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File: grub.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Introduction,  Up: (dir)

GRUB manual
***********

This is the documentation of GNU GRUB, the GRand Unified Bootloader, a
flexible and powerful boot loader program for PCs.

   This edition documents version 0.97.

* Menu:

* Introduction::                Capturing the spirit of GRUB
* Naming convention::           Names of your drives in GRUB
* Installation::                Installing GRUB on your drive
* Booting::                     How to boot different operating systems
* Configuration::               Writing your own configuration file
* Network::                     Downloading OS images from a network
* Serial terminal::             Using GRUB via a serial line
* Preset Menu::                 Embedding a configuration file into GRUB
* Security::                    Improving the security
* Images::                      GRUB image files
* Filesystem::                  Filesystem syntax and semantics
* Interface::                   The menu and the command-line
* Commands::                    The list of available builtin commands
* Troubleshooting::             Error messages produced by GRUB
* Invoking the grub shell::     How to use the grub shell
* Invoking grub-crypt::         How to generate an encrypted password
* Invoking grub-install::       How to use the GRUB installer
* Invoking grub-md5-crypt::     How to generate an MD5-encrypted password
* Invoking grub-terminfo::      How to generate a terminfo command
* Invoking grub-set-default::   How to set a default boot entry
* Invoking mbchk::              How to use the Multiboot checker
* Obtaining and Building GRUB:: How to obtain and build GRUB
* Reporting bugs::              Where you should send a bug report
* Future::                      Some future plans on GRUB
* Internals::                   Hacking GRUB
* Index::

File: grub.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Naming convention,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction to GRUB
**********************

* Menu:

* Overview::                    What exactly GRUB is and how to use it
* History::                     From maggot to house fly
* Features::                    GRUB features
* Role of a boot loader::       The role of a boot loader

File: grub.info,  Node: Overview,  Next: History,  Up: Introduction

1.1 Overview
============

Briefly, a "boot loader" is the first software program that runs when a
computer starts.  It is responsible for loading and transferring
control to an operating system "kernel" software (such as Linux or GNU
Mach).  The kernel, in turn, initializes the rest of the operating
system (e.g. a GNU system).

   GNU GRUB is a very powerful boot loader, which can load a wide
variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating
systems with chain-loading(1) (*note Overview-Footnote-1::). GRUB is
designed to address the complexity of booting a personal computer; both
the program and this manual are tightly bound to that computer platform,
although porting to other platforms may be addressed in the future.

   One of the important features in GRUB is flexibility; GRUB
understands filesystems and kernel executable formats, so you can load
an arbitrary operating system the way you like, without recording the
physical position of your kernel on the disk. Thus you can load the
kernel just by specifying its file name and the drive and partition
where the kernel resides.

   When booting with GRUB, you can use either a command-line interface
(*note Command-line interface::), or a menu interface (*note Menu
interface::). Using the command-line interface, you type the drive
specification and file name of the kernel manually. In the menu
interface, you just select an OS using the arrow keys. The menu is
based on a configuration file which you prepare beforehand (*note
Configuration::). While in the menu, you can switch to the command-line
mode, and vice-versa. You can even edit menu entries before using them.

   In the following chapters, you will learn how to specify a drive, a
partition, and a file name (*note Naming convention::) to GRUB, how to
install GRUB on your drive (*note Installation::), and how to boot your
OSes (*note Booting::), step by step.

   Besides the GRUB boot loader itself, there is a "grub shell" `grub'
(*note Invoking the grub shell::) which can be run when you are in your
operating system. It emulates the boot loader and can be used for
installing the boot loader.

File: grub.info,  Node: History,  Next: Features,  Prev: Overview,  Up: Introduction

1.2 History of GRUB
===================

GRUB originated in 1995 when Erich Boleyn was trying to boot the GNU
Hurd with the University of Utah's Mach 4 microkernel (now known as GNU
Mach).  Erich and Brian Ford designed the Multiboot Specification
(*note Multiboot Specification: (multiboot)Top.), because they were
determined not to add to the large number of mutually-incompatible PC
boot methods.

   Erich then began modifying the FreeBSD boot loader so that it would
understand Multiboot. He soon realized that it would be a lot easier to
write his own boot loader from scratch than to keep working on the
FreeBSD boot loader, and so GRUB was born.

   Erich added many features to GRUB, but other priorities prevented him
from keeping up with the demands of its quickly-expanding user base. In
1999, Gordon Matzigkeit and Yoshinori K. Okuji adopted GRUB as an
official GNU package, and opened its development by making the latest
sources available via anonymous CVS. *Note Obtaining and Building
GRUB::, for more information.

File: grub.info,  Node: Features,  Next: Role of a boot loader,  Prev: History,  Up: Introduction

1.3 GRUB features
=================

The primary requirement for GRUB is that it be compliant with the
"Multiboot Specification", which is described in *note Multiboot
Specification: (multiboot)Top.

   The other goals, listed in approximate order of importance, are:

   * Basic functions must be straightforward for end-users.

   * Rich functionality to support kernel experts and designers.

   * Backward compatibility for booting FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and
     Linux. Proprietary kernels (such as DOS, Windows NT, and OS/2) are
     supported via a chain-loading function.

   Except for specific compatibility modes (chain-loading and the Linux
"piggyback" format), all kernels will be started in much the same state
as in the Multiboot Specification. Only kernels loaded at 1 megabyte or
above are presently supported. Any attempt to load below that boundary
will simply result in immediate failure and an error message reporting
the problem.

   In addition to the requirements above, GRUB has the following
features (note that the Multiboot Specification doesn't require all the
features that GRUB supports):

Recognize multiple executable formats
     Support many of the "a.out" variants plus "ELF". Symbol tables are
     also loaded.

Support non-Multiboot kernels
     Support many of the various free 32-bit kernels that lack Multiboot
     compliance (primarily FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Linux).
     Chain-loading of other boot loaders is also supported.

Load multiples modules
     Fully support the Multiboot feature of loading multiple modules.

Load a configuration file
     Support a human-readable text configuration file with preset boot
     commands. You can also load another configuration file dynamically
     and embed a preset configuration file in a GRUB image file. The
     list of commands (*note Commands::) are a superset of those
     supported on the command-line. An example configuration file is
     provided in *note Configuration::.

Provide a menu interface
     A menu interface listing preset boot commands, with a programmable
     timeout, is available. There is no fixed limit on the number of
     boot entries, and the current implementation has space for several
     hundred.

Have a flexible command-line interface
     A fairly flexible command-line interface, accessible from the menu,
     is available to edit any preset commands, or write a new boot
     command set from scratch. If no configuration file is present,
     GRUB drops to the command-line.

     The list of commands (*note Commands::) are a subset of those
     supported for configuration files. Editing commands closely
     resembles the Bash command-line (*note Bash: (features)Command
     Line Editing.), with <TAB>-completion of commands, devices,
     partitions, and files in a directory depending on context.

Support multiple filesystem types
     Support multiple filesystem types transparently, plus a useful
     explicit blocklist notation. The currently supported filesystem
     types are "BSD FFS", "DOS FAT16 and FAT32", "Minix fs", "Linux
     ext2fs", "ReiserFS", "JFS", "XFS", and "VSTa fs". *Note
     Filesystem::, for more information.

Support automatic decompression
     Can decompress files which were compressed by `gzip'. This
     function is both automatic and transparent to the user (i.e. all
     functions operate upon the uncompressed contents of the specified
     files). This greatly reduces a file size and loading time, a
     particularly great benefit for floppies.(1) (*note
     Features-Footnote-1::)

     It is conceivable that some kernel modules should be loaded in a
     compressed state, so a different module-loading command can be
     specified to avoid uncompressing the modules.

Access data on any installed device
     Support reading data from any or all floppies or hard disk(s)
     recognized by the BIOS, independent of the setting of the root
     device.

Be independent of drive geometry translations
     Unlike many other boot loaders, GRUB makes the particular drive
     translation irrelevant. A drive installed and running with one
     translation may be converted to another translation without any
     adverse effects or changes in GRUB's configuration.

Detect all installed RAM
     GRUB can generally find all the installed RAM on a PC-compatible
     machine. It uses an advanced BIOS query technique for finding all
     memory regions. As described on the Multiboot Specification (*note
     Multiboot Specification: (multiboot)Top.), not all kernels make
     use of this information, but GRUB provides it for those who do.

Support Logical Block Address mode
     In traditional disk calls (called "CHS mode"), there is a geometry
     translation problem, that is, the BIOS cannot access over 1024
     cylinders, so the accessible space is limited to at least 508 MB
     and to at most 8GB. GRUB can't universally solve this problem, as
     there is no standard interface used in all machines. However,
     several newer machines have the new interface, Logical Block
     Address ("LBA") mode. GRUB automatically detects if LBA mode is
     available and uses it if available. In LBA mode, GRUB can access
     the entire disk.

Support network booting
     GRUB is basically a disk-based boot loader but also has network
     support. You can load OS images from a network by using the "TFTP"
     protocol.

Support remote terminals
     To support computers with no console, GRUB provides remote terminal
     support, so that you can control GRUB from a remote host. Only
     serial terminal support is implemented at the moment.

File: grub.info,  Node: Role of a boot loader,  Prev: Features,  Up: Introduction

1.4 The role of a boot loader
=============================

The following is a quotation from Gordon Matzigkeit, a GRUB fanatic:

     Some people like to acknowledge both the operating system and
     kernel when they talk about their computers, so they might say
     they use "GNU/Linux" or "GNU/Hurd".  Other people seem to think
     that the kernel is the most important part of the system, so they
     like to call their GNU operating systems "Linux systems."

     I, personally, believe that this is a grave injustice, because the
     _boot loader_ is the most important software of all. I used to
     refer to the above systems as either "LILO"(1) (*note Role of a
     boot loader-Footnote-1::) or "GRUB" systems.

     Unfortunately, nobody ever understood what I was talking about;
     now I just use the word "GNU" as a pseudonym for GRUB.

     So, if you ever hear people talking about their alleged "GNU"
     systems, remember that they are actually paying homage to the best
     boot loader around... GRUB!

   We, the GRUB maintainers, do not (usually) encourage Gordon's level
of fanaticism, but it helps to remember that boot loaders deserve
recognition.  We hope that you enjoy using GNU GRUB as much as we did
writing it.

File: grub.info,  Node: Naming convention,  Next: Installation,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Naming convention
*******************

The device syntax used in GRUB is a wee bit different from what you may
have seen before in your operating system(s), and you need to know it so
that you can specify a drive/partition.

   Look at the following examples and explanations:

     (fd0)

   First of all, GRUB requires that the device name be enclosed with
`(' and `)'. The `fd' part means that it is a floppy disk. The number
`0' is the drive number, which is counted from _zero_. This expression
means that GRUB will use the whole floppy disk.

     (hd0,1)

   Here, `hd' means it is a hard disk drive. The first integer `0'
indicates the drive number, that is, the first hard disk, while the
second integer, `1', indicates the partition number (or the PC slice
number in the BSD terminology). Once again, please note that the
partition numbers are counted from _zero_, not from one. This
expression means the second partition of the first hard disk drive. In
this case, GRUB uses one partition of the disk, instead of the whole
disk.

     (hd0,4)

   This specifies the first "extended partition" of the first hard disk
drive. Note that the partition numbers for extended partitions are
counted from `4', regardless of the actual number of primary partitions
on your hard disk.

     (hd1,a)

   This means the BSD `a' partition of the second hard disk. If you
need to specify which PC slice number should be used, use something
like this: `(hd1,0,a)'. If the PC slice number is omitted, GRUB
searches for the first PC slice which has a BSD `a' partition.

   Of course, to actually access the disks or partitions with GRUB, you
need to use the device specification in a command, like `root (fd0)' or
`unhide (hd0,2)'. To help you find out which number specifies a
partition you want, the GRUB command-line (*note Command-line
interface::) options have argument completion. This means that, for
example, you only need to type

     root (

   followed by a <TAB>, and GRUB will display the list of drives,
partitions, or file names. So it should be quite easy to determine the
name of your target partition, even with minimal knowledge of the
syntax.

   Note that GRUB does _not_ distinguish IDE from SCSI - it simply
counts the drive numbers from zero, regardless of their type. Normally,
any IDE drive number is less than any SCSI drive number, although that
is not true if you change the boot sequence by swapping IDE and SCSI
drives in your BIOS.

   Now the question is, how to specify a file? Again, consider an
example:

     (hd0,0)/vmlinuz

   This specifies the file named `vmlinuz', found on the first
partition of the first hard disk drive. Note that the argument
completion works with file names, too.

   That was easy, admit it. Now read the next chapter, to find out how
to actually install GRUB on your drive.

File: grub.info,  Node: Installation,  Next: Booting,  Prev: Naming convention,  Up: Top

3 Installation
**************

In order to install GRUB as your boot loader, you need to first install
the GRUB system and utilities under your UNIX-like operating system
(*note Obtaining and Building GRUB::). You can do this either from the
source tarball, or as a package for your OS.

   After you have done that, you need to install the boot loader on a
drive (floppy or hard disk). There are two ways of doing that - either
using the utility `grub-install' (*note Invoking grub-install::) on a
UNIX-like OS, or by running GRUB itself from a floppy. These are quite
similar, however the utility might probe a wrong BIOS drive, so you
should be careful.

   Also, if you install GRUB on a UNIX-like OS, please make sure that
you have an emergency boot disk ready, so that you can rescue your
computer if, by any chance, your hard drive becomes unusable
(unbootable).

   GRUB comes with boot images, which are normally put in the directory
`/usr/lib/grub/i386-pc'. If you do not use grub-install, then you need
to copy the files `stage1', `stage2', and `*stage1_5' to the directory
`/boot/grub', and run the `grub-set-default' (*note Invoking
grub-set-default::) if you intend to use `default saved' (*note
default::) in your configuration file. Hereafter, the directory where
GRUB images are initially placed (normally `/usr/lib/grub/i386-pc')
will be called the "image directory", and the directory where the boot
loader needs to find them (usually `/boot/grub') will be called the
"boot directory".

* Menu:

* Creating a GRUB boot floppy::
* Installing GRUB natively::
* Installing GRUB using grub-install::
* Making a GRUB bootable CD-ROM::

File: grub.info,  Node: Creating a GRUB boot floppy,  Next: Installing GRUB natively,  Up: Installation

3.1 Creating a GRUB boot floppy
===============================

To create a GRUB boot floppy, you need to take the files `stage1' and
`stage2' from the image directory, and write them to the first and the
second block of the floppy disk, respectively.

   *Caution:* This procedure will destroy any data currently stored on
the floppy.

   On a UNIX-like operating system, that is done with the following
commands:

     # cd /usr/lib/grub/i386-pc
     # dd if=stage1 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 count=1
     1+0 records in
     1+0 records out
     # dd if=stage2 of=/dev/fd0 bs=512 seek=1
     153+1 records in
     153+1 records out
     #

   The device file name may be different. Consult the manual for your
OS.

File: grub.info,  Node: Installing GRUB natively,  Next: Installing GRUB using grub-install,  Prev: Creating a GRUB boot floppy,  Up: Installation

3.2 Installing GRUB natively
============================

*Caution:* Installing GRUB's stage1 in this manner will erase the
normal boot-sector used by an OS.

   GRUB can currently boot GNU Mach, Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD
directly, so using it on a boot sector (the first sector of a
partition) should be okay. But generally, it would be a good idea to
back up the first sector of the partition on which you are installing
GRUB's stage1. This isn't as important if you are installing GRUB on
the first sector of a hard disk, since it's easy to reinitialize it
(e.g. by running `FDISK /MBR' from DOS).

   If you decide to install GRUB in the native environment, which is
definitely desirable, you'll need to create a GRUB boot disk, and
reboot your computer with it. Otherwise, see *note Installing GRUB
using grub-install::.

   Once started, GRUB will show the command-line interface (*note
Command-line interface::). First, set the GRUB's "root device"(1)
(*note Installing GRUB natively-Footnote-1::) to the partition
containing the boot directory, like this:

     grub> root (hd0,0)

   If you are not sure which partition actually holds this directory,
use the command `find' (*note find::), like this:

     grub> find /boot/grub/stage1

   This will search for the file name `/boot/grub/stage1' and show the
devices which contain the file.

   Once you've set the root device correctly, run the command `setup'
(*note setup::):

     grub> setup (hd0)

   This command will install the GRUB boot loader on the Master Boot
Record (MBR) of the first drive. If you want to put GRUB into the boot
sector of a partition instead of putting it in the MBR, specify the
partition into which you want to install GRUB:

     grub> setup (hd0,0)

   If you install GRUB into a partition or a drive other than the first
one, you must chain-load GRUB from another boot loader. Refer to the
manual for the boot loader to know how to chain-load GRUB.

   After using the setup command, you will boot into GRUB without the
GRUB floppy. See the chapter *note Booting:: to find out how to boot
your operating systems from GRUB.

File: grub.info,  Node: Installing GRUB using grub-install,  Next: Making a GRUB bootable CD-ROM,  Prev: Installing GRUB natively,  Up: Installation

3.3 Installing GRUB using grub-install
======================================

*Caution:* This procedure is definitely less safe, because there are
several ways in which your computer can become unbootable. For example,
most operating systems don't tell GRUB how to map BIOS drives to OS
devices correctly--GRUB merely "guesses" the mapping. This will succeed
in most cases, but not always. Therefore, GRUB provides you with a map
file called the "device map", which you must fix if it is wrong. *Note
Device map::, for more details.

   If you still do want to install GRUB under a UNIX-like OS (such as
GNU), invoke the program `grub-install' (*note Invoking grub-install::)
as the superuser ("root").

   The usage is basically very simple. You only need to specify one
argument to the program, namely, where to install the boot loader. The
argument can be either a device file (like `/dev/hda') or a partition
specified in GRUB's notation. For example, under Linux the following
will install GRUB into the MBR of the first IDE disk:

     # grub-install /dev/hda

   Likewise, under GNU/Hurd, this has the same effect:

     # grub-install /dev/hd0

   If it is the first BIOS drive, this is the same as well:

     # grub-install '(hd0)'

   Or you can omit the parentheses:

     # grub-install hd0

   But all the above examples assume that GRUB should use images under
the root directory. If you want GRUB to use images under a directory
other than the root directory, you need to specify the option
`--root-directory'. The typical usage is that you create a GRUB boot
floppy with a filesystem. Here is an example:

     # mke2fs /dev/fd0
     # mount -t ext2 /dev/fd0 /mnt
     # grub-install --root-directory=/mnt fd0
     # umount /mnt

   Another example is when you have a separate boot partition which is
mounted at `/boot'. Since GRUB is a boot loader, it doesn't know
anything about mountpoints at all. Thus, you need to run `grub-install'
like this:

     # grub-install --root-directory=/boot /dev/hda

   By the way, as noted above, it is quite difficult to guess BIOS
drives correctly under a UNIX-like OS. Thus, `grub-install' will prompt
you to check if it could really guess the correct mappings, after the
installation. The format is defined in *note Device map::. Please be
quite careful. If the output is wrong, it is unlikely that your
computer will be able to boot with no problem.

   Note that `grub-install' is actually just a shell script and the
real task is done by the grub shell `grub' (*note Invoking the grub
shell::). Therefore, you may run `grub' directly to install GRUB,
without using `grub-install'. Don't do that, however, unless you are
very familiar with the internals of GRUB. Installing a boot loader on a
running OS may be extremely dangerous.

File: grub.info,  Node: Making a GRUB bootable CD-ROM,  Prev: Installing GRUB using grub-install,  Up: Installation

3.4 Making a GRUB bootable CD-ROM
=================================

GRUB supports the "no emulation mode" in the El Torito specification(1)
(*note Making a GRUB bootable CD-ROM-Footnote-1::). This means that you
can use the whole CD-ROM from GRUB and you don't have to make a floppy
or hard disk image file, which can cause compatibility problems.

   For booting from a CD-ROM, GRUB uses a special Stage 2 called
`stage2_eltorito'. The only GRUB files you need to have in your
bootable CD-ROM are this `stage2_eltorito' and optionally a config file
`menu.lst'. You don't need to use `stage1' or `stage2', because El
Torito is quite different from the standard boot process.

   Here is an example of procedures to make a bootable CD-ROM image.
First, make a top directory for the bootable image, say, `iso':

     $ mkdir iso

   Make a directory for GRUB:

     $ mkdir -p iso/boot/grub

   Copy the file `stage2_eltorito':

     $ cp /usr/lib/grub/i386-pc/stage2_eltorito iso/boot/grub

   If desired, make the config file `menu.lst' under `iso/boot/grub'
(*note Configuration::), and copy any files and directories for the
disc to the directory `iso/'.

   Finally, make a ISO9660 image file like this:

     $ mkisofs -R -b boot/grub/stage2_eltorito -no-emul-boot \
         -boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o grub.iso iso

   This produces a file named `grub.iso', which then can be burned into
a CD (or a DVD).  `mkisofs' has already set up the disc to boot from
the `boot/grub/stage2_eltorito' file, so there is no need to setup GRUB
on the disc.  (Note that the `-boot-load-size 4' bit is required for
compatibility with the BIOS on many older machines.)

   You can use the device `(cd)' to access a CD-ROM in your config
file. This is not required; GRUB automatically sets the root device to
`(cd)' when booted from a CD-ROM. It is only necessary to refer to
`(cd)' if you want to access other drives as well.

File: grub.info,  Node: Booting,  Next: Configuration,  Prev: Installation,  Up: Top

4 Booting
*********

GRUB can load Multiboot-compliant kernels in a consistent way, but for
some free operating systems you need to use some OS-specific magic.

* Menu:

* General boot methods::        How to boot OSes with GRUB generally
* OS-specific notes::           Notes on some operating systems
* Making your system robust::   How to make your system robust

File: grub.info,  Node: General boot methods,  Next: OS-specific notes,  Up: Booting

4.1 How to boot operating systems
=================================

GRUB has two distinct boot methods. One of the two is to load an
operating system directly, and the other is to chain-load another boot
loader which then will load an operating system actually. Generally
speaking, the former is more desirable, because you don't need to
install or maintain other boot loaders and GRUB is flexible enough to
load an operating system from an arbitrary disk/partition. However, the
latter is sometimes required, since GRUB doesn't support all the
existing operating systems natively.

* Menu:

* Loading an operating system directly::
* Chain-loading::

File: grub.info,  Node: Loading an operating system directly,  Next: Chain-loading,  Up: General boot methods

4.1.1 How to boot an OS directly with GRUB
------------------------------------------

Multiboot (*note Multiboot Specification: (multiboot)Top.) is the
native format supported by GRUB.  For the sake of convenience, there is
also support for Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD. If you want to
boot other operating systems, you will have to chain-load them (*note
Chain-loading::).

   Generally, GRUB can boot any Multiboot-compliant OS in the following
steps:

  1. Set GRUB's root device to the drive where the OS images are stored
     with the command `root' (*note root::).

  2. Load the kernel image with the command `kernel' (*note kernel::).

  3. If you need modules, load them with the command `module' (*note
     module::) or `modulenounzip' (*note modulenounzip::).

  4. Run the command `boot' (*note boot::).

   Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD can be booted in a similar
manner. You load a kernel image with the command `kernel' and then run
the command `boot'. If the kernel requires some parameters, just append
the parameters to `kernel', after the file name of the kernel. Also,
please refer to *note OS-specific notes::, for information on your
OS-specific issues.

File: grub.info,  Node: Chain-loading,  Prev: Loading an operating system directly,  Up: General boot methods

4.1.2 Load another boot loader to boot unsupported operating systems
--------------------------------------------------------------------

If you want to boot an unsupported operating system (e.g. Windows 95),
chain-load a boot loader for the operating system. Normally, the boot
loader is embedded in the "boot sector" of the partition on which the
operating system is installed.

  1. Set GRUB's root device to the partition by the command
     `rootnoverify' (*note rootnoverify::):

          grub> rootnoverify (hd0,0)

  2. Set the "active" flag in the partition using the command
     `makeactive'(1) (*note Chain-loading-Footnote-1::) (*note
     makeactive::):

          grub> makeactive

  3. Load the boot loader with the command `chainloader' (*note
     chainloader::):

          grub> chainloader +1

     `+1' indicates that GRUB should read one sector from the start of
     the partition. The complete description about this syntax can be
     found in *note Block list syntax::.

  4. Run the command `boot' (*note boot::).

   However, DOS and Windows have some deficiencies, so you might have to
use more complicated instructions. *Note DOS/Windows::, for more
information.

File: grub.info,  Node: OS-specific notes,  Next: Making your system robust,  Prev: General boot methods,  Up: Booting

4.2 Some caveats on OS-specific issues
======================================

Here, we describe some caveats on several operating systems.

* Menu:

* GNU/Hurd::
* GNU/Linux::
* FreeBSD::
* NetBSD::
* OpenBSD::
* DOS/Windows::
* SCO UnixWare::
* QNX::

File: grub.info,  Node: GNU/Hurd,  Next: GNU/Linux,  Up: OS-specific notes

4.2.1 GNU/Hurd
--------------

Since GNU/Hurd is Multiboot-compliant, it is easy to boot it; there is
nothing special about it. But do not forget that you have to specify a
root partition to the kernel.

  1. Set GRUB's root device to the same drive as GNU/Hurd's. Probably
     the command `find /boot/gnumach' or similar can help you (*note
     find::).

  2. Load the kernel and the module, like this:

          grub> kernel /boot/gnumach root=hd0s1
          grub> module /boot/serverboot

  3. Run the command `boot' (*note boot::).

File: grub.info,  Node: GNU/Linux,  Next: FreeBSD,  Prev: GNU/Hurd,  Up: OS-specific notes

4.2.2 GNU/Linux
---------------

It is relatively easy to boot GNU/Linux from GRUB, because it somewhat
resembles to boot a Multiboot-compliant OS.

  1. Set GRUB's root device to the same drive as GNU/Linux's. Probably
     the command `find /vmlinuz' or similar can help you (*note find::).

  2. Load the kernel:

          grub> kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/hda1

     If you need to specify some kernel parameters, just append them to
     the command. For example, to set `vga' to `ext', do this:

          grub> kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/hda1 vga=ext

     See the documentation in the Linux source tree for complete
     information on the available options.

  3. If you use an initrd, execute the command `initrd' (*note
     initrd::) after `kernel':

          grub> initrd /initrd

  4. Finally, run the command `boot' (*note boot::).

   *Caution:* If you use an initrd and specify the `mem=' option to the
kernel to let it use less than actual memory size, you will also have
to specify the same memory size to GRUB. To let GRUB know the size, run
the command `uppermem' _before_ loading the kernel. *Note uppermem::,
for more information.

File: grub.info,  Node: FreeBSD,  Next: NetBSD,  Prev: GNU/Linux,  Up: OS-specific notes

4.2.3 FreeBSD
-------------

GRUB can load the kernel directly, either in ELF or a.out format. But
this is not recommended, since FreeBSD's bootstrap interface sometimes
changes heavily, so GRUB can't guarantee to pass kernel parameters
correctly.

   Thus, we'd recommend loading the very flexible loader `/boot/loader'
instead. See this example:

     grub> root (hd0,a)
     grub> kernel /boot/loader
     grub> boot

File: grub.info,  Node: NetBSD,  Next: OpenBSD,  Prev: FreeBSD,  Up: OS-specific notes

4.2.4 NetBSD
------------

GRUB can load NetBSD a.out and ELF directly, follow these steps:

  1. Set GRUB's root device with `root' (*note root::).

  2. Load the kernel with `kernel' (*note kernel::). You should append
     the ugly option `--type=netbsd', if you want to load an ELF
     kernel, like this:

          grub> kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-elf

  3. Run `boot' (*note boot::).

   For now, however, GRUB doesn't allow you to pass kernel parameters,
so it may be better to chain-load it instead. For more information,
please see *note Chain-loading::.

File: grub.info,  Node: OpenBSD,  Next: DOS/Windows,  Prev: NetBSD,  Up: OS-specific notes

4.2.5 OpenBSD
-------------

The booting instruction is exactly the same as for NetBSD (*note
NetBSD::).

File: grub.info,  Node: DOS/Windows,  Next: SCO UnixWare,  Prev: OpenBSD,  Up: OS-specific notes

4.2.6 DOS/Windows
-----------------

GRUB cannot boot DOS or Windows directly, so you must chain-load them
(*note Chain-loading::). However, their boot loaders have some critical
deficiencies, so it may not work to just chain-load them. To overcome
the problems, GRUB provides you with two helper functions.

   If you have installed DOS (or Windows) on a non-first hard disk, you
have to use the disk swapping technique, because that OS cannot boot
from any disks but the first one. The workaround used in GRUB is the
command `map' (*note map::), like this:

     grub> map (hd0) (hd1)
     grub> map (hd1) (hd0)

   This performs a "virtual" swap between your first and second hard
drive.

   *Caution:* This is effective only if DOS (or Windows) uses BIOS to
access the swapped disks. If that OS uses a special driver for the
disks, this probably won't work.

   Another problem arises if you installed more than one set of
DOS/Windows onto one disk, because they could be confused if there are
more than one primary partitions for DOS/Windows. Certainly you should
avoid doing this, but there is a solution if you do want to do so. Use
the partition hiding/unhiding technique.

   If GRUB "hide"s a DOS (or Windows) partition (*note hide::), DOS (or
Windows) will ignore the partition. If GRUB "unhide"s a DOS (or
Windows) partition (*note unhide::), DOS (or Windows) will detect the
partition. Thus, if you have installed DOS (or Windows) on the first
and the second partition of the first hard disk, and you want to boot
the copy on the first partition, do the following:

     grub> unhide (hd0,0)
     grub> hide (hd0,1)
     grub> rootnoverify (hd0,0)
     grub> chainloader +1
     grub> makeactive
     grub> boot

File: grub.info,  Node: SCO UnixWare,  Next: QNX,  Prev: DOS/Windows,  Up: OS-specific notes

4.2.7 SCO UnixWare
------------------

It is known that the signature in the boot loader for SCO UnixWare is
wrong, so you will have to specify the option `--force' to
`chainloader' (*note chainloader::), like this:

     grub> rootnoverify (hd1,0)
     grub> chainloader --force +1
     grub> makeactive
     grub> boot

File: grub.info,  Node: QNX,  Prev: SCO UnixWare,  Up: OS-specific notes

4.2.8 QNX
---------

QNX seems to use a bigger boot loader, so you need to boot it up, like
this:

     grub> rootnoverify (hd1,1)
     grub> chainloader +4
     grub> boot

File: grub.info,  Node: Making your system robust,  Prev: OS-specific notes,  Up: Booting

4.3 How to make your system robust
==================================

When you test a new kernel or a new OS, it is important to make sure
that your computer can boot even if the new system is unbootable. This
is crucial especially if you maintain servers or remote systems. To
accomplish this goal, you need to set up two things:

  1. You must maintain a system which is always bootable. For instance,
     if you test a new kernel, you need to keep a working kernel in a
     different place. And, it would sometimes be very nice to even have
     a complete copy of a working system in a different partition or
     disk.

  2. You must direct GRUB to boot a working system when the new system
     fails. This is possible with the "fallback" system in GRUB.

   The former requirement is very specific to each OS, so this
documentation does not cover that topic. It is better to consult some
backup tools.

   So let's see the GRUB part. There are two possibilities: one of them
is quite simple but not very robust, and the other is a bit complex to
set up but probably the best solution to make sure that your system can
start as long as GRUB itself is bootable.

* Menu:

* Booting once-only::
* Booting fallback systems::

File: grub.info,  Node: Booting once-only,  Next: Booting fallback systems,  Up: Making your system robust

4.3.1 Booting once-only
-----------------------

You can teach GRUB to boot an entry only at next boot time. Suppose
that your have an old kernel `old_kernel' and a new kernel
`new_kernel'. You know that `old_kernel' can boot your system
correctly, and you want to test `new_kernel'.

   To ensure that your system will go back to the old kernel even if the
new kernel fails (e.g. it panics), you can specify that GRUB should try
the new kernel only once and boot the old kernel after that.

   First, modify your configuration file. Here is an example:

     default saved        # This is important!!!
     timeout 10

     title the old kernel
     root (hd0,0)
     kernel /old_kernel
     savedefault

     title the new kernel
     root (hd0,0)
     kernel /new_kernel
     savedefault 0         # This is important!!!

   Note that this configuration file uses `default saved' (*note
default::) at the head and `savedefault 0' (*note savedefault::) in the
entry for the new kernel. This means that GRUB boots a saved entry by
default, and booting the entry for the new kernel saves `0' as the
saved entry.

   With this configuration file, after all, GRUB always tries to boot
the old kernel after it booted the new one, because `0' is the entry of
`the old kernel'.

   The next step is to tell GRUB to boot the new kernel at next boot
time. For this, execute `grub-set-default' (*note Invoking
grub-set-default::):

     # grub-set-default 1

   This command sets the saved entry to `1', that is, to the new kernel.

   This method is useful, but still not very robust, because GRUB stops
booting, if there is any error in the boot entry, such that the new
kernel has an invalid executable format. Thus, it it even better to use
the "fallback" mechanism of GRUB. Look at next subsection for this
feature.

File: grub.info,  Node: Booting fallback systems,  Prev: Booting once-only,  Up: Making your system robust

4.3.2 Booting fallback systems
------------------------------

GRUB supports a fallback mechanism of booting one or more other entries
if a default boot entry fails. You can specify multiple fallback
entries if you wish.

   Suppose that you have three systems, `A', `B' and `C'. `A' is a
system which you want to boot by default. `B' is a backup system which
is supposed to boot safely. `C' is another backup system which is used
in case where `B' is broken.

   Then you may want GRUB to boot the first system which is bootable
among `A', `B' and `C'. A configuration file can be written in this way:

     default saved        # This is important!!!
     timeout 10
     fallback 1 2         # This is important!!!

     title A
     root (hd0,0)
     kernel /kernel
     savedefault fallback # This is important!!!

     title B
     root (hd1,0)
     kernel /kernel
     savedefault fallback # This is important!!!

     title C
     root (hd2,0)
     kernel /kernel
     savedefault

   Note that `default saved' (*note default::), `fallback 1 2' and
`savedefault fallback' are used. GRUB will boot a saved entry by
default and save a fallback entry as next boot entry with this
configuration.

   When GRUB tries to boot `A', GRUB saves `1' as next boot entry,
because the command `fallback' specifies that `1' is the first fallback
entry. The entry `1' is `B', so GRUB will try to boot `B' at next boot
time.

   Likewise, when GRUB tries to boot `B', GRUB saves `2' as next boot
entry, because `fallback' specifies `2' as next fallback entry. This
makes sure that GRUB will boot `C' after booting `B'.

   It is noteworthy that GRUB uses fallback entries both when GRUB
itself fails in booting an entry and when `A' or `B' fails in starting
up your system. So this solution ensures that your system is started
even if GRUB cannot find your kernel or if your kernel panics.

   However, you need to run `grub-set-default' (*note Invoking
grub-set-default::) when `A' starts correctly or you fix `A' after it
crashes, since GRUB always sets next boot entry to a fallback entry.
You should run this command in a startup script such as `rc.local' to
boot `A' by default:

     # grub-set-default 0

   where `0' is the number of the boot entry for the system `A'.

   If you want to see what is current default entry, you can look at the
file `/boot/grub/default' (or `/grub/default' in some systems). Because
this file is plain-text, you can just `cat' this file. But it is
strongly recommended *not to modify this file directly*, because GRUB
may fail in saving a default entry in this file, if you change this
file in an unintended manner. Therefore, you should use
`grub-set-default' when you need to change the default entry.

File: grub.info,  Node: Configuration,  Next: Network,  Prev: Booting,  Up: Top

5 Configuration
***************

You've probably noticed that you need to type several commands to boot
your OS. There's a solution to that - GRUB provides a menu interface
(*note Menu interface::) from which you can select an item (using arrow
keys) that will do everything to boot an OS.

   To enable the menu, you need a configuration file, `grub.conf' under
the boot directory. We'll analyze an example file.

   The file first contains some general settings, the menu interface
related options. You can put these commands (*note Menu-specific
commands::) before any of the items (starting with `title' (*note
title::)).

     #
     # Sample boot menu configuration file
     #

   As you may have guessed, these lines are comments. Lines starting
with a hash character (`#'), and blank lines, are ignored by GRUB.

     # By default, boot the first entry.
     default 0

   The first entry (here, counting starts with number zero, not one!)
will be the default choice.

     # Boot automatically after 30 secs.
     timeout 30

   As the comment says, GRUB will boot automatically in 30 seconds,
unless interrupted with a keypress.

     # Fallback to the second entry.
     fallback 1

   If, for any reason, the default entry doesn't work, fall back to the
second one (this is rarely used, for obvious reasons).

   Note that the complete descriptions of these commands, which are menu
interface specific, can be found in *note Menu-specific commands::.
Other descriptions can be found in *note Commands::.

   Now, on to the actual OS definitions. You will see that each entry
begins with a special command, `title' (*note title::), and the action
is described after it. Note that there is no command `boot' (*note
boot::) at the  end of each item. That is because GRUB automatically
executes `boot' if it loads other commands successfully.

   The argument for the command `title' is used to display a short
title/description of the entry in the menu. Since `title' displays the
argument as is, you can write basically anything there.

     # For booting GNU/Hurd
     title  GNU/Hurd
     root   (hd0,0)
     kernel /boot/gnumach.gz root=hd0s1
     module /boot/serverboot.gz

   This boots GNU/Hurd from the first hard disk.

     # For booting GNU/Linux
     title  GNU/Linux
     kernel (hd1,0)/vmlinuz root=/dev/hdb1

   This boots GNU/Linux, but from the second hard disk.

     # For booting Mach (getting kernel from floppy)
     title  Utah Mach4 multiboot
     root   (hd0,2)
     pause  Insert the diskette now^G!!
     kernel (fd0)/boot/kernel root=hd0s3
     module (fd0)/boot/bootstrap

   This boots Mach with a kernel on a floppy, but the root filesystem at
hd0s3. It also contains a `pause' line (*note pause::), which will
cause GRUB to display a prompt and delay, before actually executing the
rest of the commands and booting.

     # For booting FreeBSD
     title  FreeBSD
     root   (hd0,2,a)
     kernel /boot/loader

   This item will boot FreeBSD kernel loaded from the `a' partition of
the third PC slice of the first hard disk.

     # For booting OS/2
     title OS/2
     root  (hd0,1)
     makeactive
     # chainload OS/2 bootloader from the first sector
     chainloader +1
     # This is similar to "chainload", but loads a specific file
     #chainloader /boot/chain.os2

   This will boot OS/2, using a chain-loader (*note Chain-loading::).

     # For booting Windows NT or Windows95
     title Windows NT / Windows 95 boot menu
     root        (hd0,0)
     makeactive
     chainloader +1
     # For loading DOS if Windows NT is installed
     # chainload /bootsect.dos

   The same as the above, but for Windows.

     # For installing GRUB into the hard disk
     title Install GRUB into the hard disk
     root    (hd0,0)
     setup   (hd0)

   This will just (re)install GRUB onto the hard disk.

     # Change the colors.
     title Change the colors
     color light-green/brown blink-red/blue

   In the last entry, the command `color' is used (*note color::), to
change the menu colors (try it!). This command is somewhat special,
because it can be used both in the command-line and in the menu. GRUB
has several such commands, see *note General commands::.

   We hope that you now understand how to use the basic features of
GRUB. To learn more about GRUB, see the following chapters.

File: grub.info,  Node: Network,  Next: Serial terminal,  Prev: Configuration,  Up: Top

6 Downloading OS images from a network
**************************************

Although GRUB is a disk-based boot loader, it does provide network
support. To use the network support, you need to enable at least one
network driver in the GRUB build process. For more information please
see `netboot/README.netboot' in the source distribution.

* Menu:

* General usage of network support::
* Diskless::

File: grub.info,  Node: General usage of network support,  Next: Diskless,  Up: Network

6.1 How to set up your network
==============================

GRUB requires a file server and optionally a server that will assign an
IP address to the machine on which GRUB is running. For the former, only
TFTP is supported at the moment. The latter is either BOOTP, DHCP or a
RARP server(1) (*note General usage of network support-Footnote-1::).
It is not necessary to run both the servers on one computer. How to
configure these servers is beyond the scope of this document, so please
refer to the manuals specific to those protocols/servers.

   If you decided to use a server to assign an IP address, set up the
server and run `bootp' (*note bootp::), `dhcp' (*note dhcp::) or `rarp'
(*note rarp::) for BOOTP, DHCP or RARP, respectively. Each command will
show an assigned IP address, a netmask, an IP address for your TFTP
server and a gateway. If any of the addresses is wrong or it causes an
error, probably the configuration of your servers isn't set up properly.

   Otherwise, run `ifconfig', like this:

     grub> ifconfig --address=192.168.110.23 --server=192.168.110.14

   You can also use `ifconfig' in conjuction with `bootp', `dhcp' or
`rarp' (e.g. to reassign the server address manually). *Note
ifconfig::, for more details.

   Finally, download your OS images from your network. The network can
be accessed using the network drive `(nd)'. Everything else is very
similar to the normal instructions (*note Booting::).

   Here is an example:

     grub> bootp
     Probing... [NE*000]
     NE2000 base ...
     Address: 192.168.110.23    Netmask: 255.255.255.0
     Server: 192.168.110.14     Gateway: 192.168.110.1

     grub> root (nd)
     grub> kernel /tftproot/gnumach.gz root=sd0s1
     grub> module /tftproot/serverboot.gz
     grub> boot

File: grub.info,  Node: Diskless,  Prev: General usage of network support,  Up: Network

6.2 Booting from a network
==========================

It is sometimes very useful to boot from a network, especially when you
use a machine which has no local disk. In this case, you need to obtain
a kind of Net Boot ROM, such as a PXE ROM or a free software package
like Etherboot. Such a Boot ROM first boots the machine, sets up the
network card installed into the machine, and downloads a second stage
boot image from the network. Then, the second image will try to boot an
operating system actually from the network.

   GRUB provides two second stage images, `nbgrub' and `pxegrub' (*note
Images::). These images are the same as the normal Stage 2, except that
they set up a network automatically, and try to load a configuration
file from the network, if specified. The usage is very simple: If the
machine has a PXE ROM, use `pxegrub'. If the machine has an NBI loader
such as Etherboot, use `nbgrub'. There is no difference between them
except their formats. Since the way to load a second stage image you
want to use should be described in the manual on your Net Boot ROM,
please refer to the manual, for more information.

   However, there is one thing specific to GRUB. Namely, how to specify
a configuration file in a BOOTP/DHCP server. For now, GRUB uses the tag
`150', to get the name of a configuration file. The following is an
example with a BOOTP configuration:

     .allhost:hd=/tmp:bf=null:\
             :ds=145.71.35.1 145.71.32.1:\
             :sm=255.255.254.0:\
             :gw=145.71.35.1:\
             :sa=145.71.35.5:

     foo:ht=1:ha=63655d0334a7:ip=145.71.35.127:\
             :bf=/nbgrub:\
             :tc=.allhost:\
             :T150="(nd)/tftpboot/menu.lst.foo":

   Note that you should specify the drive name `(nd)' in the name of
the configuration file. This is because you might change the root drive
before downloading the configuration from the TFTP server when the
preset menu feature is used (*note Preset Menu::).

   See the manual of your BOOTP/DHCP server for more information. The
exact syntax should differ a little from the example.

File: grub.info,  Node: Serial terminal,  Next: Preset Menu,  Prev: Network,  Up: Top

7 Using GRUB via a serial line
******************************

This chapter describes how to use the serial terminal support in GRUB.

   If you have many computers or computers with no display/keyboard, it
could be very useful to control the computers through serial
communications. To connect one computer with another via a serial line,
you need to prepare a null-modem (cross) serial cable, and you may need
to have multiport serial boards, if your computer doesn't have extra
serial ports. In addition, a terminal emulator is also required, such as
minicom. Refer to a manual of your operating system, for more
information.

   As for GRUB, the instruction to set up a serial terminal is quite
simple. First of all, make sure that you haven't specified the option
`--disable-serial' to the configure script when you built your GRUB
images. If you get them in binary form, probably they have serial
terminal support already.

   Then, initialize your serial terminal after GRUB starts up. Here is
an example:

     grub> serial --unit=0 --speed=9600
     grub> terminal serial

   The command `serial' initializes the serial unit 0 with the speed
9600bps. The serial unit 0 is usually called `COM1', so, if you want to
use COM2, you must specify `--unit=1' instead. This command accepts
many other options, so please refer to *note serial::, for more details.

   The command `terminal' (*note terminal::) chooses which type of
terminal you want to use. In the case above, the terminal will be a
serial terminal, but you can also pass `console' to the command, as
`terminal serial console'. In this case, a terminal in which you press
any key will be selected as a GRUB terminal.

   However, note that GRUB assumes that your terminal emulator is
compatible with VT100 by default. This is true for most terminal
emulators nowadays, but you should pass the option `--dumb' to the
command if your terminal emulator is not VT100-compatible or implements
few VT100 escape sequences. If you specify this option then GRUB
provides you with an alternative menu interface, because the normal
menu requires several fancy features of your terminal.

File: grub.info,  Node: Preset Menu,  Next: Security,  Prev: Serial terminal,  Up: Top

8 Embedding a configuration file into GRUB
******************************************

GRUB supports a "preset menu" which is to be always loaded before
starting. The preset menu feature is useful, for example, when your
computer has no console but a serial cable. In this case, it is
critical to set up the serial terminal as soon as possible, since you
cannot see any message until the serial terminal begins to work. So it
is good to run the commands `serial' (*note serial::) and `terminal'
(*note terminal::) before anything else at the start-up time.

   How the preset menu works is slightly complicated:

  1. GRUB checks if the preset menu feature is used, and loads the
     preset menu, if available. This includes running commands and
     reading boot entries, like an ordinary configuration file.

  2. GRUB checks if the configuration file is available. Note that this
     check is performed *regardless of the existence of the preset
     menu*. The configuration file is loaded even if the preset menu was
     loaded.

  3. If the preset menu includes any boot entries, they are cleared when
     the configuration file is loaded. It doesn't matter whether the
     configuration file has any entries or no entry. The boot entries
     in the preset menu are used only when GRUB fails in loading the
     configuration file.

   To enable the preset menu feature, you must rebuild GRUB specifying a
file to the configure script with the option `--enable-preset-menu'.
The file has the same semantics as normal configuration files (*note
Configuration::).

   Another point you should take care is that the diskless support
(*note Diskless::) diverts the preset menu. Diskless images embed a
preset menu to execute the command `bootp' (*note bootp::)
automatically, unless you specify your own preset menu to the configure
script. This means that you must put commands to initialize a network in
the preset menu yourself, because diskless images don't set it up
implicitly, when you use the preset menu explicitly.

   Therefore, a typical preset menu used with diskless support would be
like this:

     # Set up the serial terminal, first of all.
     serial --unit=0 --speed=19200
     terminal --timeout=0 serial

     # Initialize the network.
     dhcp

File: grub.info,  Node: Security,  Next: Images,  Prev: Preset Menu,  Up: Top

9 Protecting your computer from cracking
****************************************

You may be interested in how to prevent ordinary users from doing
whatever they like, if you share your computer with other people. So
this chapter describes how to improve the security of GRUB.

   One thing which could be a security hole is that the user can do too
many things with GRUB, because GRUB allows one to modify its
configuration and run arbitrary commands at run-time. For example, the
user can even read `/etc/passwd' in the command-line interface by the
command `cat' (*note cat::). So it is necessary to disable all the
interactive operations.

   Thus, GRUB provides a "password" feature, so that only administrators
can start the interactive operations (i.e. editing menu entries and
entering the command-line interface). To use this feature, you need to
run the command `password' in your configuration file (*note
password::), like this:

     password --encrypted PASSWORD

   If this is specified, GRUB disallows any interactive control, until
you press the key <p> and enter a correct password.  The option
`--encrypted' tells GRUB that `PASSWORD' is encrypted format.  If it is
omitted, GRUB assumes the `PASSWORD' is in clear text.

   You can encrypt your password with the program `grub-crypt' (*note
Invoking grub-crypt::). Then, cut and paste the encrypted password to
your configuration file.

   Also, you can specify an optional argument to `password'. See this
example:

     password PASSWORD /boot/grub/menu-admin.lst

   In this case, GRUB will load `/boot/grub/menu-admin.lst' as a
configuration file when you enter the valid password.

   Another thing which may be dangerous is that any user can choose any
menu entry. Usually, this wouldn't be problematic, but you might want to
permit only administrators to run some of your menu entries, such as an
entry for booting an insecure OS like DOS.

   GRUB provides the command `lock' (*note lock::). This command always
fails until you enter the valid password, so you can use it, like this:

     title Boot DOS
     lock
     rootnoverify (hd0,1)
     makeactive
     chainload +1

   You should insert `lock' right after `title', because any user can
execute commands in an entry until GRUB encounters `lock'.

   You can also use the command `password' instead of `lock'. In this
case the boot process will ask for the password and stop if it was
entered incorrectly.  Since the `password' takes its own PASSWORD
argument this is useful if you want different passwords for different
entries.

File: grub.info,  Node: Images,  Next: Filesystem,  Prev: Security,  Up: Top

10 GRUB image files
*******************

GRUB consists of several images: two essential stages, optional stages
called "Stage 1.5", one image for bootable CD-ROM, and two network boot
images. Here is a short overview of them. *Note Internals::, for more
details.

`stage1'
     This is an essential image used for booting up GRUB. Usually, this
     is embedded in an MBR or the boot sector of a partition. Because a
     PC boot sector is 512 bytes, the size of this image is exactly 512
     bytes.

     All `stage1' must do is to load Stage 2 or Stage 1.5 from a local
     disk. Because of the size restriction, `stage1' encodes the
     location of Stage 2 (or Stage 1.5) in a block list format, so it
     never understand any filesystem structure.

`stage2'
     This is the core image of GRUB. It does everything but booting up
     itself. Usually, this is put in a filesystem, but that is not
     required.

`e2fs_stage1_5'
`fat_stage1_5'
`ffs_stage1_5'
`jfs_stage1_5'
`minix_stage1_5'
`reiserfs_stage1_5'
`vstafs_stage1_5'
`xfs_stage1_5'
     These are called "Stage 1.5", because they serve as a bridge
     between `stage1' and `stage2', that is to say, Stage 1.5 is loaded
     by Stage 1 and Stage 1.5 loads Stage 2. The difference between
     `stage1' and `*_stage1_5' is that the former doesn't understand
     any filesystem while the latter understands one filesystem (e.g.
     `e2fs_stage1_5' understands ext2fs). So you can move the Stage 2
     image to another location safely, even after GRUB has been
     installed.

     While Stage 2 cannot generally be embedded in a fixed area as the
     size is so large, Stage 1.5 can be installed into the area right
     after an MBR, or the boot loader area of a ReiserFS or a FFS.

`stage2_eltorito'
     This is a boot image for CD-ROMs using the "no emulation mode" in
     El Torito specification. This is identical to Stage 2, except that
     this boots up without Stage 1 and sets up a special drive `(cd)'.

`nbgrub'
     This is a network boot image for the Network Image Proposal used
     by some network boot loaders, such as Etherboot. This is mostly
     the same as Stage 2, but it also sets up a network and loads a
     configuration file from the network.

`pxegrub'
     This is another network boot image for the Preboot Execution
     Environment used by several Netboot ROMs. This is identical to
     `nbgrub', except for the format.

File: grub.info,  Node: Filesystem,  Next: Interface,  Prev: Images,  Up: Top

11 Filesystem syntax and semantics
**********************************

GRUB uses a special syntax for specifying disk drives which can be
accessed by BIOS. Because of BIOS limitations, GRUB cannot distinguish
between IDE, ESDI, SCSI, or others. You must know yourself which BIOS
device is equivalent to which OS device. Normally, that will be clear if
you see the files in a device or use the command `find' (*note find::).

* Menu:

* Device syntax::               How to specify devices
* File name syntax::            How to specify files
* Block list syntax::           How to specify block lists

File: grub.info,  Node: Device syntax,  Next: File name syntax,  Up: Filesystem

11.1 How to specify devices
===========================

The device syntax is like this:

     `(DEVICE[,PART-NUM][,BSD-SUBPART-LETTER])'

   `[]' means the parameter is optional. DEVICE should be either `fd'
or `hd' followed by a digit, like `fd0'.  But you can also set DEVICE
to a hexadecimal or a decimal number which is a BIOS drive number, so
the following are equivalent:

     (hd0)
     (0x80)
     (128)

   PART-NUM represents the partition number of DEVICE, starting from
zero for primary partitions and from four for extended partitions, and
BSD-SUBPART-LETTER represents the BSD disklabel subpartition, such as
`a' or `e'.

   A shortcut for specifying BSD subpartitions is
`(DEVICE,BSD-SUBPART-LETTER)', in this case, GRUB searches for the
first PC partition containing a BSD disklabel, then finds the
subpartition BSD-SUBPART-LETTER. Here is an example:

     (hd0,a)

   The syntax `(hd0)' represents using the entire disk (or the MBR when
installing GRUB), while the syntax `(hd0,0)' represents using the first
partition of the disk (or the boot sector of the partition when
installing GRUB).

   If you enabled the network support, the special drive, `(nd)', is
also available. Before using the network drive, you must initialize the
network. *Note Network::, for more information.

   If you boot GRUB from a CD-ROM, `(cd)' is available. *Note Making a
GRUB bootable CD-ROM::, for details.

File: grub.info,  Node: File name syntax,  Next: Block list syntax,  Prev: Device syntax,  Up: Filesystem

11.2 How to specify files
=========================

There are two ways to specify files, by "absolute file name" and by
"block list".

   An absolute file name resembles a Unix absolute file name, using `/'
for the directory separator (not `\' as in DOS). One example is
`(hd0,0)/boot/grub/grub.conf'. This means the file
`/boot/grub/grub.conf' in the first partition of the first hard disk.
If you omit the device name in an absolute file name, GRUB uses GRUB's
"root device" implicitly. So if you set the root device to, say,
`(hd1,0)' by the command `root' (*note root::), then `/boot/kernel' is
the same as `(hd1,0)/boot/kernel'.

File: grub.info,  Node: Block list syntax,  Prev: File name syntax,  Up: Filesystem

11.3 How to specify block lists
===============================

A block list is used for specifying a file that doesn't appear in the
filesystem, like a chainloader. The syntax is
`[OFFSET]+LENGTH[,[OFFSET]+LENGTH]...'.  Here is an example:

     `0+100,200+1,300+300'

   This represents that GRUB should read blocks 0 through 99, block 200,
and blocks 300 through 599. If you omit an offset, then GRUB assumes
the offset is zero.

   Like the file name syntax (*note File name syntax::), if a blocklist
does not contain a device name, then GRUB uses GRUB's "root device". So
`(hd0,1)+1' is the same as `+1' when the root device is `(hd0,1)'.

File: grub.info,  Node: Interface,  Next: Commands,  Prev: Filesystem,  Up: Top

12 GRUB's user interface
************************

GRUB has both a simple menu interface for choosing preset entries from a
configuration file, and a highly flexible command-line for performing
any desired combination of boot commands.

   GRUB looks for its configuration file as soon as it is loaded. If one
is found, then the full menu interface is activated using whatever
entries were found in the file. If you choose the "command-line" menu
option, or if the configuration file was not found, then GRUB drops to
the command-line interface.

* Menu:

* Command-line interface::      The flexible command-line interface
* Menu interface::              The simple menu interface
* Menu entry editor::           Editing a menu entry
* Hidden menu interface::       The hidden menu interface

File: grub.info,  Node: Command-line interface,  Next: Menu interface,  Up: Interface

12.1 The flexible command-line interface
========================================

The command-line interface provides a prompt and after it an editable
text area much like a command-line in Unix or DOS. Each command is
immediately executed after it is entered(1) (*note Command-line
interface-Footnote-1::). The commands (*note Command-line and menu
entry commands::) are a subset of those available in the configuration
file, used with exactly the same syntax.

   Cursor movement and editing of the text on the line can be done via a
subset of the functions available in the Bash shell:

<C-f>
<PC right key>
     Move forward one character.

<C-b>
<PC left key>
     Move back one character.

<C-a>
<HOME>
     Move to the start of the line.

<C-e>
<END>
     Move the the end of the line.

<C-d>
<DEL>
     Delete the character underneath the cursor.

<C-h>
<BS>
     Delete the character to the left of the cursor.

<C-k>
     Kill the text from the current cursor position to the end of the
     line.

<C-u>
     Kill backward from the cursor to the beginning of the line.

<C-y>
     Yank the killed text back into the buffer at the cursor.

<C-p>
<PC up key>
     Move up through the history list.

<C-n>
<PC down key>
     Move down through the history list.

   When typing commands interactively, if the cursor is within or before
the first word in the command-line, pressing the <TAB> key (or <C-i>)
will display a listing of the available commands, and if the cursor is
after the first word, the `<TAB>' will provide a completion listing of
disks, partitions, and file names depending on the context. Note that
to obtain a list of drives, one must open a parenthesis, as `root ('.

   Note that you cannot use the completion functionality in the TFTP
filesystem. This is because TFTP doesn't support file name listing for
the security.

File: grub.info,  Node: Menu interface,  Next: Menu entry editor,  Prev: Command-line interface,  Up: Interface

12.2 The simple menu interface
==============================

The menu interface is quite easy to use. Its commands are both
reasonably intuitive and described on screen.

   Basically, the menu interface provides a list of "boot entries" to
the user to choose from. Use the arrow keys to select the entry of
choice, then press <RET> to run it.  An optional timeout is available
to boot the default entry (the first one if not set), which is aborted
by pressing any key.

   Commands are available to enter a bare command-line by pressing <c>
(which operates exactly like the non-config-file version of GRUB, but
allows one to return to the menu if desired by pressing <ESC>) or to
edit any of the "boot entries" by pressing <e>.

   If you protect the menu interface with a password (*note Security::),
all you can do is choose an entry by pressing <RET>, or press <p> to
enter the password.

File: grub.info,  Node: Menu entry editor,  Next: Hidden menu interface,  Prev: Menu interface,  Up: Interface

12.3 Editing a menu entry
=========================

The menu entry editor looks much like the main menu interface, but the
lines in the menu are individual commands in the selected entry instead
of entry names.

   If an <ESC> is pressed in the editor, it aborts all the changes made
to the configuration entry and returns to the main menu interface.

   When a particular line is selected, the editor places the user in a
special version of the GRUB command-line to edit that line.  When the
user hits <RET>, GRUB replaces the line in question in the boot entry
with the changes (unless it was aborted via <ESC>, in which case the
changes are thrown away).

   If you want to add a new line to the menu entry, press <o> if adding
a line after the current line or press <O> if before the current line.

   To delete a line, hit the key <d>. Although GRUB unfortunately does
not support "undo", you can do almost the same thing by just returning
to the main menu.

File: grub.info,  Node: Hidden menu interface,  Prev: Menu entry editor,  Up: Interface

12.4 The hidden menu interface
==============================

When your terminal is dumb or you request GRUB to hide the menu
interface explicitly with the command `hiddenmenu' (*note
hiddenmenu::), GRUB doesn't show the menu interface (*note Menu
interface::) and automatically boots the default entry, unless
interrupted by pressing <ESC>.

   When you interrupt the timeout and your terminal is dumb, GRUB falls
back to the command-line interface (*note Command-line interface::).

File: grub.info,  Node: Commands,  Next: Troubleshooting,  Prev: Interface,  Up: Top

13 The list of available commands
*********************************

In this chapter, we list all commands that are available in GRUB.

   Commands belong to different groups. A few can only be used in the
global section of the configuration file (or "menu"); most of them can
be entered on the command-line and can be used either anywhere in the
menu or specifically in the menu entries.

* Menu:

* Menu-specific commands::
* General commands::
* Command-line and menu entry commands::

File: grub.info,  Node: Menu-specific commands,  Next: General commands,  Up: Commands

13.1 The list of commands for the menu only
===========================================

The semantics used in parsing the configuration file are the following:

   * The menu-specific commands have to be used before any others.

   * The files _must_ be in plain-text format.

   * `#' at the beginning of a line in a configuration file means it is
     only a comment.

   * Options are separated by spaces.

   * All numbers can be either decimal or hexadecimal. A hexadecimal
     number must be preceded by `0x', and is case-insensitive.

   * Extra options or text at the end of the line are ignored unless
     otherwise specified.

   * Unrecognized commands are added to the current entry, except
     before entries start, where they are ignored.

   These commands can only be used in the menu:

* Menu:

* default::                     Set the default entry
* fallback::                    Set the fallback entry
* hiddenmenu::                  Hide the menu interface
* timeout::                     Set the timeout
* title::                       Start a menu entry

File: grub.info,  Node: default,  Next: fallback,  Up: Menu-specific commands

13.1.1 default
--------------

 -- Command: default num
     Set the default entry to the entry number NUM. Numbering starts
     from 0, and the entry number 0 is the default if the command is not
     used.

     You can specify `saved' instead of a number. In this case, the
     default entry is the entry saved with the command `savedefault'.
     *Note savedefault::, for more information.

File: grub.info,  Node: fallback,  Next: hiddenmenu,  Prev: default,  Up: Menu-specific commands

13.1.2 fallback
---------------

 -- Command: fallback num...
     Go into unattended boot mode: if the default boot entry has any
     errors, instead of waiting for the user to do something,
     immediately start over using the NUM entry (same numbering as the
     `default' command (*note default::)). This obviously won't help if
     the machine was rebooted by a kernel that GRUB loaded. You can
     specify multiple fallback entry numbers.

File: grub.info,  Node: hiddenmenu,  Next: timeout,  Prev: fallback,  Up: Menu-specific commands

13.1.3 hiddenmenu
-----------------

 -- Command: hiddenmenu
     Don't display the menu. If the command is used, no menu will be
     displayed on the control terminal, and the default entry will be
     booted after the timeout expired. The user can still request the
     menu to be displayed by pressing <ESC> before the timeout expires.
     See also *note Hidden menu interface::.

File: grub.info,  Node: timeout,  Next: title,  Prev: hiddenmenu,  Up: Menu-specific commands

13.1.4 timeout
--------------

 -- Command: timeout sec
     Set a timeout, in SEC seconds, before automatically booting the
     default entry (normally the first entry defined).

File: grub.info,  Node: title,  Prev: timeout,  Up: Menu-specific commands

13.1.5 title
------------

 -- Command: title name ...
     Start a new boot entry, and set its name to the contents of the
     rest of the line, starting with the first non-space character.

File: grub.info,  Node: General commands,  Next: Command-line and menu entry commands,  Prev: Menu-specific commands,  Up: Commands

13.2 The list of general commands
=================================

Commands usable anywhere in the menu and in the command-line.

* Menu:

* bootp::                       Initialize a network device via BOOTP
* color::                       Color the menu interface
* device::                      Specify a file as a drive
* dhcp::                        Initialize a network device via DHCP
* hide::                        Hide a partition
* ifconfig::                    Configure a network device manually
* pager::                       Change the state of the internal pager
* partnew::                     Make a primary partition
* parttype::                    Change the type of a partition
* password::                    Set a password for the menu interface
* rarp::                        Initialize a network device via RARP
* serial::                      Set up a serial device
* setkey::                      Configure the key map
* splashimage::                 Use a splash image
* terminal::                    Choose a terminal
* terminfo::                    Define escape sequences for a terminal
* tftpserver::                  Specify a TFTP server
* unhide::                      Unhide a partition

File: grub.info,  Node: bootp,  Next: color,  Up: General commands

13.2.1 bootp
------------

 -- Command: bootp [`--with-configfile']
     Initialize a network device via the "BOOTP" protocol. This command
     is only available if GRUB is compiled with netboot support. See
     also *note Network::.

     If you specify `--with-configfile' to this command, GRUB will
     fetch and load a configuration file specified by your BOOTP server
     with the vendor tag `150'.

File: grub.info,  Node: color,  Next: device,  Prev: bootp,  Up: General commands

13.2.2 color
------------

 -- Command: color normal [highlight]
     Change the menu colors. The color NORMAL is used for most lines in
     the menu (*note Menu interface::), and the color HIGHLIGHT is used
     to highlight the line where the cursor points. If you omit
     HIGHLIGHT, then the inverted color of NORMAL is used for the
     highlighted line. The format of a color is
     `FOREGROUND/BACKGROUND'. FOREGROUND and BACKGROUND are symbolic
     color names. A symbolic color name must be one of these:

        * black

        * blue

        * green

        * cyan

        * red

        * magenta

        * brown

        * light-gray

          *These below can be specified only for the foreground.*

        * dark-gray

        * light-blue

        * light-green

        * light-cyan

        * light-red

        * light-magenta

        * yellow

        * white

     But only the first eight names can be used for BACKGROUND. You can
     prefix `blink-' to FOREGROUND if you want a blinking foreground
     color.

     This command can be used in the configuration file and on the
     command line, so you may write something like this in your
     configuration file:

          # Set default colors.
          color light-gray/blue black/light-gray

          # Change the colors.
          title OS-BS like
          color magenta/blue black/magenta

File: grub.info,  Node: device,  Next: dhcp,  Prev: color,  Up: General commands

13.2.3 device
-------------

 -- Command: device drive file
     In the grub shell, specify the file FILE as the actual drive for a
     BIOS drive DRIVE. You can use this command to create a disk image,
     and/or to fix the drives guessed by GRUB when GRUB fails to
     determine them correctly, like this:

          grub> device (fd0) /floppy-image
          grub> device (hd0) /dev/sd0

     This command can be used only in the grub shell (*note Invoking
     the grub shell::).

File: grub.info,  Node: dhcp,  Next: hide,  Prev: device,  Up: General commands

13.2.4 dhcp
-----------

 -- Command: dhcp [-with-configfile]
     Initialize a network device via the "DHCP" protocol. Currently,
     this command is just an alias for `bootp', since the two protocols
     are very similar. This command is only available if GRUB is
     compiled with netboot support. See also *note Network::.

     If you specify `--with-configfile' to this command, GRUB will
     fetch and load a configuration file specified by your DHCP server
     with the vendor tag `150'.

File: grub.info,  Node: hide,  Next: ifconfig,  Prev: dhcp,  Up: General commands

13.2.5 hide
-----------

 -- Command: hide partition
     Hide the partition PARTITION by setting the "hidden" bit in its
     partition type code. This is useful only when booting DOS or
     Windows and multiple primary FAT partitions exist in one disk. See
     also *note DOS/Windows::.

File: grub.info,  Node: ifconfig,  Next: pager,  Prev: hide,  Up: General commands

13.2.6 ifconfig
---------------

 -- Command: ifconfig [`--server=server'] [`--gateway=gateway']
          [`--mask=mask'] [`--address=address']
     Configure the IP address, the netmask, the gateway, and the server
     address of a network device manually. The values must be in dotted
     decimal format, like `192.168.11.178'. The order of the options is
     not important. This command shows current network configuration,
     if no option is specified. See also *note Network::.

File: grub.info,  Node: pager,  Next: partnew,  Prev: ifconfig,  Up: General commands

13.2.7 pager
------------

 -- Command: pager [flag]
     Toggle or set the state of the internal pager. If FLAG is `on',
     the internal pager is enabled. If FLAG is `off', it is disabled.
     If no argument is given, the state is toggled.

File: grub.info,  Node: partnew,  Next: parttype,  Prev: pager,  Up: General commands

13.2.8 partnew
--------------

 -- Command: partnew part type from len
     Create a new primary partition. PART is a partition specification
     in GRUB syntax (*note Naming convention::); TYPE is the partition
     type and must be a number in the range `0-0xff'; FROM is the
     starting address and LEN is the length, both in sector units.

File: grub.info,  Node: parttype,  Next: password,  Prev: partnew,  Up: General commands

13.2.9 parttype
---------------

 -- Command: parttype part type
     Change the type of an existing partition.  PART is a partition
     specification in GRUB syntax (*note Naming convention::); TYPE is
     the new partition type and must be a number in the range 0-0xff.

File: grub.info,  Node: password,  Next: rarp,  Prev: parttype,  Up: General commands

13.2.10 password
----------------

 -- Command: password [`--md5'] [`--encrypted'] passwd [new-config-file]
     If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all
     interactive editing control (menu entry editor and command-line)
     and entries protected by the command `lock'. If the password
     PASSWD is entered, it loads the NEW-CONFIG-FILE as a new config
     file and restarts the GRUB Stage 2, if NEW-CONFIG-FILE is
     specified. Otherwise, GRUB will just unlock the privileged
     instructions.  You can also use this command in the script
     section, in which case it will ask for the password, before
     continuing.  The option `--md5' tells GRUB that PASSWD is
     encrypted with `md5crypt' (*note md5crypt::), the option
     `--encrypted' tells GRUB that PASSWD is using one of the crypt
     formats (GRUB currently supports MD5, SHA-256 and SHA-512
     encryption).

File: grub.info,  Node: rarp,  Next: serial,  Prev: password,  Up: General commands

13.2.11 rarp
------------

 -- Command: rarp
     Initialize a network device via the "RARP" protocol.  This command
     is only available if GRUB is compiled with netboot support. See
     also *note Network::.

File: grub.info,  Node: serial,  Next: setkey,  Prev: rarp,  Up: General commands

13.2.12 serial
--------------

 -- Command: serial [`--unit=unit'] [`--port=port'] [`--speed=speed']
          [`--word=word'] [`--parity=parity'] [`--stop=stop']
          [`--device=dev']
     Initialize a serial device. UNIT is a number in the range 0-3
     specifying which serial port to use; default is 0, which
     corresponds to the port often called COM1. PORT is the I/O port
     where the UART is to be found; if specified it takes precedence
     over UNIT.  SPEED is the transmission speed; default is 9600. WORD
     and STOP are the number of data bits and stop bits. Data bits must
     be in the range 5-8 and stop bits must be 1 or 2. Default is 8 data
     bits and one stop bit. PARITY is one of `no', `odd', `even' and
     defaults to `no'. The option `--device' can only be used in the
     grub shell and is used to specify the tty device to be used in the
     host operating system (*note Invoking the grub shell::).

     The serial port is not used as a communication channel unless the
     `terminal' command is used (*note terminal::).

     This command is only available if GRUB is compiled with serial
     support. See also *note Serial terminal::.

File: grub.info,  Node: setkey,  Next: splashimage,  Prev: serial,  Up: General commands

13.2.13 setkey
--------------

 -- Command: setkey [to_key from_key]
     Change the keyboard map. The key FROM_KEY is mapped to the key
     TO_KEY. If no argument is specified, reset key mappings. Note that
     this command _does not_ exchange the keys. If you want to exchange
     the keys, run this command again with the arguments exchanged,
     like this:

          grub> setkey capslock control
          grub> setkey control capslock

     A key must be an alphabet letter, a digit, or one of these symbols:
     `escape', `exclam', `at', `numbersign', `dollar', `percent',
     `caret', `ampersand', `asterisk', `parenleft', `parenright',
     `minus', `underscore', `equal', `plus', `backspace', `tab',
     `bracketleft', `braceleft', `bracketright', `braceright', `enter',
     `control', `semicolon', `colon', `quote', `doublequote',
     `backquote', `tilde', `shift', `backslash', `bar', `comma',
     `less', `period', `greater', `slash', `question', `alt', `space',
     `capslock', `FX' (`X' is a digit), and `delete'. This table
     describes to which character each of the symbols corresponds:

    `exclam'
          `!'

    `at'
          `@'

    `numbersign'
          `#'

    `dollar'
          `$'

    `percent'
          `%'

    `caret'
          `^'

    `ampersand'
          `&'

    `asterisk'
          `*'

    `parenleft'
          `('

    `parenright'
          `)'

    `minus'
          `-'

    `underscore'
          `_'

    `equal'
          `='

    `plus'
          `+'

    `bracketleft'
          `['

    `braceleft'
          `{'

    `bracketright'
          `]'

    `braceright'
          `}'

    `semicolon'
          `;'

    `colon'
          `:'

    `quote'
          `''

    `doublequote'
          `"'

    `backquote'
          ``'

    `tilde'
          `~'

    `backslash'
          `\'

    `bar'
          `|'

    `comma'
          `,'

    `less'
          `<'

    `period'
          `.'

    `greater'
          `>'

    `slash'
          `/'

    `question'
          `?'

    `space'
          ` '

File: grub.info,  Node: splashimage,  Next: terminal,  Prev: setkey,  Up: General commands

13.2.14 splashimage
-------------------

 -- Command: splashimage file
     Select an image to use as the background image.  This should be
     specified using normal GRUB device naming syntax.  The format of
     the file is a gzipped xpm which is 640x480 with a 14 color palette.

File: grub.info,  Node: terminal,  Next: terminfo,  Prev: splashimage,  Up: General commands

13.2.15 terminal
----------------

 -- Command: terminal [`--dumb'] [`--no-echo'] [`--no-edit']
          [`--timeout=secs'] [`--lines=lines'] [`--silent'] [`console']
          [`serial'] [`hercules']
     Select a terminal for user interaction. The terminal is assumed to
     be VT100-compatible unless `--dumb' is specified. If both
     `console' and `serial' are specified, then GRUB will use the one
     where a key is entered first or the first when the timeout
     expires. If neither are specified, the current setting is
     reported. This command is only available if GRUB is compiled with
     serial support. See also *note Serial terminal::.

     This may not make sense for most users, but GRUB supports Hercules
     console as well. Hercules console is usable like the ordinary
     console, and the usage is quite similar to that for serial
     terminals: specify `hercules' as the argument.

     The option `--lines' defines the number of lines in your terminal,
     and it is used for the internal pager function. If you don't
     specify this option, the number is assumed as 24.

     The option `--silent' suppresses the message to prompt you to hit
     any key. This might be useful if your system has no terminal
     device.

     The option `--no-echo' has GRUB not to echo back input characters.
     This implies the option `--no-edit'.

     The option `--no-edit' disables the BASH-like editing feature.

File: grub.info,  Node: terminfo,  Next: tftpserver,  Prev: terminal,  Up: General commands

13.2.16 terminfo
----------------

 -- Command: terminfo `--name=name' `--cursor-address=seq'
          [`--clear-screen=seq'] [`--enter-standout-mode=seq']
          [`--exit-standout-mode=seq']
     Define the capabilities of your terminal. Use this command to
     define escape sequences, if it is not vt100-compatible. You may
     use `\e' for <ESC> and `^X' for a control character.

     You can use the utility `grub-terminfo' to generate appropriate
     arguments to this command. *Note Invoking grub-terminfo::.

     If no option is specified, the current settings are printed.

File: grub.info,  Node: tftpserver,  Next: unhide,  Prev: terminfo,  Up: General commands

13.2.17 tftpserver
------------------

 -- Command: tftpserver ipaddr
     *Caution:* This command exists only for backward compatibility.
     Use `ifconfig' (*note ifconfig::) instead.

     Override a TFTP server address returned by a BOOTP/DHCP/RARP
     server. The argument IPADDR must be in dotted decimal format, like
     `192.168.0.15'.  This command is only available if GRUB is compiled
     with netboot support. See also *note Network::.

File: grub.info,  Node: unhide,  Prev: tftpserver,  Up: General commands

13.2.18 unhide
--------------

 -- Command: unhide partition
     Unhide the partition PARTITION by clearing the "hidden" bit in its
     partition type code. This is useful only when booting DOS or
     Windows and multiple primary partitions exist on one disk. See also
     *note DOS/Windows::.

File: grub.info,  Node: Command-line and menu entry commands,  Prev: General commands,  Up: Commands

13.3 The list of command-line and menu entry commands
=====================================================

These commands are usable in the command-line and in menu entries.  If
you forget a command, you can run the command `help' (*note help::).

* Menu:

* blocklist::                   Get the block list notation of a file
* boot::                        Start up your operating system
* cat::                         Show the contents of a file
* chainloader::                 Chain-load another boot loader
* cmp::                         Compare two files
* configfile::                  Load a configuration file
* debug::                       Toggle the debug flag
* displayapm::                  Display APM information
* displaymem::                  Display memory configuration
* embed::                       Embed Stage 1.5
* find::                        Find a file
* fstest::                      Test a filesystem
* geometry::                    Manipulate the geometry of a drive
* halt::                        Shut down your computer
* help::                        Show help messages
* impsprobe::                   Probe SMP
* initrd::                      Load an initrd
* install::                     Install GRUB
* ioprobe::                     Probe I/O ports used for a drive
* kernel::                      Load a kernel
* lock::                        Lock a menu entry
* macappend::                   Append BOOTIF param to kernel cmd line
* makeactive::                  Make a partition active
* map::                         Map a drive to another
* md5crypt::                    Encrypt a password in MD5 format
* module::                      Load a module
* modulenounzip::               Load a module without decompression
* pause::                       Wait for a key press
* quit::                        Exit from the grub shell
* reboot::                      Reboot your computer
* read::                        Read data from memory
* root::                        Set GRUB's root device
* rootnoverify::                Set GRUB's root device without mounting
* savedefault::                 Save current entry as the default entry
* setup::                       Set up GRUB's installation automatically
* testload::                    Load a file for testing a filesystem
* testvbe::                     Test VESA BIOS EXTENSION
* uppermem::                    Set the upper memory size
* vbeprobe::                    Probe VESA BIOS EXTENSION

File: grub.info,  Node: blocklist,  Next: boot,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.1 blocklist
----------------

 -- Command: blocklist file
     Print the block list notation of the file FILE. *Note Block list
     syntax::.

File: grub.info,  Node: boot,  Next: cat,  Prev: blocklist,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.2 boot
-----------

 -- Command: boot
     Boot the OS or chain-loader which has been loaded. Only necessary
     if running the fully interactive command-line (it is implicit at
     the end of a menu entry).

File: grub.info,  Node: cat,  Next: chainloader,  Prev: boot,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.3 cat
----------

 -- Command: cat file
     Display the contents of the file FILE. This command may be useful
     to remind you of your OS's root partition:

          grub> cat /etc/fstab

File: grub.info,  Node: chainloader,  Next: cmp,  Prev: cat,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.4 chainloader
------------------

 -- Command: chainloader [`--force'] file
     Load FILE as a chain-loader. Like any other file loaded by the
     filesystem code, it can use the blocklist notation to grab the
     first sector of the current partition with `+1'. If you specify the
     option `--force', then load FILE forcibly, whether it has a
     correct signature or not. This is required when you want to load a
     defective boot loader, such as SCO UnixWare 7.1 (*note SCO
     UnixWare::).

File: grub.info,  Node: cmp,  Next: configfile,  Prev: chainloader,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.5 cmp
----------

 -- Command: cmp file1 file2
     Compare the file FILE1 with the file FILE2. If they differ in
     size, print the sizes like this:

          Differ in size: 0x1234 [foo], 0x4321 [bar]

     If the sizes are equal but the bytes at an offset differ, then
     print the bytes like this:

          Differ at the offset 777: 0xbe [foo], 0xef [bar]

     If they are completely identical, nothing will be printed.

File: grub.info,  Node: configfile,  Next: debug,  Prev: cmp,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.6 configfile
-----------------

 -- Command: configfile file
     Load FILE as a configuration file.

File: grub.info,  Node: debug,  Next: displayapm,  Prev: configfile,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.7 debug
------------

 -- Command: debug
     Toggle debug mode (by default it is off). When debug mode is on,
     some extra messages are printed to show disk activity. This global
     debug flag is mainly useful for GRUB developers when testing new
     code.

File: grub.info,  Node: displayapm,  Next: displaymem,  Prev: debug,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.8 displayapm
-----------------

 -- Command: displayapm
     Display APM BIOS information.

File: grub.info,  Node: displaymem,  Next: embed,  Prev: displayapm,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.9 displaymem
-----------------

 -- Command: displaymem
     Display what GRUB thinks the system address space map of the
     machine is, including all regions of physical RAM installed. GRUB's
     "upper/lower memory" display uses the standard BIOS interface for
     the available memory in the first megabyte, or "lower memory", and
     a synthesized number from various BIOS interfaces of the memory
     starting at 1MB and going up to the first chipset hole for "upper
     memory" (the standard PC "upper memory" interface is limited to
     reporting a maximum of 64MB).

File: grub.info,  Node: embed,  Next: find,  Prev: displaymem,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.10 embed
-------------

 -- Command: embed stage1_5 device
     Embed the Stage 1.5 STAGE1_5 in the sectors after the MBR if
     DEVICE is a drive, or in the "boot loader" area if DEVICE is a FFS
     partition or a ReiserFS partition.(1) (*note embed-Footnote-1::)
     Print the number of sectors which STAGE1_5 occupies, if successful.

     Usually, you don't need to run this command directly. *Note
     setup::.

File: grub.info,  Node: find,  Next: fstest,  Prev: embed,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.11 find
------------

 -- Command: find filename
     Search for the file name FILENAME in all mountable partitions and
     print the list of the devices which contain the file. The file
     name FILENAME should be an absolute file name like
     `/boot/grub/stage1'.

File: grub.info,  Node: fstest,  Next: geometry,  Prev: find,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.12 fstest
--------------

 -- Command: fstest
     Toggle filesystem test mode.  Filesystem test mode, when turned
     on, prints out data corresponding to all the device reads and what
     values are being sent to the low-level routines. The format is
     `<PARTITION-OFFSET-SECTOR, BYTE-OFFSET, BYTE-LENGTH>' for
     high-level reads inside a partition, and `[DISK-OFFSET-SECTOR]'
     for low-level sector requests from the disk.  Filesystem test mode
     is turned off by any use of the `install' (*note install::) or
     `testload' (*note testload::) commands.

File: grub.info,  Node: geometry,  Next: halt,  Prev: fstest,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.13 geometry
----------------

 -- Command: geometry drive [cylinder head sector [total_sector]]
     Print the information for the drive DRIVE. In the grub shell, you
     can set the geometry of the drive arbitrarily. The number of
     cylinders, the number of heads, the number of sectors and the
     number of total sectors are set to CYLINDER, HEAD, SECTOR and
     TOTAL_SECTOR, respectively. If you omit TOTAL_SECTOR, then it will
     be calculated based on the C/H/S values automatically.

File: grub.info,  Node: halt,  Next: help,  Prev: geometry,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.14 halt
------------

 -- Command: halt `--no-apm'
     The command halts the computer. If the `--no-apm' option is
     specified, no APM BIOS call is performed. Otherwise, the computer
     is shut down using APM.

File: grub.info,  Node: help,  Next: impsprobe,  Prev: halt,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.15 help
------------

 -- Command: help `--all' [pattern ...]
     Display helpful information about builtin commands. If you do not
     specify PATTERN, this command shows short descriptions of most of
     available commands. If you specify the option `--all' to this
     command, short descriptions of rarely used commands (such as *note
     testload::) are displayed as well.

     If you specify any PATTERNS, it displays longer information about
     each of the commands which match those PATTERNS.

File: grub.info,  Node: impsprobe,  Next: initrd,  Prev: help,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.16 impsprobe
-----------------

 -- Command: impsprobe
     Probe the Intel Multiprocessor Specification 1.1 or 1.4
     configuration table and boot the various CPUs which are found into
     a tight loop. This command can be used only in the Stage 2, but
     not in the grub shell.

File: grub.info,  Node: initrd,  Next: install,  Prev: impsprobe,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.17 initrd
--------------

 -- Command: initrd file ...
     Load an initial ramdisk for a Linux format boot image and set the
     appropriate parameters in the Linux setup area in memory. See also
     *note GNU/Linux::.

File: grub.info,  Node: install,  Next: ioprobe,  Prev: initrd,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.18 install
---------------

 -- Command: install [`--force-lba'] [`--stage2=os_stage2_file']
          stage1_file [`d'] dest_dev stage2_file [addr] [`p']
          [config_file] [real_config_file]
     This command is fairly complex, and you should not use this command
     unless you are familiar with GRUB. Use `setup' (*note setup::)
     instead.

     In short, it will perform a full install presuming the Stage 2 or
     Stage 1.5(1) (*note install-Footnote-1::) is in its final install
     location.

     In slightly more detail, it will load STAGE1_FILE, validate that
     it is a GRUB Stage 1 of the right version number, install in it a
     blocklist for loading STAGE2_FILE as a Stage 2. If the option `d'
     is present, the Stage 1 will always look for the actual disk
     STAGE2_FILE was installed on, rather than using the booting drive.
     The Stage 2 will be loaded at address ADDR, which must be `0x8000'
     for a true Stage 2, and `0x2000' for a Stage 1.5. If ADDR is not
     present, GRUB will determine the address automatically. It then
     writes the completed Stage 1 to the first block of the device
     DEST_DEV. If the options `p' or CONFIG_FILE are present, then it
     reads the first block of stage2, modifies it with the values of
     the partition STAGE2_FILE was found on (for `p') or places the
     string CONFIG_FILE into the area telling the stage2 where to look
     for a configuration file at boot time. Likewise, if
     REAL_CONFIG_FILE is present and STAGE2_FILE is a Stage 1.5, then
     the Stage 2 CONFIG_FILE is patched with the configuration file
     name REAL_CONFIG_FILE. This command preserves the DOS BPB (and for
     hard disks, the partition table) of the sector the Stage 1 is to
     be installed into.

     *Caution:* Several buggy BIOSes don't pass a booting drive
     properly when booting from a hard disk drive. Therefore, you will
     unfortunately have to specify the option `d', whether your Stage2
     resides at the booting drive or not, if you have such a BIOS. We
     know these are defective in this way:


          Fujitsu LifeBook 400 BIOS version 31J0103A


          HP Vectra XU 6/200 BIOS version GG.06.11

     *Caution2:* A number of BIOSes don't return a correct LBA support
     bitmap even if they do have the support. So GRUB provides a
     solution to ignore the wrong bitmap, that is, the option
     `--force-lba'. Don't use this option if you know that your BIOS
     doesn't have LBA support.

     *Caution3:* You must specify the option `--stage2' in the grub
     shell, if you cannot unmount the filesystem where your stage2 file
     resides. The argument should be the file name in your operating
     system.

File: grub.info,  Node: ioprobe,  Next: kernel,  Prev: install,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.19 ioprobe
---------------

 -- Command: ioprobe drive
     Probe I/O ports used for the drive DRIVE. This command will list
     the I/O ports on the screen. For technical information, *Note
     Internals::.

File: grub.info,  Node: kernel,  Next: lock,  Prev: ioprobe,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.20 kernel
--------------

 -- Command: kernel [`--type=type'] [`--no-mem-option'] file ...
     Attempt to load the primary boot image (Multiboot a.out or ELF,
     Linux zImage or bzImage, FreeBSD a.out, NetBSD a.out, etc.) from
     FILE. The rest of the line is passed verbatim as the "kernel
     command-line". Any modules must be reloaded after using this
     command.

     This command also accepts the option `--type' so that you can
     specify the kernel type of FILE explicitly. The argument TYPE must
     be one of these: `netbsd', `freebsd', `openbsd', `linux',
     `biglinux', and `multiboot'. However, you need to specify it only
     if you want to load a NetBSD ELF kernel, because GRUB can
     automatically determine a kernel type in the other cases, quite
     safely.

     The option `--no-mem-option' is effective only for Linux. If the
     option is specified, GRUB doesn't pass the option `mem=' to the
     kernel.  This option is implied for Linux kernels 2.4.18 and newer.

File: grub.info,  Node: lock,  Next: macappend,  Prev: kernel,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.21 lock
------------

 -- Command: lock
     Prevent normal users from executing arbitrary menu entries. You
     must use the command `password' if you really want this command to
     be useful (*note password::).

     This command is used in a menu, as shown in this example:

          title This entry is too dangerous to be executed by normal users
          lock
          root (hd0,a)
          kernel /no-security-os

     See also *note Security::.

File: grub.info,  Node: macappend,  Next: makeactive,  Prev: lock,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.22 macappend
-----------------

 -- Command: macappend
     Append BOOTIF=<hardware-address-of-boot-interface> to the cmdline.
     This allows an initrd program to determine which interface the
     system booted from.

File: grub.info,  Node: makeactive,  Next: map,  Prev: macappend,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.23 makeactive
------------------

 -- Command: makeactive
     Set the active partition on the root disk to GRUB's root device.
     This command is limited to _primary_ PC partitions on a hard disk.

File: grub.info,  Node: map,  Next: md5crypt,  Prev: makeactive,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.24 map
-----------

 -- Command: map to_drive from_drive
     Map the drive FROM_DRIVE to the drive TO_DRIVE. This is necessary
     when you chain-load some operating systems, such as DOS, if such
     an OS resides at a non-first drive. Here is an example:

          grub> map (hd0) (hd1)
          grub> map (hd1) (hd0)

     The example exchanges the order between the first hard disk and the
     second hard disk. See also *note DOS/Windows::.

File: grub.info,  Node: md5crypt,  Next: module,  Prev: map,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.25 md5crypt
----------------

 -- Command: md5crypt
     Prompt to enter a password, and encrypt it in MD5 format. The
     encrypted password can be used with the command `password' (*note
     password::). See also *note Security::.

File: grub.info,  Node: module,  Next: modulenounzip,  Prev: md5crypt,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.26 module
--------------

 -- Command: module file ...
     Load a boot module FILE for a Multiboot format boot image (no
     interpretation of the file contents are made, so the user of this
     command must know what the kernel in question expects). The rest
     of the line is passed as the "module command-line", like the
     `kernel' command. You must load a Multiboot kernel image before
     loading any module. See also *note modulenounzip::.

File: grub.info,  Node: modulenounzip,  Next: pause,  Prev: module,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.27 modulenounzip
---------------------

 -- Command: modulenounzip file ...
     The same as `module' (*note module::), except that automatic
     decompression is disabled.

File: grub.info,  Node: pause,  Next: quit,  Prev: modulenounzip,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.28 pause
-------------

 -- Command: pause message ...
     Print the MESSAGE, then wait until a key is pressed. Note that
     placing <^G> (ASCII code 7) in the message will cause the speaker
     to emit the standard beep sound, which is useful when prompting
     the user to change floppies.

File: grub.info,  Node: quit,  Next: reboot,  Prev: pause,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.29 quit
------------

 -- Command: quit
     Exit from the grub shell `grub' (*note Invoking the grub shell::).
     This command can be used only in the grub shell.

File: grub.info,  Node: reboot,  Next: read,  Prev: quit,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.30 reboot
--------------

 -- Command: reboot
     Reboot the computer.

File: grub.info,  Node: read,  Next: root,  Prev: reboot,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.31 read
------------

 -- Command: read addr
     Read a 32-bit value from memory at address ADDR and display it in
     hex format.

File: grub.info,  Node: root,  Next: rootnoverify,  Prev: read,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.32 root
------------

 -- Command: root device [hdbias]
     Set the current "root device" to the device DEVICE, then attempt
     to mount it to get the partition size (for passing the partition
     descriptor in `ES:ESI', used by some chain-loaded boot loaders),
     the BSD drive-type (for booting BSD kernels using their native
     boot format), and correctly determine the PC partition where a BSD
     sub-partition is located. The optional HDBIAS parameter is a
     number to tell a BSD kernel how many BIOS drive numbers are on
     controllers before the current one. For example, if there is an
     IDE disk and a SCSI disk, and your FreeBSD root partition is on
     the SCSI disk, then use a `1' for HDBIAS.

     See also *note rootnoverify::.

File: grub.info,  Node: rootnoverify,  Next: savedefault,  Prev: root,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.33 rootnoverify
--------------------

 -- Command: rootnoverify device [hdbias]
     Similar to `root' (*note root::), but don't attempt to mount the
     partition. This is useful for when an OS is outside of the area of
     the disk that GRUB can read, but setting the correct root device
     is still desired. Note that the items mentioned in `root' above
     which derived from attempting the mount will _not_ work correctly.

File: grub.info,  Node: savedefault,  Next: setup,  Prev: rootnoverify,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.34 savedefault
-------------------

 -- Command: savedefault num
     Save the current menu entry or NUM if specified as a default
     entry. Here is an example:

          default saved
          timeout 10

          title GNU/Linux
          root (hd0,0)
          kernel /boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/sda1 vga=ext
          initrd /boot/initrd
          savedefault

          title FreeBSD
          root (hd0,a)
          kernel /boot/loader
          savedefault

     With this configuration, GRUB will choose the entry booted
     previously as the default entry.

     You can specify `fallback' instead of a number. Then, next
     fallback entry is saved. Next fallback entry is chosen from
     fallback entries. Normally, this will be the first entry in
     fallback ones.

     See also *note default:: and *note Invoking grub-set-default::.

File: grub.info,  Node: setup,  Next: testload,  Prev: savedefault,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.35 setup
-------------

 -- Command: setup [`--force-lba'] [`--stage2=os_stage2_file']
          [`--prefix=dir'] install_device [image_device]
     Set up the installation of GRUB automatically. This command uses
     the more flexible command `install' (*note install::) in the
     backend and installs GRUB into the device INSTALL_DEVICE. If
     IMAGE_DEVICE is specified, then find the GRUB images (*note
     Images::) in the device IMAGE_DEVICE, otherwise use the current
     "root device", which can be set by the command `root'. If
     INSTALL_DEVICE is a hard disk, then embed a Stage 1.5 in the disk
     if possible.

     The option `--prefix' specifies the directory under which GRUB
     images are put. If it is not specified, GRUB automatically
     searches them in `/boot/grub' and `/grub'.

     The options `--force-lba' and `--stage2' are just passed to
     `install' if specified. *Note install::, for more information.

File: grub.info,  Node: testload,  Next: testvbe,  Prev: setup,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.36 testload
----------------

 -- Command: testload file
     Read the entire contents of FILE in several different ways and
     compare them, to test the filesystem code. The output is somewhat
     cryptic, but if no errors are reported and the final `i=X,
     filepos=Y' reading has X and Y equal, then it is definitely
     consistent, and very likely works correctly subject to a
     consistent offset error. If this test succeeds, then a good next
     step is to try loading a kernel.

File: grub.info,  Node: testvbe,  Next: uppermem,  Prev: testload,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.37 testvbe
---------------

 -- Command: testvbe mode
     Test the VESA BIOS EXTENSION mode MODE. This command will switch
     your video card to the graphics mode, and show an endless
     animation. Hit any key to return. See also *note vbeprobe::.

File: grub.info,  Node: uppermem,  Next: vbeprobe,  Prev: testvbe,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.38 uppermem
----------------

 -- Command: uppermem kbytes
     Force GRUB to assume that only KBYTES kilobytes of upper memory
     are installed. Any system address range maps are discarded.

     *Caution:* This should be used with great caution, and should only
     be necessary on some old machines. GRUB's BIOS probe can pick up
     all RAM on all new machines the author has ever heard of. It can
     also be used for debugging purposes to lie to an OS.

File: grub.info,  Node: vbeprobe,  Prev: uppermem,  Up: Command-line and menu entry commands

13.3.39 vbeprobe
----------------

 -- Command: vbeprobe [mode]
     Probe VESA BIOS EXTENSION information. If the mode MODE is
     specified, show only the information about MODE. Otherwise, this
     command lists up available VBE modes on the screen. See also *note
     testvbe::.

File: grub.info,  Node: Troubleshooting,  Next: Invoking the grub shell,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Top

14 Error messages reported by GRUB
**********************************

This chapter describes error messages reported by GRUB when you
encounter trouble. *Note Invoking the grub shell::, if your problem is
specific to the grub shell.

* Menu:

* Stage1 errors::               Errors reported by the Stage 1
* Stage1.5 errors::             Errors reported by the Stage 1.5
* Stage2 errors::               Errors reported by the Stage 2

File: grub.info,  Node: Stage1 errors,  Next: Stage1.5 errors,  Up: Troubleshooting

14.1 Errors reported by the Stage 1
===================================

The general way that the Stage 1 handles errors is to print an error
string and then halt. Pressing `<CTRL>-<ALT>-<DEL>' will reboot.

   The following is a comprehensive list of error messages for the
Stage 1:

Hard Disk Error
     The stage2 or stage1.5 is being read from a hard disk, and the
     attempt to determine the size and geometry of the hard disk failed.

Floppy Error
     The stage2 or stage1.5 is being read from a floppy disk, and the
     attempt to determine the size and geometry of the floppy disk
     failed. It's listed as a separate error since the probe sequence
     is different than for hard disks.

Read Error
     A disk read error happened while trying to read the stage2 or
     stage1.5.

Geom Error
     The location of the stage2 or stage1.5 is not in the portion of
     the disk supported directly by the BIOS read calls.  This could
     occur because the BIOS translated geometry has been changed by the
     user or the disk is moved to another machine or controller after
     installation, or GRUB was not installed using itself (if it was,
     the Stage 2 version of this error would have been seen during that
     process and it would not have completed the install).

File: grub.info,  Node: Stage1.5 errors,  Next: Stage2 errors,  Prev: Stage1 errors,  Up: Troubleshooting

14.2 Errors reported by the Stage 1.5
=====================================

The general way that the Stage 1.5 handles errors is to print an error
number in the form `Error NUM' and then halt. Pressing
`<CTRL>-<ALT>-<DEL>' will reboot.

   The error numbers correspond to the errors reported by Stage 2.
*Note Stage2 errors::.

File: grub.info,  Node: Stage2 errors,  Prev: Stage1.5 errors,  Up: Troubleshooting

14.3 Errors reported by the Stage 2
===================================

The general way that the Stage 2 handles errors is to abort the
operation in question, print an error string, then (if possible) either
continue based on the fact that an error occurred or wait for the user
to deal with the error.

   The following is a comprehensive list of error messages for the
Stage 2 (error numbers for the Stage 1.5 are listed before the colon in
each description):

1 : Filename must be either an absolute filename or blocklist
     This error is returned if a file name is requested which doesn't
     fit the syntax/rules listed in the *note Filesystem::.

2 : Bad file or directory type
     This error is returned if a file requested is not a regular file,
     but something like a symbolic link, directory, or FIFO.

3 : Bad or corrupt data while decompressing file
     This error is returned if the run-length decompression code gets an
     internal error. This is usually from a corrupt file.

4 : Bad or incompatible header in compressed file
     This error is returned if the file header for a supposedly
     compressed file is bad.

5 : Partition table invalid or corrupt
     This error is returned if the sanity checks on the integrity of the
     partition table fail. This is a bad sign.

6 : Mismatched or corrupt version of stage1/stage2
     This error is returned if the install command points to
     incompatible or corrupt versions of the stage1 or stage2. It can't
     detect corruption in general, but this is a sanity check on the
     version numbers, which should be correct.

7 : Loading below 1MB is not supported
     This error is returned if the lowest address in a kernel is below
     the 1MB boundary. The Linux zImage format is a special case and
     can be handled since it has a fixed loading address and maximum
     size.

8 : Kernel must be loaded before booting
     This error is returned if GRUB is told to execute the boot sequence
     without having a kernel to start.

9 : Unknown boot failure
     This error is returned if the boot attempt did not succeed for
     reasons which are unknown.

10 : Unsupported Multiboot features requested
     This error is returned when the Multiboot features word in the
     Multiboot header requires a feature that is not recognized. The
     point of this is that the kernel requires special handling which
     GRUB is probably unable to provide.

11 : Unrecognized device string
     This error is returned if a device string was expected, and the
     string encountered didn't fit the syntax/rules listed in the *note
     Filesystem::.

12 : Invalid device requested
     This error is returned if a device string is recognizable but does
     not fall under the other device errors.

13 : Invalid or unsupported executable format
     This error is returned if the kernel image being loaded is not
     recognized as Multiboot or one of the supported native formats
     (Linux zImage or bzImage, FreeBSD, or NetBSD).

14 : Filesystem compatibility error, cannot read whole file
     Some of the filesystem reading code in GRUB has limits on the
     length of the files it can read. This error is returned when the
     user runs into such a limit.

15 : File not found
     This error is returned if the specified file name cannot be found,
     but everything else (like the disk/partition info) is OK.

16 : Inconsistent filesystem structure
     This error is returned by the filesystem code to denote an internal
     error caused by the sanity checks of the filesystem structure on
     disk not matching what it expects. This is usually caused by a
     corrupt filesystem or bugs in the code handling it in GRUB.

17 : Cannot mount selected partition
     This error is returned if the partition requested exists, but the
     filesystem type cannot be recognized by GRUB.

18 : Selected cylinder exceeds maximum supported by BIOS
     This error is returned when a read is attempted at a linear block
     address beyond the end of the BIOS translated area. This generally
     happens if your disk is larger than the BIOS can handle (512MB for
     (E)IDE disks on older machines or larger than 8GB in general).

19 : Linux kernel must be loaded before initrd
     This error is returned if the initrd command is used before
     loading a Linux kernel.

20 : Multiboot kernel must be loaded before modules
     This error is returned if the module load command is used before
     loading a Multiboot kernel. It only makes sense in this case
     anyway, as GRUB has no idea how to communicate the presence of
     such modules to a non-Multiboot-aware kernel.

21 : Selected disk does not exist
     This error is returned if the device part of a device- or full
     file name refers to a disk or BIOS device that is not present or
     not recognized by the BIOS in the system.

22 : No such partition
     This error is returned if a partition is requested in the device
     part of a device- or full file name which isn't on the selected
     disk.

23 : Error while parsing number
     This error is returned if GRUB was expecting to read a number and
     encountered bad data.

24 : Attempt to access block outside partition
     This error is returned if a linear block address is outside of the
     disk partition. This generally happens because of a corrupt
     filesystem on the disk or a bug in the code handling it in GRUB
     (it's a great debugging tool).

25 : Disk read error
     This error is returned if there is a disk read error when trying to
     probe or read data from a particular disk.

26 : Too many symbolic links
     This error is returned if the link count is beyond the maximum
     (currently 5), possibly the symbolic links are looped.

27 : Unrecognized command
     This error is returned if an unrecognized command is entered on the
     command-line or in a boot sequence section of a configuration file
     and that entry is selected.

28 : Selected item cannot fit into memory
     This error is returned if a kernel, module, or raw file load
     command is either trying to load its data such that it won't fit
     into memory or it is simply too big.

29 : Disk write error
     This error is returned if there is a disk write error when trying
     to write to a particular disk. This would generally only occur
     during an install of set active partition command.

30 : Invalid argument
     This error is returned if an argument specified to a command is
     invalid.

31 : File is not sector aligned
     This error may occur only when you access a ReiserFS partition by
     block-lists (e.g. the command `install'). In this case, you should
     mount the partition with the `-o notail' option.

32 : Must be authenticated
     This error is returned if you try to run a locked entry. You should
     enter a correct password before running such an entry.

33 : Serial device not configured
     This error is returned if you try to change your terminal to a
     serial one before initializing any serial device.

34 : No spare sectors on the disk
     This error is returned if a disk doesn't have enough spare space.
     This happens when you try to embed Stage 1.5 into the unused
     sectors after the MBR, but the first partition starts right after
     the MBR or they are used by EZ-BIOS.

File: grub.info,  Node: Invoking the grub shell,  Next: Invoking grub-crypt,  Prev: Troubleshooting,  Up: Top

15 Invoking the grub shell
**************************

This chapter documents the grub shell `grub'. Note that the grub shell
is an emulator; it doesn't run under the native environment, so it
sometimes does something wrong. Therefore, you shouldn't trust it too
much. If there is anything wrong with it, don't hesitate to try the
native GRUB environment, especially when it guesses a wrong map between
BIOS drives and OS devices.

* Menu:

* Basic usage::                 How to use the grub shell
* Installation under UNIX::     How to install GRUB via `grub'
* Device map::                  The map between BIOS drives and OS devices

File: grub.info,  Node: Basic usage,  Next: Installation under UNIX,  Up: Invoking the grub shell

15.1 Introduction into the grub shell
=====================================

You can use the command `grub' for installing GRUB under your operating
systems and for a testbed when you add a new feature into GRUB or when
fixing a bug. `grub' is almost the same as the Stage 2, and, in fact,
it shares the source code with the Stage 2 and you can use the same
commands (*note Commands::) in `grub'. It is emulated by replacing BIOS
calls with UNIX system calls and libc functions.

   The command `grub' accepts the following options:

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command-line options and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version number of GRUB and exit.

`--verbose'
     Print some verbose messages for debugging purpose.

`--device-map=FILE'
     Use the device map file FILE. The format is described in *note
     Device map::.

`--no-floppy'
     Do not probe any floppy drive. This option has no effect if the
     option `--device-map' is specified (*note Device map::).

`--probe-second-floppy'
     Probe the second floppy drive. If this option is not specified,
     the grub shell does not probe it, as that sometimes takes a long
     time. If you specify the device map file (*note Device map::), the
     grub shell just ignores this option.

`--config-file=FILE'
     Read the configuration file FILE instead of
     `/boot/grub/grub.conf'. The format is the same as the normal GRUB
     syntax. See *note Filesystem::, for more information.

`--boot-drive=DRIVE'
     Set the stage2 BOOT_DRIVE to DRIVE. This argument should be an
     integer (decimal, octal or hexadecimal).

`--install-partition=PAR'
     Set the stage2 INSTALL_PARTITION to PAR. This argument should be
     an integer (decimal, octal or hexadecimal).

`--no-config-file'
     Do not use the configuration file even if it can be read.

`--no-curses'
     Do not use the screen handling interface by the curses even if it
     is available.

`--batch'
     This option has the same meaning as `--no-config-file --no-curses'.

`--read-only'
     Disable writing to any disk.

`--hold'
     Wait until a debugger will attach. This option is useful when you
     want to debug the startup code.

File: grub.info,  Node: Installation under UNIX,  Next: Device map,  Prev: Basic usage,  Up: Invoking the grub shell

15.2 How to install GRUB via `grub'
===================================

The installation procedure is the same as under the "native" Stage 2.
*Note Installation::, for more information. The command `grub'-specific
information is described here.

   What you should be careful about is "buffer cache". `grub' makes use
of raw devices instead of filesystems that your operating systems
serve, so there exists a potential problem that some cache
inconsistency may corrupt your filesystems. What we recommend is:

   * If you can unmount drives to which GRUB may write any amount of
     data, unmount them before running `grub'.

   * If a drive cannot be unmounted but can be mounted with the
     read-only flag, mount it in read-only mode. That should be secure.

   * If a drive must be mounted with the read-write flag, make sure
     that no activity is being done on it while the command `grub' is
     running.

   * Reboot your operating system as soon as possible. This is probably
     not required if you follow the rules above, but reboot is the most
     secure way.

   In addition, enter the command `quit' when you finish the
installation. That is _very important_ because `quit' makes the buffer
cache consistent. Do not push <C-c>.

   If you want to install GRUB non-interactively, specify `--batch'
option in the command-line. This is a simple example:

     #!/bin/sh

     # Use /usr/sbin/grub if you are on an older system.
     /sbin/grub --batch <<EOT 1>/dev/null 2>/dev/null
     root (hd0,0)
     setup (hd0)
     quit
     EOT

File: grub.info,  Node: Device map,  Prev: Installation under UNIX,  Up: Invoking the grub shell

15.3 The map between BIOS drives and OS devices
===============================================

When you specify the option `--device-map' (*note Basic usage::), the
grub shell creates the "device map file" automatically unless it
already exists. The file name `/boot/grub/device.map' is preferred.

   If the device map file exists, the grub shell reads it to map BIOS
drives to OS devices. This file consists of lines like this:

     DEVICE FILE

   DEVICE is a drive specified in the GRUB syntax (*note Device
syntax::), and FILE is an OS file, which is normally a device file.

   The reason why the grub shell gives you the device map file is that
it cannot guess the map between BIOS drives and OS devices correctly in
some environments. For example, if you exchange the boot sequence
between IDE and SCSI in your BIOS, it gets the order wrong.

   Thus, edit the file if the grub shell makes a mistake. You can put
any comments in the file if needed, as the grub shell assumes that a
line is just a comment if the first character is `#'.

File: grub.info,  Node: Invoking grub-crypt,  Next: Invoking grub-install,  Prev: Invoking the grub shell,  Up: Top

16 Invoking grub-crypt
**********************

The program `grub-crypt' encrypts a password in one of the specified
formats. Passwords encrypted by this program can be used with the
command `password' (*note password::).

   `grub-crypt' accepts the following options:

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command-line options and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version information and exit.

`--md5'
     Use MD5 for password encryption.

`--sha-256'
     Use SHA-256 for password encryption.

`--sha-512'
     Use SHA-512 for password encryption. This is the default.

File: grub.info,  Node: Invoking grub-install,  Next: Invoking grub-md5-crypt,  Prev: Invoking grub-crypt,  Up: Top

17 Invoking grub-install
************************

The program `grub-install' installs GRUB on your drive using the grub
shell (*note Invoking the grub shell::). You must specify the device
name on which you want to install GRUB, like this:

     grub-install INSTALL_DEVICE

   The device name INSTALL_DEVICE is an OS device name or a GRUB device
name.

   `grub-install' accepts the following options:

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command-line options and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version number of GRUB and exit.

`--force-lba'
     Force GRUB to use LBA mode even for a buggy BIOS. Use this option
     only if your BIOS doesn't work properly in LBA mode even though it
     supports LBA mode.

`--root-directory=DIR'
     Install GRUB images under the directory DIR instead of the root
     directory. This option is useful when you want to install GRUB
     into a separate partition or a removable disk. Here is an example
     in which you have a separate "boot" partition which is mounted on
     `/boot':

          grub-install --root-directory=/boot hd0

`--grub-shell=FILE'
     Use FILE as the grub shell. You can append arbitrary options to
     FILE after the file name, like this:

          grub-install --grub-shell="grub --read-only" /dev/fd0

`--recheck'
     Recheck the device map, even if `/boot/grub/device.map' already
     exists.

     This option is unreliable and its use is strongly discouraged.

File: grub.info,  Node: Invoking grub-md5-crypt,  Next: Invoking grub-terminfo,  Prev: Invoking grub-install,  Up: Top

18 Invoking grub-md5-crypt
**************************

The program `grub-md5-crypt' encrypts a password in MD5 format.  This
is just a frontend of the grub shell (*note Invoking the grub shell::).
Passwords encrypted by this program can be used with the command
`password' (*note password::).

   `grub-md5-crypt' accepts the following options:

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command-line options and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version information and exit.

`--grub-shell=FILE'
     Use FILE as the grub shell.

File: grub.info,  Node: Invoking grub-terminfo,  Next: Invoking grub-set-default,  Prev: Invoking grub-md5-crypt,  Up: Top

19 Invoking grub-terminfo
*************************

The program `grub-terminfo' generates a terminfo command from a
terminfo name (*note terminfo::). The result can be used in the
configuration file, to define escape sequences. Because GRUB assumes
that your terminal is vt100-compatible by default, this would be useful
only if your terminal is uncommon (such as vt52).

   `grub-terminfo' accepts the following options:

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command-line options and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version information and exit.

   You must specify one argument to this command. For example:

     grub-terminfo vt52

File: grub.info,  Node: Invoking grub-set-default,  Next: Invoking mbchk,  Prev: Invoking grub-terminfo,  Up: Top

20 Invoking grub-set-default
****************************

The program `grub-set-default' sets the default boot entry for GRUB.
This automatically creates a file named `default' under your GRUB
directory (i.e. `/boot/grub'), if it is not present. This file is used
to determine the default boot entry when GRUB boots up your system when
you use `default saved' in your configuration file (*note default::),
and to save next default boot entry when you use `savedefault' in a
boot entry (*note savedefault::).

   `grub-set-default' accepts the following options:

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command-line options and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version information and exit.

`--root-directory=DIR'
     Use the directory DIR instead of the root directory (i.e. `/') to
     define the location of the default file. This is useful when you
     mount a disk which is used for another system.

   You must specify a single argument to `grub-set-default'. This
argument is normally the number of a default boot entry. For example,
if you have this configuration file:

     default saved
     timeout 10

     title GNU/Hurd
     root (hd0,0)
     ...

     title GNU/Linux
     root (hd0,1)
     ...

   and if you want to set the next default boot entry to GNU/Linux, you
may execute this command:

     grub-set-default 1

   Because the entry for GNU/Linux is `1'. Note that entries are
counted from zero. So, if you want to specify GNU/Hurd here, then you
should specify `0'.

   This feature is very useful if you want to test a new kernel or to
make your system quite robust. *Note Making your system robust::, for
more hints about how to set up a robust system.

File: grub.info,  Node: Invoking mbchk,  Next: Obtaining and Building GRUB,  Prev: Invoking grub-set-default,  Up: Top

21 Invoking mbchk
*****************

The program `mbchk' checks for the format of a Multiboot kernel. We
recommend using this program before booting your own kernel by GRUB.

   `mbchk' accepts the following options:

`--help'
     Print a summary of the command-line options and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version number of GRUB and exit.

`--quiet'
     Suppress all normal output.

File: grub.info,  Node: Obtaining and Building GRUB,  Next: Reporting bugs,  Prev: Invoking mbchk,  Up: Top

Appendix A How to obtain and build GRUB
***************************************

     *Caution:* GRUB requires binutils-2.9.1.0.23 or later because the
     GNU assembler has been changed so that it can produce real 16bits
     machine code between 2.9.1 and 2.9.1.0.x. See
     `http://sources.redhat.com/binutils/', to obtain information on
     how to get the latest version.

   GRUB is available from the GNU alpha archive site
`ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub' or any of its mirrors. The file will be
named grub-version.tar.gz. The current version is 0.97, so the file you
should grab is:

   `ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/grub-0.97.tar.gz'

   To unbundle GRUB use the instruction:

     zcat grub-0.97.tar.gz | tar xvf -

   which will create a directory called `grub-0.97' with all the
sources. You can look at the file `INSTALL' for detailed instructions
on how to build and install GRUB, but you should be able to just do:

     cd grub-0.97
     ./configure
     make install

   This will install the grub shell `grub' (*note Invoking the grub
shell::), the Multiboot checker `mbchk' (*note Invoking mbchk::), and
the GRUB images. This will also install the GRUB manual.

   Also, the latest version is available from the CVS. See
`http://savannah.gnu.org/cvs/?group=grub' for more information.

File: grub.info,  Node: Reporting bugs,  Next: Future,  Prev: Obtaining and Building GRUB,  Up: Top

Appendix B Reporting bugs
*************************

These are the guideline for how to report bugs. Take a look at this
list below before you submit bugs:

  1. Before getting unsettled, read this manual through and through.
     Also, see the GNU GRUB FAQ
     (http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub-faq.html).

  2. Always mention the information on your GRUB. The version number
     and the configuration are quite important. If you build it
     yourself, write the options specified to the configure script and
     your operating system, including the versions of gcc and binutils.

  3. If you have trouble with the installation, inform us of how you
     installed GRUB. Don't omit error messages, if any. Just `GRUB hangs
     up when it boots' is not enough.

     The information on your hardware is also essential. These are
     especially important: the geometries and the partition tables of
     your hard disk drives and your BIOS.

  4. If GRUB cannot boot your operating system, write down _everything_
     you see on the screen. Don't paraphrase them, like `The foo OS
     crashes with GRUB, even though it can boot with the bar boot
     loader just fine'. Mention the commands you executed, the messages
     printed by them, and information on your operating system
     including the version number.

  5. Explain what you wanted to do. It is very useful to know your
     purpose and your wish, and how GRUB didn't satisfy you.

  6. If you can investigate the problem yourself, please do. That will
     give you and us much more information on the problem. Attaching a
     patch is even better.

     When you attach a patch, make the patch in unified diff format, and
     write ChangeLog entries. But, even when you make a patch, don't
     forget to explain the problem, so that we can understand what your
     patch is for.

  7. Write down anything that you think might be related. Please
     understand that we often need to reproduce the same problem you
     encounterred in our environment. So your information should be
     sufficient for us to do the same thing--Don't forget that we
     cannot see your computer directly. If you are not sure whether to
     state a fact or leave it out, state it!  Reporting too many things
     is much better than omitting something important.

   If you follow the guideline above, submit a report to the Bug
Tracking System (http://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=grub).
Alternatively, you can submit a report via electronic mail to
<bug-grubATgnu.org>, but we strongly recommend that you use the Bug
Tracking System, because e-mail can be passed over easily.

   Once we get your report, we will try to fix the bugs.

File: grub.info,  Node: Future,  Next: Internals,  Prev: Reporting bugs,  Up: Top

Appendix C Where GRUB will go
*****************************

We started the next generation of GRUB, GRUB 2. This will include
internationalization, dynamic module loading, real memory management,
multiple architecture support, a scripting language, and many other
nice feature. If you are interested in the development of GRUB 2, take
a look at the homepage (http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub.html).

File: grub.info,  Node: Internals,  Next: Index,  Prev: Future,  Up: Top

Appendix D Hacking GRUB
***********************

This chapter documents the user-invisible aspect of GRUB.

   As a general rule of software development, it is impossible to keep
the descriptions of the internals up-to-date, and it is quite hard to
document everything. So refer to the source code, whenever you are not
satisfied with this documentation.  Please assume that this gives just
hints to you.

* Menu:

* Memory map::                  The memory map of various components
* Embedded data::               Embedded variables in GRUB
* Filesystem interface::        The generic interface for filesystems
* Command interface::           The generic interface for built-ins
* Bootstrap tricks::            The bootstrap mechanism used in GRUB
* I/O ports detection::         How to probe I/O ports used by INT 13H
* Memory detection::            How to detect all installed RAM
* Low-level disk I/O::          INT 13H disk I/O interrupts
* MBR::                         The structure of Master Boot Record
* Partition table::             The format of partition tables
* Submitting patches::          Where and how you should send patches

File: grub.info,  Node: Memory map,  Next: Embedded data,  Up: Internals

D.1 The memory map of various components
========================================

GRUB consists of two distinct components, called "stages", which are
loaded at different times in the boot process. Because they run
mutual-exclusively, sometimes a memory area overlaps with another
memory area. And, even in one stage, a single memory area can be used
for various purposes, because their usages are mutually exclusive.

   Here is the memory map of the various components:

0 to 4K-1
     BIOS and real mode interrupts

0x07BE to 0x07FF
     Partition table passed to another boot loader

down from 8K-1
     Real mode stack

0x2000 to ?
     The optional Stage 1.5 is loaded here

0x2000 to 0x7FFF
     Command-line buffer for Multiboot kernels and modules

0x7C00 to 0x7DFF
     Stage 1 is loaded here by BIOS or another boot loader

0x7F00 to 0x7F42
     LBA drive parameters

0x8000 to ?
     Stage2 is loaded here

The end of Stage 2 to 416K-1
     Heap, in particular used for the menu

down from 416K-1
     Protected mode stack

416K to 448K-1
     Filesystem buffer

448K to 479.5K-1
     Raw device buffer

479.5K to 480K-1
     512-byte scratch area

480K to 512K-1
     Buffers for various functions, such as password, command-line, cut
     and paste, and completion.

The last 1K of lower memory
     Disk swapping code and data

   See the file `stage2/shared.h', for more information.

File: grub.info,  Node: Embedded data,  Next: Filesystem interface,  Prev: Memory map,  Up: Internals

D.2 Embedded variables in GRUB
==============================

Stage 1 and Stage 2 have embedded variables whose locations are
well-defined, so that the installation can patch the binary file
directly without recompilation of the stages.

   In Stage 1, these are defined:

`0x3E'
     The version number (not GRUB's, but the installation mechanism's).

`0x40'
     The boot drive. If it is 0xFF, use a drive passed by BIOS.

`0x41'
     The flag for if forcing LBA.

`0x42'
     The starting address of Stage 2.

`0x44'
     The first sector of Stage 2.

`0x48'
     The starting segment of Stage 2.

`0x1FE'
     The signature (`0xAA55').

   See the file `stage1/stage1.S', for more information.

   In the first sector of Stage 1.5 and Stage 2, the block lists are
recorded between `firstlist' and `lastlist'. The address of `lastlist'
is determined when assembling the file `stage2/start.S'.

   The trick here is that it is actually read backward, and the first
8-byte block list is not read here, but after the pointer is decremented
8 bytes, then after reading it, it decrements again, reads, and so on,
until it is finished. The terminating condition is when the number of
sectors to be read in the next block list is zero.

   The format of a block list can be seen from the example in the code
just before the `firstlist' label. Note that it is always from the
beginning of the disk, but _not_ relative to the partition boundaries.

   In the second sector of Stage 1.5 and Stage 2, these are defined:

`0x6'
     The version number (likewise, the installation mechanism's).

`0x8'
     The installed partition.

`0xC'
     The saved entry number.

`0x10'
     The identifier.

`0x11'
     The flag for if forcing LBA.

`0x12'
     The version string (GRUB's).

`0x12' + "the length of the version string"
     The name of a configuration file.

   See the file `stage2/asm.S', for more information.

File: grub.info,  Node: Filesystem interface,  Next: Command interface,  Prev: Embedded data,  Up: Internals

D.3 The generic interface for filesystems
=========================================

For any particular partition, it is presumed that only one of the
"normal" filesystems such as FAT, FFS, or ext2fs can be used, so there
is a switch table managed by the functions in `disk_io.c'. The notation
is that you can only "mount" one at a time.

   The block list filesystem has a special place in the system. In
addition to the "normal" filesystem (or even without one mounted), you
can access disk blocks directly (in the indicated partition) via the
block list notation. Using the block list filesystem doesn't effect any
other filesystem mounts.

   The variables which can be read by the filesystem backend are:

`current_drive'
     The current BIOS drive number (numbered from 0, if a floppy, and
     numbered from 0x80, if a hard disk).

`current_partition'
     The current partition number.

`current_slice'
     The current partition type.

`saved_drive'
     The "drive" part of the root device.

`saved_partition'
     The "partition" part of the root device.

`part_start'
     The current partition starting address, in sectors.

`part_length'
     The current partition length, in sectors.

`print_possibilities'
     True when the `dir' function should print the possible completions
     of a file, and false when it should try to actually open a file of
     that name.

`FSYS_BUF'
     Filesystem buffer which is 32K in size, to use in any way which the
     filesystem backend desires.

   The variables which need to be written by a filesystem backend are:

`filepos'
     The current position in the file, in sectors.

     *Caution:* the value of FILEPOS can be changed out from under the
     filesystem code in the current implementation. Don't depend on it
     being the same for later calls into the backend code!

`filemax'
     The length of the file.

`disk_read_func'
     The value of DISK_READ_HOOK _only_ during reading of data for the
     file, not any other fs data, inodes, FAT tables, whatever, then
     set to `NULL' at all other times (it will be `NULL' by default).
     If this isn't done correctly, then the `testload' and `install'
     commands won't work correctly.

   The functions expected to be used by the filesystem backend are:

`devread'
     Only read sectors from within a partition. Sector 0 is the first
     sector in the partition.

`grub_read'
     If the backend uses the block list code, then `grub_read' can be
     used, after setting BLOCK_FILE to 1.

`print_a_completion'
     If PRINT_POSSIBILITIES is true, call `print_a_completion' for each
     possible file name. Otherwise, the file name completion won't work.

   The functions expected to be defined by the filesystem backend are
described at least moderately in the file `filesys.h'. Their usage is
fairly evident from their use in the functions in `disk_io.c', look for
the use of the FSYS_TABLE array.

   *Caution:* The semantics are such that then `mount'ing the
filesystem, presume the filesystem buffer `FSYS_BUF' is corrupted, and
(re-)load all important contents. When opening and reading a file,
presume that the data from the `mount' is available, and doesn't get
corrupted by the open/read (i.e. multiple opens and/or reads will be
done with only one mount if in the same filesystem).

File: grub.info,  Node: Command interface,  Next: Bootstrap tricks,  Prev: Filesystem interface,  Up: Internals

D.4 The generic interface for built-ins
=======================================

GRUB built-in commands are defined in a uniformal interface, whether
they are menu-specific or can be used anywhere. The definition of a
builtin command consists of two parts: the code itself and the table of
the information.

   The code must be a function which takes two arguments, a command-line
string and flags, and returns an `int' value. The "flags" argument
specifies how the function is called, using a bit mask. The return
value must be zero if successful, otherwise non-zero. So it is normally
enough to return ERRNUM.

   The table of the information is represented by the structure `struct
builtin', which contains the name of the command, a pointer to the
function, flags, a short description of the command and a long
description of the command. Since the descriptions are used only for
help messages interactively, you don't have to define them, if the
command may not be called interactively (such as `title').

   The table is finally registered in the table BUILTIN_TABLE, so that
`run_script' and `enter_cmdline' can find the command. See the files
`cmdline.c' and `builtins.c', for more details.

File: grub.info,  Node: Bootstrap tricks,  Next: I/O ports detection,  Prev: Command interface,  Up: Internals

D.5 The bootstrap mechanism used in GRUB
========================================

The disk space can be used in a boot loader is very restricted because
a MBR (*note MBR::) is only 512 bytes but it also contains a partition
table (*note Partition table::) and a BPB. So the question is how to
make a boot loader code enough small to be fit in a MBR.

   However, GRUB is a very large program, so we break GRUB into 2 (or 3)
distinct components, "Stage 1" and "Stage 2" (and optionally "Stage
1.5"). *Note Memory map::, for more information.

   We embed Stage 1 in a MBR or in the boot sector of a partition, and
place Stage 2 in a filesystem. The optional Stage 1.5 can be installed
in a filesystem, in the "boot loader" area in a FFS or a ReiserFS, and
in the sectors right after a MBR, because Stage 1.5 is enough small and
the sectors right after a MBR is normally an unused region. The size of
this region is the number of sectors per head minus 1.

   Thus, all Stage1 must do is just load Stage2 or Stage1.5. But even if
Stage 1 needs not to support the user interface or the filesystem
interface, it is impossible to make Stage 1 less than 400 bytes, because
GRUB should support both the CHS mode and the LBA mode (*note Low-level
disk I/O::).

   The solution used by GRUB is that Stage 1 loads only the first
sector of Stage 2 (or Stage 1.5) and Stage 2 itself loads the rest. The
flow of Stage 1 is:

  1. Initialize the system briefly.

  2. Detect the geometry and the accessing mode of the "loading drive".

  3. Load the first sector of Stage 2.

  4. Jump to the starting address of the Stage 2.

   The flow of Stage 2 (and Stage 1.5) is:

  1. Load the rest of itself to the real starting address, that is, the
     starting address plus 512 bytes. The block lists are stored in the
     last part of the first sector.

  2. Long jump to the real starting address.

   Note that Stage 2 (or Stage 1.5) does not probe the geometry or the
accessing mode of the "loading drive", since Stage 1 has already probed
them.

File: grub.info,  Node: I/O ports detection,  Next: Memory detection,  Prev: Bootstrap tricks,  Up: Internals

D.6 How to probe I/O ports used by INT 13H
==========================================

FIXME: I will write this chapter after implementing the new technique.

File: grub.info,  Node: Memory detection,  Next: Low-level disk I/O,  Prev: I/O ports detection,  Up: Internals

D.7 How to detect all installed RAM
===================================

FIXME: I doubt if Erich didn't write this chapter only himself wholly,
so I will rewrite this chapter.

File: grub.info,  Node: Low-level disk I/O,  Next: MBR,  Prev: Memory detection,  Up: Internals

D.8 INT 13H disk I/O interrupts
===============================

FIXME: I'm not sure where some part of the original chapter is derived,
so I will rewrite this chapter.

File: grub.info,  Node: MBR,  Next: Partition table,  Prev: Low-level disk I/O,  Up: Internals

D.9 The structure of Master Boot Record
=======================================

FIXME: Likewise.

File: grub.info,  Node: Partition table,  Next: Submitting patches,  Prev: MBR,  Up: Internals

D.10 The format of partition tables
===================================

FIXME: Probably the original chapter is derived from "How It Works", so
I will rewrite this chapter.

File: grub.info,  Node: Submitting patches,  Prev: Partition table,  Up: Internals

D.11 Where and how you should send patches
==========================================

When you write patches for GRUB, please send them to the mailing list
<bug-grubATgnu.org>. Here is the list of items of which you should take
care:

   * Please make your patch as small as possible. Generally, it is not
     a good thing to make one big patch which changes many things.
     Instead, segregate features and produce many patches.

   * Use as late code as possible, for the original code. The CVS
     repository always has the current version (*note Obtaining and
     Building GRUB::).

   * Write ChangeLog entries. *Note Change Logs: (standards)Change
     Logs, if you don't know how to write ChangeLog.

   * Make patches in unified diff format. `diff -urN' is appropriate in
     most cases.

   * Don't make patches reversely. Reverse patches are difficult to
     read and use.

   * Be careful enough of the license term and the copyright. Because
     GRUB is under GNU General Public License, you may not steal code
     from software whose license is incompatible against GPL. And, if
     you copy code written by others, you must not ignore their
     copyrights. Feel free to ask GRUB maintainers, whenever you are
     not sure what you should do.

   * If your patch is too large to send in e-mail, put it at somewhere
     we can see. Usually, you shouldn't send e-mail over 20K.

File: grub.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: Internals,  Up: Top

Index
*****

[index]
* Menu:

* blocklist:                             blocklist.            (line  7)
* boot:                                  boot.                 (line  7)
* bootp:                                 bootp.                (line  7)
* cat:                                   cat.                  (line  7)
* chainloader:                           chainloader.          (line  7)
* cmp:                                   cmp.                  (line  7)
* color:                                 color.                (line  7)
* configfile:                            configfile.           (line  7)
* current_drive:                         Filesystem interface. (line 19)
* current_partition:                     Filesystem interface. (line 23)
* current_slice:                         Filesystem interface. (line 26)
* debug:                                 debug.                (line  7)
* default:                               default.              (line  7)
* device:                                device.               (line  7)
* devread:                               Filesystem interface. (line 71)
* dhcp:                                  dhcp.                 (line  7)
* disk_read_func:                        Filesystem interface. (line 62)
* displayapm:                            displayapm.           (line  7)
* displaymem:                            displaymem.           (line  7)
* embed:                                 embed.                (line  7)
* fallback:                              fallback.             (line  7)
* filemax:                               Filesystem interface. (line 59)
* filepos:                               Filesystem interface. (line 52)
* find:                                  find.                 (line  7)
* fstest:                                fstest.               (line  7)
* FSYS_BUF:                              Filesystem interface. (line 46)
* geometry:                              geometry.             (line  7)
* grub_read:                             Filesystem interface. (line 75)
* halt:                                  halt.                 (line  7)
* help:                                  help.                 (line  7)
* hiddenmenu:                            hiddenmenu.           (line  7)
* hide:                                  hide.                 (line  7)
* ifconfig:                              ifconfig.             (line  8)
* impsprobe:                             impsprobe.            (line  7)
* initrd:                                initrd.               (line  7)
* install:                               install.              (line  9)
* ioprobe:                               ioprobe.              (line  7)
* kernel:                                kernel.               (line  7)
* lock:                                  lock.                 (line  7)
* macappend:                             macappend.            (line  7)
* makeactive:                            makeactive.           (line  7)
* map:                                   map.                  (line  7)
* md5crypt:                              md5crypt.             (line  7)
* module:                                module.               (line  7)
* modulenounzip:                         modulenounzip.        (line  7)
* pager:                                 pager.                (line  7)
* part_length:                           Filesystem interface. (line 38)
* part_start:                            Filesystem interface. (line 35)
* partnew:                               partnew.              (line  7)
* parttype:                              parttype.             (line  7)
* password:                              password.             (line  7)
* pause:                                 pause.                (line  7)
* print_a_completion:                    Filesystem interface. (line 79)
* print_possibilities:                   Filesystem interface. (line 41)
* quit:                                  quit.                 (line  7)
* rarp:                                  rarp.                 (line  7)
* read:                                  read.                 (line  7)
* reboot:                                reboot.               (line  7)
* root:                                  root.                 (line  7)
* rootnoverify:                          rootnoverify.         (line  7)
* saved_drive:                           Filesystem interface. (line 29)
* saved_partition:                       Filesystem interface. (line 32)
* savedefault:                           savedefault.          (line  7)
* serial:                                serial.               (line  9)
* setkey:                                setkey.               (line  7)
* setup:                                 setup.                (line  8)
* splashimage:                           splashimage.          (line  7)
* terminal:                              terminal.             (line  9)
* terminfo:                              terminfo.             (line  9)
* testload:                              testload.             (line  7)
* testvbe:                               testvbe.              (line  7)
* tftpserver:                            tftpserver.           (line  7)
* timeout:                               timeout.              (line  7)
* title:                                 title.                (line  7)
* unhide:                                unhide.               (line  7)
* uppermem:                              uppermem.             (line  7)
* vbeprobe:                              vbeprobe.             (line  7)