,/DIMENSIONS)"))
                 (idlwave-shell-define-key-both [f10] (idlwave-shell-examine
                 (idlwave-shell-define-key-both [f11] (idlwave-shell-examine

File: idlwave,  Node: Windows and MacOS,  Next: Troubleshooting,  Prev: Configuration Examples,  Up: Top

Appendix D Windows and MacOS

IDLWAVE was developed on a UNIX system.  However, thanks to the
portability of Emacs, much of IDLWAVE does also work under different
operating systems like Windows (with NTEmacs or NTXEmacs) or MacOS.

   The only real problem is that there is no command-line version of IDL
for Windows or MacOS(<=9) with which IDLWAVE can interact.  As a
result, the IDLWAVE Shell does not work and you have to rely on IDLDE
to run and debug your programs.  However, editing IDL source files with
Emacs/IDLWAVE works with all bells and whistles, including routine
info, completion and fast online help.  Only a small amount of
additional information must be specified in your `.emacs' file: the
path names which, on a UNIX system, are automatically gathered by
talking to the IDL program.

   Here is an example of the additional configuration needed for a
Windows system.  I am assuming that IDLWAVE has been installed in
`C:\Program Files\IDLWAVE' and that IDL is installed in `C:\RSI\IDL63'.

     ;; location of the lisp files (only needed if IDLWAVE is not part of
     ;; your default X/Emacs installation)
     (setq load-path (cons "c:/program files/IDLWAVE" load-path))

     ;; The location of the IDL library directories, both standard,  and your own.
     ;; note that the initial "+" expands the path recursively
     (setq idlwave-library-path
             '("+c:/RSI/IDL63/lib/" "+c:/path/to/my/idllibs" ))

     ;; location of the IDL system directory (try "print,!DIR")
     (setq idlwave-system-directory "c:/RSI/IDL63/")

Furthermore, Windows sometimes tries to outsmart you -- make sure you
check the following things:

   * When you download the IDLWAVE distribution, make sure you save the
     file under the names `idlwave.tar.gz'.

   * M-TAB switches among running programs -- use Esc-TAB instead.

   * Other issues as yet unnamed...

   Windows users who'd like to make use of IDLWAVE's context-aware HTML
help can skip the browser and use the HTMLHelp functionality directly.
*Note Help with HTML Documentation::.

File: idlwave,  Node: Troubleshooting,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Windows and MacOS,  Up: Top

Appendix E Troubleshooting

Although IDLWAVE usually installs and works without difficulty, a few
common problems and their solutions are documented below.

  1. *Whenever an IDL error occurs or a breakpoint is hit, I get errors
     or strange behavior when I try to type anything into some of my
     IDLWAVE buffers.*

     This is a _feature_, not an error.  You're in _Electric Debug
     Mode_ (*note Electric Debug Mode::).  You should see `*Debugging*'
     in the mode-line.  The buffer is read-only and all debugging and
     examination commands are available as single keystrokes; `C-?'
     lists these shortcuts.  Use `q' to quit the mode, and customize
     the variable `idlwave-shell-automatic-electric-debug' if you
     prefer not to enter electric debug on breakpoints... but you
     really should try it before you disable it!  You can also
     customize this variable to enter debug mode when errors are

  2. *I get errors like `Searching for program: no such file or
     directory, idl' when attempting to start the IDL shell.*

     IDLWAVE needs to know where IDL is in order to run it as a process.
     By default, it attempts to invoke it simply as `idl', which
     presumes such an executable is on your search path.  You need to
     ensure `idl' is on your `$PATH', or specify the full pathname to
     the idl program with the variable
     `idlwave-shell-explicit-file-name'.  Note that you may need to set
     your shell search path in two places when running Emacs as an Aqua
     application with MacOSX; see the next topic.

  3. *IDLWAVE is disregarding my `IDL_PATH' which I set under MacOSX*

     If you run Emacs directly as an Aqua application, rather than from
     the console shell, the environment is set not from your usual shell
     configuration files (e.g. `.cshrc'), but from the file
     `~/.MacOSX/environment.plist'.  Either include your path settings
     there, or start Emacs and IDLWAVE from the shell.

  4. *I get errors like `Symbol's function is void: overlayp'*

     You don't have the `fsf-compat' package installed, which IDLWAVE
     needs to run under XEmacs.  Install it, or find an XEmacs
     distribution which includes it by default.

  5. *I'm getting errors like `Symbol's value as variable is void:
     cl-builtin-gethash' on completion or routine info.*

     This error arises if you upgraded Emacs from 20.x to 21.x without
     re-installing IDLWAVE.  Old Emacs and new Emacs are not
     byte-compatible in compiled lisp files.  Presumably, you kept the
     original .elc files in place, and this is the source of the error.
     If you recompile (or just "make; make install") from source, it
     should resolve this problem.  Another option is to recompile the
     `idlw*.el' files by hand using `M-x byte-compile-file'.

  6. *`M-<TAB>' doesn't complete words, it switches windows on my

     Your system is trapping `M-<TAB>' and using it for its own
     nefarious purposes: Emacs never sees the keystrokes.  On many Unix
     systems, you can reconfigure your window manager to use another key
     sequence for switching among windows.  Another option is to use the
     equivalent sequence `<ESC>-<TAB>'.

  7. *When stopping at breakpoints or errors, IDLWAVE does not seem to
     highlight the relevant line in the source.*

     IDLWAVE scans for error and halt messages and highlights the stop
     location in the correct file.  However, if you've changed the
     system variable `!ERROR_STATE.MSG_PREFIX', it is unable to parse
     these message correctly.  Don't do that.

  8. *IDLWAVE doesn't work correctly when using ENVI.*

     Though IDLWAVE was not written with ENVI in mind, it works just
     fine with it, as long as you update the prompt it's looking for
     (`IDL> ' by default).  You can do this with the variable
     `idlwave-shell-prompt-pattern' (*note Starting the Shell::), e.g.,
     in your `.emacs':

          (setq idlwave-shell-prompt-pattern "^\r? ?\\(ENVI\\|IDL\\)> ")

  9. *Attempts to set breakpoints fail: no breakpoint is indicated in
     the IDLWAVE buffer.*

     IDL changed its breakpoint reporting format starting with IDLv5.5.
     The first version of IDLWAVE to support the new format is IDLWAVE
     v4.10.  If you have an older version and are using IDL >v5.5, you
     need to upgrade, and/or make sure your recent version of IDLWAVE
     is being found on the Emacs load-path (see the next entry).  You
     can list the version being used with `C-h v idlwave-mode-version

 10. *I installed a new version of IDLWAVE, but the old version is
     still being used* or *IDLWAVE works, but when I tried to install
     the optional modules `idlw-roprompt.el' or
     `idlw-complete-structtag', I get errors like `Cannot open load

     The problem is that your Emacs is not finding the version of
     IDLWAVE you installed.  Many Emacsen come with an older bundled
     copy of IDLWAVE (e.g. v4.7 for Emacs 21.x), which is likely what's
     being used instead.  You need to make sure your Emacs _load-path_
     contains the directory where IDLWAVE is installed
     (`/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp', by default), _before_ Emacs'
     default search directories.  You can accomplish this by putting
     the following in your `.emacs':

          (setq load-path (cons "/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp" load-path))

     You can check on your load-path value using `C-h v load-path
     <RET>', and `C-h m' in an IDLWAVE buffer should show you the
     version Emacs is using.

 11. *IDLWAVE is screwing up the formatting of my `.idl' files.*

     Actually, this isn't IDLWAVE at all, but `idl-mode', an unrelated
     programming mode for CORBA's Interface Definition Language (you
     should see `(IDL)', not `(IDLWAVE)' in the mode-line).  One
     solution: don't name your file `.idl', but rather `.pro'.  Another
     solution: make sure `.idl' files load IDLWAVE instead of
     `idl-mode' by adding the following to your `.emacs':

          (setcdr (rassoc 'idl-mode auto-mode-alist) 'idlwave-mode)

 12. *The routine info for my local routines is out of date!*

     IDLWAVE collects routine info from various locations (*note
     Routine Information Sources::).  Routines in files visited in a
     buffer or compiled in the shell should be up to date.  For other
     routines, the information is only as current as the most recent
     scan.  If you have a rapidly changing set of routines, and you'd
     like the latest routine information to be available for it, one
     powerful technique is to make use of the library catalog tool,
     `idlwave_catalog'.  Simply add a line to your `cron' file
     (`crontab -e' will let you edit this on some systems), like this

          45 3 * * 1-5 (cd /path/to/myidllib; /path/to/idlwave_catalog MyLib)

     where `MyLib' is the name of your library.  This will rescan all
     `.pro' files at or below `/path/to/myidllib' every week night at
     3:45am.  You can even scan site-wide libraries with this method,
     and the most recent information will be available to all users.
     Since the scanning is very fast, there is very little impact.

 13. *All the Greek-font characters in the HTML help are displayed as
     Latin characters!*

     Unfortunately, the HTMLHelp files RSI provides attempt to switch to
     `Symbol' font to display Greek characters, which is not really an
     permitted method for doing this in HTML.  There is a "workaround"
     for some browsers: *Note HTML Help Browser Tips::.

 14. *In the shell, my long commands are truncated at 256 characters!*

     This actually happens when running IDL in an XTerm as well.  There
     are a couple of workarounds: `define_key,/control,'^d'' (e.g. in
     your `$IDL_STARTUP' file) will disable the `EOF' character and
     give you a 512 character limit.  You won't be able to use <C-d> to
     quit the shell, however.  Another possibility is `!EDIT_INPUT=0',
     which gives you an _infinite_ limit (OK, a memory-bounded limit),
     but disables the processing of background widget events (those
     with `/NO_BLOCK' passed to `XManager').

 15. *When I invoke IDL HTML help on a routine, the page which is
     loaded is one page off, e.g. for `CONVERT_COORD', I get `CONTOUR'.*

     You have a mismatch between your help index and the HTML help
     package you downloaded.  You need to ensure you download a
     "downgrade kit" if you are using anything older than the latest
     HTML help package.  A new help package appears with each IDL
     release (assuming the documentation is updated).  Starting with
     IDL 6.2, the HTML help and its catalog are distributed with IDL,
     and so should never be inconsistent.

 16. *I get errors such as `void-variable browse-url-browser-function'
     or similar when attempting to load IDLWAVE under XEmacs.*

     You don't have the `browse-url' (or other required) XEmacs package.
     Unlike GNU Emacs, XEmacs distributes many packages separately from
     the main program.  IDLWAVE is actually among these, but is not
     always the most up to date.  When installing IDLWAVE as an XEmacs
     package, it should prompt you for required additional packages.
     When installing it from source, it won't and you'll get this
     error.  The easiest solution is to install all the packages when
     you install XEmacs (the so-called `sumo' bundle).  The minimum set
     of XEmacs packages required by IDLWAVE is `fsf-compat,
     xemacs-base, mail-lib'.

File: idlwave,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Index,  Prev: Troubleshooting,  Up: Top

Appendix F GNU Free Documentation License

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


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     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
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     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
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       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
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ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

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the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
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       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
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   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

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File: idlwave,  Node: Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top


* Menu:

* !DIR, IDL variable <1>:                Load-Path Shadows.   (line  45)
* !DIR, IDL variable <2>:                User Catalog.        (line   6)
* !DIR, IDL variable:                    Routine Info.        (line  50)
* !PATH, IDL variable <1>:               Routine Definitions. (line   6)
* !PATH, IDL variable:                   Routine Info.        (line  50)
* *Debugging*:                           Electric Debug Mode. (line   6)
* ->:                                    Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  27)
* .emacs:                                Configuration Examples.
                                                              (line   6)
* .idlwave_catalog:                      Library Catalogs.    (line   6)
* Abbreviations:                         Abbreviations.       (line   6)
* Acknowledgements:                      Acknowledgements.    (line   6)
* Actions:                               Actions.             (line   6)
* Actions, applied to foreign code:      Actions.             (line  26)
* Active text, in routine info:          Routine Info.        (line  89)
* Application, testing for shadowing:    Load-Path Shadows.   (line   6)
* Authors, of IDLWAVE:                   Acknowledgements.    (line   6)
* auto-fill-mode:                        Continuation Lines.  (line  14)
* Block boundary check:                  Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line   6)
* Block, closing:                        Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line   6)
* Breakpoints:                           Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line   6)
* Browser Tips:                          HTML Help Browser Tips.
                                                              (line   6)
* Buffer, testing for shadowing:         Load-Path Shadows.   (line   6)
* Buffers, killing:                      Routine Source.      (line  17)
* Buffers, scanning for routine info <1>: Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line   6)
* Buffers, scanning for routine info:    Routine Info.        (line   6)
* Builtin list of routines:              Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-c ?:                                 Routine Info.        (line  21)
* C-c C-d:                               Debug Key Bindings.  (line   6)
* C-c C-d C-b:                           Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-c C-d C-c:                           Compiling Programs.  (line   6)
* C-c C-d C-e:                           Compiling Programs.  (line  23)
* C-c C-d C-p:                           Examining Variables. (line   6)
* C-c C-h:                               Doc Header.          (line   6)
* C-c C-i <1>:                           Completion.          (line   6)
* C-c C-i:                               Routine Info.        (line   6)
* C-c C-m:                               Doc Header.          (line   6)
* C-c C-s:                               Starting the Shell.  (line   6)
* C-c C-v:                               Routine Source.      (line   6)
* C-M-\:                                 Code Indentation.    (line  12)
* CALL_EXTERNAL, IDL routine:            Routine Definitions. (line   6)
* Calling sequences:                     Routine Info.        (line  42)
* Calling stack, walking:                Walking the Calling Stack.
                                                              (line   6)
* Cancelling completion:                 Completion.          (line  55)
* Case changes:                          Case Changes.        (line   6)
* Case of completed words:               Case of Completed Words.
                                                              (line   6)
* Catalogs:                              Catalogs.            (line   6)
* Categories, of routines:               Routine Info.        (line  50)
* cc-mode.el:                            Introduction.        (line   6)
* Changelog, in doc header.:             Doc Header.          (line   6)
* Character input mode (Shell):          Using the Shell.     (line  66)
* Class ambiguity:                       Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line   6)
* Class name completion:                 Completion.          (line   6)
* Class query, forcing:                  Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  19)
* Class tags, in online help:            Help with Source.    (line  16)
* Closing a block:                       Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line   6)
* Code formatting:                       Code Formatting.     (line   6)
* Code indentation:                      Code Indentation.    (line   6)
* Code structure, moving through:        Motion Commands.     (line   6)
* Code templates:                        Code Templates.      (line   6)
* Coding standards, enforcing:           Actions.             (line   6)
* Comint:                                Using the Shell.     (line   6)
* Comint, Emacs package:                 The IDLWAVE Shell.   (line   6)
* Commands in shell, showing:            Commands Sent to the Shell.
                                                              (line   6)
* Comment indentation:                   Comment Indentation. (line   6)
* Compiling library modules:             Resolving Routines.  (line   6)
* Compiling programs:                    Compiling Programs.  (line   6)
* Compiling regions:                     Compiling Programs.  (line  23)
* Completion:                            Completion.          (line   6)
* Completion, ambiguity:                 Completion.          (line  36)
* Completion, cancelling:                Completion.          (line  55)
* Completion, forcing function name:     Completion.          (line  36)
* Completion, in the shell:              Using the Shell.     (line  36)
* Completion, Online Help:               Completion.          (line  47)
* Completion, scrolling:                 Completion.          (line  47)
* Completion, structure tag:             Structure Tag Completion.
                                                              (line   6)
* Configuration examples:                Configuration Examples.
                                                              (line   6)
* Context, for online help:              Online Help.         (line  39)
* Continuation lines:                    Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* Continued statement indentation:       Continued Statement Indentation.
                                                              (line   6)
* Contributors, to IDLWAVE:              Acknowledgements.    (line   6)
* CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture): Introduction.
                                                              (line   6)
* Custom expression examination:         Custom Expression Examination.
                                                              (line   6)
* Debugging:                             Debugging IDL Programs.
                                                              (line   6)
* Debugging Interface:                   A Tale of Two Modes. (line   6)
* Dedicated frame, for shell buffer:     Starting the Shell.  (line   6)
* Default command line, executing:       Compiling Programs.  (line   6)
* Default routine, for info and help:    Routine Info.        (line  31)
* Default settings, of options:          Configuration Examples.
                                                              (line   6)
* DocLib header:                         Doc Header.          (line   6)
* DocLib header, as online help:         Help with Source.    (line   6)
* Documentation header:                  Doc Header.          (line   6)
* Downcase, enforcing for reserved words: Case Changes.       (line   6)
* Duplicate routines <1>:                Load-Path Shadows.   (line   6)
* Duplicate routines:                    Routine Info.        (line  81)
* Electric Debug Mode <1>:               Electric Debug Mode. (line   6)
* Electric Debug Mode:                   A Tale of Two Modes. (line   6)
* Email address, of Maintainer:          Acknowledgements.    (line   6)
* END type checking:                     Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line   6)
* END, automatic insertion:              Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line   6)
* END, expanding:                        Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line   6)
* ENVI:                                  Starting the Shell.  (line  30)
* Examining expressions:                 Examining Variables. (line   6)
* Example configuration:                 Configuration Examples.
                                                              (line   6)
* Executing a default command line:      Compiling Programs.  (line   6)
* Execution, controlled:                 Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line   6)
* Expressions, custom examination:       Custom Expression Examination.
                                                              (line   6)
* Expressions, printing & help:          Examining Variables. (line   6)
* External routines:                     Routine Definitions. (line   6)
* Feature overview:                      Introduction.        (line   6)
* Filling:                               Continuation Lines.  (line  14)
* Flags, in routine info:                Routine Info.        (line  81)
* Font lock:                             Syntax Highlighting. (line   6)
* Forcing class query.:                  Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  19)
* Foreign code, adapting <1>:            Actions.             (line  26)
* Foreign code, adapting:                Code Indentation.    (line  12)
* Formatting, of code:                   Code Formatting.     (line   6)
* Frame, for shell buffer:               Starting the Shell.  (line   6)
* Func-menu, XEmacs package:             Motion Commands.     (line   6)
* Function definitions, jumping to:      Motion Commands.     (line   6)
* Function name completion:              Completion.          (line   6)
* get_html_rinfo:                        Documentation Scan.  (line   6)
* Getting Started:                       Getting Started.     (line   6)
* Hanging paragraphs <1>:                Continuation Lines.  (line  14)
* Hanging paragraphs:                    Comment Indentation. (line   6)
* Header, for file documentation:        Doc Header.          (line   6)
* Help using HTML manuals:               Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line   6)
* Help using routine source:             Help with Source.    (line   6)
* HELP, on expressions:                  Examining Variables. (line   6)
* Highlighting of syntax:                Syntax Highlighting. (line   6)
* Highlighting of syntax, Octals:        Octals and Highlighting.
                                                              (line   6)
* Hooks <1>:                             Starting the Shell.  (line  83)
* Hooks:                                 Misc Options.        (line   6)
* HTML Help:                             Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line   6)
* IDL Assistant:                         Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line   6)
* IDL library routine info:              User Catalog.        (line   6)
* IDL manual, HTML version:              Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line   6)
* IDL variable !DIR <1>:                 Load-Path Shadows.   (line  45)
* IDL variable !DIR <2>:                 User Catalog.        (line   6)
* IDL variable !DIR:                     Routine Info.        (line  50)
* IDL variable !PATH <1>:                Routine Definitions. (line   6)
* IDL variable !PATH:                    Routine Info.        (line  50)
* IDL, as Emacs subprocess:              The IDLWAVE Shell.   (line   6)
* idl-shell.el:                          Introduction.        (line   6)
* idl.el:                                Introduction.        (line   6)
* IDL> Prompt:                           Starting the Shell.  (line  30)
* idlw-help.el:                          Online Help.         (line   6)
* idlw-help.txt:                         Online Help.         (line   6)
* idlw-rinfo.el:                         Documentation Scan.  (line   6)
* IDLWAVE in a Nutshell:                 IDLWAVE in a Nutshell.
                                                              (line   6)
* IDLWAVE major mode:                    The IDLWAVE Major Mode.
                                                              (line   6)
* IDLWAVE shell:                         The IDLWAVE Shell.   (line   6)
* idlwave-abbrev-change-case:            Case Changes.        (line  29)
* idlwave-abbrev-move:                   Abbreviations.       (line 115)
* idlwave-abbrev-start-char:             Abbreviations.       (line 110)
* idlwave-auto-fill-split-string:        Continuation Lines.  (line  40)
* idlwave-auto-routine-info-updates:     Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line  68)
* idlwave-auto-write-path:               Catalogs.            (line  33)
* idlwave-begin-line-comment:            Comment Indentation. (line  23)
* idlwave-block-indent:                  Code Indentation.    (line  26)
* idlwave-class-arrow-face:              Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  52)
* idlwave-code-comment:                  Comment Indentation. (line  26)
* idlwave-complete-empty-string-as-lower-case: Case of Completed Words.
                                                              (line  33)
* idlwave-completion-case:               Case of Completed Words.
                                                              (line  23)
* idlwave-completion-fontify-classes:    Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  41)
* idlwave-completion-force-default-case: Case of Completed Words.
                                                              (line  27)
* idlwave-completion-restore-window-configuration: Completion.
                                                              (line  72)
* idlwave-completion-show-classes:       Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  37)
* idlwave-config-directory:              Catalogs.            (line  48)
* idlwave-continuation-indent:           Continued Statement Indentation.
                                                              (line  49)
* idlwave-default-font-lock-items:       Syntax Highlighting. (line  21)
* idlwave-do-actions:                    Actions.             (line  34)
* idlwave-doc-modifications-keyword:     Doc Header.          (line  24)
* idlwave-doclib-end:                    Doc Header.          (line  31)
* idlwave-doclib-start:                  Doc Header.          (line  28)
* idlwave-end-offset:                    Code Indentation.    (line  30)
* idlwave-expand-generic-end:            Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line  22)
* idlwave-extra-help-function:           Help with Source.    (line  49)
* idlwave-file-header:                   Doc Header.          (line  14)
* idlwave-fill-comment-line-only:        Continuation Lines.  (line  37)
* idlwave-function-completion-adds-paren: Completion.         (line  67)
* idlwave-hang-indent-regexp:            Continuation Lines.  (line  52)
* idlwave-hanging-indent:                Continuation Lines.  (line  47)
* idlwave-header-to-beginning-of-file:   Doc Header.          (line  17)
* idlwave-help-application:              Misc Options.        (line   7)
* idlwave-help-browser-function:         Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line  59)
* idlwave-help-browser-is-local:         Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line  64)
* idlwave-help-doclib-keyword:           Help with Source.    (line  63)
* idlwave-help-doclib-name:              Help with Source.    (line  59)
* idlwave-help-fontify-source-code:      Help with Source.    (line  52)
* idlwave-help-frame-parameters:         Help with Source.    (line  43)
* idlwave-help-link-face:                Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line  69)
* idlwave-help-source-try-header:        Help with Source.    (line  55)
* idlwave-help-use-assistant:            Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line  54)
* idlwave-help-use-dedicated-frame:      Help with Source.    (line  40)
* idlwave-highlight-help-links-in-completion: Completion.     (line  76)
* idlwave-html-help-location:            Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line  49)
* idlwave-html-system-help-location:     Help with HTML Documentation.
                                                              (line  44)
* idlwave-indent-to-open-paren:          Continued Statement Indentation.
                                                              (line  61)
* idlwave-init-rinfo-when-idle-after:    Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line  57)
* idlwave-keyword-class-inheritance:     Class and Keyword Inheritance.
                                                              (line  41)
* idlwave-keyword-completion-adds-equal: Completion.          (line  63)
* idlwave-library-path:                  Catalogs.            (line  38)
* idlwave-load-hook:                     Misc Options.        (line  17)
* idlwave-main-block-indent:             Code Indentation.    (line  21)
* idlwave-max-extra-continuation-indent: Continued Statement Indentation.
                                                              (line  52)
* idlwave-max-popup-menu-items:          Help with Source.    (line  46)
* idlwave-mode-hook:                     Misc Options.        (line  14)
* idlwave-no-change-comment:             Comment Indentation. (line  19)
* idlwave-pad-keyword:                   Padding Operators.   (line  41)
* idlwave-query-class:                   Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  44)
* idlwave-query-shell-for-routine-info:  Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line  65)
* idlwave-reindent-end:                  Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line  25)
* idlwave-reserved-word-upcase:          Case Changes.        (line  33)
* idlwave-resize-routine-help-window:    Routine Info.        (line 115)
* idlwave-rinfo-max-source-lines:        Routine Info.        (line 122)
* idlwave-scan-all-buffers-for-routine-info: Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line  61)
* idlwave-shell-activate-prefix-keybindings: Debug Key Bindings.
                                                              (line  32)
* idlwave-shell-arrows-do-history:       Using the Shell.     (line  52)
* idlwave-shell-automatic-electric-debug: Electric Debug Mode.
                                                              (line  93)
* idlwave-shell-automatic-start:         Starting the Shell.  (line  50)
* idlwave-shell-breakpoint-face:         Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line  92)
* idlwave-shell-breakpoint-popup-menu:   Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line  96)
* idlwave-shell-comint-settings:         Using the Shell.     (line  56)
* idlwave-shell-command-history-file:    Starting the Shell.  (line  61)
* idlwave-shell-command-line-options:    Starting the Shell.  (line  41)
* idlwave-shell-debug-modifiers:         Debug Key Bindings.  (line  36)
* idlwave-shell-electric-stop-color:     Electric Debug Mode. (line 101)
* idlwave-shell-electric-stop-line-face: Electric Debug Mode. (line 105)
* idlwave-shell-electric-zap-to-file:    Electric Debug Mode. (line 109)
* idlwave-shell-examine-alist:           Custom Expression Examination.
                                                              (line  58)
* idlwave-shell-explicit-file-name:      Starting the Shell.  (line  38)
* idlwave-shell-expression-face:         Examining Variables. (line  75)
* idlwave-shell-file-name-chars:         Using the Shell.     (line  60)
* idlwave-shell-frame-parameters:        Starting the Shell.  (line  74)
* idlwave-shell-graphics-window-size:    Using the Shell.     (line  64)
* idlwave-shell-initial-commands:        Starting the Shell.  (line  54)
* idlwave-shell-input-mode-spells:       Using the Shell.     (line  85)
* idlwave-shell-mark-breakpoints:        Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line  87)
* idlwave-shell-mark-stop-line:          Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line 100)
* idlwave-shell-max-print-length:        Examining Variables. (line  89)
* idlwave-shell-mode-hook:               Starting the Shell.  (line  84)
* idlwave-shell-output-face:             Examining Variables. (line  80)
* idlwave-shell-overlay-arrow:           Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line 105)
* idlwave-shell-prefix-key:              Debug Key Bindings.  (line  28)
* idlwave-shell-process-name:            Starting the Shell.  (line  47)
* idlwave-shell-prompt-pattern:          Starting the Shell.  (line  44)
* idlwave-shell-raise-frame:             Starting the Shell.  (line  77)
* idlwave-shell-save-command-history:    Starting the Shell.  (line  57)
* idlwave-shell-separate-examine-output: Examining Variables. (line  85)
* idlwave-shell-show-commands:           Commands Sent to the Shell.
                                                              (line  28)
* idlwave-shell-stop-line-face:          Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line 109)
* idlwave-shell-temp-pro-prefix:         Starting the Shell.  (line  81)
* idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-frame:     Starting the Shell.  (line  66)
* idlwave-shell-use-dedicated-window:    Starting the Shell.  (line  70)
* idlwave-shell-use-input-mode-magic:    Using the Shell.     (line  81)
* idlwave-shell-use-toolbar:             Debugging IDL Programs.
                                                              (line  23)
* idlwave-show-block:                    Block Boundary Check.
                                                              (line  18)
* idlwave-special-lib-alist <1>:         User Catalog.        (line  62)
* idlwave-special-lib-alist:             Routine Info.        (line 119)
* idlwave-split-line-string:             Continuation Lines.  (line  44)
* idlwave-startup-message:               Misc Options.        (line  10)
* idlwave-store-inquired-class:          Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  48)
* idlwave-support-inheritance:           Class and Keyword Inheritance.
                                                              (line  37)
* idlwave-surround-by-blank:             Padding Operators.   (line  35)
* idlwave-system-directory:              Catalogs.            (line  42)
* idlwave-timestamp-hook:                Doc Header.          (line  21)
* idlwave-use-last-hang-indent:          Continuation Lines.  (line  56)
* idlwave-use-library-catalogs:          Library Catalogs.    (line  55)
* idlwave_catalog:                       Library Catalogs.    (line   6)
* Imenu, Emacs package:                  Motion Commands.     (line   6)
* Indentation:                           Code Indentation.    (line   6)
* Indentation, continued statement:      Continued Statement Indentation.
                                                              (line   6)
* Indentation, of foreign code:          Code Indentation.    (line  12)
* Inheritance, class:                    Class and Keyword Inheritance.
                                                              (line   6)
* Inheritance, keyword:                  Class and Keyword Inheritance.
                                                              (line   6)
* Input mode:                            Using the Shell.     (line  66)
* Inserting keywords, from routine info: Routine Info.        (line  89)
* Installing online help:                Online Help.         (line   6)
* Interactive Data Language:             Introduction.        (line   6)
* Interface Definition Language:         Introduction.        (line   6)
* Interview, with the maintainer:        Configuration Examples.
                                                              (line   6)
* Introduction:                          Introduction.        (line   6)
* Key bindings:                          Debug Key Bindings.  (line   6)
* Keybindings for debugging:             Debugging IDL Programs.
                                                              (line   6)
* Keyword completion:                    Completion.          (line   6)
* Keyword inheritance:                   Class and Keyword Inheritance.
                                                              (line   6)
* Keywords of a routine:                 Routine Info.        (line  42)
* Killing autoloaded buffers:            Routine Source.      (line  17)
* Library catalogs:                      Library Catalogs.    (line   6)
* Line input mode (Shell):               Using the Shell.     (line  66)
* Line splitting:                        Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* LINKIMAGE, IDL routine:                Routine Definitions. (line   6)
* Load-path shadows <1>:                 Load-Path Shadows.   (line   6)
* Load-path shadows:                     Routine Info.        (line  50)
* M-<RET>:                               Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* M-<TAB>:                               Completion.          (line   6)
* M-?:                                   Online Help.         (line  34)
* M-q:                                   Continuation Lines.  (line  31)
* MacOS <1>:                             Windows and MacOS.   (line   6)
* MacOS <2>:                             Load-Path Shadows.   (line  45)
* MacOS <3>:                             User Catalog.        (line   6)
* MacOS:                                 The IDLWAVE Shell.   (line   6)
* MacOSX:                                Windows and MacOS.   (line   6)
* Magic spells, for input mode:          Using the Shell.     (line  66)
* Maintainer, of IDLWAVE:                Acknowledgements.    (line   6)
* Major mode, idlwave-mode:              The IDLWAVE Major Mode.
                                                              (line   6)
* Major mode, idlwave-shell-mode:        The IDLWAVE Shell.   (line   6)
* Method completion:                     Completion.          (line   6)
* Method Completion in Shell:            Object Method Completion in the Shell.
                                                              (line   6)
* Mixed case completion:                 Case of Completed Words.
                                                              (line   6)
* Modification timestamp:                Doc Header.          (line   6)
* Module source file:                    Routine Source.      (line   6)
* Motion commands:                       Motion Commands.     (line   6)
* Mouse binding to print expressions:    Examining Variables. (line   6)
* Multiply defined routines <1>:         Load-Path Shadows.   (line   6)
* Multiply defined routines:             Routine Info.        (line  81)
* Nutshell, IDLWAVE in a:                IDLWAVE in a Nutshell.
                                                              (line   6)
* OBJ_NEW, special online help:          Online Help.         (line  56)
* Object method completion:              Completion.          (line   6)
* Object methods:                        Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line   6)
* Online Help:                           Online Help.         (line   6)
* Online Help from the routine info buffer: Routine Info.     (line  89)
* Online Help in *Completions* buffer:   Completion.          (line  47)
* Online Help, in the shell:             Using the Shell.     (line  36)
* Online Help, Installation:             Online Help.         (line   6)
* Operators, padding with spaces:        Padding Operators.   (line   6)
* Padding operators with spaces:         Padding Operators.   (line   6)
* Paragraphs, filling:                   Comment Indentation. (line   6)
* Paragraphs, hanging:                   Comment Indentation. (line   6)
* Perl program, to create idlw-rinfo.el: Documentation Scan.  (line   6)
* PRINT expressions:                     Examining Variables. (line   6)
* Printing expressions:                  Examining Variables. (line   6)
* Printing expressions, on calling stack: Examining Variables.
                                                              (line  56)
* Procedure definitions, jumping to:     Motion Commands.     (line   6)
* Procedure name completion:             Completion.          (line   6)
* Program structure, moving through:     Motion Commands.     (line   6)
* Programs, compiling:                   Compiling Programs.  (line   6)
* Quick-Start:                           Getting Started.     (line   6)
* RESOLVE_ROUTINE:                       Resolving Routines.  (line   6)
* Restrictions for expression printing:  Examining Variables. (line  56)
* Routine definitions:                   Routine Definitions. (line   6)
* Routine definitions, multiple <1>:     Load-Path Shadows.   (line   6)
* Routine definitions, multiple:         Routine Info.        (line  81)
* Routine info:                          Routine Info.        (line   6)
* Routine info sources:                  Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line   6)
* Routine info, in the shell:            Using the Shell.     (line  36)
* Routine source file:                   Routine Source.      (line   6)
* Routine source information:            Routine Info.        (line  42)
* ROUTINE_NAMES, IDL procedure:          Examining Variables. (line  69)
* Routines, resolving:                   Resolving Routines.  (line   6)
* Saving object class on ->:             Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line  27)
* Scanning buffers for routine info <1>: Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line   6)
* Scanning buffers for routine info:     Routine Info.        (line   6)
* Scanning the documentation:            Documentation Scan.  (line   6)
* Screenshots:                           Introduction.        (line  64)
* Scrolling the *Completions* window:    Completion.          (line  47)
* self object, default class:            Object Method Completion and Class Ambiguity.
                                                              (line   6)
* Shadows, load-path <1>:                Load-Path Shadows.   (line   6)
* Shadows, load-path:                    Routine Info.        (line  50)
* Shell, basic commands:                 Using the Shell.     (line   6)
* Shell, querying for routine info <1>:  Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line   6)
* Shell, querying for routine info:      Routine Info.        (line   6)
* Shell, starting:                       Starting the Shell.  (line   6)
* Showing commands in shell:             Commands Sent to the Shell.
                                                              (line   6)
* Source code, as online help:           Help with Source.    (line   6)
* Source file, access from routine info: Routine Info.        (line  89)
* Source file, of a routine:             Routine Source.      (line   6)
* Sources of routine information:        Sources of Routine Info.
                                                              (line   6)
* Space, around operators:               Padding Operators.   (line   6)
* Speed, of online help:                 Online Help.         (line   6)
* Speedbar, Emacs package:               Motion Commands.     (line  13)
* Spells, magic:                         Using the Shell.     (line  66)
* Splitting, of lines:                   Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* Starting the shell:                    Starting the Shell.  (line   6)
* Stepping:                              Breakpoints and Stepping.
                                                              (line   6)
* String splitting:                      Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* Structure tag completion:              Structure Tag Completion.
                                                              (line   6)
* Structure tags, in online help:        Help with Source.    (line  16)
* Subprocess of Emacs, IDL <1>:          Starting the Shell.  (line   6)
* Subprocess of Emacs, IDL:              The IDLWAVE Shell.   (line   6)
* Summary of important commands:         IDLWAVE in a Nutshell.
                                                              (line   6)
* Syntax highlighting:                   Syntax Highlighting. (line   6)
* Syntax highlighting, Octals:           Octals and Highlighting.
                                                              (line   6)
* Templates:                             Code Templates.      (line   6)
* Thanks:                                Acknowledgements.    (line   6)
* Timestamp, in doc header.:             Doc Header.          (line   6)
* Toolbar:                               Debugging IDL Programs.
                                                              (line   6)
* Troubleshooting:                       Troubleshooting.     (line   6)
* Tutorial:                              Getting Started.     (line   6)
* Upcase, enforcing for reserved words:  Case Changes.        (line   6)
* Updating routine info <1>:             Routine Information Sources.
                                                              (line   6)
* Updating routine info:                 Routine Info.        (line   6)
* User catalog:                          User Catalog.        (line   6)
* Windows <1>:                           Windows and MacOS.   (line   6)
* Windows <2>:                           Load-Path Shadows.   (line  45)
* Windows <3>:                           User Catalog.        (line   6)
* Windows:                               The IDLWAVE Shell.   (line   6)
* XML Help Catalog:                      Online Help.         (line   6)