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The Gnus Newsreader
*******************

You can read news (and mail) from within Emacs by using Gnus.  The news
can be gotten by any nefarious means you can think of--NNTP, local
spool or your mbox file.  All at the same time, if you want to push your
luck.

   This manual corresponds to Gnus v5.13

   Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003,
2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Starting Up::              Finding news can be a pain.
* Group Buffer::             Selecting, subscribing and killing groups.
* Summary Buffer::           Reading, saving and posting articles.
* Article Buffer::           Displaying and handling articles.
* Composing Messages::       Information on sending mail and news.
* Select Methods::           Gnus reads all messages from various select methods.
* Scoring::                  Assigning values to articles.
* Various::                  General purpose settings.
* The End::                  Farewell and goodbye.
* Appendices::               Terminology, Emacs intro, FAQ, History, Internals.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Index::                    Variable, function and concept index.
* Key Index::                Key Index.

Other related manuals

* Message:(message).         Composing messages.
* Emacs-MIME:(emacs-mime).   Composing messages; MIME-specific parts.
* Sieve:(sieve).             Managing Sieve scripts in Emacs.
* PGG:(pgg).                 PGP/MIME with Gnus.
* SASL:(sasl).               SASL authentication in Emacs.

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Starting Gnus

* Finding the News::            Choosing a method for getting news.
* The First Time::              What does Gnus do the first time you start it?
* The Server is Down::          How can I read my mail then?
* Slave Gnusae::                You can have more than one Gnus active at a time.
* Fetching a Group::            Starting Gnus just to read a group.
* New Groups::                  What is Gnus supposed to do with new groups?
* Changing Servers::            You may want to move from one server to another.
* Startup Files::               Those pesky startup files---`.newsrc'.
* Auto Save::                   Recovering from a crash.
* The Active File::             Reading the active file over a slow line Takes Time.
* Startup Variables::           Other variables you might change.

New Groups

* Checking New Groups::         Determining what groups are new.
* Subscription Methods::        What Gnus should do with new groups.
* Filtering New Groups::        Making Gnus ignore certain new groups.

Group Buffer

* Group Buffer Format::         Information listed and how you can change it.
* Group Maneuvering::           Commands for moving in the group buffer.
* Selecting a Group::           Actually reading news.
* Subscription Commands::       Unsubscribing, killing, subscribing.
* Group Data::                  Changing the info for a group.
* Group Levels::                Levels? What are those, then?
* Group Score::                 A mechanism for finding out what groups you like.
* Marking Groups::              You can mark groups for later processing.
* Foreign Groups::              Creating and editing groups.
* Group Parameters::            Each group may have different parameters set.
* Listing Groups::              Gnus can list various subsets of the groups.
* Sorting Groups::              Re-arrange the group order.
* Group Maintenance::           Maintaining a tidy `.newsrc' file.
* Browse Foreign Server::       You can browse a server.  See what it has to offer.
* Exiting Gnus::                Stop reading news and get some work done.
* Group Topics::                A folding group mode divided into topics.
* Non-ASCII Group Names::       Accessing groups of non-English names.
* Misc Group Stuff::            Other stuff that you can to do.

Group Buffer Format

* Group Line Specification::    Deciding how the group buffer is to look.
* Group Mode Line Specification::  The group buffer mode line.
* Group Highlighting::          Having nice colors in the group buffer.

Group Topics

* Topic Commands::              Interactive E-Z commands.
* Topic Variables::             How to customize the topics the Lisp Way.
* Topic Sorting::               Sorting each topic individually.
* Topic Topology::              A map of the world.
* Topic Parameters::            Parameters that apply to all groups in a topic.

Misc Group Stuff

* Scanning New Messages::       Asking Gnus to see whether new messages have arrived.
* Group Information::           Information and help on groups and Gnus.
* Group Timestamp::             Making Gnus keep track of when you last read a group.
* File Commands::               Reading and writing the Gnus files.
* Sieve Commands::              Managing Sieve scripts.

Summary Buffer

* Summary Buffer Format::       Deciding how the summary buffer is to look.
* Summary Maneuvering::         Moving around the summary buffer.
* Choosing Articles::           Reading articles.
* Paging the Article::          Scrolling the current article.
* Reply Followup and Post::     Posting articles.
* Delayed Articles::            Send articles at a later time.
* Marking Articles::            Marking articles as read, expirable, etc.
* Limiting::                    You can limit the summary buffer.
* Threading::                   How threads are made.
* Sorting the Summary Buffer::  How articles and threads are sorted.
* Asynchronous Fetching::       Gnus might be able to pre-fetch articles.
* Article Caching::             You may store articles in a cache.
* Persistent Articles::         Making articles expiry-resistant.
* Sticky Articles::             Article buffers that are not reused.
* Article Backlog::             Having already read articles hang around.
* Saving Articles::             Ways of customizing article saving.
* Decoding Articles::           Gnus can treat series of (uu)encoded articles.
* Article Treatment::           The article buffer can be mangled at will.
* MIME Commands::               Doing MIMEy things with the articles.
* Charsets::                    Character set issues.
* Article Commands::            Doing various things with the article buffer.
* Summary Sorting::             Sorting the summary buffer in various ways.
* Finding the Parent::          No child support? Get the parent.
* Alternative Approaches::      Reading using non-default summaries.
* Tree Display::                A more visual display of threads.
* Mail Group Commands::         Some commands can only be used in mail groups.
* Various Summary Stuff::       What didn't fit anywhere else.
* Exiting the Summary Buffer::  Returning to the Group buffer,
                                or reselecting the current group.
* Crosspost Handling::          How crossposted articles are dealt with.
* Duplicate Suppression::       An alternative when crosspost handling fails.
* Security::                    Decrypt and Verify.
* Mailing List::                Mailing list minor mode.

Summary Buffer Format

* Summary Buffer Lines::        You can specify how summary lines should look.
* To From Newsgroups::          How to not display your own name.
* Summary Buffer Mode Line::    You can say how the mode line should look.
* Summary Highlighting::        Making the summary buffer all pretty and nice.

Choosing Articles

* Choosing Commands::           Commands for choosing articles.
* Choosing Variables::          Variables that influence these commands.

Reply, Followup and Post

* Summary Mail Commands::       Sending mail.
* Summary Post Commands::       Sending news.
* Summary Message Commands::    Other Message-related commands.
* Canceling and Superseding::

Marking Articles

* Unread Articles::             Marks for unread articles.
* Read Articles::               Marks for read articles.
* Other Marks::                 Marks that do not affect readedness.
* Setting Marks::               How to set and remove marks.
* Generic Marking Commands::    How to customize the marking.
* Setting Process Marks::       How to mark articles for later processing.

Threading

* Customizing Threading::       Variables you can change to affect the threading.
* Thread Commands::             Thread based commands in the summary buffer.

Customizing Threading

* Loose Threads::               How Gnus gathers loose threads into bigger threads.
* Filling In Threads::          Making the threads displayed look fuller.
* More Threading::              Even more variables for fiddling with threads.
* Low-Level Threading::         You thought it was over... but you were wrong!

Decoding Articles

* Uuencoded Articles::          Uudecode articles.
* Shell Archives::              Unshar articles.
* PostScript Files::            Split PostScript.
* Other Files::                 Plain save and binhex.
* Decoding Variables::          Variables for a happy decoding.
* Viewing Files::               You want to look at the result of the decoding?

Decoding Variables

* Rule Variables::              Variables that say how a file is to be viewed.
* Other Decode Variables::      Other decode variables.
* Uuencoding and Posting::      Variables for customizing uuencoding.

Article Treatment

* Article Highlighting::        You want to make the article look like fruit salad.
* Article Fontisizing::         Making emphasized text look nice.
* Article Hiding::              You also want to make certain info go away.
* Article Washing::             Lots of way-neat functions to make life better.
* Article Header::              Doing various header transformations.
* Article Buttons::             Click on URLs, Message-IDs, addresses and the like.
* Article Button Levels::       Controlling appearance of buttons.
* Article Date::                Grumble, UT!
* Article Display::             Display various stuff---X-Face, Picons, Smileys
* Article Signature::           What is a signature?
* Article Miscellanea::         Various other stuff.

Alternative Approaches

* Pick and Read::               First mark articles and then read them.
* Binary Groups::               Auto-decode all articles.

Various Summary Stuff

* Summary Group Information::   Information oriented commands.
* Searching for Articles::      Multiple article commands.
* Summary Generation Commands::
* Really Various Summary Commands::  Those pesky non-conformant commands.

Article Buffer

* Hiding Headers::              Deciding what headers should be displayed.
* Using MIME::                  Pushing articles through MIME before reading them.
* Customizing Articles::        Tailoring the look of the articles.
* Article Keymap::              Keystrokes available in the article buffer.
* Misc Article::                Other stuff.

Composing Messages

* Mail::                        Mailing and replying.
* Posting Server::              What server should you post and mail via?
* POP before SMTP::             You cannot send a mail unless you read a mail.
* Mail and Post::               Mailing and posting at the same time.
* Archived Messages::           Where Gnus stores the messages you've sent.
* Posting Styles::              An easier way to specify who you are.
* Drafts::                      Postponing messages and rejected messages.
* Rejected Articles::           What happens if the server doesn't like your article?
* Signing and encrypting::      How to compose secure messages.

Select Methods

* Server Buffer::               Making and editing virtual servers.
* Getting News::                Reading USENET news with Gnus.
* Getting Mail::                Reading your personal mail with Gnus.
* Browsing the Web::            Getting messages from a plethora of Web sources.
* IMAP::                        Using Gnus as a IMAP client.
* Other Sources::               Reading directories, files, SOUP packets.
* Combined Groups::             Combining groups into one group.
* Email Based Diary::           Using mails to manage diary events in Gnus.
* Gnus Unplugged::              Reading news and mail offline.

Server Buffer

* Server Buffer Format::        You can customize the look of this buffer.
* Server Commands::             Commands to manipulate servers.
* Example Methods::             Examples server specifications.
* Creating a Virtual Server::   An example session.
* Server Variables::            Which variables to set.
* Servers and Methods::         You can use server names as select methods.
* Unavailable Servers::         Some servers you try to contact may be down.

Getting News

* NNTP::                        Reading news from an NNTP server.
* News Spool::                  Reading news from the local spool.

NNTP

* Direct Functions::            Connecting directly to the server.
* Indirect Functions::          Connecting indirectly to the server.
* Common Variables::            Understood by several connection functions.
* NNTP marks::                  Storing marks for NNTP servers.

Getting Mail

* Mail in a Newsreader::        Important introductory notes.
* Getting Started Reading Mail::  A simple cookbook example.
* Splitting Mail::              How to create mail groups.
* Mail Sources::                How to tell Gnus where to get mail from.
* Mail Back End Variables::     Variables for customizing mail handling.
* Fancy Mail Splitting::        Gnus can do hairy splitting of incoming mail.
* Group Mail Splitting::        Use group customize to drive mail splitting.
* Incorporating Old Mail::      What about the old mail you have?
* Expiring Mail::               Getting rid of unwanted mail.
* Washing Mail::                Removing cruft from the mail you get.
* Duplicates::                  Dealing with duplicated mail.
* Not Reading Mail::            Using mail back ends for reading other files.
* Choosing a Mail Back End::    Gnus can read a variety of mail formats.

Mail Sources

* Mail Source Specifiers::      How to specify what a mail source is.
* Mail Source Customization::   Some variables that influence things.
* Fetching Mail::               Using the mail source specifiers.

Choosing a Mail Back End

* Unix Mail Box::               Using the (quite) standard Un*x mbox.
* Babyl::                       Babyl was used by older versions of Rmail.
* Mail Spool::                  Store your mail in a private spool?
* MH Spool::                    An mhspool-like back end.
* Maildir::                     Another one-file-per-message format.
* Mail Folders::                Having one file for each group.
* Comparing Mail Back Ends::    An in-depth looks at pros and cons.

Browsing the Web

* Archiving Mail::
* Web Searches::                Creating groups from articles that match a string.
* Slashdot::                    Reading the Slashdot comments.
* Ultimate::                    The Ultimate Bulletin Board systems.
* Web Archive::                 Reading mailing list archived on web.
* RSS::                         Reading RDF site summary.
* Customizing W3::              Doing stuff to Emacs/W3 from Gnus.

IMAP

* Splitting in IMAP::           Splitting mail with nnimap.
* Expiring in IMAP::            Expiring mail with nnimap.
* Editing IMAP ACLs::           Limiting/enabling other users access to a mailbox.
* Expunging mailboxes::         Equivalent of a ``compress mailbox'' button.
* A note on namespaces::        How to (not) use IMAP namespace in Gnus.
* Debugging IMAP::              What to do when things don't work.

Other Sources

* Directory Groups::            You can read a directory as if it was a newsgroup.
* Anything Groups::             Dired?  Who needs dired?
* Document Groups::             Single files can be the basis of a group.
* SOUP::                        Reading SOUP packets ``offline''.
* Mail-To-News Gateways::       Posting articles via mail-to-news gateways.

Document Groups

* Document Server Internals::   How to add your own document types.

SOUP

* SOUP Commands::               Commands for creating and sending SOUP packets
* SOUP Groups::                 A back end for reading SOUP packets.
* SOUP Replies::                How to enable `nnsoup' to take over mail and news.

Combined Groups

* Virtual Groups::              Combining articles from many groups.
* Kibozed Groups::              Looking through parts of the newsfeed for articles.

Email Based Diary

* The NNDiary Back End::        Basic setup and usage.
* The Gnus Diary Library::      Utility toolkit on top of nndiary.
* Sending or Not Sending::      A final note on sending diary messages.

The NNDiary Back End

* Diary Messages::              What makes a message valid for nndiary.
* Running NNDiary::             NNDiary has two modes of operation.
* Customizing NNDiary::         Bells and whistles.

The Gnus Diary Library

* Diary Summary Line Format::           A nicer summary buffer line format.
* Diary Articles Sorting::              A nicer way to sort messages.
* Diary Headers Generation::            Not doing it manually.
* Diary Group Parameters::              Not handling them manually.

Gnus Unplugged

* Agent Basics::                How it all is supposed to work.
* Agent Categories::            How to tell the Gnus Agent what to download.
* Agent Commands::              New commands for all the buffers.
* Agent Visuals::               Ways that the agent may effect your summary buffer.
* Agent as Cache::              The Agent is a big cache too.
* Agent Expiry::                How to make old articles go away.
* Agent Regeneration::          How to recover from lost connections and other accidents.
* Agent and flags::             How the Agent maintains flags.
* Agent and IMAP::              How to use the Agent with IMAP.
* Outgoing Messages::           What happens when you post/mail something?
* Agent Variables::             Customizing is fun.
* Example Setup::               An example `~/.gnus.el' file for offline people.
* Batching Agents::             How to fetch news from a `cron' job.
* Agent Caveats::               What you think it'll do and what it does.

Agent Categories

* Category Syntax::             What a category looks like.
* Category Buffer::             A buffer for maintaining categories.
* Category Variables::          Customize'r'Us.

Agent Commands

* Group Agent Commands::        Configure groups and fetch their contents.
* Summary Agent Commands::      Manually select then fetch specific articles.
* Server Agent Commands::       Select the servers that are supported by the agent.

Scoring

* Summary Score Commands::      Adding score entries for the current group.
* Group Score Commands::        General score commands.
* Score Variables::             Customize your scoring.  (My, what terminology).
* Score File Format::           What a score file may contain.
* Score File Editing::          You can edit score files by hand as well.
* Adaptive Scoring::            Big Sister Gnus knows what you read.
* Home Score File::             How to say where new score entries are to go.
* Followups To Yourself::       Having Gnus notice when people answer you.
* Scoring On Other Headers::    Scoring on non-standard headers.
* Scoring Tips::                How to score effectively.
* Reverse Scoring::             That problem child of old is not problem.
* Global Score Files::          Earth-spanning, ear-splitting score files.
* Kill Files::                  They are still here, but they can be ignored.
* Converting Kill Files::       Translating kill files to score files.
* Advanced Scoring::            Using logical expressions to build score rules.
* Score Decays::                It can be useful to let scores wither away.

Advanced Scoring

* Advanced Scoring Syntax::     A definition.
* Advanced Scoring Examples::   What they look like.
* Advanced Scoring Tips::       Getting the most out of it.

Various

* Process/Prefix::              A convention used by many treatment commands.
* Interactive::                 Making Gnus ask you many questions.
* Symbolic Prefixes::           How to supply some Gnus functions with options.
* Formatting Variables::        You can specify what buffers should look like.
* Window Layout::               Configuring the Gnus buffer windows.
* Faces and Fonts::             How to change how faces look.
* Compilation::                 How to speed Gnus up.
* Mode Lines::                  Displaying information in the mode lines.
* Highlighting and Menus::      Making buffers look all nice and cozy.
* Buttons::                     Get tendinitis in ten easy steps!
* Daemons::                     Gnus can do things behind your back.
* NoCeM::                       How to avoid spam and other fatty foods.
* Undo::                        Some actions can be undone.
* Predicate Specifiers::        Specifying predicates.
* Moderation::                  What to do if you're a moderator.
* Image Enhancements::          Modern versions of Emacs/XEmacs can display images.
* Fuzzy Matching::              What's the big fuzz?
* Thwarting Email Spam::        Simple ways to avoid unsolicited commercial email.
* Spam Package::                A package for filtering and processing spam.
* The Gnus Registry::           A package for tracking messages by Message-ID.
* Other modes::                 Interaction with other modes.
* Various Various::             Things that are really various.

Formatting Variables

* Formatting Basics::           A formatting variable is basically a format string.
* Mode Line Formatting::        Some rules about mode line formatting variables.
* Advanced Formatting::         Modifying output in various ways.
* User-Defined Specs::          Having Gnus call your own functions.
* Formatting Fonts::            Making the formatting look colorful and nice.
* Positioning Point::           Moving point to a position after an operation.
* Tabulation::                  Tabulating your output.
* Wide Characters::             Dealing with wide characters.

Image Enhancements

* X-Face::                      Display a funky, teensy black-and-white image.
* Face::                        Display a funkier, teensier colored image.
* Smileys::                     Show all those happy faces the way they were
                                  meant to be shown.
* Picons::                      How to display pictures of what you're reading.
* XVarious::                    Other XEmacsy Gnusey variables.

Thwarting Email Spam

* The problem of spam::         Some background, and some solutions
* Anti-Spam Basics::            Simple steps to reduce the amount of spam.
* SpamAssassin::                How to use external anti-spam tools.
* Hashcash::                    Reduce spam by burning CPU time.

Spam Package

* Spam Package Introduction::
* Filtering Incoming Mail::
* Detecting Spam in Groups::
* Spam and Ham Processors::
* Spam Package Configuration Examples::
* Spam Back Ends::
* Extending the Spam package::
* Spam Statistics Package::

Spam Statistics Package

* Creating a spam-stat dictionary::
* Splitting mail using spam-stat::
* Low-level interface to the spam-stat dictionary::

Appendices

* XEmacs::                      Requirements for installing under XEmacs.
* History::                     How Gnus got where it is today.
* On Writing Manuals::          Why this is not a beginner's guide.
* Terminology::                 We use really difficult, like, words here.
* Customization::               Tailoring Gnus to your needs.
* Troubleshooting::             What you might try if things do not work.
* Gnus Reference Guide::        Rilly, rilly technical stuff.
* Emacs for Heathens::          A short introduction to Emacsian terms.
* Frequently Asked Questions::  The Gnus FAQ

History

* Gnus Versions::               What Gnus versions have been released.
* Other Gnus Versions::         Other Gnus versions that also have been released.
* Why?::                        What's the point of Gnus?
* Compatibility::               Just how compatible is Gnus with GNUS?
* Conformity::                  Gnus tries to conform to all standards.
* Emacsen::                     Gnus can be run on a few modern Emacsen.
* Gnus Development::            How Gnus is developed.
* Contributors::                Oodles of people.
* New Features::                Pointers to some of the new stuff in Gnus.

New Features

* ding Gnus::                   New things in Gnus 5.0/5.1, the first new Gnus.
* September Gnus::              The Thing Formally Known As Gnus 5.2/5.3.
* Red Gnus::                    Third time best---Gnus 5.4/5.5.
* Quassia Gnus::                Two times two is four, or Gnus 5.6/5.7.
* Pterodactyl Gnus::            Pentad also starts with P, AKA Gnus 5.8/5.9.
* Oort Gnus::                   It's big.  It's far out.  Gnus 5.10/5.11.
* No Gnus::                     Very punny.

Customization

* Slow/Expensive Connection::   You run a local Emacs and get the news elsewhere.
* Slow Terminal Connection::    You run a remote Emacs.
* Little Disk Space::           You feel that having large setup files is icky.
* Slow Machine::                You feel like buying a faster machine.

Gnus Reference Guide

* Gnus Utility Functions::      Common functions and variable to use.
* Back End Interface::          How Gnus communicates with the servers.
* Score File Syntax::           A BNF definition of the score file standard.
* Headers::                     How Gnus stores headers internally.
* Ranges::                      A handy format for storing mucho numbers.
* Group Info::                  The group info format.
* Extended Interactive::        Symbolic prefixes and stuff.
* Emacs/XEmacs Code::           Gnus can be run under all modern Emacsen.
* Various File Formats::        Formats of files that Gnus use.

Back End Interface

* Required Back End Functions::  Functions that must be implemented.
* Optional Back End Functions::  Functions that need not be implemented.
* Error Messaging::             How to get messages and report errors.
* Writing New Back Ends::       Extending old back ends.
* Hooking New Back Ends Into Gnus::  What has to be done on the Gnus end.
* Mail-like Back Ends::         Some tips on mail back ends.

Various File Formats

* Active File Format::          Information on articles and groups available.
* Newsgroups File Format::      Group descriptions.

Emacs for Heathens

* Keystrokes::                  Entering text and executing commands.
* Emacs Lisp::                  The built-in Emacs programming language.

File: gnus,  Node: Starting Up,  Next: Group Buffer,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Starting Gnus
***************

If you haven't used Emacs much before using Gnus, read *note Emacs for
Heathens:: first.

   If your system administrator has set things up properly, starting
Gnus and reading news is extremely easy--you just type `M-x gnus' in
your Emacs.  If not, you should customize the variable
`gnus-select-method' as described in *note Finding the News::.  For a
minimal setup for posting should also customize the variables
`user-full-name' and `user-mail-address'.

   If you want to start Gnus in a different frame, you can use the
command `M-x gnus-other-frame' instead.

   If things do not go smoothly at startup, you have to twiddle some
variables in your `~/.gnus.el' file.  This file is similar to
`~/.emacs', but is read when Gnus starts.

   If you puzzle at any terms used in this manual, please refer to the
terminology section (*note Terminology::).

* Menu:

* Finding the News::      Choosing a method for getting news.
* The First Time::        What does Gnus do the first time you start it?
* The Server is Down::    How can I read my mail then?
* Slave Gnusae::          You can have more than one Gnus active at a time.
* New Groups::            What is Gnus supposed to do with new groups?
* Changing Servers::      You may want to move from one server to another.
* Startup Files::         Those pesky startup files---`.newsrc'.
* Auto Save::             Recovering from a crash.
* The Active File::       Reading the active file over a slow line Takes Time.
* Startup Variables::     Other variables you might change.

File: gnus,  Node: Finding the News,  Next: The First Time,  Up: Starting Up

1.1 Finding the News
====================

The `gnus-select-method' variable says where Gnus should look for news.
This variable should be a list where the first element says "how" and
the second element says "where".  This method is your native method.
All groups not fetched with this method are foreign groups.

   For instance, if the `news.somewhere.edu' NNTP server is where you
want to get your daily dosage of news from, you'd say:

     (setq gnus-select-method '(nntp "news.somewhere.edu"))

   If you want to read directly from the local spool, say:

     (setq gnus-select-method '(nnspool ""))

   If you can use a local spool, you probably should, as it will almost
certainly be much faster.  But do not use the local spool if your
server is running Leafnode (which is a simple, standalone private news
server); in this case, use `(nntp "localhost")'.

   If this variable is not set, Gnus will take a look at the
`NNTPSERVER' environment variable.  If that variable isn't set, Gnus
will see whether `gnus-nntpserver-file' (`/etc/nntpserver' by default)
has any opinions on the matter.  If that fails as well, Gnus will try
to use the machine running Emacs as an NNTP server.  That's a long
shot, though.

   If `gnus-nntp-server' is set, this variable will override
`gnus-select-method'.  You should therefore set `gnus-nntp-server' to
`nil', which is what it is by default.

   You can also make Gnus prompt you interactively for the name of an
NNTP server.  If you give a non-numerical prefix to `gnus' (i.e., `C-u
M-x gnus'), Gnus will let you choose between the servers in the
`gnus-secondary-servers' list (if any).  You can also just type in the
name of any server you feel like visiting.  (Note that this will set
`gnus-nntp-server', which means that if you then `M-x gnus' later in
the same Emacs session, Gnus will contact the same server.)

   However, if you use one NNTP server regularly and are just
interested in a couple of groups from a different server, you would be
better served by using the `B' command in the group buffer.  It will
let you have a look at what groups are available, and you can subscribe
to any of the groups you want to.  This also makes `.newsrc'
maintenance much tidier.  *Note Foreign Groups::.

   A slightly different approach to foreign groups is to set the
`gnus-secondary-select-methods' variable.  The select methods listed in
this variable are in many ways just as native as the
`gnus-select-method' server.  They will also be queried for active
files during startup (if that's required), and new newsgroups that
appear on these servers will be subscribed (or not) just as native
groups are.

   For instance, if you use the `nnmbox' back end to read your mail,
you would typically set this variable to

     (setq gnus-secondary-select-methods '((nnmbox "")))

   Note: the NNTP back end stores marks in marks files (*note NNTP
marks::).  This feature makes it easy to share marks between several
Gnus installations, but may slow down things a bit when fetching new
articles.  *Note NNTP marks::, for more information.

File: gnus,  Node: The First Time,  Next: The Server is Down,  Prev: Finding the News,  Up: Starting Up

1.2 The First Time
==================

If no startup files exist (*note Startup Files::), Gnus will try to
determine what groups should be subscribed by default.

   If the variable `gnus-default-subscribed-newsgroups' is set, Gnus
will subscribe you to just those groups in that list, leaving the rest
killed.  Your system administrator should have set this variable to
something useful.

   Since she hasn't, Gnus will just subscribe you to a few arbitrarily
picked groups (i.e., `*.newusers').  ("Arbitrary" is defined here as
"whatever Lars thinks you should read".)

   You'll also be subscribed to the Gnus documentation group, which
should help you with most common problems.

   If `gnus-default-subscribed-newsgroups' is `t', Gnus will just use
the normal functions for handling new groups, and not do anything
special.

File: gnus,  Node: The Server is Down,  Next: Slave Gnusae,  Prev: The First Time,  Up: Starting Up

1.3 The Server is Down
======================

If the default server is down, Gnus will understandably have some
problems starting.  However, if you have some mail groups in addition to
the news groups, you may want to start Gnus anyway.

   Gnus, being the trusting sort of program, will ask whether to proceed
without a native select method if that server can't be contacted.  This
will happen whether the server doesn't actually exist (i.e., you have
given the wrong address) or the server has just momentarily taken ill
for some reason or other.  If you decide to continue and have no foreign
groups, you'll find it difficult to actually do anything in the group
buffer.  But, hey, that's your problem.  Blllrph!

   If you know that the server is definitely down, or you just want to
read your mail without bothering with the server at all, you can use the
`gnus-no-server' command to start Gnus.  That might come in handy if
you're in a hurry as well.  This command will not attempt to contact
your primary server--instead, it will just activate all groups on level
1 and 2.  (You should preferably keep no native groups on those two
levels.) Also *note Group Levels::.

File: gnus,  Node: Slave Gnusae,  Next: New Groups,  Prev: The Server is Down,  Up: Starting Up

1.4 Slave Gnusae
================

You might want to run more than one Emacs with more than one Gnus at the
same time.  If you are using different `.newsrc' files (e.g., if you
are using the two different Gnusae to read from two different servers),
that is no problem whatsoever.  You just do it.

   The problem appears when you want to run two Gnusae that use the same
`.newsrc' file.

   To work around that problem some, we here at the Think-Tank at the
Gnus Towers have come up with a new concept: "Masters" and "slaves".
(We have applied for a patent on this concept, and have taken out a
copyright on those words.  If you wish to use those words in
conjunction with each other, you have to send $1 per usage instance to
me.  Usage of the patent ("Master/Slave Relationships In Computer
Applications") will be much more expensive, of course.)

   Anyway, you start one Gnus up the normal way with `M-x gnus' (or
however you do it).  Each subsequent slave Gnusae should be started with
`M-x gnus-slave'.  These slaves won't save normal `.newsrc' files, but
instead save "slave files" that contain information only on what groups
have been read in the slave session.  When a master Gnus starts, it
will read (and delete) these slave files, incorporating all information
from them.  (The slave files will be read in the sequence they were
created, so the latest changes will have precedence.)

   Information from the slave files has, of course, precedence over the
information in the normal (i.e., master) `.newsrc' file.

   If the `.newsrc*' files have not been saved in the master when the
slave starts, you may be prompted as to whether to read an auto-save
file.  If you answer "yes", the unsaved changes to the master will be
incorporated into the slave.  If you answer "no", the slave may see some
messages as unread that have been read in the master.

File: gnus,  Node: New Groups,  Next: Changing Servers,  Prev: Slave Gnusae,  Up: Starting Up

1.5 New Groups
==============

If you are satisfied that you really never want to see any new groups,
you can set `gnus-check-new-newsgroups' to `nil'.  This will also save
you some time at startup.  Even if this variable is `nil', you can
always subscribe to the new groups just by pressing `U' in the group
buffer (*note Group Maintenance::).  This variable is `ask-server' by
default.  If you set this variable to `always', then Gnus will query
the back ends for new groups even when you do the `g' command (*note
Scanning New Messages::).

* Menu:

* Checking New Groups::         Determining what groups are new.
* Subscription Methods::        What Gnus should do with new groups.
* Filtering New Groups::        Making Gnus ignore certain new groups.

File: gnus,  Node: Checking New Groups,  Next: Subscription Methods,  Up: New Groups

1.5.1 Checking New Groups
-------------------------

Gnus normally determines whether a group is new or not by comparing the
list of groups from the active file(s) with the lists of subscribed and
dead groups.  This isn't a particularly fast method.  If
`gnus-check-new-newsgroups' is `ask-server', Gnus will ask the server
for new groups since the last time.  This is both faster and cheaper.
This also means that you can get rid of the list of killed groups
altogether, so you may set `gnus-save-killed-list' to `nil', which will
save time both at startup, at exit, and all over.  Saves disk space,
too.  Why isn't this the default, then?  Unfortunately, not all servers
support this command.

   I bet I know what you're thinking now: How do I find out whether my
server supports `ask-server'?  No?  Good, because I don't have a
fail-safe answer.  I would suggest just setting this variable to
`ask-server' and see whether any new groups appear within the next few
days.  If any do, then it works.  If none do, then it doesn't work.  I
could write a function to make Gnus guess whether the server supports
`ask-server', but it would just be a guess.  So I won't.  You could
`telnet' to the server and say `HELP' and see whether it lists
`NEWGROUPS' among the commands it understands.  If it does, then it
might work.  (But there are servers that lists `NEWGROUPS' without
supporting the function properly.)

   This variable can also be a list of select methods.  If so, Gnus will
issue an `ask-server' command to each of the select methods, and
subscribe them (or not) using the normal methods.  This might be handy
if you are monitoring a few servers for new groups.  A side effect is
that startup will take much longer, so you can meditate while waiting.
Use the mantra "dingnusdingnusdingnus" to achieve permanent bliss.

File: gnus,  Node: Subscription Methods,  Next: Filtering New Groups,  Prev: Checking New Groups,  Up: New Groups

1.5.2 Subscription Methods
--------------------------

What Gnus does when it encounters a new group is determined by the
`gnus-subscribe-newsgroup-method' variable.

   This variable should contain a function.  This function will be
called with the name of the new group as the only parameter.

   Some handy pre-fab functions are:

`gnus-subscribe-zombies'
     Make all new groups zombies.  This is the default.  You can browse
     the zombies later (with `A z') and either kill them all off
     properly (with `S z'), or subscribe to them (with `u').

`gnus-subscribe-randomly'
     Subscribe all new groups in arbitrary order.  This really means
     that all new groups will be added at "the top" of the group buffer.

`gnus-subscribe-alphabetically'
     Subscribe all new groups in alphabetical order.

`gnus-subscribe-hierarchically'
     Subscribe all new groups hierarchically.  The difference between
     this function and `gnus-subscribe-alphabetically' is slight.
     `gnus-subscribe-alphabetically' will subscribe new groups in a
     strictly alphabetical fashion, while this function will enter
     groups into its hierarchy.  So if you want to have the `rec'
     hierarchy before the `comp' hierarchy, this function will not mess
     that configuration up.  Or something like that.

`gnus-subscribe-interactively'
     Subscribe new groups interactively.  This means that Gnus will ask
     you about *all* new groups.  The groups you choose to subscribe to
     will be subscribed hierarchically.

`gnus-subscribe-killed'
     Kill all new groups.

`gnus-subscribe-topics'
     Put the groups into the topic that has a matching `subscribe' topic
     parameter (*note Topic Parameters::).  For instance, a `subscribe'
     topic parameter that looks like

          "nnslashdot"

     will mean that all groups that match that regex will be subscribed
     under that topic.

     If no topics match the groups, the groups will be subscribed in the
     top-level topic.


   A closely related variable is
`gnus-subscribe-hierarchical-interactive'.  (That's quite a mouthful.)
If this variable is non-`nil', Gnus will ask you in a hierarchical
fashion whether to subscribe to new groups or not.  Gnus will ask you
for each sub-hierarchy whether you want to descend the hierarchy or not.

   One common mistake is to set the variable a few paragraphs above
(`gnus-subscribe-newsgroup-method') to
`gnus-subscribe-hierarchical-interactive'.  This is an error.  This
will not work.  This is ga-ga.  So don't do it.

File: gnus,  Node: Filtering New Groups,  Prev: Subscription Methods,  Up: New Groups

1.5.3 Filtering New Groups
--------------------------

A nice and portable way to control which new newsgroups should be
subscribed (or ignored) is to put an "options" line at the start of the
`.newsrc' file.  Here's an example:

     options -n !alt.all !rec.all sci.all

   This line obviously belongs to a serious-minded intellectual
scientific person (or she may just be plain old boring), because it
says that all groups that have names beginning with `alt' and `rec'
should be ignored, and all groups with names beginning with `sci' should
be subscribed.  Gnus will not use the normal subscription method for
subscribing these groups.  `gnus-subscribe-options-newsgroup-method' is
used instead.  This variable defaults to
`gnus-subscribe-alphabetically'.

   If you don't want to mess with your `.newsrc' file, you can just set
the two variables `gnus-options-subscribe' and
`gnus-options-not-subscribe'.  These two variables do exactly the same
as the `.newsrc' `options -n' trick.  Both are regexps, and if the new
group matches the former, it will be unconditionally subscribed, and if
it matches the latter, it will be ignored.

   Yet another variable that meddles here is
`gnus-auto-subscribed-groups'.  It works exactly like
`gnus-options-subscribe', and is therefore really superfluous, but I
thought it would be nice to have two of these.  This variable is more
meant for setting some ground rules, while the other variable is used
more for user fiddling.  By default this variable makes all new groups
that come from mail back ends (`nnml', `nnbabyl', `nnfolder', `nnmbox',
`nnmh', and `nnmaildir') subscribed.  If you don't like that, just set
this variable to `nil'.

   New groups that match this regexp are subscribed using
`gnus-subscribe-options-newsgroup-method'.

File: gnus,  Node: Changing Servers,  Next: Startup Files,  Prev: New Groups,  Up: Starting Up

1.6 Changing Servers
====================

Sometimes it is necessary to move from one NNTP server to another.
This happens very rarely, but perhaps you change jobs, or one server is
very flaky and you want to use another.

   Changing the server is pretty easy, right?  You just change
`gnus-select-method' to point to the new server?

   _Wrong!_

   Article numbers are not (in any way) kept synchronized between
different NNTP servers, and the only way Gnus keeps track of what
articles you have read is by keeping track of article numbers.  So when
you change `gnus-select-method', your `.newsrc' file becomes worthless.

   Gnus provides a few functions to attempt to translate a `.newsrc'
file from one server to another.  They all have one thing in
common--they take a looong time to run.  You don't want to use these
functions more than absolutely necessary.

   If you have access to both servers, Gnus can request the headers for
all the articles you have read and compare `Message-ID's and map the
article numbers of the read articles and article marks.  The `M-x
gnus-change-server' command will do this for all your native groups.  It
will prompt for the method you want to move to.

   You can also move individual groups with the `M-x
gnus-group-move-group-to-server' command.  This is useful if you want to
move a (foreign) group from one server to another.

   If you don't have access to both the old and new server, all your
marks and read ranges have become worthless.  You can use the `M-x
gnus-group-clear-data-on-native-groups' command to clear out all data
that you have on your native groups.  Use with caution.

   Clear the data from the current group only--nix out marks and the
list of read articles (`gnus-group-clear-data').

   After changing servers, you *must* move the cache hierarchy away,
since the cached articles will have wrong article numbers, which will
affect which articles Gnus thinks are read.
`gnus-group-clear-data-on-native-groups' will ask you if you want to
have it done automatically; for `gnus-group-clear-data', you can use
`M-x gnus-cache-move-cache' (but beware, it will move the cache for all
groups).

File: gnus,  Node: Startup Files,  Next: Auto Save,  Prev: Changing Servers,  Up: Starting Up

1.7 Startup Files
=================

Most common Unix news readers use a shared startup file called
`.newsrc'.  This file contains all the information about what groups
are subscribed, and which articles in these groups have been read.

   Things got a bit more complicated with GNUS.  In addition to keeping
the `.newsrc' file updated, it also used a file called `.newsrc.el' for
storing all the information that didn't fit into the `.newsrc' file.
(Actually, it also duplicated everything in the `.newsrc' file.)  GNUS
would read whichever one of these files was the most recently saved,
which enabled people to swap between GNUS and other newsreaders.

   That was kinda silly, so Gnus went one better: In addition to the
`.newsrc' and `.newsrc.el' files, Gnus also has a file called
`.newsrc.eld'.  It will read whichever of these files that are most
recent, but it will never write a `.newsrc.el' file.  You should never
delete the `.newsrc.eld' file--it contains much information not stored
in the `.newsrc' file.

   You can turn off writing the `.newsrc' file by setting
`gnus-save-newsrc-file' to `nil', which means you can delete the file
and save some space, as well as exiting from Gnus faster.  However,
this will make it impossible to use other newsreaders than Gnus.  But
hey, who would want to, right?  Similarly, setting
`gnus-read-newsrc-file' to `nil' makes Gnus ignore the `.newsrc' file
and any `.newsrc-SERVER' files, which can be convenient if you use a
different news reader occasionally, and you want to read a different
subset of the available groups with that news reader.

   If `gnus-save-killed-list' (default `t') is `nil', Gnus will not
save the list of killed groups to the startup file.  This will save
both time (when starting and quitting) and space (on disk).  It will
also mean that Gnus has no record of what groups are new or old, so the
automatic new groups subscription methods become meaningless.  You
should always set `gnus-check-new-newsgroups' to `nil' or `ask-server'
if you set this variable to `nil' (*note New Groups::).  This variable
can also be a regular expression.  If that's the case, remove all
groups that do not match this regexp before saving.  This can be useful
in certain obscure situations that involve several servers where not
all servers support `ask-server'.

   The `gnus-startup-file' variable says where the startup files are.
The default value is `~/.newsrc', with the Gnus (El Dingo) startup file
being whatever that one is, with a `.eld' appended.  If you want
version control for this file, set `gnus-backup-startup-file'.  It
respects the same values as the `version-control' variable.

   `gnus-save-newsrc-hook' is called before saving any of the newsrc
files, while `gnus-save-quick-newsrc-hook' is called just before saving
the `.newsrc.eld' file, and `gnus-save-standard-newsrc-hook' is called
just before saving the `.newsrc' file.  The latter two are commonly
used to turn version control on or off.  Version control is on by
default when saving the startup files.  If you want to turn backup
creation off, say something like:

     (defun turn-off-backup ()
       (set (make-local-variable 'backup-inhibited) t))

     (add-hook 'gnus-save-quick-newsrc-hook 'turn-off-backup)
     (add-hook 'gnus-save-standard-newsrc-hook 'turn-off-backup)

   When Gnus starts, it will read the `gnus-site-init-file'
(`.../site-lisp/gnus-init' by default) and `gnus-init-file' (`~/.gnus'
by default) files.  These are normal Emacs Lisp files and can be used
to avoid cluttering your `~/.emacs' and `site-init' files with Gnus
stuff.  Gnus will also check for files with the same names as these,
but with `.elc' and `.el' suffixes.  In other words, if you have set
`gnus-init-file' to `~/.gnus', it will look for `~/.gnus.elc',
`~/.gnus.el', and finally `~/.gnus' (in this order).  If Emacs was
invoked with the `-q' or `--no-init-file' options (*note Initial
Options: (emacs)Initial Options.), Gnus doesn't read `gnus-init-file'.

File: gnus,  Node: Auto Save,  Next: The Active File,  Prev: Startup Files,  Up: Starting Up

1.8 Auto Save
=============

Whenever you do something that changes the Gnus data (reading articles,
catching up, killing/subscribing groups), the change is added to a
special "dribble buffer".  This buffer is auto-saved the normal Emacs
way.  If your Emacs should crash before you have saved the `.newsrc'
files, all changes you have made can be recovered from this file.

   If Gnus detects this file at startup, it will ask the user whether to
read it.  The auto save file is deleted whenever the real startup file
is saved.

   If `gnus-use-dribble-file' is `nil', Gnus won't create and maintain
a dribble buffer.  The default is `t'.

   Gnus will put the dribble file(s) in `gnus-dribble-directory'.  If
this variable is `nil', which it is by default, Gnus will dribble into
the directory where the `.newsrc' file is located.  (This is normally
the user's home directory.)  The dribble file will get the same file
permissions as the `.newsrc' file.

   If `gnus-always-read-dribble-file' is non-`nil', Gnus will read the
dribble file on startup without querying the user.

File: gnus,  Node: The Active File,  Next: Startup Variables,  Prev: Auto Save,  Up: Starting Up

1.9 The Active File
===================

When Gnus starts, or indeed whenever it tries to determine whether new
articles have arrived, it reads the active file.  This is a very large
file that lists all the active groups and articles on the server.

   Before examining the active file, Gnus deletes all lines that match
the regexp `gnus-ignored-newsgroups'.  This is done primarily to reject
any groups with bogus names, but you can use this variable to make Gnus
ignore hierarchies you aren't ever interested in.  However, this is not
recommended.  In fact, it's highly discouraged.  Instead, *note New
Groups:: for an overview of other variables that can be used instead.

   The active file can be rather Huge, so if you have a slow network,
you can set `gnus-read-active-file' to `nil' to prevent Gnus from
reading the active file.  This variable is `some' by default.

   Gnus will try to make do by getting information just on the groups
that you actually subscribe to.

   Note that if you subscribe to lots and lots of groups, setting this
variable to `nil' will probably make Gnus slower, not faster.  At
present, having this variable `nil' will slow Gnus down considerably,
unless you read news over a 2400 baud modem.

   This variable can also have the value `some'.  Gnus will then
attempt to read active info only on the subscribed groups.  On some
servers this is quite fast (on sparkling, brand new INN servers that
support the `LIST ACTIVE group' command), on others this isn't fast at
all.  In any case, `some' should be faster than `nil', and is certainly
faster than `t' over slow lines.

   Some news servers (old versions of Leafnode and old versions of INN,
for instance) do not support the `LIST ACTIVE group'.  For these
servers, `nil' is probably the most efficient value for this variable.

   If this variable is `nil', Gnus will ask for group info in total
lock-step, which isn't very fast.  If it is `some' and you use an NNTP
server, Gnus will pump out commands as fast as it can, and read all the
replies in one swoop.  This will normally result in better performance,
but if the server does not support the aforementioned `LIST ACTIVE
group' command, this isn't very nice to the server.

   If you think that starting up Gnus takes too long, try all the three
different values for this variable and see what works best for you.

   In any case, if you use `some' or `nil', you should definitely kill
all groups that you aren't interested in to speed things up.

   Note that this variable also affects active file retrieval from
secondary select methods.

File: gnus,  Node: Startup Variables,  Prev: The Active File,  Up: Starting Up

1.10 Startup Variables
======================

`gnus-load-hook'
     A hook run while Gnus is being loaded.  Note that this hook will
     normally be run just once in each Emacs session, no matter how many
     times you start Gnus.

`gnus-before-startup-hook'
     A hook called as the first thing when Gnus is started.

`gnus-startup-hook'
     A hook run as the very last thing after starting up Gnus

`gnus-started-hook'
     A hook that is run as the very last thing after starting up Gnus
     successfully.

`gnus-setup-news-hook'
     A hook that is run after reading the `.newsrc' file(s), but before
     generating the group buffer.

`gnus-check-bogus-newsgroups'
     If non-`nil', Gnus will check for and delete all bogus groups at
     startup.  A "bogus group" is a group that you have in your
     `.newsrc' file, but doesn't exist on the news server.  Checking for
     bogus groups can take quite a while, so to save time and resources
     it's best to leave this option off, and do the checking for bogus
     groups once in a while from the group buffer instead (*note Group
     Maintenance::).

`gnus-inhibit-startup-message'
     If non-`nil', the startup message won't be displayed.  That way,
     your boss might not notice as easily that you are reading news
     instead of doing your job.  Note that this variable is used before
     `~/.gnus.el' is loaded, so it should be set in `.emacs' instead.

`gnus-no-groups-message'
     Message displayed by Gnus when no groups are available.

`gnus-play-startup-jingle'
     If non-`nil', play the Gnus jingle at startup.

`gnus-startup-jingle'
     Jingle to be played if the above variable is non-`nil'.  The
     default is `Tuxedomoon.Jingle4.au'.


File: gnus,  Node: Group Buffer,  Next: Summary Buffer,  Prev: Starting Up,  Up: Top

2 Group Buffer
**************

The "group buffer" lists all (or parts) of the available groups.  It is
the first buffer shown when Gnus starts, and will never be killed as
long as Gnus is active.

* Menu:

* Group Buffer Format::         Information listed and how you can change it.
* Group Maneuvering::           Commands for moving in the group buffer.
* Selecting a Group::           Actually reading news.
* Subscription Commands::       Unsubscribing, killing, subscribing.
* Group Data::                  Changing the info for a group.
* Group Levels::                Levels? What are those, then?
* Group Score::                 A mechanism for finding out what groups you like.
* Marking Groups::              You can mark groups for later processing.
* Foreign Groups::              Creating and editing groups.
* Group Parameters::            Each group may have different parameters set.
* Listing Groups::              Gnus can list various subsets of the groups.
* Sorting Groups::              Re-arrange the group order.
* Group Maintenance::           Maintaining a tidy `.newsrc' file.
* Browse Foreign Server::       You can browse a server.  See what it has to offer.
* Exiting Gnus::                Stop reading news and get some work done.
* Group Topics::                A folding group mode divided into topics.
* Non-ASCII Group Names::       Accessing groups of non-English names.
* Searching::                   Mail search engines.
* Misc Group Stuff::            Other stuff that you can to do.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Buffer Format,  Next: Group Maneuvering,  Up: Group Buffer

2.1 Group Buffer Format
=======================

* Menu:

* Group Line Specification::    Deciding how the group buffer is to look.
* Group Mode Line Specification::  The group buffer mode line.
* Group Highlighting::          Having nice colors in the group buffer.

   You can customize the Group Mode tool bar, see `M-x
customize-apropos RET gnus-group-tool-bar'.  This feature is only
available in Emacs.

   The tool bar icons are now (de)activated correctly depending on the
cursor position.  Therefore, moving around in the Group Buffer is
slower.  You can disable this via the variable
`gnus-group-update-tool-bar'.  Its default value depends on your Emacs
version.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Line Specification,  Next: Group Mode Line Specification,  Up: Group Buffer Format

2.1.1 Group Line Specification
------------------------------

The default format of the group buffer is nice and dull, but you can
make it as exciting and ugly as you feel like.

   Here's a couple of example group lines:

          25: news.announce.newusers
      *    0: alt.fan.andrea-dworkin

   Quite simple, huh?

   You can see that there are 25 unread articles in
`news.announce.newusers'.  There are no unread articles, but some
ticked articles, in `alt.fan.andrea-dworkin' (see that little asterisk
at the beginning of the line?).

   You can change that format to whatever you want by fiddling with the
`gnus-group-line-format' variable.  This variable works along the lines
of a `format' specification, which is pretty much the same as a
`printf' specifications, for those of you who use (feh!) C.  *Note
Formatting Variables::.

   `%M%S%5y:%B%(%g%)\n' is the value that produced those lines above.

   There should always be a colon on the line; the cursor always moves
to the colon after performing an operation.  *Note Positioning Point::.
Nothing else is required--not even the group name.  All displayed text
is just window dressing, and is never examined by Gnus.  Gnus stores
all real information it needs using text properties.

   (Note that if you make a really strange, wonderful, spreadsheet-like
layout, everybody will believe you are hard at work with the accounting
instead of wasting time reading news.)

   Here's a list of all available format characters:

`M'
     An asterisk if the group only has marked articles.

`S'
     Whether the group is subscribed.

`L'
     Level of subscribedness.

`N'
     Number of unread articles.

`I'
     Number of dormant articles.

`T'
     Number of ticked articles.

`R'
     Number of read articles.

`U'
     Number of unseen articles.

`t'
     Estimated total number of articles.  (This is really MAX-NUMBER
     minus MIN-NUMBER plus 1.)

     Gnus uses this estimation because the NNTP protocol provides
     efficient access to MAX-NUMBER and MIN-NUMBER but getting the true
     unread message count is not possible efficiently.  For hysterical
     raisins, even the mail back ends, where the true number of unread
     messages might be available efficiently, use the same limited
     interface.  To remove this restriction from Gnus means that the
     back end interface has to be changed, which is not an easy job.

     The nnml backend (*note Mail Spool::) has a feature called "group
     compaction" which circumvents this deficiency: the idea is to
     renumber all articles from 1, removing all gaps between numbers,
     hence getting a correct total count.  Other backends may support
     this in the future.  In order to keep your total article count
     relatively up to date, you might want to compact your groups (or
     even directly your server) from time to time. *Note Misc Group
     Stuff::, *Note Server Commands::.

`y'
     Number of unread, unticked, non-dormant articles.

`i'
     Number of ticked and dormant articles.

`g'
     Full group name.

`G'
     Group name.

`C'
     Group comment (*note Group Parameters::) or group name if there is
     no comment element in the group parameters.

`D'
     Newsgroup description.  You need to read the group descriptions
     before these will appear, and to do that, you either have to set
     `gnus-read-active-file' or use the group buffer `M-d' command.

`o'
     `m' if moderated.

`O'
     `(m)' if moderated.

`s'
     Select method.

`B'
     If the summary buffer for the group is open or not.

`n'
     Select from where.

`z'
     A string that looks like `<%s:%n>' if a foreign select method is
     used.

`P'
     Indentation based on the level of the topic (*note Group Topics::).

`c'
     Short (collapsed) group name.  The `gnus-group-uncollapsed-levels'
     variable says how many levels to leave at the end of the group
     name.  The default is 1--this will mean that group names like
     `gnu.emacs.gnus' will be shortened to `g.e.gnus'.

`m'
     `%' (`gnus-new-mail-mark') if there has arrived new mail to the
     group lately.

`p'
     `#' (`gnus-process-mark') if the group is process marked.

`d'
     A string that says when you last read the group (*note Group
     Timestamp::).

`F'
     The disk space used by the articles fetched by both the cache and
     agent.  The value is automatically scaled to bytes(B),
     kilobytes(K), megabytes(M), or gigabytes(G) to minimize the column
     width.  A format of %7F is sufficient for a fixed-width column.

`u'
     User defined specifier.  The next character in the format string
     should be a letter.  Gnus will call the function
     `gnus-user-format-function-'`X', where `X' is the letter following
     `%u'.  The function will be passed a single dummy parameter as
     argument.  The function should return a string, which will be
     inserted into the buffer just like information from any other
     specifier.

   All the "number-of" specs will be filled with an asterisk (`*') if
no info is available--for instance, if it is a non-activated foreign
group, or a bogus native group.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Mode Line Specification,  Next: Group Highlighting,  Prev: Group Line Specification,  Up: Group Buffer Format

2.1.2 Group Mode Line Specification
-----------------------------------

The mode line can be changed by setting `gnus-group-mode-line-format'
(*note Mode Line Formatting::).  It doesn't understand that many format
specifiers:

`S'
     The native news server.

`M'
     The native select method.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Highlighting,  Prev: Group Mode Line Specification,  Up: Group Buffer Format

2.1.3 Group Highlighting
------------------------

Highlighting in the group buffer is controlled by the
`gnus-group-highlight' variable.  This is an alist with elements that
look like `(FORM . FACE)'.  If FORM evaluates to something non-`nil',
the FACE will be used on the line.

   Here's an example value for this variable that might look nice if the
background is dark:

     (cond (window-system
            (setq custom-background-mode 'light)
            (defface my-group-face-1
              '((t (:foreground "Red" :bold t))) "First group face")
            (defface my-group-face-2
              '((t (:foreground "DarkSeaGreen4" :bold t)))
              "Second group face")
            (defface my-group-face-3
              '((t (:foreground "Green4" :bold t))) "Third group face")
            (defface my-group-face-4
              '((t (:foreground "SteelBlue" :bold t))) "Fourth group face")
            (defface my-group-face-5
              '((t (:foreground "Blue" :bold t))) "Fifth group face")))

     (setq gnus-group-highlight
           '(((> unread 200) . my-group-face-1)
             ((and (< level 3) (zerop unread)) . my-group-face-2)
             ((< level 3) . my-group-face-3)
             ((zerop unread) . my-group-face-4)
             (t . my-group-face-5)))

   Also *note Faces and Fonts::.

   Variables that are dynamically bound when the forms are evaluated
include:

`group'
     The group name.

`unread'
     The number of unread articles in the group.

`method'
     The select method.

`mailp'
     Whether the group is a mail group.

`level'
     The level of the group.

`score'
     The score of the group.

`ticked'
     The number of ticked articles in the group.

`total'
     The total number of articles in the group.  Or rather, MAX-NUMBER
     minus MIN-NUMBER plus one.

`topic'
     When using the topic minor mode, this variable is bound to the
     current topic being inserted.

   When the forms are `eval'ed, point is at the beginning of the line
of the group in question, so you can use many of the normal Gnus
functions for snarfing info on the group.

   `gnus-group-update-hook' is called when a group line is changed.  It
will not be called when `gnus-visual' is `nil'.  This hook calls
`gnus-group-highlight-line' by default.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Maneuvering,  Next: Selecting a Group,  Prev: Group Buffer Format,  Up: Group Buffer

2.2 Group Maneuvering
=====================

All movement commands understand the numeric prefix and will behave as
expected, hopefully.

`n'
     Go to the next group that has unread articles
     (`gnus-group-next-unread-group').

`p'
`DEL'
     Go to the previous group that has unread articles
     (`gnus-group-prev-unread-group').

`N'
     Go to the next group (`gnus-group-next-group').

`P'
     Go to the previous group (`gnus-group-prev-group').

`M-n'
     Go to the next unread group on the same (or lower) level
     (`gnus-group-next-unread-group-same-level').

`M-p'
     Go to the previous unread group on the same (or lower) level
     (`gnus-group-prev-unread-group-same-level').

   Three commands for jumping to groups:

`j'
     Jump to a group (and make it visible if it isn't already)
     (`gnus-group-jump-to-group').  Killed groups can be jumped to, just
     like living groups.

`,'
     Jump to the unread group with the lowest level
     (`gnus-group-best-unread-group').

`.'
     Jump to the first group with unread articles
     (`gnus-group-first-unread-group').

   If `gnus-group-goto-unread' is `nil', all the movement commands will
move to the next group, not the next unread group.  Even the commands
that say they move to the next unread group.  The default is `t'.

   If `gnus-summary-next-group-on-exit' is `t', when a summary is
exited, the point in the group buffer is moved to the next unread group.
Otherwise, the point is set to the group just exited.  The default is
`t'.

File: gnus,  Node: Selecting a Group,  Next: Subscription Commands,  Prev: Group Maneuvering,  Up: Group Buffer

2.3 Selecting a Group
=====================

`SPACE'
     Select the current group, switch to the summary buffer and display
     the first unread article (`gnus-group-read-group').  If there are
     no unread articles in the group, or if you give a non-numerical
     prefix to this command, Gnus will offer to fetch all the old
     articles in this group from the server.  If you give a numerical
     prefix N, N determines the number of articles Gnus will fetch.  If
     N is positive, Gnus fetches the N newest articles, if N is
     negative, Gnus fetches the `abs(N)' oldest articles.

     Thus, `SPC' enters the group normally, `C-u SPC' offers old
     articles, `C-u 4 2 SPC' fetches the 42 newest articles, and `C-u -
     4 2 SPC' fetches the 42 oldest ones.

     When you are in the group (in the Summary buffer), you can type
     `M-g' to fetch new articles, or `C-u M-g' to also show the old
     ones.

`RET'
     Select the current group and switch to the summary buffer
     (`gnus-group-select-group').  Takes the same arguments as
     `gnus-group-read-group'--the only difference is that this command
     does not display the first unread article automatically upon group
     entry.

`M-RET'
     This does the same as the command above, but tries to do it with
     the minimum amount of fuzz (`gnus-group-quick-select-group').  No
     scoring/killing will be performed, there will be no highlights and
     no expunging.  This might be useful if you're in a real hurry and
     have to enter some humongous group.  If you give a 0 prefix to
     this command (i.e., `0 M-RET'), Gnus won't even generate the
     summary buffer, which is useful if you want to toggle threading
     before generating the summary buffer (*note Summary Generation
     Commands::).

`M-SPACE'
     This is yet one more command that does the same as the `RET'
     command, but this one does it without expunging and hiding dormants
     (`gnus-group-visible-select-group').

`C-M-RET'
     Finally, this command selects the current group ephemerally without
     doing any processing of its contents
     (`gnus-group-select-group-ephemerally').  Even threading has been
     turned off.  Everything you do in the group after selecting it in
     this manner will have no permanent effects.


   The `gnus-large-newsgroup' variable says what Gnus should consider
to be a big group.  If it is `nil', no groups are considered big.  The
default value is 200.  If the group has more (unread and/or ticked)
articles than this, Gnus will query the user before entering the group.
The user can then specify how many articles should be fetched from the
server.  If the user specifies a negative number (-N), the N oldest
articles will be fetched.  If it is positive, the N articles that have
arrived most recently will be fetched.

   `gnus-large-ephemeral-newsgroup' is the same as
`gnus-large-newsgroup', but is only used for ephemeral newsgroups.

   In groups in some news servers, there might be a big gap between a
few very old articles that will never be expired and the recent ones.
In such a case, the server will return the data like `(1 . 30000000)'
for the `LIST ACTIVE group' command, for example.  Even if there are
actually only the articles 1-10 and 29999900-30000000, Gnus doesn't
know it at first and prepares for getting 30000000 articles.  However,
it will consume hundreds megabytes of memories and might make Emacs get
stuck as the case may be.  If you use such news servers, set the
variable `gnus-newsgroup-maximum-articles' to a positive number.  The
value means that Gnus ignores articles other than this number of the
latest ones in every group.  For instance, the value 10000 makes Gnus
get only the articles 29990001-30000000 (if the latest article number is
30000000 in a group).  Note that setting this variable to a number might
prevent you from reading very old articles.  The default value of the
variable `gnus-newsgroup-maximum-articles' is `nil', which means Gnus
never ignores old articles.

   If `gnus-auto-select-first' is non-`nil', select an article
automatically when entering a group with the `SPACE' command.  Which
article this is controlled by the `gnus-auto-select-subject' variable.
Valid values for this variable are:

`unread'
     Place point on the subject line of the first unread article.

`first'
     Place point on the subject line of the first article.

`unseen'
     Place point on the subject line of the first unseen article.

`unseen-or-unread'
     Place point on the subject line of the first unseen article, and if
     there is no such article, place point on the subject line of the
     first unread article.

`best'
     Place point on the subject line of the highest-scored unread
     article.


   This variable can also be a function.  In that case, that function
will be called to place point on a subject line.

   If you want to prevent automatic selection in some group (say, in a
binary group with Huge articles) you can set the
`gnus-auto-select-first' variable to `nil' in `gnus-select-group-hook',
which is called when a group is selected.

File: gnus,  Node: Subscription Commands,  Next: Group Data,  Prev: Selecting a Group,  Up: Group Buffer

2.4 Subscription Commands
=========================

`S t'
`u'
     Toggle subscription to the current group
     (`gnus-group-unsubscribe-current-group').

`S s'
`U'
     Prompt for a group to subscribe, and then subscribe it.  If it was
     subscribed already, unsubscribe it instead
     (`gnus-group-unsubscribe-group').

`S k'
`C-k'
     Kill the current group (`gnus-group-kill-group').

`S y'
`C-y'
     Yank the last killed group (`gnus-group-yank-group').

`C-x C-t'
     Transpose two groups (`gnus-group-transpose-groups').  This isn't
     really a subscription command, but you can use it instead of a
     kill-and-yank sequence sometimes.

`S w'
`C-w'
     Kill all groups in the region (`gnus-group-kill-region').

`S z'
     Kill all zombie groups (`gnus-group-kill-all-zombies').

`S C-k'
     Kill all groups on a certain level (`gnus-group-kill-level').
     These groups can't be yanked back after killing, so this command
     should be used with some caution.  The only time where this
     command comes in really handy is when you have a `.newsrc' with
     lots of unsubscribed groups that you want to get rid off.  `S C-k'
     on level 7 will kill off all unsubscribed groups that do not have
     message numbers in the `.newsrc' file.


   Also *note Group Levels::.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Data,  Next: Group Levels,  Prev: Subscription Commands,  Up: Group Buffer

2.5 Group Data
==============

`c'
     Mark all unticked articles in this group as read
     (`gnus-group-catchup-current').  `gnus-group-catchup-group-hook'
     is called when catching up a group from the group buffer.

`C'
     Mark all articles in this group, even the ticked ones, as read
     (`gnus-group-catchup-current-all').

`M-c'
     Clear the data from the current group--nix out marks and the list
     of read articles (`gnus-group-clear-data').

`M-x gnus-group-clear-data-on-native-groups'
     If you have switched from one NNTP server to another, all your
     marks and read ranges have become worthless.  You can use this
     command to clear out all data that you have on your native groups.
     Use with caution.


File: gnus,  Node: Group Levels,  Next: Group Score,  Prev: Group Data,  Up: Group Buffer

2.6 Group Levels
================

All groups have a level of "subscribedness".  For instance, if a group
is on level 2, it is more subscribed than a group on level 5.  You can
ask Gnus to just list groups on a given level or lower (*note Listing
Groups::), or to just check for new articles in groups on a given level
or lower (*note Scanning New Messages::).

   Remember:  The higher the level of the group, the less important it
is.

`S l'
     Set the level of the current group.  If a numeric prefix is given,
     the next N groups will have their levels set.  The user will be
     prompted for a level.

   Gnus considers groups from levels 1 to `gnus-level-subscribed'
(inclusive) (default 5) to be subscribed, `gnus-level-subscribed'
(exclusive) and `gnus-level-unsubscribed' (inclusive) (default 7) to be
unsubscribed, `gnus-level-zombie' to be zombies (walking dead) (default
8) and `gnus-level-killed' to be killed (completely dead) (default 9).
Gnus treats subscribed and unsubscribed groups exactly the same, but
zombie and killed groups have no information on what articles you have
read, etc, stored.  This distinction between dead and living groups
isn't done because it is nice or clever, it is done purely for reasons
of efficiency.

   It is recommended that you keep all your mail groups (if any) on
quite low levels (e.g. 1 or 2).

   Maybe the following description of the default behavior of Gnus
helps to understand what these levels are all about.  By default, Gnus
shows you subscribed nonempty groups, but by hitting `L' you can have
it show empty subscribed groups and unsubscribed groups, too.  Type `l'
to go back to showing nonempty subscribed groups again.  Thus,
unsubscribed groups are hidden, in a way.

   Zombie and killed groups are similar to unsubscribed groups in that
they are hidden by default.  But they are different from subscribed and
unsubscribed groups in that Gnus doesn't ask the news server for
information (number of messages, number of unread messages) on zombie
and killed groups.  Normally, you use `C-k' to kill the groups you
aren't interested in.  If most groups are killed, Gnus is faster.

   Why does Gnus distinguish between zombie and killed groups?  Well,
when a new group arrives on the server, Gnus by default makes it a
zombie group.  This means that you are normally not bothered with new
groups, but you can type `A z' to get a list of all new groups.
Subscribe the ones you like and kill the ones you don't want.  (`A k'
shows a list of killed groups.)

   If you want to play with the level variables, you should show some
care.  Set them once, and don't touch them ever again.  Better yet,
don't touch them at all unless you know exactly what you're doing.

   Two closely related variables are `gnus-level-default-subscribed'
(default 3) and `gnus-level-default-unsubscribed' (default 6), which
are the levels that new groups will be put on if they are
(un)subscribed.  These two variables should, of course, be inside the
relevant valid ranges.

   If `gnus-keep-same-level' is non-`nil', some movement commands will
only move to groups of the same level (or lower).  In particular, going
from the last article in one group to the next group will go to the
next group of the same level (or lower).  This might be handy if you
want to read the most important groups before you read the rest.

   If this variable is `best', Gnus will make the next newsgroup the
one with the best level.

   All groups with a level less than or equal to
`gnus-group-default-list-level' will be listed in the group buffer by
default.

   If `gnus-group-list-inactive-groups' is non-`nil', non-active groups
will be listed along with the unread groups.  This variable is `t' by
default.  If it is `nil', inactive groups won't be listed.

   If `gnus-group-use-permanent-levels' is non-`nil', once you give a
level prefix to `g' or `l', all subsequent commands will use this level
as the "work" level.

   Gnus will normally just activate (i. e., query the server about)
groups on level `gnus-activate-level' or less.  If you don't want to
activate unsubscribed groups, for instance, you might set this variable
to 5.  The default is 6.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Score,  Next: Marking Groups,  Prev: Group Levels,  Up: Group Buffer

2.7 Group Score
===============

You would normally keep important groups on high levels, but that scheme
is somewhat restrictive.  Don't you wish you could have Gnus sort the
group buffer according to how often you read groups, perhaps?  Within
reason?

   This is what "group score" is for.  You can have Gnus assign a score
to each group through the mechanism described below.  You can then sort
the group buffer based on this score.  Alternatively, you can sort on
score and then level.  (Taken together, the level and the score is
called the "rank" of the group.  A group that is on level 4 and has a
score of 1 has a higher rank than a group on level 5 that has a score
of 300.  (The level is the most significant part and the score is the
least significant part.))

   If you want groups you read often to get higher scores than groups
you read seldom you can add the `gnus-summary-bubble-group' function to
the `gnus-summary-exit-hook' hook.  This will result (after sorting) in
a bubbling sort of action.  If you want to see that in action after
each summary exit, you can add `gnus-group-sort-groups-by-rank' or
`gnus-group-sort-groups-by-score' to the same hook, but that will slow
things down somewhat.

File: gnus,  Node: Marking Groups,  Next: Foreign Groups,  Prev: Group Score,  Up: Group Buffer

2.8 Marking Groups
==================

If you want to perform some command on several groups, and they appear
subsequently in the group buffer, you would normally just give a
numerical prefix to the command.  Most group commands will then do your
bidding on those groups.

   However, if the groups are not in sequential order, you can still
perform a command on several groups.  You simply mark the groups first
with the process mark and then execute the command.

`#'
`M m'
     Set the mark on the current group (`gnus-group-mark-group').

`M-#'
`M u'
     Remove the mark from the current group (`gnus-group-unmark-group').

`M U'
     Remove the mark from all groups (`gnus-group-unmark-all-groups').

`M w'
     Mark all groups between point and mark (`gnus-group-mark-region').

`M b'
     Mark all groups in the buffer (`gnus-group-mark-buffer').

`M r'
     Mark all groups that match some regular expression
     (`gnus-group-mark-regexp').

   Also *note Process/Prefix::.

   If you want to execute some command on all groups that have been
marked with the process mark, you can use the `M-&'
(`gnus-group-universal-argument') command.  It will prompt you for the
command to be executed.

File: gnus,  Node: Foreign Groups,  Next: Group Parameters,  Prev: Marking Groups,  Up: Group Buffer

2.9 Foreign Groups
==================

Below are some group mode commands for making and editing general
foreign groups, as well as commands to ease the creation of a few
special-purpose groups.  All these commands insert the newly created
groups under point--`gnus-subscribe-newsgroup-method' is not consulted.

   Changes from the group editing commands are stored in
`~/.newsrc.eld' (`gnus-startup-file').  An alternative is the variable
`gnus-parameters', *Note Group Parameters::.

`G m'
     Make a new group (`gnus-group-make-group').  Gnus will prompt you
     for a name, a method and possibly an "address".  For an easier way
     to subscribe to NNTP groups (*note Browse Foreign Server::).

`G M'
     Make an ephemeral group (`gnus-group-read-ephemeral-group').  Gnus
     will prompt you for a name, a method and an "address".

`G r'
     Rename the current group to something else
     (`gnus-group-rename-group').  This is valid only on some
     groups--mail groups mostly.  This command might very well be quite
     slow on some back ends.

`G c'
     Customize the group parameters (`gnus-group-customize').

`G e'
     Enter a buffer where you can edit the select method of the current
     group (`gnus-group-edit-group-method').

`G p'
     Enter a buffer where you can edit the group parameters
     (`gnus-group-edit-group-parameters').

`G E'
     Enter a buffer where you can edit the group info
     (`gnus-group-edit-group').

`G d'
     Make a directory group (*note Directory Groups::).  You will be
     prompted for a directory name (`gnus-group-make-directory-group').

`G h'
     Make the Gnus help group (`gnus-group-make-help-group').

`G a'
     Make a Gnus archive group (`gnus-group-make-archive-group').  By
     default a group pointing to the most recent articles will be
     created (`gnus-group-recent-archive-directory'), but given a
     prefix, a full group will be created from
     `gnus-group-archive-directory'.

`G k'
     Make a kiboze group.  You will be prompted for a name, for a
     regexp to match groups to be "included" in the kiboze group, and a
     series of strings to match on headers
     (`gnus-group-make-kiboze-group').  *Note Kibozed Groups::.

`G D'
     Read an arbitrary directory as if it were a newsgroup with the
     `nneething' back end (`gnus-group-enter-directory').  *Note
     Anything Groups::.

`G f'
     Make a group based on some file or other
     (`gnus-group-make-doc-group').  If you give a prefix to this
     command, you will be prompted for a file name and a file type.
     Currently supported types are `mbox', `babyl', `digest', `news',
     `rnews', `mmdf', `forward', `rfc934', `rfc822-forward',
     `mime-parts', `standard-digest', `slack-digest', `clari-briefs',
     `nsmail', `outlook', `oe-dbx', and `mailman'.  If you run this
     command without a prefix, Gnus will guess at the file type.  *Note
     Document Groups::.

`G u'
     Create one of the groups mentioned in `gnus-useful-groups'
     (`gnus-group-make-useful-group').

`G w'
     Make an ephemeral group based on a web search
     (`gnus-group-make-web-group').  If you give a prefix to this
     command, make a solid group instead.  You will be prompted for the
     search engine type and the search string.  Valid search engine
     types include `google', `dejanews', and `gmane'.  *Note Web
     Searches::.

     If you use the `google' search engine, you can limit the search to
     a particular group by using a match string like `shaving
     group:alt.sysadmin.recovery'.

`G R'
     Make a group based on an RSS feed (`gnus-group-make-rss-group').
     You will be prompted for an URL.  *Note RSS::.

`G DEL'
     This function will delete the current group
     (`gnus-group-delete-group').  If given a prefix, this function will
     actually delete all the articles in the group, and forcibly remove
     the group itself from the face of the Earth.  Use a prefix only if
     you are absolutely sure of what you are doing.  This command can't
     be used on read-only groups (like `nntp' groups), though.

`G V'
     Make a new, fresh, empty `nnvirtual' group
     (`gnus-group-make-empty-virtual').  *Note Virtual Groups::.

`G v'
     Add the current group to an `nnvirtual' group
     (`gnus-group-add-to-virtual').  Uses the process/prefix convention.

   *Note Select Methods::, for more information on the various select
methods.

   If `gnus-activate-foreign-newsgroups' is a positive number, Gnus
will check all foreign groups with this level or lower at startup.
This might take quite a while, especially if you subscribe to lots of
groups from different NNTP servers.  Also *note Group Levels::;
`gnus-activate-level' also affects activation of foreign newsgroups.

   The following commands create ephemeral groups.  They can be called
not only from the Group buffer, but in any Gnus buffer.

`gnus-read-ephemeral-gmane-group'
     Read an ephemeral group on Gmane.org.  The articles are downloaded
     via HTTP using the URL specified by
     `gnus-gmane-group-download-format'.  Gnus will prompt you for a
     group name, the start article number and an the article range.

`gnus-read-ephemeral-gmane-group-url'
     This command is similar to `gnus-read-ephemeral-gmane-group', but
     the group name and the article number and range are constructed
     from a given URL.  Supported URL formats include e.g.
     `http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.foo.bar/12300/focus=12399',
     `http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.foo.bar/12345/',
     `http://article.gmane.org/gmane.foo.bar/12345/',
     `http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.foo.bar/12345/', and
     `http://news.gmane.org/group/gmane.foo.bar/thread=12345'.

`gnus-read-ephemeral-emacs-bug-group'
     Read an Emacs bug report in an ephemeral group.  Gnus will prompt
     for a bug number.  The default is the number at point.  The URL is
     specified in `gnus-bug-group-download-format-alist'.

`gnus-read-ephemeral-debian-bug-group'
     Read a Debian bug report in an ephemeral group.  Analog to
     `gnus-read-ephemeral-emacs-bug-group'.

   Some of these command are also useful for article buttons, *Note
Article Buttons::.

   Here is an example:
     (require 'gnus-art)
     (add-to-list
      'gnus-button-alist
      '("#\\([0-9]+\\)\\>" 1
        (string-match "\\<emacs\\>" (or gnus-newsgroup-name ""))
        gnus-read-ephemeral-emacs-bug-group 1))

File: gnus,  Node: Group Parameters,  Next: Listing Groups,  Prev: Foreign Groups,  Up: Group Buffer

2.10 Group Parameters
=====================

The group parameters store information local to a particular group.

   Use the `G p' or the `G c' command to edit group parameters of a
group.  (`G p' presents you with a Lisp-based interface, `G c' presents
you with a Customize-like interface.  The latter helps avoid silly Lisp
errors.)  You might also be interested in reading about topic
parameters (*note Topic Parameters::).  Additionally, you can set group
parameters via the `gnus-parameters' variable, see below.

   Here's an example group parameter list:

     ((to-address . "dingATgnus.org")
      (auto-expire . t))

   We see that each element consists of a "dotted pair"--the thing
before the dot is the key, while the thing after the dot is the value.
All the parameters have this form _except_ local variable specs, which
are not dotted pairs, but proper lists.

   Some parameters have correspondent customizable variables, each of
which is an alist of regexps and values.

   The following group parameters can be used:

`to-address'
     Address used by when doing followups and new posts.

          (to-address . "someATwhere.com")

     This is primarily useful in mail groups that represent closed
     mailing lists--mailing lists where it's expected that everybody
     that writes to the mailing list is subscribed to it.  Since using
     this parameter ensures that the mail only goes to the mailing list
     itself, it means that members won't receive two copies of your
     followups.

     Using `to-address' will actually work whether the group is foreign
     or not.  Let's say there's a group on the server that is called
     `fa.4ad-l'.  This is a real newsgroup, but the server has gotten
     the articles from a mail-to-news gateway.  Posting directly to this
     group is therefore impossible--you have to send mail to the mailing
     list address instead.

     See also `gnus-parameter-to-address-alist'.

`to-list'
     Address used when doing `a' in that group.

          (to-list . "someATwhere.com")

     It is totally ignored when doing a followup--except that if it is
     present in a news group, you'll get mail group semantics when
     doing `f'.

     If you do an `a' command in a mail group and you have neither a
     `to-list' group parameter nor a `to-address' group parameter, then
     a `to-list' group parameter will be added automatically upon
     sending the message if `gnus-add-to-list' is set to `t'.

     If this variable is set, `gnus-mailing-list-mode' is turned on when
     entering summary buffer.

     See also `gnus-parameter-to-list-alist'.

`subscribed'
     If this parameter is set to `t', Gnus will consider the to-address
     and to-list parameters for this group as addresses of mailing
     lists you are subscribed to.  Giving Gnus this information is
     (only) a first step in getting it to generate correct
     Mail-Followup-To headers for your posts to these lists.  The
     second step is to put the following in your `.gnus.el'

          (setq message-subscribed-address-functions
                '(gnus-find-subscribed-addresses))

     *Note Mailing Lists: (message)Mailing Lists, for a complete
     treatment of available MFT support.

`visible'
     If the group parameter list has the element `(visible . t)', that
     group will always be visible in the Group buffer, regardless of
     whether it has any unread articles.

     This parameter cannot be set via `gnus-parameters'. See
     `gnus-permanently-visible-groups' as an alternative.

`broken-reply-to'
     Elements like `(broken-reply-to . t)' signals that `Reply-To'
     headers in this group are to be ignored, and for the header to be
     hidden if `reply-to' is part of `gnus-boring-article-headers'.
     This can be useful if you're reading a mailing list group where
     the listserv has inserted `Reply-To' headers that point back to
     the listserv itself.  That is broken behavior.  So there!

`to-group'
     Elements like `(to-group . "some.group.name")' means that all
     posts in that group will be sent to `some.group.name'.

`newsgroup'
     If you have `(newsgroup . t)' in the group parameter list, Gnus
     will treat all responses as if they were responses to news
     articles.  This can be useful if you have a mail group that's
     really a mirror of a news group.

`gcc-self'
     If `(gcc-self . t)' is present in the group parameter list, newly
     composed messages will be `Gcc''d to the current group.  If
     `(gcc-self . none)' is present, no `Gcc:' header will be
     generated, if `(gcc-self . "string")' is present, this string will
     be inserted literally as a `gcc' header.  This parameter takes
     precedence over any default `Gcc' rules as described later (*note
     Archived Messages::).

     *Caveat*: Adding `(gcc-self . t)' to the parameter list of `nntp'
     groups (or the like) isn't valid.  An `nntp' server doesn't accept
     articles.

`auto-expire'
     If the group parameter has an element that looks like `(auto-expire
     . t)', all articles read will be marked as expirable.  For an
     alternative approach, *note Expiring Mail::.

     See also `gnus-auto-expirable-newsgroups'.

`total-expire'
     If the group parameter has an element that looks like
     `(total-expire . t)', all read articles will be put through the
     expiry process, even if they are not marked as expirable.  Use with
     caution.  Unread, ticked and dormant articles are not eligible for
     expiry.

     See also `gnus-total-expirable-newsgroups'.

`expiry-wait'
     If the group parameter has an element that looks like
     `(expiry-wait . 10)', this value will override any
     `nnmail-expiry-wait' and `nnmail-expiry-wait-function' (*note
     Expiring Mail::) when expiring expirable messages.  The value can
     either be a number of days (not necessarily an integer) or the
     symbols `never' or `immediate'.

`expiry-target'
     Where expired messages end up.  This parameter overrides
     `nnmail-expiry-target'.

`score-file'
     Elements that look like `(score-file . "file")' will make `file'
     into the current score file for the group in question.  All
     interactive score entries will be put into this file.

`adapt-file'
     Elements that look like `(adapt-file . "file")' will make `file'
     into the current adaptive file for the group in question.  All
     adaptive score entries will be put into this file.

`admin-address'
     When unsubscribing from a mailing list you should never send the
     unsubscription notice to the mailing list itself.  Instead, you'd
     send messages to the administrative address.  This parameter
     allows you to put the admin address somewhere convenient.

`display'
     Elements that look like `(display . MODE)' say which articles to
     display on entering the group.  Valid values are:

    `all'
          Display all articles, both read and unread.

    `an integer'
          Display the last INTEGER articles in the group.  This is the
          same as entering the group with `C-u INTEGER'.

    `default'
          Display the default visible articles, which normally includes
          unread and ticked articles.

    `an array'
          Display articles that satisfy a predicate.

          Here are some examples:

         `[unread]'
               Display only unread articles.

         `[not expire]'
               Display everything except expirable articles.

         `[and (not reply) (not expire)]'
               Display everything except expirable and articles you've
               already responded to.

          The available operators are `not', `and' and `or'.
          Predicates include `tick', `unsend', `undownload', `unread',
          `dormant', `expire', `reply', `killed', `bookmark', `score',
          `save', `cache', `forward', `unseen' and `recent'.


     The `display' parameter works by limiting the summary buffer to
     the subset specified.  You can pop the limit by using the `/ w'
     command (*note Limiting::).

`comment'
     Elements that look like `(comment . "This is a comment")' are
     arbitrary comments on the group.  You can display comments in the
     group line (*note Group Line Specification::).

`charset'
     Elements that look like `(charset . iso-8859-1)' will make
     `iso-8859-1' the default charset; that is, the charset that will be
     used for all articles that do not specify a charset.

     See also `gnus-group-charset-alist'.

`ignored-charsets'
     Elements that look like `(ignored-charsets x-unknown iso-8859-1)'
     will make `iso-8859-1' and `x-unknown' ignored; that is, the
     default charset will be used for decoding articles.

     See also `gnus-group-ignored-charsets-alist'.

`posting-style'
     You can store additional posting style information for this group
     here (*note Posting Styles::).  The format is that of an entry in
     the `gnus-posting-styles' alist, except that there's no regexp
     matching the group name (of course).  Style elements in this group
     parameter will take precedence over the ones found in
     `gnus-posting-styles'.

     For instance, if you want a funky name and signature in this group
     only, instead of hacking `gnus-posting-styles', you could put
     something like this in the group parameters:

          (posting-style
            (name "Funky Name")
            ("X-My-Header" "Funky Value")
            (signature "Funky Signature"))

     If you're using topics to organize your group buffer (*note Group
     Topics::), note that posting styles can also be set in the topics
     parameters. Posting styles in topic parameters apply to all groups
     in this topic. More precisely, the posting-style settings for a
     group result from the hierarchical merging of all posting-style
     entries in the parameters of this group and all the topics it
     belongs to.

`post-method'
     If it is set, the value is used as the method for posting message
     instead of `gnus-post-method'.

`mail-source'
     If it is set, and the setting of `mail-sources' includes a `group'
     mail source (*note Mail Sources::), the value is a mail source for
     this group.

`banner'
     An item like `(banner . REGEXP)' causes any part of an article
     that matches the regular expression REGEXP to be stripped.
     Instead of REGEXP, you can also use the symbol `signature' which
     strips the last signature or any of the elements of the alist
     `gnus-article-banner-alist'.

`sieve'
     This parameter contains a Sieve test that should match incoming
     mail that should be placed in this group.  From this group
     parameter, a Sieve `IF' control structure is generated, having the
     test as the condition and `fileinto "group.name";' as the body.

     For example, if the `INBOX.list.sieve' group has the `(sieve
     address "sender" "sieve-adminATextundo.com")' group parameter, when
     translating the group parameter into a Sieve script (*note Sieve
     Commands::) the following Sieve code is generated:

          if address "sender" "sieve-adminATextundo.com" {
                  fileinto "INBOX.list.sieve";
          }

     To generate tests for multiple email-addresses use a group
     parameter like `(sieve address "sender" ("nameATone.org"
     elseATtwo.org"))'.  When generating a sieve script (*note Sieve
     Commands::) Sieve code like the following is generated:

          if address "sender" ["nameATone.org", "elseATtwo.org"] {
                  fileinto "INBOX.list.sieve";
          }

     See *note Sieve Commands:: for commands and variables that might
     be of interest in relation to the sieve parameter.

     The Sieve language is described in RFC 3028.  *Note Emacs Sieve:
     (sieve)Top.

`(agent parameters)'
     If the agent has been enabled, you can set any of the its
     parameters to control the behavior of the agent in individual
     groups. See Agent Parameters in *note Category Syntax::.  Most
     users will choose to set agent parameters in either an agent
     category or group topic to minimize the configuration effort.

`(VARIABLE FORM)'
     You can use the group parameters to set variables local to the
     group you are entering.  If you want to turn threading off in
     `news.answers', you could put `(gnus-show-threads nil)' in the
     group parameters of that group.  `gnus-show-threads' will be made
     into a local variable in the summary buffer you enter, and the
     form `nil' will be `eval'ed there.

     Note that this feature sets the variable locally to the summary
     buffer if and only if VARIABLE has been bound as a variable.
     Otherwise, only evaluating the form will take place.  So, you may
     want to bind the variable in advance using `defvar' or other if
     the result of the form needs to be set to it.

     But some variables are evaluated in the article buffer, or in the
     message buffer (of a reply or followup or otherwise newly created
     message).  As a workaround, it might help to add the variable in
     question to `gnus-newsgroup-variables'.  *Note Various Summary
     Stuff::.  So if you want to set `message-from-style' via the group
     parameters, then you may need the following statement elsewhere in
     your `~/.gnus.el' file:

          (add-to-list 'gnus-newsgroup-variables 'message-from-style)

     A use for this feature is to remove a mailing list identifier tag
     in the subject fields of articles.  E.g. if the news group

          nntp+news.gnus.org:gmane.text.docbook.apps

     has the tag `DOC-BOOK-APPS:' in the subject of all articles, this
     tag can be removed from the article subjects in the summary buffer
     for the group by putting `(gnus-list-identifiers "DOCBOOK-APPS:")'
     into the group parameters for the group.

     This can also be used as a group-specific hook function.  If you
     want to hear a beep when you enter a group, you could put
     something like `(dummy-variable (ding))' in the parameters of that
     group.  If `dummy-variable' has been bound (see above), it will be
     set to the (meaningless) result of the `(ding)' form.

     Alternatively, since the VARIABLE becomes local to the group, this
     pattern can be used to temporarily change a hook.  For example, if
     the following is added to a group parameter

          (gnus-summary-prepared-hook
            '(lambda nil (local-set-key "d" (local-key-binding "n"))))

     when the group is entered, the 'd' key will not mark the article as
     expired.


   Group parameters can be set via the `gnus-parameters' variable too.
But some variables, such as `visible', have no effect (For this case
see `gnus-permanently-visible-groups' as an alternative.).  For example:

     (setq gnus-parameters
           '(("mail\\..*"
              (gnus-show-threads nil)
              (gnus-use-scoring nil)
              (gnus-summary-line-format
               "%U%R%z%I%(%[%d:%ub%-23,23f%]%) %s\n")
              (gcc-self . t)
              (display . all))

             ("^nnimap:\\(foo.bar\\)$"
              (to-group . "\\1"))

             ("mail\\.me"
              (gnus-use-scoring  t))

             ("list\\..*"
              (total-expire . t)
              (broken-reply-to . t))))

   String value of parameters will be subjected to regexp substitution,
as the `to-group' example shows.

   By default, whether comparing the group name and one of those regexps
specified in `gnus-parameters' is done in a case-sensitive manner or a
case-insensitive manner depends on the value of `case-fold-search' at
the time when the comparison is done.  The value of `case-fold-search'
is typically `t'; it means, for example, the element `("INBOX\\.FOO"
(total-expire . t))' might be applied to both the `INBOX.FOO' group and
the `INBOX.foo' group.  If you want to make those regexps always
case-sensitive, set the value of the `gnus-parameters-case-fold-search'
variable to `nil'.  Otherwise, set it to `t' if you want to compare them
always in a case-insensitive manner.

   You can define different sorting to different groups via
`gnus-parameters'.  Here is an example to sort an NNTP group by reverse
date to see the latest news at the top and an RSS group by subject.  In
this example, the first group is the Debian daily news group
`gmane.linux.debian.user.news' from news.gmane.org.  The RSS group
corresponds to the Debian weekly news RSS feed
`http://packages.debian.org/unstable/newpkg_main.en.rdf', *Note RSS::.

     (setq
      gnus-parameters
      '(("nntp.*gmane\\.debian\\.user\\.news"
         (gnus-show-threads nil)
         (gnus-article-sort-functions '((not gnus-article-sort-by-date)))
         (gnus-use-adaptive-scoring nil)
         (gnus-use-scoring nil))
        ("nnrss.*debian"
         (gnus-show-threads nil)
         (gnus-article-sort-functions 'gnus-article-sort-by-subject)
         (gnus-use-adaptive-scoring nil)
         (gnus-use-scoring t)
         (gnus-score-find-score-files-function 'gnus-score-find-single)
         (gnus-summary-line-format "%U%R%z%d %I%(%[ %s %]%)\n"))))

File: gnus,  Node: Listing Groups,  Next: Sorting Groups,  Prev: Group Parameters,  Up: Group Buffer

2.11 Listing Groups
===================

These commands all list various slices of the groups available.

`l'
`A s'
     List all groups that have unread articles
     (`gnus-group-list-groups').  If the numeric prefix is used, this
     command will list only groups of level ARG and lower.  By default,
     it only lists groups of level five (i.e.,
     `gnus-group-default-list-level') or lower (i.e., just subscribed
     groups).

`L'
`A u'
     List all groups, whether they have unread articles or not
     (`gnus-group-list-all-groups').  If the numeric prefix is used,
     this command will list only groups of level ARG and lower.  By
     default, it lists groups of level seven or lower (i.e., just
     subscribed and unsubscribed groups).

`A l'
     List all unread groups on a specific level
     (`gnus-group-list-level').  If given a prefix, also list the groups
     with no unread articles.

`A k'
     List all killed groups (`gnus-group-list-killed').  If given a
     prefix argument, really list all groups that are available, but
     aren't currently (un)subscribed.  This could entail reading the
     active file from the server.

`A z'
     List all zombie groups (`gnus-group-list-zombies').

`A m'
     List all unread, subscribed groups with names that match a regexp
     (`gnus-group-list-matching').

`A M'
     List groups that match a regexp (`gnus-group-list-all-matching').

`A A'
     List absolutely all groups in the active file(s) of the server(s)
     you are connected to (`gnus-group-list-active').  This might very
     well take quite a while.  It might actually be a better idea to do
     a `A M' to list all matching, and just give `.' as the thing to
     match on.  Also note that this command may list groups that don't
     exist (yet)--these will be listed as if they were killed groups.
     Take the output with some grains of salt.

`A a'
     List all groups that have names that match a regexp
     (`gnus-group-apropos').

`A d'
     List all groups that have names or descriptions that match a regexp
     (`gnus-group-description-apropos').

`A c'
     List all groups with cached articles (`gnus-group-list-cached').

`A ?'
     List all groups with dormant articles (`gnus-group-list-dormant').

`A /'
     List groups limited within the current selection
     (`gnus-group-list-limit').

`A f'
     Flush groups from the current selection (`gnus-group-list-flush').

`A p'
     List groups plus the current selection (`gnus-group-list-plus').


   Groups that match the `gnus-permanently-visible-groups' regexp will
always be shown, whether they have unread articles or not.  You can also
add the `visible' element to the group parameters in question to get
the same effect.

   Groups that have just ticked articles in it are normally listed in
the group buffer.  If `gnus-list-groups-with-ticked-articles' is `nil',
these groups will be treated just like totally empty groups.  It is `t'
by default.

File: gnus,  Node: Sorting Groups,  Next: Group Maintenance,  Prev: Listing Groups,  Up: Group Buffer

2.12 Sorting Groups
===================

The `C-c C-s' (`gnus-group-sort-groups') command sorts the group buffer
according to the function(s) given by the `gnus-group-sort-function'
variable.  Available sorting functions include:

`gnus-group-sort-by-alphabet'
     Sort the group names alphabetically.  This is the default.

`gnus-group-sort-by-real-name'
     Sort the group alphabetically on the real (unprefixed) group names.

`gnus-group-sort-by-level'
     Sort by group level.

`gnus-group-sort-by-score'
     Sort by group score.  *Note Group Score::.

`gnus-group-sort-by-rank'
     Sort by group score and then the group level.  The level and the
     score are, when taken together, the group's "rank".  *Note Group
     Score::.

`gnus-group-sort-by-unread'
     Sort by number of unread articles.

`gnus-group-sort-by-method'
     Sort alphabetically on the select method.

`gnus-group-sort-by-server'
     Sort alphabetically on the Gnus server name.


   `gnus-group-sort-function' can also be a list of sorting functions.
In that case, the most significant sort key function must be the last
one.

   There are also a number of commands for sorting directly according to
some sorting criteria:

`G S a'
     Sort the group buffer alphabetically by group name
     (`gnus-group-sort-groups-by-alphabet').

`G S u'
     Sort the group buffer by the number of unread articles
     (`gnus-group-sort-groups-by-unread').

`G S l'
     Sort the group buffer by group level
     (`gnus-group-sort-groups-by-level').

`G S v'
     Sort the group buffer by group score
     (`gnus-group-sort-groups-by-score').  *Note Group Score::.

`G S r'
     Sort the group buffer by group rank
     (`gnus-group-sort-groups-by-rank').  *Note Group Score::.

`G S m'
     Sort the group buffer alphabetically by back end name
     (`gnus-group-sort-groups-by-method').

`G S n'
     Sort the group buffer alphabetically by real (unprefixed) group
     name (`gnus-group-sort-groups-by-real-name').


   All the commands below obey the process/prefix convention (*note
Process/Prefix::).

   When given a symbolic prefix (*note Symbolic Prefixes::), all these
commands will sort in reverse order.

   You can also sort a subset of the groups:

`G P a'
     Sort the groups alphabetically by group name
     (`gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-alphabet').

`G P u'
     Sort the groups by the number of unread articles
     (`gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-unread').

`G P l'
     Sort the groups by group level
     (`gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-level').

`G P v'
     Sort the groups by group score
     (`gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-score').  *Note Group Score::.

`G P r'
     Sort the groups by group rank
     (`gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-rank').  *Note Group Score::.

`G P m'
     Sort the groups alphabetically by back end name
     (`gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-method').

`G P n'
     Sort the groups alphabetically by real (unprefixed) group name
     (`gnus-group-sort-selected-groups-by-real-name').

`G P s'
     Sort the groups according to `gnus-group-sort-function'.


   And finally, note that you can use `C-k' and `C-y' to manually move
groups around.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Maintenance,  Next: Browse Foreign Server,  Prev: Sorting Groups,  Up: Group Buffer

2.13 Group Maintenance
======================

`b'
     Find bogus groups and delete them
     (`gnus-group-check-bogus-groups').

`F'
     Find new groups and process them (`gnus-group-find-new-groups').
     With 1 `C-u', use the `ask-server' method to query the server for
     new groups.  With 2 `C-u''s, use most complete method possible to
     query the server for new groups, and subscribe the new groups as
     zombies.

`C-c C-x'
     Run all expirable articles in the current group through the expiry
     process (if any) (`gnus-group-expire-articles').  That is, delete
     all expirable articles in the group that have been around for a
     while.  (*note Expiring Mail::).

`C-c C-M-x'
     Run all expirable articles in all groups through the expiry process
     (`gnus-group-expire-all-groups').


File: gnus,  Node: Browse Foreign Server,  Next: Exiting Gnus,  Prev: Group Maintenance,  Up: Group Buffer

2.14 Browse Foreign Server
==========================

`B'
     You will be queried for a select method and a server name.  Gnus
     will then attempt to contact this server and let you browse the
     groups there (`gnus-group-browse-foreign-server').

   A new buffer with a list of available groups will appear.  This
buffer will use the `gnus-browse-mode'.  This buffer looks a bit (well,
a lot) like a normal group buffer.

   Here's a list of keystrokes available in the browse mode:

`n'
     Go to the next group (`gnus-group-next-group').

`p'
     Go to the previous group (`gnus-group-prev-group').

`SPACE'
     Enter the current group and display the first article
     (`gnus-browse-read-group').

`RET'
     Enter the current group (`gnus-browse-select-group').

`u'
     Unsubscribe to the current group, or, as will be the case here,
     subscribe to it (`gnus-browse-unsubscribe-current-group').

`l'
`q'
     Exit browse mode (`gnus-browse-exit').

`d'
     Describe the current group (`gnus-browse-describe-group').

`?'
     Describe browse mode briefly (well, there's not much to describe,
     is there) (`gnus-browse-describe-briefly').

File: gnus,  Node: Exiting Gnus,  Next: Group Topics,  Prev: Browse Foreign Server,  Up: Group Buffer

2.15 Exiting Gnus
=================

Yes, Gnus is ex(c)iting.

`z'
     Suspend Gnus (`gnus-group-suspend').  This doesn't really exit
     Gnus, but it kills all buffers except the Group buffer.  I'm not
     sure why this is a gain, but then who am I to judge?

`q'
     Quit Gnus (`gnus-group-exit').

`Q'
     Quit Gnus without saving the `.newsrc' files (`gnus-group-quit').
     The dribble file will be saved, though (*note Auto Save::).

   `gnus-suspend-gnus-hook' is called when you suspend Gnus and
`gnus-exit-gnus-hook' is called when you quit Gnus, while
`gnus-after-exiting-gnus-hook' is called as the final item when exiting
Gnus.

   Note:

     Miss Lisa Cannifax, while sitting in English class, felt her feet
     go numbly heavy and herself fall into a hazy trance as the boy
     sitting behind her drew repeated lines with his pencil across the
     back of her plastic chair.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Topics,  Next: Non-ASCII Group Names,  Prev: Exiting Gnus,  Up: Group Buffer

2.16 Group Topics
=================

If you read lots and lots of groups, it might be convenient to group
them hierarchically according to topics.  You put your Emacs groups over
here, your sex groups over there, and the rest (what, two groups or so?)
you put in some misc section that you never bother with anyway.  You can
even group the Emacs sex groups as a sub-topic to either the Emacs
groups or the sex groups--or both!  Go wild!

   Here's an example:

     Gnus
       Emacs -- I wuw it!
          3: comp.emacs
          2: alt.religion.emacs
         Naughty Emacs
          452: alt.sex.emacs
            0: comp.talk.emacs.recovery
       Misc
          8: comp.binaries.fractals
         13: comp.sources.unix

   To get this _fab_ functionality you simply turn on (ooh!) the
`gnus-topic' minor mode--type `t' in the group buffer.  (This is a
toggling command.)

   Go ahead, just try it.  I'll still be here when you get back.  La de
dum... Nice tune, that... la la la... What, you're back?  Yes, and now
press `l'.  There.  All your groups are now listed under `misc'.
Doesn't that make you feel all warm and fuzzy?  Hot and bothered?

   If you want this permanently enabled, you should add that minor mode
to the hook for the group mode.  Put the following line in your
`~/.gnus.el' file:

     (add-hook 'gnus-group-mode-hook 'gnus-topic-mode)

* Menu:

* Topic Commands::              Interactive E-Z commands.
* Topic Variables::             How to customize the topics the Lisp Way.
* Topic Sorting::               Sorting each topic individually.
* Topic Topology::              A map of the world.
* Topic Parameters::            Parameters that apply to all groups in a topic.

File: gnus,  Node: Topic Commands,  Next: Topic Variables,  Up: Group Topics

2.16.1 Topic Commands
---------------------

When the topic minor mode is turned on, a new `T' submap will be
available.  In addition, a few of the standard keys change their
definitions slightly.

   In general, the following kinds of operations are possible on topics.
First of all, you want to create topics.  Secondly, you want to put
groups in topics and to move them around until you have an order you
like.  The third kind of operation is to show/hide parts of the whole
shebang.  You might want to hide a topic including its subtopics and
groups, to get a better overview of the other groups.

   Here is a list of the basic keys that you might need to set up topics
the way you like.

`T n'
     Prompt for a new topic name and create it
     (`gnus-topic-create-topic').

`T TAB'
`TAB'
     "Indent" the current topic so that it becomes a sub-topic of the
     previous topic (`gnus-topic-indent').  If given a prefix,
     "un-indent" the topic instead.

`M-TAB'
     "Un-indent" the current topic so that it becomes a sub-topic of the
     parent of its current parent (`gnus-topic-unindent').


   The following two keys can be used to move groups and topics around.
They work like the well-known cut and paste.  `C-k' is like cut and
`C-y' is like paste.  Of course, this being Emacs, we use the terms
kill and yank rather than cut and paste.

`C-k'
     Kill a group or topic (`gnus-topic-kill-group').  All groups in the
     topic will be removed along with the topic.

`C-y'
     Yank the previously killed group or topic
     (`gnus-topic-yank-group').  Note that all topics will be yanked
     before all groups.

     So, to move a topic to the beginning of the list of topics, just
     hit `C-k' on it.  This is like the "cut" part of cut and paste.
     Then, move the cursor to the beginning of the buffer (just below
     the "Gnus" topic) and hit `C-y'.  This is like the "paste" part of
     cut and paste.  Like I said - E-Z.

     You can use `C-k' and `C-y' on groups as well as on topics.  So
     you can move topics around as well as groups.


   After setting up the topics the way you like them, you might wish to
hide a topic, or to show it again.  That's why we have the following
key.

`RET'
`SPACE'
     Either select a group or fold a topic (`gnus-topic-select-group').
     When you perform this command on a group, you'll enter the group,
     as usual.  When done on a topic line, the topic will be folded (if
     it was visible) or unfolded (if it was folded already).  So it's
     basically a toggling command on topics.  In addition, if you give
     a numerical prefix, group on that level (and lower) will be
     displayed.


   Now for a list of other commands, in no particular order.

`T m'
     Move the current group to some other topic
     (`gnus-topic-move-group').  This command uses the process/prefix
     convention (*note Process/Prefix::).

`T j'
     Go to a topic (`gnus-topic-jump-to-topic').

`T c'
     Copy the current group to some other topic
     (`gnus-topic-copy-group').  This command uses the process/prefix
     convention (*note Process/Prefix::).

`T h'
     Hide the current topic (`gnus-topic-hide-topic').  If given a
     prefix, hide the topic permanently.

`T s'
     Show the current topic (`gnus-topic-show-topic').  If given a
     prefix, show the topic permanently.

`T D'
     Remove a group from the current topic (`gnus-topic-remove-group').
     This command is mainly useful if you have the same group in several
     topics and wish to remove it from one of the topics.  You may also
     remove a group from all topics, but in that case, Gnus will add it
     to the root topic the next time you start Gnus.  In fact, all new
     groups (which, naturally, don't belong to any topic) will show up
     in the root topic.

     This command uses the process/prefix convention (*note
     Process/Prefix::).

`T M'
     Move all groups that match some regular expression to a topic
     (`gnus-topic-move-matching').

`T C'
     Copy all groups that match some regular expression to a topic
     (`gnus-topic-copy-matching').

`T H'
     Toggle hiding empty topics
     (`gnus-topic-toggle-display-empty-topics').

`T #'
     Mark all groups in the current topic with the process mark
     (`gnus-topic-mark-topic').  This command works recursively on
     sub-topics unless given a prefix.

`T M-#'
     Remove the process mark from all groups in the current topic
     (`gnus-topic-unmark-topic').  This command works recursively on
     sub-topics unless given a prefix.

`C-c C-x'
     Run all expirable articles in the current group or topic through
     the expiry process (if any) (`gnus-topic-expire-articles').
     (*note Expiring Mail::).

`T r'
     Rename a topic (`gnus-topic-rename').

`T DEL'
     Delete an empty topic (`gnus-topic-delete').

`A T'
     List all groups that Gnus knows about in a topics-ified way
     (`gnus-topic-list-active').

`T M-n'
     Go to the next topic (`gnus-topic-goto-next-topic').

`T M-p'
     Go to the previous topic (`gnus-topic-goto-previous-topic').

`G p'
     Edit the topic parameters (`gnus-topic-edit-parameters').  *Note
     Topic Parameters::.


File: gnus,  Node: Topic Variables,  Next: Topic Sorting,  Prev: Topic Commands,  Up: Group Topics

2.16.2 Topic Variables
----------------------

The previous section told you how to tell Gnus which topics to display.
This section explains how to tell Gnus what to display about each topic.

   The topic lines themselves are created according to the
`gnus-topic-line-format' variable (*note Formatting Variables::).
Valid elements are:

`i'
     Indentation.

`n'
     Topic name.

`v'
     Visibility.

`l'
     Level.

`g'
     Number of groups in the topic.

`a'
     Number of unread articles in the topic.

`A'
     Number of unread articles in the topic and all its subtopics.

   Each sub-topic (and the groups in the sub-topics) will be indented
with `gnus-topic-indent-level' times the topic level number of spaces.
The default is 2.

   `gnus-topic-mode-hook' is called in topic minor mode buffers.

   The `gnus-topic-display-empty-topics' says whether to display even
topics that have no unread articles in them.  The default is `t'.

File: gnus,  Node: Topic Sorting,  Next: Topic Topology,  Prev: Topic Variables,  Up: Group Topics

2.16.3 Topic Sorting
--------------------

You can sort the groups in each topic individually with the following
commands:

`T S a'
     Sort the current topic alphabetically by group name
     (`gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-alphabet').

`T S u'
     Sort the current topic by the number of unread articles
     (`gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-unread').

`T S l'
     Sort the current topic by group level
     (`gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-level').

`T S v'
     Sort the current topic by group score
     (`gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-score').  *Note Group Score::.

`T S r'
     Sort the current topic by group rank
     (`gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-rank').  *Note Group Score::.

`T S m'
     Sort the current topic alphabetically by back end name
     (`gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-method').

`T S e'
     Sort the current topic alphabetically by server name
     (`gnus-topic-sort-groups-by-server').

`T S s'
     Sort the current topic according to the function(s) given by the
     `gnus-group-sort-function' variable (`gnus-topic-sort-groups').


   When given a prefix argument, all these commands will sort in reverse
order.  *Note Sorting Groups::, for more information about group
sorting.

File: gnus,  Node: Topic Topology,  Next: Topic Parameters,  Prev: Topic Sorting,  Up: Group Topics

2.16.4 Topic Topology
---------------------

So, let's have a look at an example group buffer:

     Gnus
       Emacs -- I wuw it!
          3: comp.emacs
          2: alt.religion.emacs
         Naughty Emacs
          452: alt.sex.emacs
            0: comp.talk.emacs.recovery
       Misc
          8: comp.binaries.fractals
         13: comp.sources.unix

   So, here we have one top-level topic (`Gnus'), two topics under
that, and one sub-topic under one of the sub-topics.  (There is always
just one (1) top-level topic).  This topology can be expressed as
follows:

     (("Gnus" visible)
      (("Emacs -- I wuw it!" visible)
       (("Naughty Emacs" visible)))
      (("Misc" visible)))

   This is in fact how the variable `gnus-topic-topology' would look
for the display above.  That variable is saved in the `.newsrc.eld'
file, and shouldn't be messed with manually--unless you really want to.
Since this variable is read from the `.newsrc.eld' file, setting it in
any other startup files will have no effect.

   This topology shows what topics are sub-topics of what topics
(right), and which topics are visible.  Two settings are currently
allowed--`visible' and `invisible'.

File: gnus,  Node: Topic Parameters,  Prev: Topic Topology,  Up: Group Topics

2.16.5 Topic Parameters
-----------------------

All groups in a topic will inherit group parameters from the parent
(and ancestor) topic parameters.  All valid group parameters are valid
topic parameters (*note Group Parameters::).  When the agent is
enabled, all agent parameters (See Agent Parameters in *note Category
Syntax::) are also valid topic parameters.

   In addition, the following parameters are only valid as topic
parameters:

`subscribe'
     When subscribing new groups by topic (*note Subscription
     Methods::), the `subscribe' topic parameter says what groups go in
     what topic.  Its value should be a regexp to match the groups that
     should go in that topic.

`subscribe-level'
     When subscribing new groups by topic (see the `subscribe'
     parameter), the group will be subscribed with the level specified
     in the `subscribe-level' instead of
     `gnus-level-default-subscribed'.


   Group parameters (of course) override topic parameters, and topic
parameters in sub-topics override topic parameters in super-topics.  You
know.  Normal inheritance rules.  ("Rules" is here a noun, not a verb,
although you may feel free to disagree with me here.)

     Gnus
       Emacs
          3: comp.emacs
          2: alt.religion.emacs
        452: alt.sex.emacs
         Relief
          452: alt.sex.emacs
            0: comp.talk.emacs.recovery
       Misc
          8: comp.binaries.fractals
         13: comp.sources.unix
        452: alt.sex.emacs

   The `Emacs' topic has the topic parameter `(score-file .
"emacs.SCORE")'; the `Relief' topic has the topic parameter
`(score-file . "relief.SCORE")'; and the `Misc' topic has the topic
parameter `(score-file . "emacs.SCORE")'.  In addition,
`alt.religion.emacs' has the group parameter `(score-file .
"religion.SCORE")'.

   Now, when you enter `alt.sex.emacs' in the `Relief' topic, you will
get the `relief.SCORE' home score file.  If you enter the same group in
the `Emacs' topic, you'll get the `emacs.SCORE' home score file.  If
you enter the group `alt.religion.emacs', you'll get the
`religion.SCORE' home score file.

   This seems rather simple and self-evident, doesn't it?  Well, yes.
But there are some problems, especially with the `total-expiry'
parameter.  Say you have a mail group in two topics; one with
`total-expiry' and one without.  What happens when you do `M-x
gnus-expire-all-expirable-groups'?  Gnus has no way of telling which one
of these topics you mean to expire articles from, so anything may
happen.  In fact, I hereby declare that it is "undefined" what happens.
You just have to be careful if you do stuff like that.

File: gnus,  Node: Non-ASCII Group Names,  Next: Searching,  Prev: Group Topics,  Up: Group Buffer

2.17 Accessing groups of non-English names
==========================================

There are some news servers that provide groups of which the names are
expressed with their native languages in the world.  For instance, in a
certain news server there are some newsgroups of which the names are
spelled in Chinese, where people are talking in Chinese.  You can, of
course, subscribe to such news groups using Gnus.  Currently Gnus
supports non-ASCII group names not only with the `nntp' back end but
also with the `nnml' back end and the `nnrss' back end.

   Every such group name is encoded by a certain charset in the server
side (in an NNTP server its administrator determines the charset, but
for groups in the other back ends it is determined by you).  Gnus has
to display the decoded ones for you in the group buffer and the article
buffer, and needs to use the encoded ones when communicating with
servers.  However, Gnus doesn't know what charset is used for each
non-ASCII group name.  The following two variables are just the ones
for telling Gnus what charset should be used for each group:

`gnus-group-name-charset-method-alist'
     An alist of select methods and charsets.  The default value is
     `nil'.  The names of groups in the server specified by that select
     method are all supposed to use the corresponding charset.  For
     example:

          (setq gnus-group-name-charset-method-alist
                '(((nntp "news.com.cn") . cn-gb-2312)))

     Charsets specified for groups with this variable are preferred to
     the ones specified for the same groups with the
     `gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist' variable (see below).

     A select method can be very long, like:

          (nntp "gmane"
                (nntp-address "news.gmane.org")
                (nntp-end-of-line "\n")
                (nntp-open-connection-function
                 nntp-open-via-rlogin-and-telnet)
                (nntp-via-rlogin-command "ssh")
                (nntp-via-rlogin-command-switches
                 ("-C" "-t" "-e" "none"))
                (nntp-via-address ...))

     In that case, you can truncate it into `(nntp "gmane")' in this
     variable.  That is, it is enough to contain only the back end name
     and the server name.

`gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist'
     An alist of regexp of group name and the charset for group names.
     `((".*" . utf-8))' is the default value if UTF-8 is supported,
     otherwise the default is `nil'.  For example:

          (setq gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist
                '(("\\.com\\.cn:" . cn-gb-2312)
                  (".*" . utf-8)))

     Note that this variable is ignored if the match is made with
     `gnus-group-name-charset-method-alist'.

   Those two variables are used also to determine the charset for
encoding and decoding non-ASCII group names that are in the back ends
other than `nntp'.  It means that it is you who determine it.  If you
do nothing, the charset used for group names in those back ends will
all be `utf-8' because of the last element of
`gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist'.

   There is one more important variable for non-ASCII group names:

`nnmail-pathname-coding-system'
     The value of this variable should be a coding system or `nil'.  The
     default is `nil' in Emacs, or is the aliasee of the coding system
     named `file-name' (a certain coding system of which an alias is
     `file-name') in XEmacs.

     The `nnml' back end, the `nnrss' back end, the NNTP marks feature
     (*note NNTP marks::), the agent, and the cache use non-ASCII group
     names in those files and directories.  This variable overrides the
     value of `file-name-coding-system' which specifies the coding
     system used when encoding and decoding those file names and
     directory names.

     In XEmacs (with the `mule' feature), `file-name-coding-system' is
     the only means to specify the coding system used to encode and
     decode file names.  On the other hand, Emacs uses the value of
     `default-file-name-coding-system' if `file-name-coding-system' is
     `nil' or it is bound to the value of
     `nnmail-pathname-coding-system' which is `nil'.

     Normally the value of `default-file-name-coding-system' in Emacs or
     `nnmail-pathname-coding-system' in XEmacs is initialized according
     to the locale, so you will need to do nothing if the value is
     suitable to encode and decode non-ASCII group names.

     The value of this variable (or `default-file-name-coding-system')
     does not necessarily need to be the same value that is determined
     by `gnus-group-name-charset-method-alist' and
     `gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist'.

     If `default-file-name-coding-system' or this variable is
     initialized by default to `iso-latin-1' for example, although you
     want to subscribe to the groups spelled in Chinese, that is the
     most typical case where you have to customize
     `nnmail-pathname-coding-system'.  The `utf-8' coding system is a
     good candidate for it.  Otherwise, you may change the locale in
     your system so that `default-file-name-coding-system' or this
     variable may be initialized to an appropriate value.

   Note that when you copy or move articles from a non-ASCII group to
another group, the charset used to encode and decode group names should
be the same in both groups.  Otherwise the Newsgroups header will be
displayed incorrectly in the article buffer.

File: gnus,  Node: Searching,  Next: Misc Group Stuff,  Prev: Non-ASCII Group Names,  Up: Group Buffer

2.18 Searching
==============

* Menu:

* nnir::                     Searching on IMAP, with swish, namazu, etc.
* nnmairix::                 Searching maildir, MH or mbox with Mairix.

   FIXME: This node is a stub.

   FIXME: Add a brief overview of Gnus search capabilities.  A brief
comparison of nnir, nnmairix, contrib/gnus-namazu would be nice as well.

   FIXME: Explain difference to *note Searching for Articles::, add
reference and back-reference.

File: gnus,  Node: nnir,  Next: nnmairix,  Up: Searching

2.18.1 nnir
-----------

FIXME: As a first step, convert the commentary of `nnir' to texi.

File: gnus,  Node: nnmairix,  Prev: nnir,  Up: Searching

2.18.2 nnmairix
---------------

This paragraph describes how to set up mairix and the back end
`nnmairix' for indexing and searching your mail from within Gnus.
Additionally, you can create permanent "smart" groups which are bound
to mairix searches and are automatically updated.

* Menu:

* About mairix::                About the mairix mail search engine
* nnmairix requirements::       What you will need for using nnmairix
* What nnmairix does::          What does nnmairix actually do?
* Setting up mairix::           Set up your mairix installation
* Configuring nnmairix::        Set up the nnmairix back end
* nnmairix keyboard shortcuts:: List of available keyboard shortcuts
* Propagating marks::           How to propagate marks from nnmairix groups
* nnmairix tips and tricks::    Some tips, tricks and examples
* nnmairix caveats::            Some more stuff you might want to know

File: gnus,  Node: About mairix,  Next: nnmairix requirements,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.1 About mairix
.....................

Mairix is a tool for indexing and searching words in locally stored
mail.  It was written by Richard Curnow and is licensed under the GPL.
Mairix comes with most popular GNU/Linux distributions, but it also
runs under Windows (with cygwin), Mac OS X and Solaris.  The homepage
can be found at `http://www.rpcurnow.force9.co.uk/mairix/index.html'

   Though mairix might not be as flexible as other search tools like
swish++ or namazu, which you can use via the `nnir' back end, it has
the prime advantage of being incredibly fast.  On current systems, it
can easily search through headers and message bodies of thousands and
thousands of mails in well under a second.  Building the database
necessary for searching might take a minute or two, but only has to be
done once fully.  Afterwards, the updates are done incrementally and
therefore are really fast, too.  Additionally, mairix is very easy to
set up.

   For maximum speed though, mairix should be used with mails stored in
`Maildir' or `MH' format (this includes the `nnml' back end), although
it also works with mbox.  Mairix presents the search results by
populating a _virtual_ maildir/MH folder with symlinks which point to
the "real" message files (if mbox is used, copies are made).  Since
mairix already presents search results in such a virtual mail folder,
it is very well suited for using it as an external program for creating
_smart_ mail folders, which represent certain mail searches.  This is
similar to a Kiboze group (*note Kibozed Groups::), but much faster.

File: gnus,  Node: nnmairix requirements,  Next: What nnmairix does,  Prev: About mairix,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.2 nnmairix requirements
..............................

Mairix searches local mail--that means, mairix absolutely must have
direct access to your mail folders.  If your mail resides on another
server (e.g. an IMAP server) and you happen to have shell access,
`nnmairix' supports running mairix remotely, e.g. via ssh.

   Additionally, `nnmairix' only supports the following Gnus back ends:
`nnml', `nnmaildir', and `nnimap'.  You must use one of these back ends
for using `nnmairix'.  Other back ends, like `nnmbox', `nnfolder' or
`nnmh', won't work.

   If you absolutely must use mbox and still want to use `nnmairix',
you can set up a local IMAP server, which you then access via `nnimap'.
This is a rather massive setup for accessing some mbox files, so just
change to MH or Maildir already...  However, if you're really, really
passionate about using mbox, you might want to look into the package
`mairix.el', which comes with Emacs 23.

File: gnus,  Node: What nnmairix does,  Next: Setting up mairix,  Prev: nnmairix requirements,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.3 What nnmairix does
...........................

The back end `nnmairix' enables you to call mairix from within Gnus,
either to query mairix with a search term or to update the database.
While visiting a message in the summary buffer, you can use several
pre-defined shortcuts for calling mairix, e.g. to quickly search for
all mails from the sender of the current message or to display the
whole thread associated with the message, even if the mails are in
different folders.

   Additionally, you can create permanent `nnmairix' groups which are
bound to certain mairix searches.  This way, you can easily create a
group containing mails from a certain sender, with a certain subject
line or even for one specific thread based on the Message-ID.  If you
check for new mail in these folders (e.g. by pressing `g' or `M-g'),
they automatically update themselves by calling mairix.

   You might ask why you need `nnmairix' at all, since mairix already
creates the group, populates it with links to the mails so that you can
then access it with Gnus, right?  Well, this _might_ work, but often
does not--at least not without problems.  Most probably you will get
strange article counts, and sometimes you might see mails which Gnus
claims have already been canceled and are inaccessible.  This is due to
the fact that Gnus isn't really amused when things are happening behind
its back.  Another problem can be the mail back end itself, e.g. if you
use mairix with an IMAP server (I had Dovecot complaining about corrupt
index files when mairix changed the contents of the search group).
Using `nnmairix' should circumvent these problems.

   `nnmairix' is not really a mail back end--it's actually more like a
wrapper, sitting between a "real" mail back end where mairix stores the
searches and the Gnus front end.  You can choose between three
different mail back ends for the mairix folders: `nnml', `nnmaildir' or
`nnimap'.  `nnmairix' will call the mairix binary so that the search
results are stored in folders named `zz_mairix-<NAME>-<NUMBER>' on this
mail back end, but it will present these folders in the Gnus front end
only with `<NAME>'.  You can use an existing mail back end where you
already store your mail, but if you're uncomfortable with `nnmairix'
creating new mail groups alongside your other mail, you can also create
e.g. a new `nnmaildir' or `nnml' server exclusively for mairix, but then
make sure those servers do not accidentally receive your new mail
(*note nnmairix caveats::).  A special case exists if you want to use
mairix remotely on an IMAP server with `nnimap'--here the mairix
folders and your other mail must be on the same `nnimap' back end.

File: gnus,  Node: Setting up mairix,  Next: Configuring nnmairix,  Prev: What nnmairix does,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.4 Setting up mairix
..........................

First: create a backup of your mail folders (*note nnmairix caveats::).

   Setting up mairix is easy: simply create a `.mairixrc' file with (at
least) the following entries:

     # Your Maildir/MH base folder
     base=~/Maildir

   This is the base folder for your mails.  All the following
directories are relative to this base folder.  If you want to use
`nnmairix' with `nnimap', this base directory has to point to the mail
directory where the IMAP server stores the mail folders!

     maildir= ... your maildir folders which should be indexed ...
     mh= ... your nnml/mh folders which should be indexed ...
     mbox = ... your mbox files which should be indexed ...

   This specifies all your mail folders and mbox files (relative to the
base directory!) you want to index with mairix.  Note that the `nnml'
back end saves mails in MH format, so you have to put those directories
in the `mh' line.  See the example at the end of this section and
mairixrc's man-page for further details.

     omit=zz_mairix-*

   This should make sure that you don't accidentally index the mairix
search results.  You can change the prefix of these folders with the
variable `nnmairix-group-prefix'.

     mformat= ... 'maildir' or 'mh' ...
     database= ... location of database file ...

   The `format' setting specifies the output format for the mairix
search folder.  Set this to `mh' if you want to access search results
with `nnml'.  Otherwise choose `maildir'.

   To summarize, here is my shortened `.mairixrc' file as an example:

     base=~/Maildir
     maildir=.personal:.work:.logcheck:.sent
     mh=../Mail/nnml/*...
     mbox=../mboxmail/mailarchive_year*
     mformat=maildir
     omit=zz_mairix-*
     database=~/.mairixdatabase

   In this case, the base directory is `~/Maildir', where all my Maildir
folders are stored.  As you can see, the folders are separated by
colons.  If you wonder why every folder begins with a dot: this is
because I use Dovecot as IMAP server, which again uses `Maildir++'
folders.  For testing nnmairix, I also have some `nnml' mail, which is
saved in `~/Mail/nnml'.  Since this has to be specified relative to the
`base' directory, the `../Mail' notation is needed.  Note that the line
ends in `*...', which means to recursively scan all files under this
directory.  Without the three dots, the wildcard `*' will not work
recursively.  I also have some old mbox files with archived mail lying
around in `~/mboxmail'.  The other lines should be obvious.

   See the man page for `mairixrc' for details and further options,
especially regarding wildcard usage, which may be a little different
than you are used to.

   Now simply call `mairix' to create the index for the first time.
Note that this may take a few minutes, but every following index will do
the updates incrementally and hence is very fast.

File: gnus,  Node: Configuring nnmairix,  Next: nnmairix keyboard shortcuts,  Prev: Setting up mairix,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.5 Configuring nnmairix
.............................

In group mode, type `G b c'
(`nnmairix-create-server-and-default-group').  This will ask you for all
necessary information and create a `nnmairix' server as a foreign
server.  You will have to specify the following:

   * The *name* of the `nnmairix' server--choose whatever you want.

   * The name of the *back end server* where mairix should store its
     searches.  This must be a full server name, like `nnml:mymail'.
     Just hit `TAB' to see the available servers.  Currently, servers
     which are accessed through `nnmaildir', `nnimap' and `nnml' are
     supported.  As explained above, for locally stored mails, this can
     be an existing server where you store your mails.  However, you
     can also create e.g. a new `nnmaildir' or `nnml' server
     exclusively for `nnmairix' in your secondary select methods (*note
     Finding the News::).  If you use a secondary `nnml' server just
     for mairix, make sure that you explicitly set the server variable
     `nnml-get-new-mail' to `nil', or you might loose mail (*note
     nnmairix caveats::).  If you want to use mairix remotely on an
     IMAP server, you have to choose the corresponding `nnimap' server
     here.

   * The *command* to call the mairix binary.  This will usually just
     be `mairix', but you can also choose something like `ssh SERVER
     mairix' if you want to call mairix remotely, e.g. on your IMAP
     server.  If you want to add some default options to mairix, you
     could do this here, but better use the variable
     `nnmairix-mairix-search-options' instead.

   * The name of the *default search group*.  This will be the group
     where all temporary mairix searches are stored, i.e. all searches
     which are not bound to permanent `nnmairix' groups.  Choose
     whatever you like.

   * If the mail back end is `nnimap' or `nnmaildir', you will be asked
     if you work with *Maildir++*, i.e. with hidden maildir folders
     (=beginning with a dot).  For example, you have to answer `yes'
     here if you work with the Dovecot IMAP server.  Otherwise, you
     should answer `no' here.


File: gnus,  Node: nnmairix keyboard shortcuts,  Next: Propagating marks,  Prev: Configuring nnmairix,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.6 nnmairix keyboard shortcuts
....................................

In group mode:

`G b c'
     Creates `nnmairix' server and default search group for this server
     (`nnmairix-create-server-and-default-group').  You should have done
     this by now (*note Configuring nnmairix::).

`G b s'
     Prompts for query which is then sent to the mairix binary.  Search
     results are put into the default search group which is
     automatically displayed (`nnmairix-search').

`G b m'
     Allows you to create a mairix search or a permanent group more
     comfortably using graphical widgets, similar to a customization
     group.  Just try it to see how it works (`nnmairix-widget-search').

`G b i'
     Another command for creating a mairix query more comfortably, but
     uses only the minibuffer (`nnmairix-search-interactive').

`G b g'
     Creates a permanent group which is associated with a search query
     (`nnmairix-create-search-group').  The `nnmairix' back end
     automatically calls mairix when you update this group with `g' or
     `M-g'.

`G b q'
     Changes the search query for the `nnmairix' group under cursor
     (`nnmairix-group-change-query-this-group').

`G b t'
     Toggles the 'threads' parameter for the `nnmairix' group under
     cursor, i.e.  if you want see the whole threads of the found
     messages (`nnmairix-group-toggle-threads-this-group').

`G b u'
     Calls mairix binary for updating the database
     (`nnmairix-update-database').  The default parameters are `-F' and
     `-Q' for making this as fast as possible (see variable
     `nnmairix-mairix-update-options' for defining these default
     options).

`G b r'
     Keep articles in this `nnmairix' group always read or unread, or
     leave the marks unchanged
     (`nnmairix-group-toggle-readmarks-this-group').

`G b d'
     Recreate `nnmairix' group on the "real" mail back end
     (`nnmairix-group-delete-recreate-this-group').  You can do this if
     you always get wrong article counts with a `nnmairix' group.

`G b a'
     Toggles the `allow-fast' parameters for group under cursor
     (`nnmairix-group-toggle-allowfast-this-group').  The default
     behavior of `nnmairix' is to do a mairix search every time you
     update or enter the group.  With the `allow-fast' parameter set,
     mairix will only be called when you explicitly update the group,
     but not upon entering.  This makes entering the group faster, but
     it may also lead to dangling symlinks if something changed between
     updating and entering the group which is not yet in the mairix
     database.

`G b p'
     Toggle marks propagation for this group
     (`nnmairix-group-toggle-propmarks-this-group').  (*note
     Propagating marks::).

`G b o'
     Manually propagate marks (`nnmairix-propagate-marks'); needed only
     when `nnmairix-propagate-marks-upon-close' is set to `nil'.


   In summary mode:

`$ m'
     Allows you to create a mairix query or group based on the current
     message using graphical widgets (same as `nnmairix-widget-search')
     (`nnmairix-widget-search-from-this-article').

`$ g'
     Interactively creates a new search group with query based on the
     current message, but uses the minibuffer instead of graphical
     widgets (`nnmairix-create-search-group-from-message').

`$ t'
     Searches thread for the current article
     (`nnmairix-search-thread-this-article').  This is effectively a
     shortcut for calling `nnmairix-search' with `m:msgid' of the
     current article and enabled threads.

`$ f'
     Searches all messages from sender of the current article
     (`nnmairix-search-from-this-article').  This is a shortcut for
     calling `nnmairix-search' with `f:From'.

`$ o'
     (Only in `nnmairix' groups!) Tries determine the group this article
     originally came from and displays the article in this group, so
     that e.g. replying to this article the correct posting styles/group
     parameters are applied (`nnmairix-goto-original-article').  This
     function will use the registry if available, but can also parse the
     article file name as a fallback method.

`$ u'
     Remove possibly existing tick mark from original article
     (`nnmairix-remove-tick-mark-original-article').  (*note nnmairix
     tips and tricks::).


File: gnus,  Node: Propagating marks,  Next: nnmairix tips and tricks,  Prev: nnmairix keyboard shortcuts,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.7 Propagating marks
..........................

First of: you really need a patched mairix binary for using the marks
propagation feature efficiently. Otherwise, you would have to update
the mairix database all the time. You can get the patch at

   `http://www.randomsample.de/mairix-maildir-patch.tar'

   You need the mairix v0.21 source code for this patch; everything else
is explained in the accompanied readme file. If you don't want to use
marks propagation, you don't have to apply these patches, but they also
fix some annoyances regarding changing maildir flags, so it might still
be useful to you.

   With the patched mairix binary, you can use `nnmairix' as an
alternative to mail splitting (*note Fancy Mail Splitting::). For
example, instead of splitting all mails from `davidATfoobar.com' into a
group, you can simply create a search group with the query
`f:davidATfoobar.com'. This is actually what "smart folders" are all
about: simply put everything in one mail folder and dynamically create
searches instead of splitting. This is more flexible, since you can
dynamically change your folders any time you want to. This also implies
that you will usually read your mails in the `nnmairix' groups instead
of your "real" mail groups.

   There is one problem, though: say you got a new mail from
`davidATfoobar.com'; it will now show up in two groups, the "real" group
(your INBOX, for example) and in the `nnmairix' search group (provided
you have updated the mairix database). Now you enter the `nnmairix'
group and read the mail. The mail will be marked as read, but only in
the `nnmairix' group--in the "real" mail group it will be still shown
as unread.

   You could now catch up the mail group (*note Group Data::), but this
is tedious and error prone, since you may overlook mails you don't have
created `nnmairix' groups for. Of course, you could first use
`nnmairix-goto-original-article' (*note nnmairix keyboard shortcuts::)
and then read the mail in the original group, but that's even more
cumbersome.

   Clearly, the easiest way would be if marks could somehow be
automatically set for the original article. This is exactly what _marks
propagation_ is about.

   Marks propagation is deactivated by default. You can activate it for
a certain `nnmairix' group with
`nnmairix-group-toggle-propmarks-this-group' (bound to `G b p'). This
function will warn you if you try to use it with your default search
group; the reason is that the default search group is used for
temporary searches, and it's easy to accidentally propagate marks from
this group. However, you can ignore this warning if you really want to.

   With marks propagation enabled, all the marks you set in a `nnmairix'
group should now be propagated to the original article. For example,
you can now tick an article (by default with `!') and this mark should
magically be set for the original article, too.

   A few more remarks which you may or may not want to know:

   Marks will not be set immediately, but only upon closing a group.
This not only makes marks propagation faster, it also avoids problems
with dangling symlinks when dealing with maildir files (since changing
flags will change the file name). You can also control when to
propagate marks via `nnmairix-propagate-marks-upon-close' (see the
doc-string for details).

   Obviously, `nnmairix' will have to look up the original group for
every article you want to set marks for. If available, `nnmairix' will
first use the registry for determining the original group. The registry
is very fast, hence you should really, really enable the registry when
using marks propagation. If you don't have to worry about RAM and disc
space, set `gnus-registry-max-entries' to a large enough value; to be on
the safe side, choose roughly the amount of mails you index with mairix.

   If you don't want to use the registry or the registry hasn't seen the
original article yet, `nnmairix' will use an additional mairix search
for determining the file name of the article. This, of course, is way
slower than the registry--if you set hundreds or even thousands of
marks this way, it might take some time. You can avoid this situation by
setting `nnmairix-only-use-registry' to t.

   Maybe you also want to propagate marks the other way round, i.e. if
you tick an article in a "real" mail group, you'd like to have the same
article in a `nnmairix' group ticked, too. For several good reasons,
this can only be done efficiently if you use maildir. To immediately
contradict myself, let me mention that it WON'T work with `nnmaildir',
since `nnmaildir' stores the marks externally and not in the file name.
Therefore, propagating marks to `nnmairix' groups will usually only
work if you use an IMAP server which uses maildir as its file format.

   If you work with this setup, just set
`nnmairix-propagate-marks-to-nnmairix-groups' to `t' and see what
happens. If you don't like what you see, just set it to `nil' again. One
problem might be that you get a wrong number of unread articles; this
usually happens when you delete or expire articles in the original
groups. When this happens, you can recreate the `nnmairix' group on the
back end using `G b d'.

File: gnus,  Node: nnmairix tips and tricks,  Next: nnmairix caveats,  Prev: Propagating marks,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.8 nnmairix tips and tricks
.................................

   * Checking Mail

     I put all my important mail groups at group level 1. The mairix
     groups have group level 5, so they do not get checked at start up
     (*note Group Levels::).

     I use the following to check for mails:

          (defun my-check-mail-mairix-update (level)
            (interactive "P")
            ;; if no prefix given, set level=1
            (gnus-group-get-new-news (or level 1))
            (nnmairix-update-groups "mairixsearch" t t)
            (gnus-group-list-groups))

          (define-key gnus-group-mode-map "g" 'my-check-mail-mairix-update)

     Instead of `"mairixsearch"' use the name of your `nnmairix'
     server. See the doc string for `nnmairix-update-groups' for
     details.

   * Example: search group for ticked articles

     For example, you can create a group for all ticked articles, where
     the articles always stay unread:

     Hit `G b g', enter group name (e.g. `important'), use `F:f' as
     query and do not include threads.

     Now activate marks propagation for this group by using `G b p'.
     Then activate the always-unread feature by using `G b r' twice.

     So far so good--but how do you remove the tick marks in the
     `nnmairix' group?  There are two options: You may simply use
     `nnmairix-remove-tick-mark-original-article' (bound to `$ u') to
     remove tick marks from the original article. The other possibility
     is to set `nnmairix-propagate-marks-to-nnmairix-groups' to `t',
     but see the above comments about this option.  If it works for
     you, the tick marks should also exist in the `nnmairix' group and
     you can remove them as usual, e.g. by marking an article as read.

     When you have removed a tick mark from the original article, this
     article should vanish from the `nnmairix' group after you have
     updated the mairix database and updated the group.  Fortunately,
     there is a function for doing exactly that:
     `nnmairix-update-groups'. See the previous code snippet and the
     doc string for details.

   * Dealing with auto-subscription of mail groups

     As described before, all `nnmairix' groups are in fact stored on
     the mail back end in the form `zz_mairix-<NAME>-<NUMBER>'. You can
     see them when you enter the back end server in the server buffer.
     You should not subscribe these groups! Unfortunately, these groups
     will usually get _auto-subscribed_ when you use `nnmaildir' or
     `nnml', i.e. you will suddenly see groups of the form `zz_mairix*'
     pop up in your group buffer. If this happens to you, simply kill
     these groups with C-k.  For avoiding this, turn off
     auto-subscription completely by setting the variable
     `gnus-auto-subscribed-groups' to `nil' (*note Filtering New
     Groups::), or if you like to keep this feature use the following
     kludge for turning it off for all groups beginning with `zz_':

          (setq gnus-auto-subscribed-groups
                "^\\(nnml\\|nnfolder\\|nnmbox\\|nnmh\\|nnbabyl\\|nnmaildir\\).*:\\([^z]\\|z$\\|\\z[^z]\\|zz$\\|zz[^_]\\|zz_$\\).*")


File: gnus,  Node: nnmairix caveats,  Prev: nnmairix tips and tricks,  Up: nnmairix

2.18.2.9 nnmairix caveats
.........................

   * You can create a secondary `nnml' server just for nnmairix, but
     then you have to explicitly set the corresponding server variable
     `nnml-get-new-mail' to `nil'.  Otherwise, new mail might get put
     into this secondary server (and would never show up again).  Here's
     an example server definition:

          (nnml "mairix" (nnml-directory "mairix") (nnml-get-new-mail nil))

     (The `nnmaildir' back end also has a server variabe
     `get-new-mail', but its default value is `nil', so you don't have
     to explicitly set it if you use a `nnmaildir' server just for
     mairix.)

   * If you use the Gnus registry: don't use the registry with
     `nnmairix' groups (put them in `gnus-registry-unfollowed-groups').
     Be _extra careful_ if you use
     `gnus-registry-split-fancy-with-parent'; mails which are split
     into `nnmairix' groups are usually gone for good as soon as you
     check the group for new mail (yes, it has happened to me...).

   * Therefore: _Never ever_ put "real" mails into `nnmairix' groups
     (you shouldn't be able to, anyway).

   * If you use the Gnus agent (*note Gnus Unplugged::): don't agentize
     `nnmairix' groups (though I have no idea what happens if you do).

   * mairix does only support us-ascii characters.

   * `nnmairix' uses a rather brute force method to force Gnus to
     completely reread the group on the mail back end after mairix was
     called--it simply deletes and re-creates the group on the mail
     back end. So far, this has worked for me without any problems, and
     I don't see how `nnmairix' could delete other mail groups than its
     own, but anyway: you really should have a backup of your mail
     folders.

   * All necessary information is stored in the group parameters (*note
     Group Parameters::). This has the advantage that no active file is
     needed, but also implies that when you kill a `nnmairix' group, it
     is gone for good.

   * If you create and kill a lot of `nnmairix' groups, the
     "zz_mairix-*" groups will accumulate on the mail back end server.
     To delete old groups which are no longer needed, call
     `nnmairix-purge-old-groups'. Note that this assumes that you don't
     save any "real" mail in folders of the form
     `zz_mairix-<NAME>-<NUMBER>'. You can change the prefix of
     `nnmairix' groups by changing the variable `nnmairix-group-prefix'.

   * The following only applies if you _don't_ use the mentioned patch
     for mairix (*note Propagating marks::):

     A problem can occur when using `nnmairix' with maildir folders and
     comes with the fact that maildir stores mail flags like `Seen' or
     `Replied' by appending chars `S' and `R' to the message file name,
     respectively. This implies that currently you would have to update
     the mairix database not only when new mail arrives, but also when
     mail flags are changing. The same applies to new mails which are
     indexed while they are still in the `new' folder but then get
     moved to `cur' when Gnus has seen the mail. If you don't update
     the database after this has happened, a mairix query can lead to
     symlinks pointing to non-existing files. In Gnus, these messages
     will usually appear with "(none)" entries in the header and can't
     be accessed. If this happens to you, using `G b u' and updating
     the group will usually fix this.


File: gnus,  Node: Misc Group Stuff,  Prev: Searching,  Up: Group Buffer

2.19 Misc Group Stuff
=====================

* Menu:

* Scanning New Messages::       Asking Gnus to see whether new messages have arrived.
* Group Information::           Information and help on groups and Gnus.
* Group Timestamp::             Making Gnus keep track of when you last read a group.
* File Commands::               Reading and writing the Gnus files.
* Sieve Commands::              Managing Sieve scripts.

`v'
     The key `v' is reserved for users.  You can bind it to some
     command or better use it as a prefix key.  For example:

          (define-key gnus-group-mode-map (kbd "v j d")
            (lambda ()
              (interactive)
              (gnus-group-jump-to-group "nndraft:drafts")))

     On keys reserved for users in Emacs and on keybindings in general
     *Note Keymaps: (emacs)Keymaps.

`^'
     Enter the server buffer (`gnus-group-enter-server-mode').  *Note
     Server Buffer::.

`a'
     Start composing a message (a news by default)
     (`gnus-group-post-news').  If given a prefix, post to the group
     under the point.  If the prefix is 1, prompt for a group to post
     to.  Contrary to what the name of this function suggests, the
     prepared article might be a mail instead of a news, if a mail
     group is specified with the prefix argument.  *Note Composing
     Messages::.

`m'
     Mail a message somewhere (`gnus-group-mail').  If given a prefix,
     use the posting style of the group under the point.  If the prefix
     is 1, prompt for a group name to find the posting style.  *Note
     Composing Messages::.

`i'
     Start composing a news (`gnus-group-news').  If given a prefix,
     post to the group under the point.  If the prefix is 1, prompt for
     group to post to.  *Note Composing Messages::.

     This function actually prepares a news even when using mail groups.
     This is useful for "posting" messages to mail groups without
     actually sending them over the network: they're just saved
     directly to the group in question.  The corresponding back end
     must have a request-post method for this to work though.

`G z'
     Compact the group under point (`gnus-group-compact-group').
     Currently implemented only in nnml (*note Mail Spool::).  This
     removes gaps between article numbers, hence getting a correct
     total article count.


   Variables for the group buffer:

`gnus-group-mode-hook'
     is called after the group buffer has been created.

`gnus-group-prepare-hook'
     is called after the group buffer is generated.  It may be used to
     modify the buffer in some strange, unnatural way.

`gnus-group-prepared-hook'
     is called as the very last thing after the group buffer has been
     generated.  It may be used to move point around, for instance.

`gnus-permanently-visible-groups'
     Groups matching this regexp will always be listed in the group
     buffer, whether they are empty or not.


File: gnus,  Node: Scanning New Messages,  Next: Group Information,  Up: Misc Group Stuff

2.19.1 Scanning New Messages
----------------------------

`g'
     Check the server(s) for new articles.  If the numerical prefix is
     used, this command will check only groups of level ARG and lower
     (`gnus-group-get-new-news').  If given a non-numerical prefix, this
     command will force a total re-reading of the active file(s) from
     the back end(s).

`M-g'
     Check whether new articles have arrived in the current group
     (`gnus-group-get-new-news-this-group').
     `gnus-goto-next-group-when-activating' says whether this command is
     to move point to the next group or not.  It is `t' by default.

`C-c M-g'
     Activate absolutely all groups (`gnus-activate-all-groups').

`R'
     Restart Gnus (`gnus-group-restart').  This saves the `.newsrc'
     file(s), closes the connection to all servers, clears up all
     run-time Gnus variables, and then starts Gnus all over again.


   `gnus-get-new-news-hook' is run just before checking for new news.

   `gnus-after-getting-new-news-hook' is run after checking for new
news.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Information,  Next: Group Timestamp,  Prev: Scanning New Messages,  Up: Misc Group Stuff

2.19.2 Group Information
------------------------

`H f'
     Try to fetch the FAQ for the current group
     (`gnus-group-fetch-faq').  Gnus will try to get the FAQ from
     `gnus-group-faq-directory', which is usually a directory on a
     remote machine.  This variable can also be a list of directories.
     In that case, giving a prefix to this command will allow you to
     choose between the various sites.  `ange-ftp' (or `efs') will be
     used for fetching the file.

     If fetching from the first site is unsuccessful, Gnus will attempt
     to go through `gnus-group-faq-directory' and try to open them one
     by one.

`H c'
     Try to open the charter for the current group in a web browser
     (`gnus-group-fetch-charter').  Query for a group if given a prefix
     argument.

     Gnus will use `gnus-group-charter-alist' to find the location of
     the charter.  If no location is known, Gnus will fetch the control
     messages for the group, which in some cases includes the charter.

`H C'
     Fetch the control messages for the group from the archive at
     `ftp.isc.org' (`gnus-group-fetch-control').  Query for a group if
     given a prefix argument.

     If `gnus-group-fetch-control-use-browse-url' is non-`nil', Gnus
     will open the control messages in a browser using `browse-url'.
     Otherwise they are fetched using `ange-ftp' and displayed in an
     ephemeral group.

     Note that the control messages are compressed.  To use this command
     you need to turn on `auto-compression-mode' (*note Compressed
     Files: (emacs)Compressed Files.).

`H d'
`C-c C-d'
     Describe the current group (`gnus-group-describe-group').  If given
     a prefix, force Gnus to re-read the description from the server.

`M-d'
     Describe all groups (`gnus-group-describe-all-groups').  If given a
     prefix, force Gnus to re-read the description file from the server.

`H v'
`V'
     Display current Gnus version numbers (`gnus-version').

`?'
     Give a very short help message (`gnus-group-describe-briefly').

`C-c C-i'
     Go to the Gnus info node (`gnus-info-find-node').

File: gnus,  Node: Group Timestamp,  Next: File Commands,  Prev: Group Information,  Up: Misc Group Stuff

2.19.3 Group Timestamp
----------------------

It can be convenient to let Gnus keep track of when you last read a
group.  To set the ball rolling, you should add
`gnus-group-set-timestamp' to `gnus-select-group-hook':

     (add-hook 'gnus-select-group-hook 'gnus-group-set-timestamp)

   After doing this, each time you enter a group, it'll be recorded.

   This information can be displayed in various ways--the easiest is to
use the `%d' spec in the group line format:

     (setq gnus-group-line-format
           "%M\%S\%p\%P\%5y: %(%-40,40g%) %d\n")

   This will result in lines looking like:

     *        0: mail.ding                                19961002T012943
              0: custom                                   19961002T012713

   As you can see, the date is displayed in compact ISO 8601 format.
This may be a bit too much, so to just display the date, you could say
something like:

     (setq gnus-group-line-format
           "%M\%S\%p\%P\%5y: %(%-40,40g%) %6,6~(cut 2)d\n")

   If you would like greater control of the time format, you can use a
user-defined format spec.  Something like the following should do the
trick:

     (setq gnus-group-line-format
           "%M\%S\%p\%P\%5y: %(%-40,40g%) %ud\n")
     (defun gnus-user-format-function-d (headers)
       (let ((time (gnus-group-timestamp gnus-tmp-group)))
         (if time
             (format-time-string "%b %d  %H:%M" time)
           "")))

File: gnus,  Node: File Commands,  Next: Sieve Commands,  Prev: Group Timestamp,  Up: Misc Group Stuff

2.19.4 File Commands
--------------------

`r'
     Re-read the init file (`gnus-init-file', which defaults to
     `~/.gnus.el') (`gnus-group-read-init-file').

`s'
     Save the `.newsrc.eld' file (and `.newsrc' if wanted)
     (`gnus-group-save-newsrc').  If given a prefix, force saving the
     file(s) whether Gnus thinks it is necessary or not.


File: gnus,  Node: Sieve Commands,  Prev: File Commands,  Up: Misc Group Stuff

2.19.5 Sieve Commands
---------------------

Sieve is a server-side mail filtering language.  In Gnus you can use
the `sieve' group parameter (*note Group Parameters::) to specify sieve
rules that should apply to each group.  Gnus provides two commands to
translate all these group parameters into a proper Sieve script that
can be transfered to the server somehow.

   The generated Sieve script is placed in `gnus-sieve-file' (by
default `~/.sieve').  The Sieve code that Gnus generate is placed
between two delimiters, `gnus-sieve-region-start' and
`gnus-sieve-region-end', so you may write additional Sieve code outside
these delimiters that will not be removed the next time you regenerate
the Sieve script.

   The variable `gnus-sieve-crosspost' controls how the Sieve script is
generated.  If it is non-`nil' (the default) articles is placed in all
groups that have matching rules, otherwise the article is only placed
in the group with the first matching rule.  For example, the group
parameter `(sieve address "sender" "owner-dingAThpc.edu")' will
generate the following piece of Sieve code if `gnus-sieve-crosspost' is
`nil'.  (When `gnus-sieve-crosspost' is non-`nil', it looks the same
except that the line containing the call to `stop' is removed.)

     if address "sender" "owner-dingAThpc.edu" {
             fileinto "INBOX.ding";
             stop;
     }

   *Note Emacs Sieve: (sieve)Top.

`D g'
     Regenerate a Sieve script from the `sieve' group parameters and
     put you into the `gnus-sieve-file' without saving it.

`D u'
     Regenerates the Gnus managed part of `gnus-sieve-file' using the
     `sieve' group parameters, save the file and upload it to the
     server using the `sieveshell' program.


File: gnus,  Node: Summary Buffer,  Next: Article Buffer,  Prev: Group Buffer,  Up: Top

3 Summary Buffer
****************

A line for each article is displayed in the summary buffer.  You can
move around, read articles, post articles and reply to articles.

   The most common way to a summary buffer is to select a group from the
group buffer (*note Selecting a Group::).

   You can have as many summary buffers open as you wish.

   You can customize the Summary Mode tool bar, see `M-x
customize-apropos RET gnus-summary-tool-bar'.  This feature is only
available in Emacs.

   The key `v' is reserved for users.  You can bind it to some command
or better use it as a prefix key.  For example:
     (define-key gnus-summary-mode-map (kbd "v -") "LrS") ;; lower subthread

* Menu:

* Summary Buffer Format::       Deciding how the summary buffer is to look.
* Summary Maneuvering::         Moving around the summary buffer.
* Choosing Articles::           Reading articles.
* Paging the Article::          Scrolling the current article.
* Reply Followup and Post::     Posting articles.
* Delayed Articles::            Send articles at a later time.
* Marking Articles::            Marking articles as read, expirable, etc.
* Limiting::                    You can limit the summary buffer.
* Threading::                   How threads are made.
* Sorting the Summary Buffer::  How articles and threads are sorted.
* Asynchronous Fetching::       Gnus might be able to pre-fetch articles.
* Article Caching::             You may store articles in a cache.
* Persistent Articles::         Making articles expiry-resistant.
* Sticky Articles::             Article buffers that are not reused.
* Article Backlog::             Having already read articles hang around.
* Saving Articles::             Ways of customizing article saving.
* Decoding Articles::           Gnus can treat series of (uu)encoded articles.
* Article Treatment::           The article buffer can be mangled at will.
* MIME Commands::               Doing MIMEy things with the articles.
* Charsets::                    Character set issues.
* Article Commands::            Doing various things with the article buffer.
* Summary Sorting::             Sorting the summary buffer in various ways.
* Finding the Parent::          No child support? Get the parent.
* Alternative Approaches::      Reading using non-default summaries.
* Tree Display::                A more visual display of threads.
* Mail Group Commands::         Some commands can only be used in mail groups.
* Various Summary Stuff::       What didn't fit anywhere else.
* Exiting the Summary Buffer::  Returning to the Group buffer,
                                or reselecting the current group.
* Crosspost Handling::          How crossposted articles are dealt with.
* Duplicate Suppression::       An alternative when crosspost handling fails.
* Security::                    Decrypt and Verify.
* Mailing List::                Mailing list minor mode.

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Buffer Format,  Next: Summary Maneuvering,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.1 Summary Buffer Format
=========================

* Menu:

* Summary Buffer Lines::        You can specify how summary lines should look.
* To From Newsgroups::          How to not display your own name.
* Summary Buffer Mode Line::    You can say how the mode line should look.
* Summary Highlighting::        Making the summary buffer all pretty and nice.

   Gnus will use the value of the `gnus-extract-address-components'
variable as a function for getting the name and address parts of a
`From' header.  Two pre-defined functions exist:
`gnus-extract-address-components', which is the default, quite fast,
and too simplistic solution; and `mail-extract-address-components',
which works very nicely, but is slower.  The default function will
return the wrong answer in 5% of the cases.  If this is unacceptable to
you, use the other function instead:

     (setq gnus-extract-address-components
           'mail-extract-address-components)

   `gnus-summary-same-subject' is a string indicating that the current
article has the same subject as the previous.  This string will be used
with those specs that require it.  The default is `""'.

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Buffer Lines,  Next: To From Newsgroups,  Up: Summary Buffer Format

3.1.1 Summary Buffer Lines
--------------------------

You can change the format of the lines in the summary buffer by changing
the `gnus-summary-line-format' variable.  It works along the same lines
as a normal `format' string, with some extensions (*note Formatting
Variables::).

   There should always be a colon or a point position marker on the
line; the cursor always moves to the point position marker or the colon
after performing an operation.  (Of course, Gnus wouldn't be Gnus if it
wasn't possible to change this.  Just write a new function
`gnus-goto-colon' which does whatever you like with the cursor.)  *Note
Positioning Point::.

   The default string is `%U%R%z%I%(%[%4L: %-23,23f%]%) %s\n'.

   The following format specification characters and extended format
specification(s) are understood:

`N'
     Article number.

`S'
     Subject string.  List identifiers stripped,
     `gnus-list-identifiers'.  *Note Article Hiding::.

`s'
     Subject if the article is the root of the thread or the previous
     article had a different subject, `gnus-summary-same-subject'
     otherwise.  (`gnus-summary-same-subject' defaults to `""'.)

`F'
     Full `From' header.

`n'
     The name (from the `From' header).

`f'
     The name, `To' header or the `Newsgroups' header (*note To From
     Newsgroups::).

`a'
     The name (from the `From' header).  This differs from the `n' spec
     in that it uses the function designated by the
     `gnus-extract-address-components' variable, which is slower, but
     may be more thorough.

`A'
     The address (from the `From' header).  This works the same way as
     the `a' spec.

`L'
     Number of lines in the article.

`c'
     Number of characters in the article.  This specifier is not
     supported in some methods (like nnfolder).

`k'
     Pretty-printed version of the number of characters in the article;
     for example, `1.2k' or `0.4M'.

`I'
     Indentation based on thread level (*note Customizing Threading::).

`B'
     A complex trn-style thread tree, showing response-connecting trace
     lines.  A thread could be drawn like this:

          >
          +->
          | +->
          | | \->
          | |   \->
          | \->
          +->
          \->

     You can customize the appearance with the following options.  Note
     that it is possible to make the thread display look really neat by
     replacing the default ASCII characters with graphic line-drawing
     glyphs.
    `gnus-sum-thread-tree-root'
          Used for the root of a thread.  If `nil', use subject
          instead.  The default is `> '.

    `gnus-sum-thread-tree-false-root'
          Used for the false root of a thread (*note Loose Threads::).
          If `nil', use subject instead.  The default is `> '.

    `gnus-sum-thread-tree-single-indent'
          Used for a thread with just one message.  If `nil', use
          subject instead.  The default is `'.

    `gnus-sum-thread-tree-vertical'
          Used for drawing a vertical line.  The default is `| '.

    `gnus-sum-thread-tree-indent'
          Used for indenting.  The default is `  '.

    `gnus-sum-thread-tree-leaf-with-other'
          Used for a leaf with brothers.  The default is `+-> '.

    `gnus-sum-thread-tree-single-leaf'
          Used for a leaf without brothers.  The default is `\-> '


`T'
     Nothing if the article is a root and lots of spaces if it isn't (it
     pushes everything after it off the screen).

`['
     Opening bracket, which is normally `[', but can also be `<' for
     adopted articles (*note Customizing Threading::).

`]'
     Closing bracket, which is normally `]', but can also be `>' for
     adopted articles.

`>'
     One space for each thread level.

`<'
     Twenty minus thread level spaces.

`U'
     Unread.  *Note Read Articles::.

`R'
     This misleadingly named specifier is the "secondary mark".  This
     mark will say whether the article has been replied to, has been
     cached, or has been saved.  *Note Other Marks::.

`i'
     Score as a number (*note Scoring::).

`z'
     Zcore, `+' if above the default level and `-' if below the default
     level.  If the difference between `gnus-summary-default-score' and
     the score is less than `gnus-summary-zcore-fuzz', this spec will
     not be used.

`V'
     Total thread score.

`x'
     `Xref'.

`D'
     `Date'.

`d'
     The `Date' in `DD-MMM' format.

`o'
     The `Date' in YYYYMMDD`T'HHMMSS format.

`M'
     `Message-ID'.

`r'
     `References'.

`t'
     Number of articles in the current sub-thread.  Using this spec
     will slow down summary buffer generation somewhat.

`e'
     An `=' (`gnus-not-empty-thread-mark') will be displayed if the
     article has any children.

`P'
     The line number.

`O'
     Download mark.

`*'
     Desired cursor position (instead of after first colon).

`&user-date;'
     Age sensitive date format.  Various date format is defined in
     `gnus-user-date-format-alist'.

`u'
     User defined specifier.  The next character in the format string
     should be a letter.  Gnus will call the function
     `gnus-user-format-function-X', where X is the letter following
     `%u'.  The function will be passed the current header as argument.
     The function should return a string, which will be inserted into
     the summary just like information from any other summary specifier.

   Text between `%(' and `%)' will be highlighted with
`gnus-mouse-face' when the mouse point is placed inside the area.
There can only be one such area.

   The `%U' (status), `%R' (replied) and `%z' (zcore) specs have to be
handled with care.  For reasons of efficiency, Gnus will compute what
column these characters will end up in, and "hard-code" that.  This
means that it is invalid to have these specs after a variable-length
spec.  Well, you might not be arrested, but your summary buffer will
look strange, which is bad enough.

   The smart choice is to have these specs as far to the left as
possible.  (Isn't that the case with everything, though?  But I
digress.)

   This restriction may disappear in later versions of Gnus.

File: gnus,  Node: To From Newsgroups,  Next: Summary Buffer Mode Line,  Prev: Summary Buffer Lines,  Up: Summary Buffer Format

3.1.2 To From Newsgroups
------------------------

In some groups (particularly in archive groups), the `From' header
isn't very interesting, since all the articles there are written by
you.  To display the information in the `To' or `Newsgroups' headers
instead, you need to decide three things: What information to gather;
where to display it; and when to display it.

  1. The reading of extra header information is controlled by the
     `gnus-extra-headers'.  This is a list of header symbols.  For
     instance:

          (setq gnus-extra-headers
                '(To Newsgroups X-Newsreader))

     This will result in Gnus trying to obtain these three headers, and
     storing it in header structures for later easy retrieval.

  2. The value of these extra headers can be accessed via the
     `gnus-extra-header' function.  Here's a format line spec that will
     access the `X-Newsreader' header:

          "%~(form (gnus-extra-header 'X-Newsreader))@"

  3. The `gnus-ignored-from-addresses' variable says when the `%f'
     summary line spec returns the `To', `Newsreader' or `From' header.
     If this regexp matches the contents of the `From' header, the
     value of the `To' or `Newsreader' headers are used instead.

     To distinguish regular articles from those where the `From' field
     has been swapped, a string is prefixed to the `To' or `Newsgroups'
     header in the summary line.  By default the string is `-> ' for
     `To' and `=> ' for `Newsgroups', you can customize these strings
     with `gnus-summary-to-prefix' and `gnus-summary-newsgroup-prefix'.


   A related variable is `nnmail-extra-headers', which controls when to
include extra headers when generating overview (NOV) files.  If you
have old overview files, you should regenerate them after changing this
variable, by entering the server buffer using `^', and then `g' on the
appropriate mail server (e.g. nnml) to cause regeneration.

   You also have to instruct Gnus to display the data by changing the
`%n' spec to the `%f' spec in the `gnus-summary-line-format' variable.

   In summary, you'd typically put something like the following in
`~/.gnus.el':

     (setq gnus-extra-headers
           '(To Newsgroups))
     (setq nnmail-extra-headers gnus-extra-headers)
     (setq gnus-summary-line-format
           "%U%R%z%I%(%[%4L: %-23,23f%]%) %s\n")
     (setq gnus-ignored-from-addresses
           "Your Name Here")

   (The values listed above are the default values in Gnus.  Alter them
to fit your needs.)

   A note for news server administrators, or for users who wish to try
to convince their news server administrator to provide some additional
support:

   The above is mostly useful for mail groups, where you have control
over the NOV files that are created.  However, if you can persuade your
nntp admin to add (in the usual implementation, notably INN):

     Newsgroups:full

   to the end of her `overview.fmt' file, then you can use that just as
you would the extra headers from the mail groups.

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Buffer Mode Line,  Next: Summary Highlighting,  Prev: To From Newsgroups,  Up: Summary Buffer Format

3.1.3 Summary Buffer Mode Line
------------------------------

You can also change the format of the summary mode bar (*note Mode Line
Formatting::).  Set `gnus-summary-mode-line-format' to whatever you
like.  The default is `Gnus: %%b [%A] %Z'.

   Here are the elements you can play with:

`G'
     Group name.

`p'
     Unprefixed group name.

`A'
     Current article number.

`z'
     Current article score.

`V'
     Gnus version.

`U'
     Number of unread articles in this group.

`e'
     Number of unread articles in this group that aren't displayed in
     the summary buffer.

`Z'
     A string with the number of unread and unselected articles
     represented either as `<%U(+%e) more>' if there are both unread
     and unselected articles, and just as `<%U more>' if there are just
     unread articles and no unselected ones.

`g'
     Shortish group name.  For instance, `rec.arts.anime' will be
     shortened to `r.a.anime'.

`S'
     Subject of the current article.

`u'
     User-defined spec (*note User-Defined Specs::).

`s'
     Name of the current score file (*note Scoring::).

`d'
     Number of dormant articles (*note Unread Articles::).

`t'
     Number of ticked articles (*note Unread Articles::).

`r'
     Number of articles that have been marked as read in this session.

`E'
     Number of articles expunged by the score files.

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Highlighting,  Prev: Summary Buffer Mode Line,  Up: Summary Buffer Format

3.1.4 Summary Highlighting
--------------------------

`gnus-visual-mark-article-hook'
     This hook is run after selecting an article.  It is meant to be
     used for highlighting the article in some way.  It is not run if
     `gnus-visual' is `nil'.

`gnus-summary-update-hook'
     This hook is called when a summary line is changed.  It is not run
     if `gnus-visual' is `nil'.

`gnus-summary-selected-face'
     This is the face (or "font" as some people call it) used to
     highlight the current article in the summary buffer.

`gnus-summary-highlight'
     Summary lines are highlighted according to this variable, which is
     a list where the elements are of the format `(FORM . FACE)'.  If
     you would, for instance, like ticked articles to be italic and
     high-scored articles to be bold, you could set this variable to
     something like
          (((eq mark gnus-ticked-mark) . italic)
           ((> score default) . bold))
     As you may have guessed, if FORM returns a non-`nil' value, FACE
     will be applied to the line.

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Maneuvering,  Next: Choosing Articles,  Prev: Summary Buffer Format,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.2 Summary Maneuvering
=======================

All the straight movement commands understand the numeric prefix and
behave pretty much as you'd expect.

   None of these commands select articles.

`G M-n'
`M-n'
     Go to the next summary line of an unread article
     (`gnus-summary-next-unread-subject').

`G M-p'
`M-p'
     Go to the previous summary line of an unread article
     (`gnus-summary-prev-unread-subject').

`G g'
     Ask for an article number and then go to the summary line of that
     article without displaying the article
     (`gnus-summary-goto-subject').

   If Gnus asks you to press a key to confirm going to the next group,
you can use the `C-n' and `C-p' keys to move around the group buffer,
searching for the next group to read without actually returning to the
group buffer.

   Variables related to summary movement:

`gnus-auto-select-next'
     If you issue one of the movement commands (like `n') and there are
     no more unread articles after the current one, Gnus will offer to
     go to the next group.  If this variable is `t' and the next group
     is empty, Gnus will exit summary mode and return to the group
     buffer.  If this variable is neither `t' nor `nil', Gnus will
     select the next group with unread articles.  As a special case, if
     this variable is `quietly', Gnus will select the next group
     without asking for confirmation.  If this variable is
     `almost-quietly', the same will happen only if you are located on
     the last article in the group.  Finally, if this variable is
     `slightly-quietly', the `Z n' command will go to the next group
     without confirmation.  Also *note Group Levels::.

`gnus-auto-select-same'
     If non-`nil', all the movement commands will try to go to the next
     article with the same subject as the current.  ("Same" here might
     mean "roughly equal".  See `gnus-summary-gather-subject-limit' for
     details (*note Customizing Threading::).)  If there are no more
     articles with the same subject, go to the first unread article.

     This variable is not particularly useful if you use a threaded
     display.

`gnus-summary-check-current'
     If non-`nil', all the "unread" movement commands will not proceed
     to the next (or previous) article if the current article is unread.
     Instead, they will choose the current article.

`gnus-auto-center-summary'
     If non-`nil', Gnus will keep the point in the summary buffer
     centered at all times.  This makes things quite tidy, but if you
     have a slow network connection, or simply do not like this
     un-Emacsism, you can set this variable to `nil' to get the normal
     Emacs scrolling action.  This will also inhibit horizontal
     re-centering of the summary buffer, which might make it more
     inconvenient to read extremely long threads.

     This variable can also be a number.  In that case, center the
     window at the given number of lines from the top.


File: gnus,  Node: Choosing Articles,  Next: Paging the Article,  Prev: Summary Maneuvering,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.3 Choosing Articles
=====================

* Menu:

* Choosing Commands::           Commands for choosing articles.
* Choosing Variables::          Variables that influence these commands.

File: gnus,  Node: Choosing Commands,  Next: Choosing Variables,  Up: Choosing Articles

3.3.1 Choosing Commands
-----------------------

None of the following movement commands understand the numeric prefix,
and they all select and display an article.

   If you want to fetch new articles or redisplay the group, see *note
Exiting the Summary Buffer::.

`SPACE'
     Select the current article, or, if that one's read already, the
     next unread article (`gnus-summary-next-page').

     If you have an article window open already and you press `SPACE'
     again, the article will be scrolled.  This lets you conveniently
     `SPACE' through an entire newsgroup.  *Note Paging the Article::.

`G n'
`n'
     Go to next unread article (`gnus-summary-next-unread-article').

`G p'
`p'
     Go to previous unread article (`gnus-summary-prev-unread-article').

`G N'
`N'
     Go to the next article (`gnus-summary-next-article').

`G P'
`P'
     Go to the previous article (`gnus-summary-prev-article').

`G C-n'
     Go to the next article with the same subject
     (`gnus-summary-next-same-subject').

`G C-p'
     Go to the previous article with the same subject
     (`gnus-summary-prev-same-subject').

`G f'
`.'
     Go to the first unread article
     (`gnus-summary-first-unread-article').

`G b'
`,'
     Go to the unread article with the highest score
     (`gnus-summary-best-unread-article').  If given a prefix argument,
     go to the first unread article that has a score over the default
     score.

`G l'
`l'
     Go to the previous article read (`gnus-summary-goto-last-article').

`G o'
     Pop an article off the summary history and go to this article
     (`gnus-summary-pop-article').  This command differs from the
     command above in that you can pop as many previous articles off the
     history as you like, while `l' toggles the two last read articles.
     For a somewhat related issue (if you use these commands a lot),
     *note Article Backlog::.

`G j'
`j'
     Ask for an article number or `Message-ID', and then go to that
     article (`gnus-summary-goto-article').


File: gnus,  Node: Choosing Variables,  Prev: Choosing Commands,  Up: Choosing Articles

3.3.2 Choosing Variables
------------------------

Some variables relevant for moving and selecting articles:

`gnus-auto-extend-newsgroup'
     All the movement commands will try to go to the previous (or next)
     article, even if that article isn't displayed in the Summary
     buffer if this variable is non-`nil'.  Gnus will then fetch the
     article from the server and display it in the article buffer.

`gnus-select-article-hook'
     This hook is called whenever an article is selected.  The default
     is `nil'.  If you would like each article to be saved in the Agent
     as you read it, putting `gnus-agent-fetch-selected-article' on this
     hook will do so.

`gnus-mark-article-hook'
     This hook is called whenever an article is selected.  It is
     intended to be used for marking articles as read.  The default
     value is `gnus-summary-mark-read-and-unread-as-read', and will
     change the mark of almost any article you read to
     `gnus-read-mark'.  The only articles not affected by this function
     are ticked, dormant, and expirable articles.  If you'd instead
     like to just have unread articles marked as read, you can use
     `gnus-summary-mark-unread-as-read' instead.  It will leave marks
     like `gnus-low-score-mark', `gnus-del-mark' (and so on) alone.


File: gnus,  Node: Paging the Article,  Next: Reply Followup and Post,  Prev: Choosing Articles,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.4 Scrolling the Article
=========================

`SPACE'
     Pressing `SPACE' will scroll the current article forward one page,
     or, if you have come to the end of the current article, will
     choose the next article (`gnus-summary-next-page').

     If `gnus-article-skip-boring' is non-`nil' and the rest of the
     article consists only of citations and signature, then it will be
     skipped; the next article will be shown instead.  You can customize
     what is considered uninteresting with `gnus-article-boring-faces'.
     You can manually view the article's pages, no matter how boring,
     using `C-M-v'.

`DEL'
     Scroll the current article back one page
     (`gnus-summary-prev-page').

`RET'
     Scroll the current article one line forward
     (`gnus-summary-scroll-up').

`M-RET'
     Scroll the current article one line backward
     (`gnus-summary-scroll-down').

`A g'
`g'
     (Re)fetch the current article (`gnus-summary-show-article').  If
     given a prefix, fetch the current article, but don't run any of the
     article treatment functions.  This will give you a "raw" article,
     just the way it came from the server.

     If given a numerical prefix, you can do semi-manual charset stuff.
     `C-u 0 g cn-gb-2312 RET' will decode the message as if it were
     encoded in the `cn-gb-2312' charset.  If you have

          (setq gnus-summary-show-article-charset-alist
                '((1 . cn-gb-2312)
                  (2 . big5)))

     then you can say `C-u 1 g' to get the same effect.

`A <'
`<'
     Scroll to the beginning of the article
     (`gnus-summary-beginning-of-article').

`A >'
`>'
     Scroll to the end of the article (`gnus-summary-end-of-article').

`A s'
`s'
     Perform an isearch in the article buffer
     (`gnus-summary-isearch-article').

`h'
     Select the article buffer (`gnus-summary-select-article-buffer').


File: gnus,  Node: Reply Followup and Post,  Next: Delayed Articles,  Prev: Paging the Article,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.5 Reply, Followup and Post
============================

* Menu:

* Summary Mail Commands::       Sending mail.
* Summary Post Commands::       Sending news.
* Summary Message Commands::    Other Message-related commands.
* Canceling and Superseding::

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Mail Commands,  Next: Summary Post Commands,  Up: Reply Followup and Post

3.5.1 Summary Mail Commands
---------------------------

Commands for composing a mail message:

`S r'
`r'
     Mail a reply to the author of the current article
     (`gnus-summary-reply').

`S R'
`R'
     Mail a reply to the author of the current article and include the
     original message (`gnus-summary-reply-with-original').  This
     command uses the process/prefix convention.

`S w'
     Mail a wide reply to the author of the current article
     (`gnus-summary-wide-reply').  A "wide reply" is a reply that goes
     out to all people listed in the `To', `From' (or `Reply-to') and
     `Cc' headers.  If `Mail-Followup-To' is present, that's used
     instead.

`S W'
     Mail a wide reply to the current article and include the original
     message (`gnus-summary-wide-reply-with-original').  This command
     uses the process/prefix convention.

`S v'
     Mail a very wide reply to the author of the current article
     (`gnus-summary-wide-reply').  A "very wide reply" is a reply that
     goes out to all people listed in the `To', `From' (or `Reply-to')
     and `Cc' headers in all the process/prefixed articles.  This
     command uses the process/prefix convention.

`S V'
     Mail a very wide reply to the author of the current article and
     include the original message
     (`gnus-summary-very-wide-reply-with-original').  This command uses
     the process/prefix convention.

`S B r'
     Mail a reply to the author of the current article but ignore the
     `Reply-To' field (`gnus-summary-reply-broken-reply-to').  If you
     need this because a mailing list incorrectly sets a `Reply-To'
     header pointing to the list, you probably want to set the
     `broken-reply-to' group parameter instead, so things will work
     correctly.  *Note Group Parameters::.

`S B R'
     Mail a reply to the author of the current article and include the
     original message but ignore the `Reply-To' field
     (`gnus-summary-reply-broken-reply-to-with-original').

`S o m'
`C-c C-f'
     Forward the current article to some other person
     (`gnus-summary-mail-forward').  If no prefix is given, the message
     is forwarded according to the value of (`message-forward-as-mime')
     and (`message-forward-show-mml'); if the prefix is 1, decode the
     message and forward directly inline; if the prefix is 2, forward
     message as an rfc822 MIME section; if the prefix is 3, decode
     message and forward as an rfc822 MIME section; if the prefix is 4,
     forward message directly inline; otherwise, the message is
     forwarded as no prefix given but use the flipped value of
     (`message-forward-as-mime').  By default, the message is decoded
     and forwarded as an rfc822 MIME section.

`S m'
`m'
     Prepare a mail (`gnus-summary-mail-other-window').  By default, use
     the posting style of the current group.  If given a prefix,
     disable that.  If the prefix is 1, prompt for a group name to find
     the posting style.

`S i'
`i'
     Prepare a news (`gnus-summary-news-other-window').  By default,
     post to the current group.  If given a prefix, disable that.  If
     the prefix is 1, prompt for a group to post to.

     This function actually prepares a news even when using mail groups.
     This is useful for "posting" messages to mail groups without
     actually sending them over the network: they're just saved
     directly to the group in question.  The corresponding back end
     must have a request-post method for this to work though.

`S D b'
     If you have sent a mail, but the mail was bounced back to you for
     some reason (wrong address, transient failure), you can use this
     command to resend that bounced mail
     (`gnus-summary-resend-bounced-mail').  You will be popped into a
     mail buffer where you can edit the headers before sending the mail
     off again.  If you give a prefix to this command, and the bounced
     mail is a reply to some other mail, Gnus will try to fetch that
     mail and display it for easy perusal of its headers.  This might
     very well fail, though.

`S D r'
     Not to be confused with the previous command,
     `gnus-summary-resend-message' will prompt you for an address to
     send the current message off to, and then send it to that place.
     The headers of the message won't be altered--but lots of headers
     that say `Resent-To', `Resent-From' and so on will be added.  This
     means that you actually send a mail to someone that has a `To'
     header that (probably) points to yourself.  This will confuse
     people.  So, natcherly you'll only do that if you're really eVIl.

     This command is mainly used if you have several accounts and want
     to ship a mail to a different account of yours.  (If you're both
     `root' and `postmaster' and get a mail for `postmaster' to the
     `root' account, you may want to resend it to `postmaster'.
     Ordnung muss sein!

     This command understands the process/prefix convention (*note
     Process/Prefix::).

`S D e'
     Like the previous command, but will allow you to edit the message
     as if it were a new message before resending.

`S O m'
     Digest the current series (*note Decoding Articles::) and forward
     the result using mail (`gnus-uu-digest-mail-forward').  This
     command uses the process/prefix convention (*note
     Process/Prefix::).

`S M-c'
     Send a complaint about excessive crossposting to the author of the
     current article (`gnus-summary-mail-crosspost-complaint').

     This command is provided as a way to fight back against the current
     crossposting pandemic that's sweeping Usenet.  It will compose a
     reply using the `gnus-crosspost-complaint' variable as a preamble.
     This command understands the process/prefix convention (*note
     Process/Prefix::) and will prompt you before sending each mail.


   Also *Note Header Commands: (message)Header Commands, for more
information.

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Post Commands,  Next: Summary Message Commands,  Prev: Summary Mail Commands,  Up: Reply Followup and Post

3.5.2 Summary Post Commands
---------------------------

Commands for posting a news article:

`S p'
`a'
     Prepare for posting an article (`gnus-summary-post-news').  By
     default, post to the current group.  If given a prefix, disable
     that.  If the prefix is 1, prompt for another group instead.

`S f'
`f'
     Post a followup to the current article (`gnus-summary-followup').

`S F'
`F'
     Post a followup to the current article and include the original
     message (`gnus-summary-followup-with-original').  This command
     uses the process/prefix convention.

`S n'
     Post a followup to the current article via news, even if you got
     the message through mail (`gnus-summary-followup-to-mail').

`S N'
     Post a followup to the current article via news, even if you got
     the message through mail and include the original message
     (`gnus-summary-followup-to-mail-with-original').  This command uses
     the process/prefix convention.

`S o p'
     Forward the current article to a newsgroup
     (`gnus-summary-post-forward').   If no prefix is given, the
     message is forwarded according to the value of
     (`message-forward-as-mime') and (`message-forward-show-mml'); if
     the prefix is 1, decode the message and forward directly inline;
     if the prefix is 2, forward message as an rfc822 MIME section; if
     the prefix is 3, decode message and forward as an rfc822 MIME
     section; if the prefix is 4, forward message directly inline;
     otherwise, the message is forwarded as no prefix given but use the
     flipped value of (`message-forward-as-mime').  By default, the
     message is decoded and forwarded as an rfc822 MIME section.

`S O p'
     Digest the current series and forward the result to a newsgroup
     (`gnus-uu-digest-post-forward').  This command uses the
     process/prefix convention.

`S u'
     Uuencode a file, split it into parts, and post it as a series
     (`gnus-uu-post-news').  (*note Uuencoding and Posting::).

   Also *Note Header Commands: (message)Header Commands, for more
information.

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Message Commands,  Next: Canceling and Superseding,  Prev: Summary Post Commands,  Up: Reply Followup and Post

3.5.3 Summary Message Commands
------------------------------

`S y'
     Yank the current article into an already existing Message
     composition buffer (`gnus-summary-yank-message').  This command
     prompts for what message buffer you want to yank into, and
     understands the process/prefix convention (*note Process/Prefix::).


File: gnus,  Node: Canceling and Superseding,  Prev: Summary Message Commands,  Up: Reply Followup and Post

3.5.4 Canceling Articles
------------------------

Have you ever written something, and then decided that you really,
really, really wish you hadn't posted that?

   Well, you can't cancel mail, but you can cancel posts.

   Find the article you wish to cancel (you can only cancel your own
articles, so don't try any funny stuff).  Then press `C' or `S c'
(`gnus-summary-cancel-article').  Your article will be
canceled--machines all over the world will be deleting your article.
This command uses the process/prefix convention (*note
Process/Prefix::).

   Be aware, however, that not all sites honor cancels, so your article
may live on here and there, while most sites will delete the article in
question.

   Gnus will use the "current" select method when canceling.  If you
want to use the standard posting method, use the `a' symbolic prefix
(*note Symbolic Prefixes::).

   Gnus ensures that only you can cancel your own messages using a
`Cancel-Lock' header (*note Canceling News: (message)Canceling News.).

   If you discover that you have made some mistakes and want to do some
corrections, you can post a "superseding" article that will replace
your original article.

   Go to the original article and press `S s'
(`gnus-summary-supersede-article').  You will be put in a buffer where
you can edit the article all you want before sending it off the usual
way.

   The same goes for superseding as for canceling, only more so: Some
sites do not honor superseding.  On those sites, it will appear that you
have posted almost the same article twice.

   If you have just posted the article, and change your mind right away,
there is a trick you can use to cancel/supersede the article without
waiting for the article to appear on your site first.  You simply return
to the post buffer (which is called `*sent ...*').  There you will find
the article you just posted, with all the headers intact.  Change the
`Message-ID' header to a `Cancel' or `Supersedes' header by
substituting one of those words for the word `Message-ID'.  Then just
press `C-c C-c' to send the article as you would do normally.  The
previous article will be canceled/superseded.

   Just remember, kids: There is no 'c' in 'supersede'.

File: gnus,  Node: Delayed Articles,  Next: Marking Articles,  Prev: Reply Followup and Post,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.6 Delayed Articles
====================

Sometimes, you might wish to delay the sending of a message.  For
example, you might wish to arrange for a message to turn up just in time
to remind your about the birthday of your Significant Other.  For this,
there is the `gnus-delay' package.  Setup is simple:

     (gnus-delay-initialize)

   Normally, to send a message you use the `C-c C-c' command from
Message mode.  To delay a message, use `C-c C-j' (`gnus-delay-article')
instead.  This will ask you for how long the message should be delayed.
Possible answers are:

   * A time span.  Consists of an integer and a letter.  For example,
     `42d' means to delay for 42 days.  Available letters are `m'
     (minutes), `h' (hours), `d' (days), `w' (weeks), `M' (months) and
     `Y' (years).

   * A specific date.  Looks like `YYYY-MM-DD'.  The message will be
     delayed until that day, at a specific time (eight o'clock by
     default).  See also `gnus-delay-default-hour'.

   * A specific time of day.  Given in `hh:mm' format, 24h, no am/pm
     stuff.  The deadline will be at that time today, except if that
     time has already passed, then it's at the given time tomorrow.  So
     if it's ten o'clock in the morning and you specify `11:15', then
     the deadline is one hour and fifteen minutes hence.  But if you
     specify `9:20', that means a time tomorrow.

   The action of the `gnus-delay-article' command is influenced by a
couple of variables:

`gnus-delay-default-hour'
     When you specify a specific date, the message will be due on that
     hour on the given date.  Possible values are integers 0 through 23.

`gnus-delay-default-delay'
     This is a string and gives the default delay.  It can be of any of
     the formats described above.

`gnus-delay-group'
     Delayed articles will be kept in this group on the drafts server
     until they are due.  You probably don't need to change this.  The
     default value is `"delayed"'.

`gnus-delay-header'
     The deadline for each article will be stored in a header.  This
     variable is a string and gives the header name.  You probably
     don't need to change this.  The default value is
     `"X-Gnus-Delayed"'.

   The way delaying works is like this: when you use the
`gnus-delay-article' command, you give a certain delay.  Gnus
calculates the deadline of the message and stores it in the
`X-Gnus-Delayed' header and puts the message in the `nndraft:delayed'
group.

   And whenever you get new news, Gnus looks through the group for
articles which are due and sends them.  It uses the
`gnus-delay-send-queue' function for this.  By default, this function
is added to the hook `gnus-get-new-news-hook'.  But of course, you can
change this.  Maybe you want to use the demon to send drafts?  Just
tell the demon to execute the `gnus-delay-send-queue' function.

`gnus-delay-initialize'
     By default, this function installs `gnus-delay-send-queue' in
     `gnus-get-new-news-hook'.  But it accepts the optional second
     argument `no-check'.  If it is non-`nil', `gnus-get-new-news-hook'
     is not changed.  The optional first argument is ignored.

     For example, `(gnus-delay-initialize nil t)' means to do nothing.
     Presumably, you want to use the demon for sending due delayed
     articles.  Just don't forget to set that up :-)

File: gnus,  Node: Marking Articles,  Next: Limiting,  Prev: Delayed Articles,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.7 Marking Articles
====================

There are several marks you can set on an article.

   You have marks that decide the "readedness" (whoo, neato-keano
neologism ohoy!) of the article.  Alphabetic marks generally mean
"read", while non-alphabetic characters generally mean "unread".

   In addition, you also have marks that do not affect readedness.

   There's a plethora of commands for manipulating these marks.

* Menu:

* Unread Articles::             Marks for unread articles.
* Read Articles::               Marks for read articles.
* Other Marks::                 Marks that do not affect readedness.
* Setting Marks::               How to set and remove marks.
* Generic Marking Commands::    How to customize the marking.
* Setting Process Marks::       How to mark articles for later processing.

File: gnus,  Node: Unread Articles,  Next: Read Articles,  Up: Marking Articles

3.7.1 Unread Articles
---------------------

The following marks mark articles as (kinda) unread, in one form or
other.

`!'
     Marked as ticked (`gnus-ticked-mark').

     "Ticked articles" are articles that will remain visible always.  If
     you see an article that you find interesting, or you want to put
     off reading it, or replying to it, until sometime later, you'd
     typically tick it.  However, articles can be expired (from news
     servers by the news server software, Gnus itself never expires
     ticked messages), so if you want to keep an article forever,
     you'll have to make it persistent (*note Persistent Articles::).

`?'
     Marked as dormant (`gnus-dormant-mark').

     "Dormant articles" will only appear in the summary buffer if there
     are followups to it.  If you want to see them even if they don't
     have followups, you can use the `/ D' command (*note Limiting::).
     Otherwise (except for the visibility issue), they are just like
     ticked messages.

`SPACE'
     Marked as unread (`gnus-unread-mark').

     "Unread articles" are articles that haven't been read at all yet.

File: gnus,  Node: Read Articles,  Next: Other Marks,  Prev: Unread Articles,  Up: Marking Articles

3.7.2 Read Articles
-------------------

All the following marks mark articles as read.

`r'
     These are articles that the user has marked as read with the `d'
     command manually, more or less (`gnus-del-mark').

`R'
     Articles that have actually been read (`gnus-read-mark').

`O'
     Articles that were marked as read in previous sessions and are now
     "old" (`gnus-ancient-mark').

`K'
     Marked as killed (`gnus-killed-mark').

`X'
     Marked as killed by kill files (`gnus-kill-file-mark').

`Y'
     Marked as read by having too low a score (`gnus-low-score-mark').

`C'
     Marked as read by a catchup (`gnus-catchup-mark').

`G'
     Canceled article (`gnus-canceled-mark')

`F'
     SOUPed article (`gnus-souped-mark').  *Note SOUP::.

`Q'
     Sparsely reffed article (`gnus-sparse-mark').  *Note Customizing
     Threading::.

`M'
     Article marked as read by duplicate suppression
     (`gnus-duplicate-mark').  *Note Duplicate Suppression::.


   All these marks just mean that the article is marked as read, really.
They are interpreted differently when doing adaptive scoring, though.

   One more special mark, though:

`E'
     Marked as expirable (`gnus-expirable-mark').

     Marking articles as "expirable" (or have them marked as such
     automatically) doesn't make much sense in normal groups--a user
     doesn't control expiring of news articles, but in mail groups, for
     instance, articles marked as "expirable" can be deleted by Gnus at
     any time.

File: gnus,  Node: Other Marks,  Next: Setting Marks,  Prev: Read Articles,  Up: Marking Articles

3.7.3 Other Marks
-----------------

There are some marks that have nothing to do with whether the article is
read or not.

   * You can set a bookmark in the current article.  Say you are
     reading a long thesis on cats' urinary tracts, and have to go home
     for dinner before you've finished reading the thesis.  You can
     then set a bookmark in the article, and Gnus will jump to this
     bookmark the next time it encounters the article.  *Note Setting
     Marks::.

   * All articles that you have replied to or made a followup to (i.e.,
     have answered) will be marked with an `A' in the second column
     (`gnus-replied-mark').

   * All articles that you have forwarded will be marked with an `F' in
     the second column (`gnus-forwarded-mark').

   * Articles stored in the article cache will be marked with an `*' in
     the second column (`gnus-cached-mark').  *Note Article Caching::.

   * Articles "saved" (in some manner or other; not necessarily
     religiously) are marked with an `S' in the second column
     (`gnus-saved-mark').

   * Articles that according to the server haven't been shown to the
     user before are marked with a `N' in the second column
     (`gnus-recent-mark').  Note that not all servers support this
     mark, in which case it simply never appears.  Compare with
     `gnus-unseen-mark'.

   * Articles that haven't been seen before in Gnus by the user are
     marked with a `.' in the second column (`gnus-unseen-mark').
     Compare with `gnus-recent-mark'.

   * When using the Gnus agent (*note Agent Basics::), articles may be
     downloaded for unplugged (offline) viewing.  If you are using the
     `%O' spec, these articles get the `+' mark in that spec.  (The
     variable `gnus-downloaded-mark' controls which character to use.)

   * When using the Gnus agent (*note Agent Basics::), some articles
     might not have been downloaded.  Such articles cannot be viewed
     while you are unplugged (offline).  If you are using the `%O'
     spec, these articles get the `-' mark in that spec.  (The variable
     `gnus-undownloaded-mark' controls which character to use.)

   * The Gnus agent (*note Agent Basics::) downloads some articles
     automatically, but it is also possible to explicitly mark articles
     for download, even if they would not be downloaded automatically.
     Such explicitly-marked articles get the `%' mark in the first
     column.  (The variable `gnus-downloadable-mark' controls which
     character to use.)

   * If the `%e' spec is used, the presence of threads or not will be
     marked with `gnus-not-empty-thread-mark' and
     `gnus-empty-thread-mark' in the third column, respectively.

   * Finally we have the "process mark" (`gnus-process-mark').  A
     variety of commands react to the presence of the process mark.  For
     instance, `X u' (`gnus-uu-decode-uu') will uudecode and view all
     articles that have been marked with the process mark.  Articles
     marked with the process mark have a `#' in the second column.


   You might have noticed that most of these "non-readedness" marks
appear in the second column by default.  So if you have a cached, saved,
replied article that you have process-marked, what will that look like?

   Nothing much.  The precedence rules go as follows: process -> cache
-> replied -> saved.  So if the article is in the cache and is replied,
you'll only see the cache mark and not the replied mark.

File: gnus,  Node: Setting Marks,  Next: Generic Marking Commands,  Prev: Other Marks,  Up: Marking Articles

3.7.4 Setting Marks
-------------------

All the marking commands understand the numeric prefix.

`M c'
`M-u'
     Clear all readedness-marks from the current article
     (`gnus-summary-clear-mark-forward').  In other words, mark the
     article as unread.

`M t'
`!'
     Tick the current article (`gnus-summary-tick-article-forward').
     *Note Article Caching::.

`M ?'
`?'
     Mark the current article as dormant
     (`gnus-summary-mark-as-dormant').  *Note Article Caching::.

`M d'
`d'
     Mark the current article as read
     (`gnus-summary-mark-as-read-forward').

`D'
     Mark the current article as read and move point to the previous
     line (`gnus-summary-mark-as-read-backward').

`M k'
`k'
     Mark all articles that have the same subject as the current one as
     read, and then select the next unread article
     (`gnus-summary-kill-same-subject-and-select').

`M K'
`C-k'
     Mark all articles that have the same subject as the current one as
     read (`gnus-summary-kill-same-subject').

`M C'
     Mark all unread articles as read (`gnus-summary-catchup').

`M C-c'
     Mark all articles in the group as read--even the ticked and dormant
     articles (`gnus-summary-catchup-all').

`M H'
     Catchup the current group to point (before the point)
     (`gnus-summary-catchup-to-here').

`M h'
     Catchup the current group from point (after the point)
     (`gnus-summary-catchup-from-here').

`C-w'
     Mark all articles between point and mark as read
     (`gnus-summary-mark-region-as-read').

`M V k'
     Kill all articles with scores below the default score (or below the
     numeric prefix) (`gnus-summary-kill-below').

`M e'
`E'
     Mark the current article as expirable
     (`gnus-summary-mark-as-expirable').

`M b'
     Set a bookmark in the current article
     (`gnus-summary-set-bookmark').

`M B'
     Remove the bookmark from the current article
     (`gnus-summary-remove-bookmark').

`M V c'
     Clear all marks from articles with scores over the default score
     (or over the numeric prefix) (`gnus-summary-clear-above').

`M V u'
     Tick all articles with scores over the default score (or over the
     numeric prefix) (`gnus-summary-tick-above').

`M V m'
     Prompt for a mark, and mark all articles with scores over the
     default score (or over the numeric prefix) with this mark
     (`gnus-summary-clear-above').

   The `gnus-summary-goto-unread' variable controls what action should
be taken after setting a mark.  If non-`nil', point will move to the
next/previous unread article.  If `nil', point will just move one line
up or down.  As a special case, if this variable is `never', all the
marking commands as well as other commands (like `SPACE') will move to
the next article, whether it is unread or not.  The default is `t'.

File: gnus,  Node: Generic Marking Commands,  Next: Setting Process Marks,  Prev: Setting Marks,  Up: Marking Articles

3.7.5 Generic Marking Commands
------------------------------

Some people would like the command that ticks an article (`!') go to
the next article.  Others would like it to go to the next unread
article.  Yet others would like it to stay on the current article.  And
even though I haven't heard of anybody wanting it to go to the previous
(unread) article, I'm sure there are people that want that as well.

   Multiply these five behaviors with five different marking commands,
and you get a potentially complex set of variable to control what each
command should do.

   To sidestep that mess, Gnus provides commands that do all these
different things.  They can be found on the `M M' map in the summary
buffer.  Type `M M C-h' to see them all--there are too many of them to
list in this manual.

   While you can use these commands directly, most users would prefer
altering the summary mode keymap.  For instance, if you would like the
`!' command to go to the next article instead of the next unread
article, you could say something like:

     (add-hook 'gnus-summary-mode-hook 'my-alter-summary-map)
     (defun my-alter-summary-map ()
       (local-set-key "!" 'gnus-summary-put-mark-as-ticked-next))

or

     (defun my-alter-summary-map ()
       (local-set-key "!" "MM!n"))

File: gnus,  Node: Setting Process Marks,  Prev: Generic Marking Commands,  Up: Marking Articles

3.7.6 Setting Process Marks
---------------------------

Process marks are displayed as `#' in the summary buffer, and are used
for marking articles in such a way that other commands will process
these articles.  For instance, if you process mark four articles and
then use the `*' command, Gnus will enter these four articles into the
cache.  For more information, *note Process/Prefix::.

`M P p'
`#'
     Mark the current article with the process mark
     (`gnus-summary-mark-as-processable').

`M P u'
`M-#'
     Remove the process mark, if any, from the current article
     (`gnus-summary-unmark-as-processable').

`M P U'
     Remove the process mark from all articles
     (`gnus-summary-unmark-all-processable').

`M P i'
     Invert the list of process marked articles
     (`gnus-uu-invert-processable').

`M P R'
     Mark articles that have a `Subject' header that matches a regular
     expression (`gnus-uu-mark-by-regexp').

`M P G'
     Unmark articles that have a `Subject' header that matches a regular
     expression (`gnus-uu-unmark-by-regexp').

`M P r'
     Mark articles in region (`gnus-uu-mark-region').

`M P g'
     Unmark articles in region (`gnus-uu-unmark-region').

`M P t'
     Mark all articles in the current (sub)thread
     (`gnus-uu-mark-thread').

`M P T'
     Unmark all articles in the current (sub)thread
     (`gnus-uu-unmark-thread').

`M P v'
     Mark all articles that have a score above the prefix argument
     (`gnus-uu-mark-over').

`M P s'
     Mark all articles in the current series (`gnus-uu-mark-series').

`M P S'
     Mark all series that have already had some articles marked
     (`gnus-uu-mark-sparse').

`M P a'
     Mark all articles in series order (`gnus-uu-mark-all').

`M P b'
     Mark all articles in the buffer in the order they appear
     (`gnus-uu-mark-buffer').

`M P k'
     Push the current process mark set onto the stack and unmark all
     articles (`gnus-summary-kill-process-mark').

`M P y'
     Pop the previous process mark set from the stack and restore it
     (`gnus-summary-yank-process-mark').

`M P w'
     Push the current process mark set onto the stack
     (`gnus-summary-save-process-mark').


   Also see the `&' command in *note Searching for Articles::, for how
to set process marks based on article body contents.

File: gnus,  Node: Limiting,  Next: Threading,  Prev: Marking Articles,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.8 Limiting
============

It can be convenient to limit the summary buffer to just show some
subset of the articles currently in the group.  The effect most limit
commands have is to remove a few (or many) articles from the summary
buffer.

   Limiting commands work on subsets of the articles already fetched
from the servers.  These commands don't query the server for additional
articles.

`/ /'
`/ s'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles that match some subject
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-subject').  If given a prefix, exclude
     matching articles.

`/ a'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles that match some author
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-author').  If given a prefix, exclude
     matching articles.

`/ R'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles that match some recipient
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-recipient').  If given a prefix, exclude
     matching articles.

`/ A'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles in which contents of From, To
     or Cc header match a given address
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-address').  If given a prefix, exclude
     matching articles.

`/ S'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles that aren't part of any
     displayed threads (`gnus-summary-limit-to-singletons').  If given
     a prefix, limit to articles that are part of displayed threads.

`/ x'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles that match one of the "extra"
     headers (*note To From Newsgroups::)
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-extra').  If given a prefix, exclude
     matching articles.

`/ u'
`x'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles not marked as read
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-unread').  If given a prefix, limit the
     buffer to articles strictly unread.  This means that ticked and
     dormant articles will also be excluded.

`/ m'
     Ask for a mark and then limit to all articles that have been marked
     with that mark (`gnus-summary-limit-to-marks').

`/ t'
     Ask for a number and then limit the summary buffer to articles
     older than (or equal to) that number of days
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-age').  If given a prefix, limit to
     articles younger than that number of days.

`/ n'
     With prefix `n', limit the summary buffer to the next `n'
     articles.  If not given a prefix, use the process marked articles
     instead.  (`gnus-summary-limit-to-articles').

`/ w'
     Pop the previous limit off the stack and restore it
     (`gnus-summary-pop-limit').  If given a prefix, pop all limits off
     the stack.

`/ .'
     Limit the summary buffer to the unseen articles
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-unseen').

`/ v'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles that have a score at or above
     some score (`gnus-summary-limit-to-score').

`/ p'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles that satisfy the `display'
     group parameter predicate
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-display-predicate').  *Note Group
     Parameters::, for more on this predicate.

`/ r'
     Limit the summary buffer to replied articles
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-replied').  If given a prefix, exclude
     replied articles.

`/ E'
`M S'
     Include all expunged articles in the limit
     (`gnus-summary-limit-include-expunged').

`/ D'
     Include all dormant articles in the limit
     (`gnus-summary-limit-include-dormant').

`/ *'
     Include all cached articles in the limit
     (`gnus-summary-limit-include-cached').

`/ d'
     Exclude all dormant articles from the limit
     (`gnus-summary-limit-exclude-dormant').

`/ M'
     Exclude all marked articles (`gnus-summary-limit-exclude-marks').

`/ T'
     Include all the articles in the current thread in the limit.

`/ c'
     Exclude all dormant articles that have no children from the limit
     (`gnus-summary-limit-exclude-childless-dormant').

`/ C'
     Mark all excluded unread articles as read
     (`gnus-summary-limit-mark-excluded-as-read').  If given a prefix,
     also mark excluded ticked and dormant articles as read.

`/ b'
     Limit the summary buffer to articles that have bodies that match a
     certain regexp (`gnus-summary-limit-to-bodies').  If given a
     prefix, reverse the limit.  This command is quite slow since it
     requires selecting each article to find the matches.

`/ h'
     Like the previous command, only limit to headers instead
     (`gnus-summary-limit-to-headers').


   The following commands aren't limiting commands, but use the `/'
prefix as well.

`/ N'
     Insert all new articles in the summary buffer.  It scans for new
     emails if BACK-END`-get-new-mail' is non-`nil'.

`/ o'
     Insert all old articles in the summary buffer.  If given a numbered
     prefix, fetch this number of articles.


File: gnus,  Node: Threading,  Next: Sorting the Summary Buffer,  Prev: Limiting,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.9 Threading
=============

Gnus threads articles by default.  "To thread" is to put responses to
articles directly after the articles they respond to--in a hierarchical
fashion.

   Threading is done by looking at the `References' headers of the
articles.  In a perfect world, this would be enough to build pretty
trees, but unfortunately, the `References' header is often broken or
simply missing.  Weird news propagation exacerbates the problem, so one
has to employ other heuristics to get pleasing results.  A plethora of
approaches exists, as detailed in horrible detail in *note Customizing
Threading::.

   First, a quick overview of the concepts:

"root"
     The top-most article in a thread; the first article in the thread.

"thread"
     A tree-like article structure.

"sub-thread"
     A small(er) section of this tree-like structure.

"loose threads"
     Threads often lose their roots due to article expiry, or due to
     the root already having been read in a previous session, and not
     displayed in the summary buffer.  We then typically have many
     sub-threads that really belong to one thread, but are without
     connecting roots.  These are called loose threads.

"thread gathering"
     An attempt to gather loose threads into bigger threads.

"sparse threads"
     A thread where the missing articles have been "guessed" at, and are
     displayed as empty lines in the summary buffer.


* Menu:

* Customizing Threading::       Variables you can change to affect the threading.
* Thread Commands::             Thread based commands in the summary buffer.

File: gnus,  Node: Customizing Threading,  Next: Thread Commands,  Up: Threading

3.9.1 Customizing Threading
---------------------------

* Menu:

* Loose Threads::               How Gnus gathers loose threads into bigger threads.
* Filling In Threads::          Making the threads displayed look fuller.
* More Threading::              Even more variables for fiddling with threads.
* Low-Level Threading::         You thought it was over... but you were wrong!

File: gnus,  Node: Loose Threads,  Next: Filling In Threads,  Up: Customizing Threading

3.9.1.1 Loose Threads
.....................

`gnus-summary-make-false-root'
     If non-`nil', Gnus will gather all loose subtrees into one big tree
     and create a dummy root at the top.  (Wait a minute.  Root at the
     top?  Yup.)  Loose subtrees occur when the real root has expired,
     or you've read or killed the root in a previous session.

     When there is no real root of a thread, Gnus will have to fudge
     something.  This variable says what fudging method Gnus should use.
     There are four possible values:

    `adopt'
          Gnus will make the first of the orphaned articles the parent.
          This parent will adopt all the other articles.  The adopted
          articles will be marked as such by pointy brackets (`<>')
          instead of the standard square brackets (`[]').  This is the
          default method.

    `dummy'
          Gnus will create a dummy summary line that will pretend to be
          the parent.  This dummy line does not correspond to any real
          article, so selecting it will just select the first real
          article after the dummy article.
          `gnus-summary-dummy-line-format' is used to specify the
          format of the dummy roots.  It accepts only one format spec:
          `S', which is the subject of the article.  *Note Formatting
          Variables::.  If you want all threads to have a dummy root,
          even the non-gathered ones, set
          `gnus-summary-make-false-root-always' to `t'.

    `empty'
          Gnus won't actually make any article the parent, but simply
          leave the subject field of all orphans except the first
          empty.  (Actually, it will use `gnus-summary-same-subject' as
          the subject (*note Summary Buffer Format::).)

    `none'
          Don't make any article parent at all.  Just gather the
          threads and display them after one another.

    `nil'
          Don't gather loose threads.

`gnus-summary-gather-subject-limit'
     Loose threads are gathered by comparing subjects of articles.  If
     this variable is `nil', Gnus requires an exact match between the
     subjects of the loose threads before gathering them into one big
     super-thread.  This might be too strict a requirement, what with
     the presence of stupid newsreaders that chop off long subject
     lines.  If you think so, set this variable to, say, 20 to require
     that only the first 20 characters of the subjects have to match.
     If you set this variable to a really low number, you'll find that
     Gnus will gather everything in sight into one thread, which isn't
     very helpful.

     If you set this variable to the special value `fuzzy', Gnus will
     use a fuzzy string comparison algorithm on the subjects (*note
     Fuzzy Matching::).

`gnus-simplify-subject-fuzzy-regexp'
     This can either be a regular expression or list of regular
     expressions that match strings that will be removed from subjects
     if fuzzy subject simplification is used.

`gnus-simplify-ignored-prefixes'
     If you set `gnus-summary-gather-subject-limit' to something as low
     as 10, you might consider setting this variable to something
     sensible:

          (setq gnus-simplify-ignored-prefixes
                (concat
                 "\\`\\[?\\("
                 (mapconcat
                  'identity
                  '("looking"
                    "wanted" "followup" "summary\\( of\\)?"
                    "help" "query" "problem" "question"
                    "answer" "reference" "announce"
                    "How can I" "How to" "Comparison of"
                    ;; ...
                    )
                  "\\|")
                 "\\)\\s *\\("
                 (mapconcat 'identity
                            '("for" "for reference" "with" "about")
                            "\\|")
                 "\\)?\\]?:?[ \t]*"))

     All words that match this regexp will be removed before comparing
     two subjects.

`gnus-simplify-subject-functions'
     If non-`nil', this variable overrides
     `gnus-summary-gather-subject-limit'.  This variable should be a
     list of functions to apply to the `Subject' string iteratively to
     arrive at the simplified version of the string.

     Useful functions to put in this list include:

    `gnus-simplify-subject-re'
          Strip the leading `Re:'.

    `gnus-simplify-subject-fuzzy'
          Simplify fuzzily.

    `gnus-simplify-whitespace'
          Remove excessive whitespace.

    `gnus-simplify-all-whitespace'
          Remove all whitespace.

     You may also write your own functions, of course.

`gnus-summary-gather-exclude-subject'
     Since loose thread gathering is done on subjects only, that might
     lead to many false hits, especially with certain common subjects
     like `' and `(none)'.  To make the situation slightly better, you
     can use the regexp `gnus-summary-gather-exclude-subject' to say
     what subjects should be excluded from the gathering process.
     The default is `^ *$\\|^(none)$'.

`gnus-summary-thread-gathering-function'
     Gnus gathers threads by looking at `Subject' headers.  This means
     that totally unrelated articles may end up in the same "thread",
     which is confusing.  An alternate approach is to look at all the
     `Message-ID's in all the `References' headers to find matches.
     This will ensure that no gathered threads ever include unrelated
     articles, but it also means that people who have posted with broken
     newsreaders won't be gathered properly.  The choice is
     yours--plague or cholera:

    `gnus-gather-threads-by-subject'
          This function is the default gathering function and looks at
          `Subject's exclusively.

    `gnus-gather-threads-by-references'
          This function looks at `References' headers exclusively.

     If you want to test gathering by `References', you could say
     something like:

          (setq gnus-summary-thread-gathering-function
                'gnus-gather-threads-by-references)


File: gnus,  Node: Filling In Threads,  Next: More Threading,  Prev: Loose Threads,  Up: Customizing Threading

3.9.1.2 Filling In Threads
..........................

`gnus-fetch-old-headers'
     If non-`nil', Gnus will attempt to build old threads by fetching
     more old headers--headers to articles marked as read.  If you would
     like to display as few summary lines as possible, but still
     connect as many loose threads as possible, you should set this
     variable to `some' or a number.  If you set it to a number, no
     more than that number of extra old headers will be fetched.  In
     either case, fetching old headers only works if the back end you
     are using carries overview files--this would normally be `nntp',
     `nnspool', `nnml', and `nnmaildir'.  Also remember that if the
     root of the thread has been expired by the server, there's not
     much Gnus can do about that.

     This variable can also be set to `invisible'.  This won't have any
     visible effects, but is useful if you use the `A T' command a lot
     (*note Finding the Parent::).

     The server has to support NOV for any of this to work.

     This feature can seriously impact performance it ignores all
     locally cached header entries.  Setting it to `t' for groups for a
     server that doesn't expire articles (such as news.gmane.org),
     leads to very slow summary generation.

`gnus-fetch-old-ephemeral-headers'
     Same as `gnus-fetch-old-headers', but only used for ephemeral
     newsgroups.

`gnus-build-sparse-threads'
     Fetching old headers can be slow.  A low-rent similar effect can be
     gotten by setting this variable to `some'.  Gnus will then look at
     the complete `References' headers of all articles and try to string
     together articles that belong in the same thread.  This will leave
     "gaps" in the threading display where Gnus guesses that an article
     is missing from the thread.  (These gaps appear like normal summary
     lines.  If you select a gap, Gnus will try to fetch the article in
     question.)  If this variable is `t', Gnus will display all these
     "gaps" without regard for whether they are useful for completing
     the thread or not.  Finally, if this variable is `more', Gnus
     won't cut off sparse leaf nodes that don't lead anywhere.  This
     variable is `nil' by default.

`gnus-read-all-available-headers'
     This is a rather obscure variable that few will find useful.  It's
     intended for those non-news newsgroups where the back end has to
     fetch quite a lot to present the summary buffer, and where it's
     impossible to go back to parents of articles.  This is mostly the
     case in the web-based groups, like the `nnultimate' groups.

     If you don't use those, then it's safe to leave this as the default
     `nil'.  If you want to use this variable, it should be a regexp
     that matches the group name, or `t' for all groups.


File: gnus,  Node: More Threading,  Next: Low-Level Threading,  Prev: Filling In Threads,  Up: Customizing Threading

3.9.1.3 More Threading
......................

`gnus-show-threads'
     If this variable is `nil', no threading will be done, and all of
     the rest of the variables here will have no effect.  Turning
     threading off will speed group selection up a bit, but it is sure
     to make reading slower and more awkward.

`gnus-thread-hide-subtree'
     If non-`nil', all threads will be hidden when the summary buffer is
     generated.

     This can also be a predicate specifier (*note Predicate
     Specifiers::).  Available predicates are `gnus-article-unread-p'
     and `gnus-article-unseen-p'.

     Here's an example:

          (setq gnus-thread-hide-subtree
                '(or gnus-article-unread-p
                     gnus-article-unseen-p))

     (It's a pretty nonsensical example, since all unseen articles are
     also unread, but you get my drift.)

`gnus-thread-expunge-below'
     All threads that have a total score (as defined by
     `gnus-thread-score-function') less than this number will be
     expunged.  This variable is `nil' by default, which means that no
     threads are expunged.

`gnus-thread-hide-killed'
     if you kill a thread and this variable is non-`nil', the subtree
     will be hidden.

`gnus-thread-ignore-subject'
     Sometimes somebody changes the subject in the middle of a thread.
     If this variable is non-`nil', which is the default, the subject
     change is ignored.  If it is `nil', a change in the subject will
     result in a new thread.

`gnus-thread-indent-level'
     This is a number that says how much each sub-thread should be
     indented.  The default is 4.

`gnus-sort-gathered-threads-function'
     Sometimes, particularly with mailing lists, the order in which
     mails arrive locally is not necessarily the same as the order in
     which they arrived on the mailing list.  Consequently, when
     sorting sub-threads using the default
     `gnus-thread-sort-by-number', responses can end up appearing
     before the article to which they are responding to.  Setting this
     variable to an alternate value (e.g. `gnus-thread-sort-by-date'),
     in a group's parameters or in an appropriate hook (e.g.
     `gnus-summary-generate-hook') can produce a more logical
     sub-thread ordering in such instances.


File: gnus,  Node: Low-Level Threading,  Prev: More Threading,  Up: Customizing Threading

3.9.1.4 Low-Level Threading
...........................

`gnus-parse-headers-hook'
     Hook run before parsing any headers.

`gnus-alter-header-function'
     If non-`nil', this function will be called to allow alteration of
     article header structures.  The function is called with one
     parameter, the article header vector, which it may alter in any
     way.  For instance, if you have a mail-to-news gateway which
     alters the `Message-ID's in systematic ways (by adding prefixes
     and such), you can use this variable to un-scramble the
     `Message-ID's so that they are more meaningful.  Here's one
     example:

          (setq gnus-alter-header-function 'my-alter-message-id)

          (defun my-alter-message-id (header)
            (let ((id (mail-header-id header)))
              (when (string-match
                     "\\(<[^<>@]*\\)\\.?cygnus\\..*@\\([^<>@]*>\\)" id)
                (mail-header-set-id
                 (concat (match-string 1 id) "@" (match-string 2 id))
                 header))))


File: gnus,  Node: Thread Commands,  Prev: Customizing Threading,  Up: Threading

3.9.2 Thread Commands
---------------------

`T k'
`C-M-k'
     Mark all articles in the current (sub-)thread as read
     (`gnus-summary-kill-thread').  If the prefix argument is positive,
     remove all marks instead.  If the prefix argument is negative, tick
     articles instead.

`T l'
`C-M-l'
     Lower the score of the current (sub-)thread
     (`gnus-summary-lower-thread').

`T i'
     Increase the score of the current (sub-)thread
     (`gnus-summary-raise-thread').

`T #'
     Set the process mark on the current (sub-)thread
     (`gnus-uu-mark-thread').

`T M-#'
     Remove the process mark from the current (sub-)thread
     (`gnus-uu-unmark-thread').

`T T'
     Toggle threading (`gnus-summary-toggle-threads').

`T s'
     Expose the (sub-)thread hidden under the current article, if any
     (`gnus-summary-show-thread').

`T h'
     Hide the current (sub-)thread (`gnus-summary-hide-thread').

`T S'
     Expose all hidden threads (`gnus-summary-show-all-threads').

`T H'
     Hide all threads (`gnus-summary-hide-all-threads').

`T t'
     Re-thread the current article's thread
     (`gnus-summary-rethread-current').  This works even when the
     summary buffer is otherwise unthreaded.

`T ^'
     Make the current article the child of the marked (or previous)
     article (`gnus-summary-reparent-thread').

`T M-^'
     Make the current article the parent of the marked articles
     (`gnus-summary-reparent-children').


   The following commands are thread movement commands.  They all
understand the numeric prefix.

`T n'
`C-M-f'
`M-down'
     Go to the next thread (`gnus-summary-next-thread').

`T p'
`C-M-b'
`M-up'
     Go to the previous thread (`gnus-summary-prev-thread').

`T d'
     Descend the thread (`gnus-summary-down-thread').

`T u'
     Ascend the thread (`gnus-summary-up-thread').

`T o'
     Go to the top of the thread (`gnus-summary-top-thread').

   If you ignore subject while threading, you'll naturally end up with
threads that have several different subjects in them.  If you then issue
a command like `T k' (`gnus-summary-kill-thread') you might not wish to
kill the entire thread, but just those parts of the thread that have
the same subject as the current article.  If you like this idea, you
can fiddle with `gnus-thread-operation-ignore-subject'.  If it is
non-`nil' (which it is by default), subjects will be ignored when doing
thread commands.  If this variable is `nil', articles in the same
thread with different subjects will not be included in the operation in
question.  If this variable is `fuzzy', only articles that have
subjects fuzzily equal will be included (*note Fuzzy Matching::).

File: gnus,  Node: Sorting the Summary Buffer,  Next: Asynchronous Fetching,  Prev: Threading,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.10 Sorting the Summary Buffer
===============================

If you are using a threaded summary display, you can sort the threads by
setting `gnus-thread-sort-functions', which can be either a single
function, a list of functions, or a list containing functions and `(not
some-function)' elements.

   By default, sorting is done on article numbers.  Ready-made sorting
predicate functions include `gnus-thread-sort-by-number',
`gnus-thread-sort-by-author', `gnus-thread-sort-by-recipient',
`gnus-thread-sort-by-subject', `gnus-thread-sort-by-date',
`gnus-thread-sort-by-score', `gnus-thread-sort-by-most-recent-number',
`gnus-thread-sort-by-most-recent-date', `gnus-thread-sort-by-random' and
`gnus-thread-sort-by-total-score'.

   Each function takes two threads and returns non-`nil' if the first
thread should be sorted before the other.  Note that sorting really is
normally done by looking only at the roots of each thread.

   If you use more than one function, the primary sort key should be the
last function in the list.  You should probably always include
`gnus-thread-sort-by-number' in the list of sorting
functions--preferably first.  This will ensure that threads that are
equal with respect to the other sort criteria will be displayed in
ascending article order.

   If you would like to sort by reverse score, then by subject, and
finally by number, you could do something like:

     (setq gnus-thread-sort-functions
           '(gnus-thread-sort-by-number
             gnus-thread-sort-by-subject
             (not gnus-thread-sort-by-total-score)))

   The threads that have highest score will be displayed first in the
summary buffer.  When threads have the same score, they will be sorted
alphabetically.  The threads that have the same score and the same
subject will be sorted by number, which is (normally) the sequence in
which the articles arrived.

   If you want to sort by score and then reverse arrival order, you
could say something like:

     (setq gnus-thread-sort-functions
           '((not gnus-thread-sort-by-number)
             gnus-thread-sort-by-score))

   The function in the `gnus-thread-score-function' variable (default
`+') is used for calculating the total score of a thread.  Useful
functions might be `max', `min', or squared means, or whatever tickles
your fancy.

   If you are using an unthreaded display for some strange reason or
other, you have to fiddle with the `gnus-article-sort-functions'
variable.  It is very similar to the `gnus-thread-sort-functions',
except that it uses slightly different functions for article
comparison.  Available sorting predicate functions are
`gnus-article-sort-by-number', `gnus-article-sort-by-author',
`gnus-article-sort-by-subject', `gnus-article-sort-by-date',
`gnus-article-sort-by-random', and `gnus-article-sort-by-score'.

   If you want to sort an unthreaded summary display by subject, you
could say something like:

     (setq gnus-article-sort-functions
           '(gnus-article-sort-by-number
             gnus-article-sort-by-subject))

   You can define group specific sorting via `gnus-parameters', *Note
Group Parameters::.

File: gnus,  Node: Asynchronous Fetching,  Next: Article Caching,  Prev: Sorting the Summary Buffer,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.11 Asynchronous Article Fetching
==================================

If you read your news from an NNTP server that's far away, the network
latencies may make reading articles a chore.  You have to wait for a
while after pressing `n' to go to the next article before the article
appears.  Why can't Gnus just go ahead and fetch the article while you
are reading the previous one?  Why not, indeed.

   First, some caveats.  There are some pitfalls to using asynchronous
article fetching, especially the way Gnus does it.

   Let's say you are reading article 1, which is short, and article 2 is
quite long, and you are not interested in reading that.  Gnus does not
know this, so it goes ahead and fetches article 2.  You decide to read
article 3, but since Gnus is in the process of fetching article 2, the
connection is blocked.

   To avoid these situations, Gnus will open two (count 'em two)
connections to the server.  Some people may think this isn't a very nice
thing to do, but I don't see any real alternatives.  Setting up that
extra connection takes some time, so Gnus startup will be slower.

   Gnus will fetch more articles than you will read.  This will mean
that the link between your machine and the NNTP server will become more
loaded than if you didn't use article pre-fetch.  The server itself will
also become more loaded--both with the extra article requests, and the
extra connection.

   Ok, so now you know that you shouldn't really use this thing...
unless you really want to.

   Here's how:  Set `gnus-asynchronous' to `t'.  The rest should happen
automatically.

   You can control how many articles are to be pre-fetched by setting
`gnus-use-article-prefetch'.  This is 30 by default, which means that
when you read an article in the group, the back end will pre-fetch the
next 30 articles.  If this variable is `t', the back end will pre-fetch
all the articles it can without bound.  If it is `nil', no pre-fetching
will be done.

   There are probably some articles that you don't want to
pre-fetch--read articles, for instance.  The
`gnus-async-prefetch-article-p' variable controls whether an article is
to be pre-fetched.  This function should return non-`nil' when the
article in question is to be pre-fetched.  The default is
`gnus-async-unread-p', which returns `nil' on read articles.  The
function is called with an article data structure as the only parameter.

   If, for instance, you wish to pre-fetch only unread articles shorter
than 100 lines, you could say something like:

     (defun my-async-short-unread-p (data)
       "Return non-nil for short, unread articles."
       (and (gnus-data-unread-p data)
            (< (mail-header-lines (gnus-data-header data))
               100)))

     (setq gnus-async-prefetch-article-p 'my-async-short-unread-p)

   These functions will be called many, many times, so they should
preferably be short and sweet to avoid slowing down Gnus too much.
It's probably a good idea to byte-compile things like this.

   Articles have to be removed from the asynch buffer sooner or later.
The `gnus-prefetched-article-deletion-strategy' says when to remove
articles.  This is a list that may contain the following elements:

`read'
     Remove articles when they are read.

`exit'
     Remove articles when exiting the group.

   The default value is `(read exit)'.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Caching,  Next: Persistent Articles,  Prev: Asynchronous Fetching,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.12 Article Caching
====================

If you have an _extremely_ slow NNTP connection, you may consider
turning article caching on.  Each article will then be stored locally
under your home directory.  As you may surmise, this could potentially
use _huge_ amounts of disk space, as well as eat up all your inodes so
fast it will make your head swim.  In vodka.

   Used carefully, though, it could be just an easier way to save
articles.

   To turn caching on, set `gnus-use-cache' to `t'.  By default, all
articles ticked or marked as dormant will then be copied over to your
local cache (`gnus-cache-directory').  Whether this cache is flat or
hierarchical is controlled by the `gnus-use-long-file-name' variable,
as usual.

   When re-selecting a ticked or dormant article, it will be fetched
from the cache instead of from the server.  As articles in your cache
will never expire, this might serve as a method of saving articles
while still keeping them where they belong.  Just mark all articles you
want to save as dormant, and don't worry.

   When an article is marked as read, is it removed from the cache.

   The entering/removal of articles from the cache is controlled by the
`gnus-cache-enter-articles' and `gnus-cache-remove-articles' variables.
Both are lists of symbols.  The first is `(ticked dormant)' by default,
meaning that ticked and dormant articles will be put in the cache.  The
latter is `(read)' by default, meaning that articles marked as read are
removed from the cache.  Possibly symbols in these two lists are
`ticked', `dormant', `unread' and `read'.

   So where does the massive article-fetching and storing come into the
picture?  The `gnus-jog-cache' command will go through all subscribed
newsgroups, request all unread articles, score them, and store them in
the cache.  You should only ever, ever ever ever, use this command if
1) your connection to the NNTP server is really, really, really slow
and 2) you have a really, really, really huge disk.  Seriously.  One
way to cut down on the number of articles downloaded is to score
unwanted articles down and have them marked as read.  They will not
then be downloaded by this command.

   It is likely that you do not want caching on all groups.  For
instance, if your `nnml' mail is located under your home directory, it
makes no sense to cache it somewhere else under your home directory.
Unless you feel that it's neat to use twice as much space.

   To limit the caching, you could set `gnus-cacheable-groups' to a
regexp of groups to cache, `^nntp' for instance, or set the
`gnus-uncacheable-groups' regexp to `^nnml', for instance.  Both
variables are `nil' by default.  If a group matches both variables, the
group is not cached.

   The cache stores information on what articles it contains in its
active file (`gnus-cache-active-file').  If this file (or any other
parts of the cache) becomes all messed up for some reason or other, Gnus
offers two functions that will try to set things right.  `M-x
gnus-cache-generate-nov-databases' will (re)build all the NOV files,
and `gnus-cache-generate-active' will (re)generate the active file.

   `gnus-cache-move-cache' will move your whole `gnus-cache-directory'
to some other location.  You get asked to where, isn't that cool?

File: gnus,  Node: Persistent Articles,  Next: Sticky Articles,  Prev: Article Caching,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.13 Persistent Articles
========================

Closely related to article caching, we have "persistent articles".  In
fact, it's just a different way of looking at caching, and much more
useful in my opinion.

   Say you're reading a newsgroup, and you happen on to some valuable
gem that you want to keep and treasure forever.  You'd normally just
save it (using one of the many saving commands) in some file.  The
problem with that is that it's just, well, yucky.  Ideally you'd prefer
just having the article remain in the group where you found it forever;
untouched by the expiry going on at the news server.

   This is what a "persistent article" is--an article that just won't
be deleted.  It's implemented using the normal cache functions, but you
use two explicit commands for managing persistent articles:

`*'
     Make the current article persistent (`gnus-cache-enter-article').

`M-*'
     Remove the current article from the persistent articles
     (`gnus-cache-remove-article').  This will normally delete the
     article.

   Both these commands understand the process/prefix convention.

   To avoid having all ticked articles (and stuff) entered into the
cache, you should set `gnus-use-cache' to `passive' if you're just
interested in persistent articles:

     (setq gnus-use-cache 'passive)

File: gnus,  Node: Sticky Articles,  Next: Article Backlog,  Prev: Persistent Articles,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.14 Sticky Articles
====================

When you select an article the current article buffer will be reused
according to the value of the variable `gnus-single-article-buffer'.
If its value is non-`nil' (the default) all articles reuse the same
article buffer.  Else each group has its own article buffer.

   This implies that it's not possible to have more than one article
buffer in a group at a time.  But sometimes you might want to display
all the latest emails from your mother, your father, your aunt, your
uncle and your 17 cousins to coordinate the next christmas party.

   That's where sticky articles come in handy.  A sticky article buffer
basically is a normal article buffer, but it won't be reused when you
select another article.  You can make an article sticky with:

`A S'
     Make the current article sticky.  If a prefix arg is given, ask
     for a name for this sticky article buffer.

   To close a sticky article buffer you can use these commands:

`q'
     Puts this sticky article buffer at the end of the list of all
     buffers.

`k'
     Kills this sticky article buffer.

   To kill all sticky article buffers you can use:

 -- Function: gnus-kill-sticky-article-buffers ARG
     Kill all sticky article buffers.  If a prefix ARG is given, ask
     for confirmation.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Backlog,  Next: Saving Articles,  Prev: Sticky Articles,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.15 Article Backlog
====================

If you have a slow connection, but the idea of using caching seems
unappealing to you (and it is, really), you can help the situation some
by switching on the "backlog".  This is where Gnus will buffer already
read articles so that it doesn't have to re-fetch articles you've
already read.  This only helps if you are in the habit of re-selecting
articles you've recently read, of course.  If you never do that,
turning the backlog on will slow Gnus down a little bit, and increase
memory usage some.

   If you set `gnus-keep-backlog' to a number N, Gnus will store at
most N old articles in a buffer for later re-fetching.  If this
variable is non-`nil' and is not a number, Gnus will store _all_ read
articles, which means that your Emacs will grow without bound before
exploding and taking your machine down with you.  I put that in there
just to keep y'all on your toes.

   The default value is 20.

File: gnus,  Node: Saving Articles,  Next: Decoding Articles,  Prev: Article Backlog,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.16 Saving Articles
====================

Gnus can save articles in a number of ways.  Below is the documentation
for saving articles in a fairly straight-forward fashion (i.e., little
processing of the article is done before it is saved).  For a different
approach (uudecoding, unsharing) you should use `gnus-uu' (*note
Decoding Articles::).

   For the commands listed here, the target is a file.  If you want to
save to a group, see the `B c' (`gnus-summary-copy-article') command
(*note Mail Group Commands::).

   If `gnus-save-all-headers' is non-`nil', Gnus will not delete
unwanted headers before saving the article.

   If the preceding variable is `nil', all headers that match the
`gnus-saved-headers' regexp will be kept, while the rest will be
deleted before saving.

`O o'
`o'
     Save the current article using the default article saver
     (`gnus-summary-save-article').

`O m'
     Save the current article in a Unix mail box (mbox) file
     (`gnus-summary-save-article-mail').

`O r'
     Save the current article in Rmail format
     (`gnus-summary-save-article-rmail').  This is mbox since Emacs 23,
     Babyl in older versions.

`O f'
     Save the current article in plain file format
     (`gnus-summary-save-article-file').

`O F'
     Write the current article in plain file format, overwriting any
     previous file contents (`gnus-summary-write-article-file').

`O b'
     Save the current article body in plain file format
     (`gnus-summary-save-article-body-file').

`O h'
     Save the current article in mh folder format
     (`gnus-summary-save-article-folder').

`O v'
     Save the current article in a VM folder
     (`gnus-summary-save-article-vm').

`O p'
`|'
     Save the current article in a pipe.  Uhm, like, what I mean
     is--Pipe the current article to a process
     (`gnus-summary-pipe-output').  If given a symbolic prefix (*note
     Symbolic Prefixes::), include the complete headers in the piped
     output.  The symbolic prefix `r' is special; it lets this command
     pipe a raw article including all headers.  The
     `gnus-summary-pipe-output-default-command' variable can be set to
     a string containing the default command and options (default
     `nil').

`O P'
     Save the current article into muttprint.  That is, print it using
     the external program Muttprint
     (http://muttprint.sourceforge.net/).  The program name and options
     to use is controlled by the variable
     `gnus-summary-muttprint-program'.  (`gnus-summary-muttprint').


   All these commands use the process/prefix convention (*note
Process/Prefix::).  If you save bunches of articles using these
functions, you might get tired of being prompted for files to save each
and every article in.  The prompting action is controlled by the
`gnus-prompt-before-saving' variable, which is `always' by default,
giving you that excessive prompting action you know and loathe.  If you
set this variable to `t' instead, you'll be prompted just once for each
series of articles you save.  If you like to really have Gnus do all
your thinking for you, you can even set this variable to `nil', which
means that you will never be prompted for files to save articles in.
Gnus will simply save all the articles in the default files.

   You can customize the `gnus-default-article-saver' variable to make
Gnus do what you want it to.  You can use any of the eight ready-made
functions below, or you can create your own.

`gnus-summary-save-in-rmail'
     This is the default format, that used by the Rmail package.  Since
     Emacs 23, Rmail uses standard mbox format.  Before this, it used
     the "Babyl" format.  Accordingly, this command writes mbox format
     since Emacs 23, unless appending to an existing Babyl file.  In
     older versions of Emacs, it always uses Babyl format.  Uses the
     function in the `gnus-rmail-save-name' variable to get a file name
     to save the article in.  The default is `gnus-plain-save-name'.

`gnus-summary-save-in-mail'
     Save in a Unix mail (mbox) file.  Uses the function in the
     `gnus-mail-save-name' variable to get a file name to save the
     article in.  The default is `gnus-plain-save-name'.

`gnus-summary-save-in-file'
     Append the article straight to an ordinary file.  Uses the
     function in the `gnus-file-save-name' variable to get a file name
     to save the article in.  The default is `gnus-numeric-save-name'.

`gnus-summary-write-to-file'
     Write the article straight to an ordinary file.  The file is
     overwritten if it exists.  Uses the function in the
     `gnus-file-save-name' variable to get a file name to save the
     article in.  The default is `gnus-numeric-save-name'.

`gnus-summary-save-body-in-file'
     Append the article body to an ordinary file.  Uses the function in
     the `gnus-file-save-name' variable to get a file name to save the
     article in.  The default is `gnus-numeric-save-name'.

`gnus-summary-write-body-to-file'
     Write the article body straight to an ordinary file.  The file is
     overwritten if it exists.  Uses the function in the
     `gnus-file-save-name' variable to get a file name to save the
     article in.  The default is `gnus-numeric-save-name'.

`gnus-summary-save-in-folder'
     Save the article to an MH folder using `rcvstore' from the MH
     library.  Uses the function in the `gnus-folder-save-name' variable
     to get a file name to save the article in.  The default is
     `gnus-folder-save-name', but you can also use
     `gnus-Folder-save-name', which creates capitalized names.

`gnus-summary-save-in-vm'
     Save the article in a VM folder.  You have to have the VM mail
     reader to use this setting.

`gnus-summary-save-in-pipe'
     Pipe the article to a shell command.  This function takes optional
     two arguments COMMAND and RAW.  Valid values for COMMAND include:

        * a string
          The executable command name and possibly arguments.

        * `nil'
          You will be prompted for the command in the minibuffer.

        * the symbol `default'
          It will be replaced with the command which the variable
          `gnus-summary-pipe-output-default-command' holds or the
          command last used for saving.

     Non-`nil' value for RAW overrides `:decode' and `:headers'
     properties (see below) and the raw article including all headers
     will be piped.

   The symbol of each function may have the following properties:

`:decode'
     The value non-`nil' means save decoded articles.  This is
     meaningful only with `gnus-summary-save-in-file',
     `gnus-summary-save-body-in-file', `gnus-summary-write-to-file',
     `gnus-summary-write-body-to-file', and `gnus-summary-save-in-pipe'.

`:function'
     The value specifies an alternative function which appends, not
     overwrites, articles to a file.  This implies that when saving many
     articles at a time, `gnus-prompt-before-saving' is bound to `t'
     and all articles are saved in a single file.  This is meaningful
     only with `gnus-summary-write-to-file' and
     `gnus-summary-write-body-to-file'.

`:headers'
     The value specifies the symbol of a variable of which the value
     specifies headers to be saved.  If it is omitted,
     `gnus-save-all-headers' and `gnus-saved-headers' control what
     headers should be saved.

   All of these functions, except for the last one, will save the
article in the `gnus-article-save-directory', which is initialized from
the `SAVEDIR' environment variable.  This is `~/News/' by default.

   As you can see above, the functions use different functions to find a
suitable name of a file to save the article in.  Below is a list of
available functions that generate names:

`gnus-Numeric-save-name'
     File names like `~/News/Alt.andrea-dworkin/45'.

`gnus-numeric-save-name'
     File names like `~/News/alt.andrea-dworkin/45'.

`gnus-Plain-save-name'
     File names like `~/News/Alt.andrea-dworkin'.

`gnus-plain-save-name'
     File names like `~/News/alt.andrea-dworkin'.

`gnus-sender-save-name'
     File names like `~/News/larsi'.

   You can have Gnus suggest where to save articles by plonking a
regexp into the `gnus-split-methods' alist.  For instance, if you would
like to save articles related to Gnus in the file `gnus-stuff', and
articles related to VM in `vm-stuff', you could set this variable to
something like:

     (("^Subject:.*gnus\\|^Newsgroups:.*gnus" "gnus-stuff")
      ("^Subject:.*vm\\|^Xref:.*vm" "vm-stuff")
      (my-choosing-function "../other-dir/my-stuff")
      ((equal gnus-newsgroup-name "mail.misc") "mail-stuff"))

   We see that this is a list where each element is a list that has two
elements--the "match" and the "file".  The match can either be a string
(in which case it is used as a regexp to match on the article head); it
can be a symbol (which will be called as a function with the group name
as a parameter); or it can be a list (which will be `eval'ed).  If any
of these actions have a non-`nil' result, the "file" will be used as a
default prompt.  In addition, the result of the operation itself will
be used if the function or form called returns a string or a list of
strings.

   You basically end up with a list of file names that might be used
when saving the current article.  (All "matches" will be used.)  You
will then be prompted for what you really want to use as a name, with
file name completion over the results from applying this variable.

   This variable is `((gnus-article-archive-name))' by default, which
means that Gnus will look at the articles it saves for an
`Archive-name' line and use that as a suggestion for the file name.

   Here's an example function to clean up file names somewhat.  If you
have lots of mail groups called things like `nnml:mail.whatever', you
may want to chop off the beginning of these group names before creating
the file name to save to.  The following will do just that:

     (defun my-save-name (group)
       (when (string-match "^nnml:mail." group)
         (substring group (match-end 0))))

     (setq gnus-split-methods
           '((gnus-article-archive-name)
             (my-save-name)))

   Finally, you have the `gnus-use-long-file-name' variable.  If it is
`nil', all the preceding functions will replace all periods (`.') in
the group names with slashes (`/')--which means that the functions will
generate hierarchies of directories instead of having all the files in
the top level directory (`~/News/alt/andrea-dworkin' instead of
`~/News/alt.andrea-dworkin'.)  This variable is `t' by default on most
systems.  However, for historical reasons, this is `nil' on Xenix and
usg-unix-v machines by default.

   This function also affects kill and score file names.  If this
variable is a list, and the list contains the element `not-score', long
file names will not be used for score files, if it contains the element
`not-save', long file names will not be used for saving, and if it
contains the element `not-kill', long file names will not be used for
kill files.

   If you'd like to save articles in a hierarchy that looks something
like a spool, you could

     (setq gnus-use-long-file-name '(not-save)) ; to get a hierarchy
     (setq gnus-default-article-saver
           'gnus-summary-save-in-file)          ; no encoding

   Then just save with `o'.  You'd then read this hierarchy with
ephemeral `nneething' groups--`G D' in the group buffer, and the top
level directory as the argument (`~/News/').  Then just walk around to
the groups/directories with `nneething'.

File: gnus,  Node: Decoding Articles,  Next: Article Treatment,  Prev: Saving Articles,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.17 Decoding Articles
======================

Sometime users post articles (or series of articles) that have been
encoded in some way or other.  Gnus can decode them for you.

* Menu:

* Uuencoded Articles::          Uudecode articles.
* Shell Archives::              Unshar articles.
* PostScript Files::            Split PostScript.
* Other Files::                 Plain save and binhex.
* Decoding Variables::          Variables for a happy decoding.
* Viewing Files::               You want to look at the result of the decoding?

   All these functions use the process/prefix convention (*note
Process/Prefix::) for finding out what articles to work on, with the
extension that a "single article" means "a single series".  Gnus can
find out by itself what articles belong to a series, decode all the
articles and unpack/view/save the resulting file(s).

   Gnus guesses what articles are in the series according to the
following simplish rule: The subjects must be (nearly) identical,
except for the last two numbers of the line.  (Spaces are largely
ignored, however.)

   For example: If you choose a subject called `cat.gif (2/3)', Gnus
will find all the articles that match the regexp `^cat.gif
([0-9]+/[0-9]+).*$'.

   Subjects that are non-standard, like `cat.gif (2/3) Part 6 of a
series', will not be properly recognized by any of the automatic viewing
commands, and you have to mark the articles manually with `#'.

File: gnus,  Node: Uuencoded Articles,  Next: Shell Archives,  Up: Decoding Articles

3.17.1 Uuencoded Articles
-------------------------

`X u'
     Uudecodes the current series (`gnus-uu-decode-uu').

`X U'
     Uudecodes and saves the current series
     (`gnus-uu-decode-uu-and-save').

`X v u'
     Uudecodes and views the current series (`gnus-uu-decode-uu-view').

`X v U'
     Uudecodes, views and saves the current series
     (`gnus-uu-decode-uu-and-save-view').


   Remember that these all react to the presence of articles marked with
the process mark.  If, for instance, you'd like to decode and save an
entire newsgroup, you'd typically do `M P a' (`gnus-uu-mark-all') and
then `X U' (`gnus-uu-decode-uu-and-save').

   All this is very much different from how `gnus-uu' worked with GNUS
4.1, where you had explicit keystrokes for everything under the sun.
This version of `gnus-uu' generally assumes that you mark articles in
some way (*note Setting Process Marks::) and then press `X u'.

   Note: When trying to decode articles that have names matching
`gnus-uu-notify-files', which is hard-coded to
`[Cc][Ii][Nn][Dd][Yy][0-9]+.\\(gif\\|jpg\\)', `gnus-uu' will
automatically post an article on `comp.unix.wizards' saying that you
have just viewed the file in question.  This feature can't be turned
off.

File: gnus,  Node: Shell Archives,  Next: PostScript Files,  Prev: Uuencoded Articles,  Up: Decoding Articles

3.17.2 Shell Archives
---------------------

Shell archives ("shar files") used to be a popular way to distribute
sources, but it isn't used all that much today.  In any case, we have
some commands to deal with these:

`X s'
     Unshars the current series (`gnus-uu-decode-unshar').

`X S'
     Unshars and saves the current series
     (`gnus-uu-decode-unshar-and-save').

`X v s'
     Unshars and views the current series
     (`gnus-uu-decode-unshar-view').

`X v S'
     Unshars, views and saves the current series
     (`gnus-uu-decode-unshar-and-save-view').

File: gnus,  Node: PostScript Files,  Next: Other Files,  Prev: Shell Archives,  Up: Decoding Articles

3.17.3 PostScript Files
-----------------------

`X p'
     Unpack the current PostScript series (`gnus-uu-decode-postscript').

`X P'
     Unpack and save the current PostScript series
     (`gnus-uu-decode-postscript-and-save').

`X v p'
     View the current PostScript series
     (`gnus-uu-decode-postscript-view').

`X v P'
     View and save the current PostScript series
     (`gnus-uu-decode-postscript-and-save-view').

File: gnus,  Node: Other Files,  Next: Decoding Variables,  Prev: PostScript Files,  Up: Decoding Articles

3.17.4 Other Files
------------------

`X o'
     Save the current series (`gnus-uu-decode-save').

`X b'
     Unbinhex the current series (`gnus-uu-decode-binhex').  This
     doesn't really work yet.

`X Y'
     yEnc-decode the current series and save it (`gnus-uu-decode-yenc').

File: gnus,  Node: Decoding Variables,  Next: Viewing Files,  Prev: Other Files,  Up: Decoding Articles

3.17.5 Decoding Variables
-------------------------

Adjective, not verb.

* Menu:

* Rule Variables::              Variables that say how a file is to be viewed.
* Other Decode Variables::      Other decode variables.
* Uuencoding and Posting::      Variables for customizing uuencoding.

File: gnus,  Node: Rule Variables,  Next: Other Decode Variables,  Up: Decoding Variables

3.17.5.1 Rule Variables
.......................

Gnus uses "rule variables" to decide how to view a file.  All these
variables are of the form

           (list '(regexp1 command2)
                 '(regexp2 command2)
                 ...)

`gnus-uu-user-view-rules'
     This variable is consulted first when viewing files.  If you wish
     to use, for instance, `sox' to convert an `.au' sound file, you
     could say something like:
          (setq gnus-uu-user-view-rules
                (list '("\\\\.au$" "sox %s -t .aiff > /dev/audio")))

`gnus-uu-user-view-rules-end'
     This variable is consulted if Gnus couldn't make any matches from
     the user and default view rules.

`gnus-uu-user-archive-rules'
     This variable can be used to say what commands should be used to
     unpack archives.

File: gnus,  Node: Other Decode Variables,  Next: Uuencoding and Posting,  Prev: Rule Variables,  Up: Decoding Variables

3.17.5.2 Other Decode Variables
...............................

`gnus-uu-grabbed-file-functions'
     All functions in this list will be called right after each file
     has been successfully decoded--so that you can move or view files
     right away, and don't have to wait for all files to be decoded
     before you can do anything.  Ready-made functions you can put in
     this list are:

    `gnus-uu-grab-view'
          View the file.

    `gnus-uu-grab-move'
          Move the file (if you're using a saving function.)

`gnus-uu-be-dangerous'
     Specifies what to do if unusual situations arise during decoding.
     If `nil', be as conservative as possible.  If `t', ignore things
     that didn't work, and overwrite existing files.  Otherwise, ask
     each time.

`gnus-uu-ignore-files-by-name'
     Files with name matching this regular expression won't be viewed.

`gnus-uu-ignore-files-by-type'
     Files with a MIME type matching this variable won't be viewed.
     Note that Gnus tries to guess what type the file is based on the
     name.  `gnus-uu' is not a MIME package (yet), so this is slightly
     kludgey.

`gnus-uu-tmp-dir'
     Where `gnus-uu' does its work.

`gnus-uu-do-not-unpack-archives'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' won't peek inside archives looking
     for files to display.

`gnus-uu-view-and-save'
     Non-`nil' means that the user will always be asked to save a file
     after viewing it.

`gnus-uu-ignore-default-view-rules'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' will ignore the default viewing
     rules.

`gnus-uu-ignore-default-archive-rules'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' will ignore the default archive
     unpacking commands.

`gnus-uu-kill-carriage-return'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' will strip all carriage returns
     from articles.

`gnus-uu-unmark-articles-not-decoded'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' will mark unsuccessfully decoded
     articles as unread.

`gnus-uu-correct-stripped-uucode'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' will _try_ to fix uuencoded files
     that have had trailing spaces deleted.

`gnus-uu-pre-uudecode-hook'
     Hook run before sending a message to `uudecode'.

`gnus-uu-view-with-metamail'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' will ignore the viewing commands
     defined by the rule variables and just fudge a MIME content type
     based on the file name.  The result will be fed to `metamail' for
     viewing.

`gnus-uu-save-in-digest'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu', when asked to save without
     decoding, will save in digests.  If this variable is `nil',
     `gnus-uu' will just save everything in a file without any
     embellishments.  The digesting almost conforms to RFC 1153--no
     easy way to specify any meaningful volume and issue numbers were
     found, so I simply dropped them.


File: gnus,  Node: Uuencoding and Posting,  Prev: Other Decode Variables,  Up: Decoding Variables

3.17.5.3 Uuencoding and Posting
...............................

`gnus-uu-post-include-before-composing'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' will ask for a file to encode
     before you compose the article.  If this variable is `t', you can
     either include an encoded file with `C-c C-i' or have one included
     for you when you post the article.

`gnus-uu-post-length'
     Maximum length of an article.  The encoded file will be split into
     how many articles it takes to post the entire file.

`gnus-uu-post-threaded'
     Non-`nil' means that `gnus-uu' will post the encoded file in a
     thread.  This may not be smart, as no other decoder I have seen is
     able to follow threads when collecting uuencoded articles.  (Well,
     I have seen one package that does that--`gnus-uu', but somehow, I
     don't think that counts...) Default is `nil'.

`gnus-uu-post-separate-description'
     Non-`nil' means that the description will be posted in a separate
     article.  The first article will typically be numbered (0/x).  If
     this variable is `nil', the description the user enters will be
     included at the beginning of the first article, which will be
     numbered (1/x).  Default is `t'.


File: gnus,  Node: Viewing Files,  Prev: Decoding Variables,  Up: Decoding Articles

3.17.6 Viewing Files
--------------------

After decoding, if the file is some sort of archive, Gnus will attempt
to unpack the archive and see if any of the files in the archive can be
viewed.  For instance, if you have a gzipped tar file `pics.tar.gz'
containing the files `pic1.jpg' and `pic2.gif', Gnus will uncompress
and de-tar the main file, and then view the two pictures.  This
unpacking process is recursive, so if the archive contains archives of
archives, it'll all be unpacked.

   Finally, Gnus will normally insert a "pseudo-article" for each
extracted file into the summary buffer.  If you go to these "articles",
you will be prompted for a command to run (usually Gnus will make a
suggestion), and then the command will be run.

   If `gnus-view-pseudo-asynchronously' is `nil', Emacs will wait until
the viewing is done before proceeding.

   If `gnus-view-pseudos' is `automatic', Gnus will not insert the
pseudo-articles into the summary buffer, but view them immediately.  If
this variable is `not-confirm', the user won't even be asked for a
confirmation before viewing is done.

   If `gnus-view-pseudos-separately' is non-`nil', one pseudo-article
will be created for each file to be viewed.  If `nil', all files that
use the same viewing command will be given as a list of parameters to
that command.

   If `gnus-insert-pseudo-articles' is non-`nil', insert
pseudo-articles when decoding.  It is `t' by default.

   So; there you are, reading your _pseudo-articles_ in your _virtual
newsgroup_ from the _virtual server_; and you think: Why isn't anything
real anymore? How did we get here?

File: gnus,  Node: Article Treatment,  Next: MIME Commands,  Prev: Decoding Articles,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.18 Article Treatment
======================

Reading through this huge manual, you may have quite forgotten that the
object of newsreaders is to actually, like, read what people have
written.  Reading articles.  Unfortunately, people are quite bad at
writing, so there are tons of functions and variables to make reading
these articles easier.

* Menu:

* Article Highlighting::        You want to make the article look like fruit salad.
* Article Fontisizing::         Making emphasized text look nice.
* Article Hiding::              You also want to make certain info go away.
* Article Washing::             Lots of way-neat functions to make life better.
* Article Header::              Doing various header transformations.
* Article Buttons::             Click on URLs, Message-IDs, addresses and the like.
* Article Button Levels::       Controlling appearance of buttons.
* Article Date::                Grumble, UT!
* Article Display::             Display various stuff---X-Face, Picons, Smileys
* Article Signature::           What is a signature?
* Article Miscellanea::         Various other stuff.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Highlighting,  Next: Article Fontisizing,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.1 Article Highlighting
---------------------------

Not only do you want your article buffer to look like fruit salad, but
you want it to look like technicolor fruit salad.

`W H a'
     Do much highlighting of the current article
     (`gnus-article-highlight').  This function highlights header, cited
     text, the signature, and adds buttons to the body and the head.

`W H h'
     Highlight the headers (`gnus-article-highlight-headers').  The
     highlighting will be done according to the `gnus-header-face-alist'
     variable, which is a list where each element has the form `(REGEXP
     NAME CONTENT)'.  REGEXP is a regular expression for matching the
     header, NAME is the face used for highlighting the header name
     (*note Faces and Fonts::) and CONTENT is the face for highlighting
     the header value.  The first match made will be used.  Note that
     REGEXP shouldn't have `^' prepended--Gnus will add one.

`W H c'
     Highlight cited text (`gnus-article-highlight-citation').

     Some variables to customize the citation highlights:

    `gnus-cite-parse-max-size'
          If the article size in bytes is bigger than this variable
          (which is 25000 by default), no citation highlighting will be
          performed.

    `gnus-cite-max-prefix'
          Maximum possible length for a citation prefix (default 20).

    `gnus-cite-face-list'
          List of faces used for highlighting citations (*note Faces
          and Fonts::).  When there are citations from multiple
          articles in the same message, Gnus will try to give each
          citation from each article its own face.  This should make it
          easier to see who wrote what.

    `gnus-supercite-regexp'
          Regexp matching normal Supercite attribution lines.

    `gnus-supercite-secondary-regexp'
          Regexp matching mangled Supercite attribution lines.

    `gnus-cite-minimum-match-count'
          Minimum number of identical prefixes we have to see before we
          believe that it's a citation.

    `gnus-cite-attribution-prefix'
          Regexp matching the beginning of an attribution line.

    `gnus-cite-attribution-suffix'
          Regexp matching the end of an attribution line.

    `gnus-cite-attribution-face'
          Face used for attribution lines.  It is merged with the face
          for the cited text belonging to the attribution.

    `gnus-cite-ignore-quoted-from'
          If non-`nil', no citation highlighting will be performed on
          lines beginning with `>From '.  Those lines may have been
          quoted by MTAs in order not to mix up with the envelope From
          line.  The default value is `t'.


`W H s'
     Highlight the signature (`gnus-article-highlight-signature').
     Everything after `gnus-signature-separator' (*note Article
     Signature::) in an article will be considered a signature and will
     be highlighted with `gnus-signature-face', which is `italic' by
     default.


   *Note Customizing Articles::, for how to highlight articles
automatically.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Fontisizing,  Next: Article Hiding,  Prev: Article Highlighting,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.2 Article Fontisizing
--------------------------

People commonly add emphasis to words in news articles by writing things
like `_this_' or `*this*' or `/this/'.  Gnus can make this look nicer
by running the article through the `W e' (`gnus-article-emphasize')
command.

   How the emphasis is computed is controlled by the
`gnus-emphasis-alist' variable.  This is an alist where the first
element is a regular expression to be matched.  The second is a number
that says what regular expression grouping is used to find the entire
emphasized word.  The third is a number that says what regexp grouping
should be displayed and highlighted.  (The text between these two
groupings will be hidden.)  The fourth is the face used for
highlighting.

     (setq gnus-emphasis-alist
           '(("_\\(\\w+\\)_" 0 1 gnus-emphasis-underline)
             ("\\*\\(\\w+\\)\\*" 0 1 gnus-emphasis-bold)))

   By default, there are seven rules, and they use the following faces:
`gnus-emphasis-bold', `gnus-emphasis-italic',
`gnus-emphasis-underline', `gnus-emphasis-bold-italic',
`gnus-emphasis-underline-italic', `gnus-emphasis-underline-bold', and
`gnus-emphasis-underline-bold-italic'.

   If you want to change these faces, you can either use `M-x
customize', or you can use `copy-face'.  For instance, if you want to
make `gnus-emphasis-italic' use a red face instead, you could say
something like:

     (copy-face 'red 'gnus-emphasis-italic)

   If you want to highlight arbitrary words, you can use the
`gnus-group-highlight-words-alist' variable, which uses the same syntax
as `gnus-emphasis-alist'.  The `highlight-words' group parameter (*note
Group Parameters::) can also be used.

   *Note Customizing Articles::, for how to fontize articles
automatically.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Hiding,  Next: Article Washing,  Prev: Article Fontisizing,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.3 Article Hiding
---------------------

Or rather, hiding certain things in each article.  There usually is much
too much cruft in most articles.

`W W a'
     Do quite a lot of hiding on the article buffer
     (`gnus-article-hide').  In particular, this function will hide
     headers, PGP, cited text and the signature.

`W W h'
     Hide headers (`gnus-article-hide-headers').  *Note Hiding
     Headers::.

`W W b'
     Hide headers that aren't particularly interesting
     (`gnus-article-hide-boring-headers').  *Note Hiding Headers::.

`W W s'
     Hide signature (`gnus-article-hide-signature').  *Note Article
     Signature::.

`W W l'
     Strip list identifiers specified in `gnus-list-identifiers'.  These
     are strings some mailing list servers add to the beginning of all
     `Subject' headers--for example, `[zebra 4711]'.  Any leading `Re:
     ' is skipped before stripping.  `gnus-list-identifiers' may not
     contain `\\(..\\)'.

    `gnus-list-identifiers'
          A regular expression that matches list identifiers to be
          removed from subject.  This can also be a list of regular
          expressions.


`W W P'
     Hide PEM (privacy enhanced messages) cruft
     (`gnus-article-hide-pem').

`W W B'
     Strip the banner specified by the `banner' group parameter
     (`gnus-article-strip-banner').  This is mainly used to hide those
     annoying banners and/or signatures that some mailing lists and
     moderated groups adds to all the messages.  The way to use this
     function is to add the `banner' group parameter (*note Group
     Parameters::) to the group you want banners stripped from.  The
     parameter either be a string, which will be interpreted as a
     regular expression matching text to be removed, or the symbol
     `signature', meaning that the (last) signature should be removed,
     or other symbol, meaning that the corresponding regular expression
     in `gnus-article-banner-alist' is used.

     Regardless of a group, you can hide things like advertisements
     only when the sender of an article has a certain mail address
     specified in `gnus-article-address-banner-alist'.

    `gnus-article-address-banner-alist'
          Alist of mail addresses and banners.  Each element has the
          form `(ADDRESS . BANNER)', where ADDRESS is a regexp matching
          a mail address in the From header, BANNER is one of a symbol
          `signature', an item in `gnus-article-banner-alist', a regexp
          and `nil'.  If ADDRESS matches author's mail address, it will
          remove things like advertisements.  For example, if a sender
          has the mail address `hailATyoo-hoo.jp' and there is a
          banner something like `Do You Yoo-hoo!?' in all articles he
          sends, you can use the following element to remove them:

               ("@yoo-hoo\\.co\\.jp\\'" .
                "\n_+\nDo You Yoo-hoo!\\?\n.*\n.*\n")


`W W c'
     Hide citation (`gnus-article-hide-citation').  Some variables for
     customizing the hiding:

    `gnus-cited-opened-text-button-line-format'
    `gnus-cited-closed-text-button-line-format'
          Gnus adds buttons to show where the cited text has been
          hidden, and to allow toggle hiding the text.  The format of
          the variable is specified by these format-like variable
          (*note Formatting Variables::).  These specs are valid:

         `b'
               Starting point of the hidden text.

         `e'
               Ending point of the hidden text.

         `l'
               Number of characters in the hidden region.

         `n'
               Number of lines of hidden text.

    `gnus-cited-lines-visible'
          The number of lines at the beginning of the cited text to
          leave shown.  This can also be a cons cell with the number of
          lines at the top and bottom of the text, respectively, to
          remain visible.


`W W C-c'
     Hide citation (`gnus-article-hide-citation-maybe') depending on the
     following two variables:

    `gnus-cite-hide-percentage'
          If the cited text is of a bigger percentage than this
          variable (default 50), hide the cited text.

    `gnus-cite-hide-absolute'
          The cited text must have at least this length (default 10)
          before it is hidden.

`W W C'
     Hide cited text in articles that aren't roots
     (`gnus-article-hide-citation-in-followups').  This isn't very
     useful as an interactive command, but might be a handy function to
     stick have happen automatically (*note Customizing Articles::).


   All these "hiding" commands are toggles, but if you give a negative
prefix to these commands, they will show what they have previously
hidden.  If you give a positive prefix, they will always hide.

   Also *note Article Highlighting:: for further variables for citation
customization.

   *Note Customizing Articles::, for how to hide article elements
automatically.


File: gnus,  Node: Article Washing,  Next: Article Header,  Prev: Article Hiding,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.4 Article Washing
----------------------

We call this "article washing" for a really good reason.  Namely, the
`A' key was taken, so we had to use the `W' key instead.

   "Washing" is defined by us as "changing something from something to
something else", but normally results in something looking better.
Cleaner, perhaps.

   *Note Customizing Articles::, if you want to change how Gnus displays
articles by default.

`C-u g'
     This is not really washing, it's sort of the opposite of washing.
     If you type this, you see the article exactly as it exists on disk
     or on the server.

`g'
     Force redisplaying of the current article
     (`gnus-summary-show-article').  This is also not really washing.
     If you type this, you see the article without any previously
     applied interactive Washing functions but with all default
     treatments (*note Customizing Articles::).

`W l'
     Remove page breaks from the current article
     (`gnus-summary-stop-page-breaking').  *Note Misc Article::, for
     page delimiters.

`W r'
     Do a Caesar rotate (rot13) on the article buffer
     (`gnus-summary-caesar-message').  Unreadable articles that tell
     you to read them with Caesar rotate or rot13.  (Typically
     offensive jokes and such.)

     It's commonly called "rot13" because each letter is rotated 13
     positions in the alphabet, e. g. `B' (letter #2) -> `O' (letter
     #15).  It is sometimes referred to as "Caesar rotate" because
     Caesar is rumored to have employed this form of, uh, somewhat weak
     encryption.

`W m'
     Morse decode the article buffer (`gnus-summary-morse-message').

`W i'
     Decode IDNA encoded domain names in the current articles.  IDNA
     encoded domain names looks like `xn--bar'.  If a string remain
     unencoded after running invoking this, it is likely an invalid IDNA
     string (`xn--bar' is invalid).  You must have GNU Libidn
     (`http://www.gnu.org/software/libidn/') installed for this command
     to work.

`W t'

`t'
     Toggle whether to display all headers in the article buffer
     (`gnus-summary-toggle-header').

`W v'
     Toggle whether to display all headers in the article buffer
     permanently (`gnus-summary-verbose-headers').

`W o'
     Treat overstrike (`gnus-article-treat-overstrike').

`W d'
     Treat M****s*** sm*rtq**t*s according to
     `gnus-article-dumbquotes-map' (`gnus-article-treat-dumbquotes').
     Note that this function guesses whether a character is a
     sm*rtq**t* or not, so it should only be used interactively.

     Sm*rtq**t*s are M****s***'s unilateral extension to the character
     map in an attempt to provide more quoting characters.  If you see
     something like `\222' or `\264' where you're expecting some kind of
     apostrophe or quotation mark, then try this wash.

`W Y f'
     Full deuglify of broken Outlook (Express) articles: Treat
     dumbquotes, unwrap lines, repair attribution and rearrange
     citation.  (`gnus-article-outlook-deuglify-article').

`W Y u'
     Unwrap lines that appear to be wrapped citation lines.  You can
     control what lines will be unwrapped by frobbing
     `gnus-outlook-deuglify-unwrap-min' and
     `gnus-outlook-deuglify-unwrap-max', indicating the minimum and
     maximum length of an unwrapped citation line.
     (`gnus-article-outlook-unwrap-lines').

`W Y a'
     Repair a broken attribution line.
     (`gnus-article-outlook-repair-attribution').

`W Y c'
     Repair broken citations by rearranging the text.
     (`gnus-article-outlook-rearrange-citation').

`W w'
     Do word wrap (`gnus-article-fill-cited-article').

     You can give the command a numerical prefix to specify the width
     to use when filling.

`W Q'
     Fill long lines (`gnus-article-fill-long-lines').

`W C'
     Capitalize the first word in each sentence
     (`gnus-article-capitalize-sentences').

`W c'
     Translate CRLF pairs (i. e., `^M's on the end of the lines) into LF
     (this takes care of DOS line endings), and then translate any
     remaining CRs into LF (this takes care of Mac line endings)
     (`gnus-article-remove-cr').

`W q'
     Treat quoted-printable (`gnus-article-de-quoted-unreadable').
     Quoted-Printable is one common MIME encoding employed when sending
     non-ASCII (i.e., 8-bit) articles.  It typically makes strings like
     `déjà vu' look like `d=E9j=E0 vu', which doesn't look very
     readable to me.  Note that this is usually done automatically by
     Gnus if the message in question has a `Content-Transfer-Encoding'
     header that says that this encoding has been done.  If a prefix is
     given, a charset will be asked for.

`W 6'
     Treat base64 (`gnus-article-de-base64-unreadable').  Base64 is one
     common MIME encoding employed when sending non-ASCII (i.e., 8-bit)
     articles.  Note that this is usually done automatically by Gnus if
     the message in question has a `Content-Transfer-Encoding' header
     that says that this encoding has been done.  If a prefix is given,
     a charset will be asked for.

`W Z'
     Treat HZ or HZP (`gnus-article-decode-HZ').  HZ (or HZP) is one
     common encoding employed when sending Chinese articles.  It
     typically makes strings look like `~{<:Ky2;S{#,NpJ)l6HK!#~}'.

`W A'
     Translate ANSI SGR control sequences into overlays or extents
     (`gnus-article-treat-ansi-sequences').  ANSI sequences are used in
     some Chinese hierarchies for highlighting.

`W u'
     Remove newlines from within URLs.  Some mailers insert newlines
     into outgoing email messages to keep lines short.  This
     reformatting can split long URLs onto multiple lines.  Repair
     those URLs by removing the newlines (`gnus-article-unsplit-urls').

`W h'
     Treat HTML (`gnus-article-wash-html').  Note that this is usually
     done automatically by Gnus if the message in question has a
     `Content-Type' header that says that the message is HTML.

     If a prefix is given, a charset will be asked for.  If it is a
     number, the charset defined in
     `gnus-summary-show-article-charset-alist' (*note Paging the
     Article::) will be used.

     The default is to use the function specified by
     `mm-text-html-renderer' (*note Display Customization:
     (emacs-mime)Display Customization.) to convert the HTML, but this
     is controlled by the `gnus-article-wash-function' variable.
     Pre-defined functions you can use include:

    `w3'
          Use Emacs/W3.

    `w3m'
          Use emacs-w3m (http://emacs-w3m.namazu.org/).

    `w3m-standalone'
          Use w3m (http://w3m.sourceforge.net/).

    `links'
          Use Links (http://links.sf.net/).

    `lynx'
          Use Lynx (http://lynx.isc.org/).

    `html2text'
          Use html2text--a simple HTML converter included with Gnus.


`W b'
     Add clickable buttons to the article (`gnus-article-add-buttons').
     *Note Article Buttons::.

`W B'
     Add clickable buttons to the article headers
     (`gnus-article-add-buttons-to-head').

`W p'
     Verify a signed control message (`gnus-article-verify-x-pgp-sig').
     Control messages such as `newgroup' and `checkgroups' are usually
     signed by the hierarchy maintainer.  You need to add the PGP
     public key of the maintainer to your keyring to verify the
     message.(1)

`W s'
     Verify a signed (PGP, PGP/MIME or S/MIME) message
     (`gnus-summary-force-verify-and-decrypt'). *Note Security::.

`W a'
     Strip headers like the `X-No-Archive' header from the beginning of
     article bodies (`gnus-article-strip-headers-in-body').

`W E l'
     Remove all blank lines from the beginning of the article
     (`gnus-article-strip-leading-blank-lines').

`W E m'
     Replace all blank lines with empty lines and then all multiple
     empty lines with a single empty line.
     (`gnus-article-strip-multiple-blank-lines').

`W E t'
     Remove all blank lines at the end of the article
     (`gnus-article-remove-trailing-blank-lines').

`W E a'
     Do all the three commands above (`gnus-article-strip-blank-lines').

`W E A'
     Remove all blank lines (`gnus-article-strip-all-blank-lines').

`W E s'
     Remove all white space from the beginning of all lines of the
     article body (`gnus-article-strip-leading-space').

`W E e'
     Remove all white space from the end of all lines of the article
     body (`gnus-article-strip-trailing-space').


   *Note Customizing Articles::, for how to wash articles automatically.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) PGP keys for many hierarchies are available at
`ftp://ftp.isc.org/pub/pgpcontrol/README.html'

File: gnus,  Node: Article Header,  Next: Article Buttons,  Prev: Article Washing,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.5 Article Header
---------------------

These commands perform various transformations of article header.

`W G u'
     Unfold folded header lines (`gnus-article-treat-unfold-headers').

`W G n'
     Fold the `Newsgroups' and `Followup-To' headers
     (`gnus-article-treat-fold-newsgroups').

`W G f'
     Fold all the message headers (`gnus-article-treat-fold-headers').

`W E w'
     Remove excessive whitespace from all headers
     (`gnus-article-remove-leading-whitespace').


File: gnus,  Node: Article Buttons,  Next: Article Button Levels,  Prev: Article Header,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.6 Article Buttons
----------------------

People often include references to other stuff in articles, and it would
be nice if Gnus could just fetch whatever it is that people talk about
with the minimum of fuzz when you hit `RET' or use the middle mouse
button on these references.

   Gnus adds "buttons" to certain standard references by default:
Well-formed URLs, mail addresses, Message-IDs, Info links, man pages and
Emacs or Gnus related references.  This is controlled by two variables,
one that handles article bodies and one that handles article heads:

`gnus-button-alist'
     This is an alist where each entry has this form:

          (REGEXP BUTTON-PAR USE-P FUNCTION DATA-PAR)

    REGEXP
          All text that match this regular expression (case
          insensitive) will be considered an external reference.
          Here's a typical regexp that matches embedded URLs:
          `<URL:\\([^\n\r>]*\\)>'.  This can also be a variable
          containing a regexp, useful variables to use include
          `gnus-button-url-regexp' and `gnus-button-mid-or-mail-regexp'.

    BUTTON-PAR
          Gnus has to know which parts of the matches is to be
          highlighted.  This is a number that says what sub-expression
          of the regexp is to be highlighted.  If you want it all
          highlighted, you use 0 here.

    USE-P
          This form will be `eval'ed, and if the result is non-`nil',
          this is considered a match.  This is useful if you want extra
          sifting to avoid false matches.  Often variables named
          `gnus-button-*-level' are used here, *Note Article Button
          Levels::, but any other form may be used too.

    FUNCTION
          This function will be called when you click on this button.

    DATA-PAR
          As with BUTTON-PAR, this is a sub-expression number, but this
          one says which part of the match is to be sent as data to
          FUNCTION.


     So the full entry for buttonizing URLs is then

          ("<URL:\\([^\n\r>]*\\)>" 0 t gnus-button-url 1)

`gnus-header-button-alist'
     This is just like the other alist, except that it is applied to the
     article head only, and that each entry has an additional element
     that is used to say what headers to apply the buttonize coding to:

          (HEADER REGEXP BUTTON-PAR USE-P FUNCTION DATA-PAR)

     HEADER is a regular expression.

3.18.6.1 Related variables and functions
........................................

`gnus-button-*-level'
     *Note Article Button Levels::.

`gnus-button-url-regexp'
     A regular expression that matches embedded URLs.  It is used in the
     default values of the variables above.

`gnus-button-man-handler'
     The function to use for displaying man pages.  It must take at
     least one argument with a string naming the man page.

`gnus-button-mid-or-mail-regexp'
     Regular expression that matches a message ID or a mail address.

`gnus-button-prefer-mid-or-mail'
     This variable determines what to do when the button on a string as
     `foo123ATbar.invalid' is pushed.  Strings like this can be either a
     message ID or a mail address.  If it is one of the symbols `mid' or
     `mail', Gnus will always assume that the string is a message ID or
     a mail address, respectively.  If this variable is set to the
     symbol `ask', always query the user what to do.  If it is a
     function, this function will be called with the string as its only
     argument.  The function must return `mid', `mail', `invalid' or
     `ask'.  The default value is the function
     `gnus-button-mid-or-mail-heuristic'.

`gnus-button-mid-or-mail-heuristic'
     Function that guesses whether its argument is a message ID or a
     mail address.  Returns `mid' if it's a message IDs, `mail' if it's
     a mail address, `ask' if unsure and `invalid' if the string is
     invalid.

`gnus-button-mid-or-mail-heuristic-alist'
     An alist of `(RATE . REGEXP)' pairs used by the function
     `gnus-button-mid-or-mail-heuristic'.

`gnus-button-ctan-handler'
     The function to use for displaying CTAN links.  It must take one
     argument, the string naming the URL.

`gnus-ctan-url'
     Top directory of a CTAN (Comprehensive TeX Archive Network)
     archive used by `gnus-button-ctan-handler'.

`gnus-article-button-face'
     Face used on buttons.

`gnus-article-mouse-face'
     Face used when the mouse cursor is over a button.


   *Note Customizing Articles::, for how to buttonize articles
automatically.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Button Levels,  Next: Article Date,  Prev: Article Buttons,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.7 Article button levels
----------------------------

The higher the value of the variables `gnus-button-*-level', the more
buttons will appear.  If the level is zero, no corresponding buttons
are displayed.  With the default value (which is 5) you should already
see quite a lot of buttons.  With higher levels, you will see more
buttons, but you may also get more false positives.  To avoid them, you
can set the variables `gnus-button-*-level' local to specific groups
(*note Group Parameters::).  Here's an example for the variable
`gnus-parameters':

     ;; increase `gnus-button-*-level' in some groups:
     (setq gnus-parameters
           '(("\\<\\(emacs\\|gnus\\)\\>" (gnus-button-emacs-level 10))
             ("\\<unix\\>"               (gnus-button-man-level 10))
             ("\\<tex\\>"                (gnus-button-tex-level 10))))

`gnus-button-browse-level'
     Controls the display of references to message IDs, mail addresses
     and news URLs.  Related variables and functions include
     `gnus-button-url-regexp', `browse-url', and
     `browse-url-browser-function'.

`gnus-button-emacs-level'
     Controls the display of Emacs or Gnus references.  Related
     functions are `gnus-button-handle-custom',
     `gnus-button-handle-describe-function',
     `gnus-button-handle-describe-variable',
     `gnus-button-handle-symbol', `gnus-button-handle-describe-key',
     `gnus-button-handle-apropos', `gnus-button-handle-apropos-command',
     `gnus-button-handle-apropos-variable',
     `gnus-button-handle-apropos-documentation', and
     `gnus-button-handle-library'.

`gnus-button-man-level'
     Controls the display of references to (Unix) man pages.  See
     `gnus-button-man-handler'.

`gnus-button-message-level'
     Controls the display of message IDs, mail addresses and news URLs.
     Related variables and functions include
     `gnus-button-mid-or-mail-regexp', `gnus-button-prefer-mid-or-mail',
     `gnus-button-mid-or-mail-heuristic', and
     `gnus-button-mid-or-mail-heuristic-alist'.

`gnus-button-tex-level'
     Controls the display of references to TeX or LaTeX stuff, e.g. for
     CTAN URLs.  See the variables `gnus-ctan-url',
     `gnus-button-ctan-handler', `gnus-button-ctan-directory-regexp',
     and `gnus-button-handle-ctan-bogus-regexp'.


File: gnus,  Node: Article Date,  Next: Article Display,  Prev: Article Button Levels,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.8 Article Date
-------------------

The date is most likely generated in some obscure timezone you've never
heard of, so it's quite nice to be able to find out what the time was
when the article was sent.

`W T u'
     Display the date in UT (aka. GMT, aka ZULU)
     (`gnus-article-date-ut').

`W T i'
     Display the date in international format, aka. ISO 8601
     (`gnus-article-date-iso8601').

`W T l'
     Display the date in the local timezone (`gnus-article-date-local').

`W T p'
     Display the date in a format that's easily pronounceable in English
     (`gnus-article-date-english').

`W T s'
     Display the date using a user-defined format
     (`gnus-article-date-user').  The format is specified by the
     `gnus-article-time-format' variable, and is a string that's passed
     to `format-time-string'.  See the documentation of that variable
     for a list of possible format specs.

`W T e'
     Say how much time has elapsed between the article was posted and
     now (`gnus-article-date-lapsed').  It looks something like:

          X-Sent: 6 weeks, 4 days, 1 hour, 3 minutes, 8 seconds ago

     The value of `gnus-article-date-lapsed-new-header' determines
     whether this header will just be added below the old Date one, or
     will replace it.

     An advantage of using Gnus to read mail is that it converts simple
     bugs into wonderful absurdities.

     If you want to have this line updated continually, you can put

          (gnus-start-date-timer)

     in your `~/.gnus.el' file, or you can run it off of some hook.  If
     you want to stop the timer, you can use the `gnus-stop-date-timer'
     command.

`W T o'
     Display the original date (`gnus-article-date-original').  This can
     be useful if you normally use some other conversion function and
     are worried that it might be doing something totally wrong.  Say,
     claiming that the article was posted in 1854.  Although something
     like that is _totally_ impossible.  Don't you trust me? *titter*


   *Note Customizing Articles::, for how to display the date in your
preferred format automatically.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Display,  Next: Article Signature,  Prev: Article Date,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.9 Article Display
----------------------

These commands add various frivolous display gimmicks to the article
buffer in Emacs versions that support them.

   `X-Face' headers are small black-and-white images supplied by the
message headers (*note X-Face::).

   `Face' headers are small colored images supplied by the message
headers (*note Face::).

   Smileys are those little `:-)' symbols that people like to litter
their messages with (*note Smileys::).

   Picons, on the other hand, reside on your own system, and Gnus will
try to match the headers to what you have (*note Picons::).

   All these functions are toggles--if the elements already exist,
they'll be removed.

`W D x'
     Display an `X-Face' in the `From' header.
     (`gnus-article-display-x-face').

`W D d'
     Display a `Face' in the `From' header.
     (`gnus-article-display-face').

`W D s'
     Display smileys (`gnus-treat-smiley').

`W D f'
     Piconify the `From' header (`gnus-treat-from-picon').

`W D m'
     Piconify all mail headers (i. e., `Cc', `To')
     (`gnus-treat-mail-picon').

`W D n'
     Piconify all news headers (i. e., `Newsgroups' and `Followup-To')
     (`gnus-treat-newsgroups-picon').

`W D D'
     Remove all images from the article buffer
     (`gnus-article-remove-images').


File: gnus,  Node: Article Signature,  Next: Article Miscellanea,  Prev: Article Display,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.10 Article Signature
-------------------------

Each article is divided into two parts--the head and the body.  The
body can be divided into a signature part and a text part.  The variable
that says what is to be considered a signature is
`gnus-signature-separator'.  This is normally the standard `^-- $' as
mandated by son-of-RFC 1036.  However, many people use non-standard
signature separators, so this variable can also be a list of regular
expressions to be tested, one by one.  (Searches are done from the end
of the body towards the beginning.)  One likely value is:

     (setq gnus-signature-separator
           '("^-- $"         ; The standard
             "^-- *$"        ; A common mangling
             "^-------*$"    ; Many people just use a looong
                             ; line of dashes.  Shame!
             "^ *--------*$" ; Double-shame!
             "^________*$"   ; Underscores are also popular
             "^========*$")) ; Pervert!

   The more permissive you are, the more likely it is that you'll get
false positives.

   `gnus-signature-limit' provides a limit to what is considered a
signature when displaying articles.

  1. If it is an integer, no signature may be longer (in characters)
     than that integer.

  2. If it is a floating point number, no signature may be longer (in
     lines) than that number.

  3. If it is a function, the function will be called without any
     parameters, and if it returns `nil', there is no signature in the
     buffer.

  4. If it is a string, it will be used as a regexp.  If it matches,
     the text in question is not a signature.

   This variable can also be a list where the elements may be of the
types listed above.  Here's an example:

     (setq gnus-signature-limit
           '(200.0 "^---*Forwarded article"))

   This means that if there are more than 200 lines after the signature
separator, or the text after the signature separator is matched by the
regular expression `^---*Forwarded article', then it isn't a signature
after all.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Miscellanea,  Prev: Article Signature,  Up: Article Treatment

3.18.11 Article Miscellanea
---------------------------

`A t'
     Translate the article from one language to another
     (`gnus-article-babel').


File: gnus,  Node: MIME Commands,  Next: Charsets,  Prev: Article Treatment,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.19 MIME Commands
==================

The following commands all understand the numerical prefix.  For
instance, `3 K v' means "view the third MIME part".

`b'
`K v'
     View the MIME part.

`K o'
     Save the MIME part.

`K O'
     Prompt for a file name, then save the MIME part and strip it from
     the article.  The stripped MIME object will be referred via the
     message/external-body MIME type.

`K r'
     Replace the MIME part with an external body.

`K d'
     Delete the MIME part and add some information about the removed
     part.

`K c'
     Copy the MIME part.

`K e'
     View the MIME part externally.

`K i'
     View the MIME part internally.

`K |'
     Pipe the MIME part to an external command.

   The rest of these MIME commands do not use the numerical prefix in
the same manner:

`K H'
     View `text/html' parts of the current article with a WWW browser.
     The message header is added to the beginning of every html part
     unless the prefix argument is given.

     Warning: Spammers use links to images in HTML articles to verify
     whether you have read the message.  As this command passes the HTML
     content to the browser without eliminating these "web bugs" you
     should only use it for mails from trusted senders.

     If you always want to display HTML parts in the browser, set
     `mm-text-html-renderer' to `nil'.

`K b'
     Make all the MIME parts have buttons in front of them.  This is
     mostly useful if you wish to save (or perform other actions) on
     inlined parts.

`K m'
     Some multipart messages are transmitted with missing or faulty
     headers.  This command will attempt to "repair" these messages so
     that they can be viewed in a more pleasant manner
     (`gnus-summary-repair-multipart').

`X m'
     Save all parts matching a MIME type to a directory
     (`gnus-summary-save-parts').  Understands the process/prefix
     convention (*note Process/Prefix::).

`M-t'
     Toggle the buttonized display of the article buffer
     (`gnus-summary-toggle-display-buttonized').

`W M w'
     Decode RFC 2047-encoded words in the article headers
     (`gnus-article-decode-mime-words').

`W M c'
     Decode encoded article bodies as well as charsets
     (`gnus-article-decode-charset').

     This command looks in the `Content-Type' header to determine the
     charset.  If there is no such header in the article, you can give
     it a prefix, which will prompt for the charset to decode as.  In
     regional groups where people post using some common encoding (but
     do not include MIME headers), you can set the `charset' group/topic
     parameter to the required charset (*note Group Parameters::).

`W M v'
     View all the MIME parts in the current article
     (`gnus-mime-view-all-parts').


   Relevant variables:

`gnus-ignored-mime-types'
     This is a list of regexps.  MIME types that match a regexp from
     this list will be completely ignored by Gnus.  The default value is
     `nil'.

     To have all Vcards be ignored, you'd say something like this:

          (setq gnus-ignored-mime-types
                '("text/x-vcard"))

`gnus-article-loose-mime'
     If non-`nil', Gnus won't require the `MIME-Version' header before
     interpreting the message as a MIME message.  This helps when
     reading messages from certain broken mail user agents.  The
     default is `t'.

`gnus-article-emulate-mime'
     There are other, non-MIME encoding methods used.  The most common
     is `uuencode', but yEncode is also getting to be popular.  If this
     variable is non-`nil', Gnus will look in message bodies to see if
     it finds these encodings, and if so, it'll run them through the
     Gnus MIME machinery.  The default is `t'.  Only single-part yEnc
     encoded attachments can be decoded.  There's no support for
     encoding in Gnus.

`gnus-unbuttonized-mime-types'
     This is a list of regexps.  MIME types that match a regexp from
     this list won't have MIME buttons inserted unless they aren't
     displayed or this variable is overridden by
     `gnus-buttonized-mime-types'.  The default value is `(".*/.*")'.
     This variable is only used when `gnus-inhibit-mime-unbuttonizing'
     is `nil'.

`gnus-buttonized-mime-types'
     This is a list of regexps.  MIME types that match a regexp from
     this list will have MIME buttons inserted unless they aren't
     displayed.  This variable overrides
     `gnus-unbuttonized-mime-types'.  The default value is `nil'.  This
     variable is only used when `gnus-inhibit-mime-unbuttonizing' is
     `nil'.

     To see e.g. security buttons but no other buttons, you could set
     this variable to `("multipart/signed")' and leave
     `gnus-unbuttonized-mime-types' at the default value.

     You could also add `"multipart/alternative"' to this list to
     display radio buttons that allow you to choose one of two media
     types those mails include.  See also `mm-discouraged-alternatives'
     (*note Display Customization: (emacs-mime)Display Customization.).

`gnus-inhibit-mime-unbuttonizing'
     If this is non-`nil', then all MIME parts get buttons.  The
     default value is `nil'.

`gnus-article-mime-part-function'
     For each MIME part, this function will be called with the MIME
     handle as the parameter.  The function is meant to be used to allow
     users to gather information from the article (e. g., add Vcard
     info to the bbdb database) or to do actions based on parts (e. g.,
     automatically save all jpegs into some directory).

     Here's an example function the does the latter:

          (defun my-save-all-jpeg-parts (handle)
            (when (equal (car (mm-handle-type handle)) "image/jpeg")
              (with-temp-buffer
                (insert (mm-get-part handle))
                (write-region (point-min) (point-max)
                              (read-file-name "Save jpeg to: ")))))
          (setq gnus-article-mime-part-function
                'my-save-all-jpeg-parts)

`gnus-mime-multipart-functions'
     Alist of MIME multipart types and functions to handle them.

`gnus-mime-display-multipart-alternative-as-mixed'
     Display "multipart/alternative" parts as "multipart/mixed".

`gnus-mime-display-multipart-related-as-mixed'
     Display "multipart/related" parts as "multipart/mixed".

     If displaying `text/html' is discouraged, see
     `mm-discouraged-alternatives', images or other material inside a
     "multipart/related" part might be overlooked when this variable is
     `nil'.  *note Display Customization: (emacs-mime)Display
     Customization.

`gnus-mime-display-multipart-as-mixed'
     Display "multipart" parts as "multipart/mixed".  If `t', it
     overrides `nil' values of
     `gnus-mime-display-multipart-alternative-as-mixed' and
     `gnus-mime-display-multipart-related-as-mixed'.

`mm-file-name-rewrite-functions'
     List of functions used for rewriting file names of MIME parts.
     Each function takes a file name as input and returns a file name.

     Ready-made functions include
     `mm-file-name-delete-whitespace', `mm-file-name-trim-whitespace',
     `mm-file-name-collapse-whitespace', and
     `mm-file-name-replace-whitespace'.  The later uses the value of
     the variable `mm-file-name-replace-whitespace' to replace each
     whitespace character in a file name with that string; default value
     is `"_"' (a single underscore).

     The standard functions `capitalize', `downcase', `upcase', and
     `upcase-initials' may be useful, too.

     Everybody knows that whitespace characters in file names are evil,
     except those who don't know.  If you receive lots of attachments
     from such unenlightened users, you can make live easier by adding

          (setq mm-file-name-rewrite-functions
                '(mm-file-name-trim-whitespace
                  mm-file-name-collapse-whitespace
                  mm-file-name-replace-whitespace))

     to your `~/.gnus.el' file.


File: gnus,  Node: Charsets,  Next: Article Commands,  Prev: MIME Commands,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.20 Charsets
=============

People use different charsets, and we have MIME to let us know what
charsets they use.  Or rather, we wish we had.  Many people use
newsreaders and mailers that do not understand or use MIME, and just
send out messages without saying what character sets they use.  To help
a bit with this, some local news hierarchies have policies that say
what character set is the default.  For instance, the `fj' hierarchy
uses `iso-2022-jp'.

   This knowledge is encoded in the `gnus-group-charset-alist'
variable, which is an alist of regexps (use the first item to match full
group names) and default charsets to be used when reading these groups.

   In addition, some people do use soi-disant MIME-aware agents that
aren't.  These blithely mark messages as being in `iso-8859-1' even if
they really are in `koi-8'.  To help here, the
`gnus-newsgroup-ignored-charsets' variable can be used.  The charsets
that are listed here will be ignored.  The variable can be set on a
group-by-group basis using the group parameters (*note Group
Parameters::).  The default value is `(unknown-8bit x-unknown)', which
includes values some agents insist on having in there.

   When posting, `gnus-group-posting-charset-alist' is used to
determine which charsets should not be encoded using the MIME
encodings.  For instance, some hierarchies discourage using
quoted-printable header encoding.

   This variable is an alist of regexps and permitted unencoded charsets
for posting.  Each element of the alist has the form `('TEST HEADER
BODY-LIST`)', where:

TEST
     is either a regular expression matching the newsgroup header or a
     variable to query,

HEADER
     is the charset which may be left unencoded in the header (`nil'
     means encode all charsets),

BODY-LIST
     is a list of charsets which may be encoded using 8bit
     content-transfer encoding in the body, or one of the special
     values `nil' (always encode using quoted-printable) or `t' (always
     use 8bit).

   *Note Encoding Customization: (emacs-mime)Encoding Customization,
for additional variables that control which MIME charsets are used when
sending messages.

   Other charset tricks that may be useful, although not Gnus-specific:

   If there are several MIME charsets that encode the same Emacs
charset, you can choose what charset to use by saying the following:

     (put-charset-property 'cyrillic-iso8859-5
                           'preferred-coding-system 'koi8-r)

   This means that Russian will be encoded using `koi8-r' instead of
the default `iso-8859-5' MIME charset.

   If you want to read messages in `koi8-u', you can cheat and say

     (define-coding-system-alias 'koi8-u 'koi8-r)

   This will almost do the right thing.

   And finally, to read charsets like `windows-1251', you can say
something like

     (codepage-setup 1251)
     (define-coding-system-alias 'windows-1251 'cp1251)

File: gnus,  Node: Article Commands,  Next: Summary Sorting,  Prev: Charsets,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.21 Article Commands
=====================

`A P'
     Generate and print a PostScript image of the article buffer
     (`gnus-summary-print-article').  `gnus-ps-print-hook' will be run
     just before printing the buffer.  An alternative way to print
     article is to use Muttprint (*note Saving Articles::).


File: gnus,  Node: Summary Sorting,  Next: Finding the Parent,  Prev: Article Commands,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.22 Summary Sorting
====================

You can have the summary buffer sorted in various ways, even though I
can't really see why you'd want that.

`C-c C-s C-n'
     Sort by article number (`gnus-summary-sort-by-number').

`C-c C-s C-m C-n'
     Sort by most recent article number
     (`gnus-summary-sort-by-most-recent-number').

`C-c C-s C-a'
     Sort by author (`gnus-summary-sort-by-author').

`C-c C-s C-t'
     Sort by recipient (`gnus-summary-sort-by-recipient').

`C-c C-s C-s'
     Sort by subject (`gnus-summary-sort-by-subject').

`C-c C-s C-d'
     Sort by date (`gnus-summary-sort-by-date').

`C-c C-s C-m C-d'
     Sort by most recent date (`gnus-summary-sort-by-most-recent-date').

`C-c C-s C-l'
     Sort by lines (`gnus-summary-sort-by-lines').

`C-c C-s C-c'
     Sort by article length (`gnus-summary-sort-by-chars').

`C-c C-s C-i'
     Sort by score (`gnus-summary-sort-by-score').

`C-c C-s C-r'
     Randomize (`gnus-summary-sort-by-random').

`C-c C-s C-o'
     Sort using the default sorting method
     (`gnus-summary-sort-by-original').

   These functions will work both when you use threading and when you
don't use threading.  In the latter case, all summary lines will be
sorted, line by line.  In the former case, sorting will be done on a
root-by-root basis, which might not be what you were looking for.  To
toggle whether to use threading, type `T T' (*note Thread Commands::).

   If a prefix argument if given, the sort order is reversed.

File: gnus,  Node: Finding the Parent,  Next: Alternative Approaches,  Prev: Summary Sorting,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.23 Finding the Parent
=======================

`^'
     If you'd like to read the parent of the current article, and it is
     not displayed in the summary buffer, you might still be able to.
     That is, if the current group is fetched by NNTP, the parent
     hasn't expired and the `References' in the current article are not
     mangled, you can just press `^' or `A r'
     (`gnus-summary-refer-parent-article').  If everything goes well,
     you'll get the parent.  If the parent is already displayed in the
     summary buffer, point will just move to this article.

     If given a positive numerical prefix, fetch that many articles
     back into the ancestry.  If given a negative numerical prefix,
     fetch just that ancestor.  So if you say `3 ^', Gnus will fetch
     the parent, the grandparent and the grandgrandparent of the
     current article.  If you say `-3 ^', Gnus will only fetch the
     grandgrandparent of the current article.

`A R (Summary)'
     Fetch all articles mentioned in the `References' header of the
     article (`gnus-summary-refer-references').

`A T (Summary)'
     Display the full thread where the current article appears
     (`gnus-summary-refer-thread').  This command has to fetch all the
     headers in the current group to work, so it usually takes a while.
     If you do it often, you may consider setting
     `gnus-fetch-old-headers' to `invisible' (*note Filling In
     Threads::).  This won't have any visible effects normally, but
     it'll make this command work a whole lot faster.  Of course, it'll
     make group entry somewhat slow.

     The `gnus-refer-thread-limit' variable says how many old (i. e.,
     articles before the first displayed in the current group) headers
     to fetch when doing this command.  The default is 200.  If `t', all
     the available headers will be fetched.  This variable can be
     overridden by giving the `A T' command a numerical prefix.

`M-^ (Summary)'
     You can also ask Gnus for an arbitrary article, no matter what
     group it belongs to.  `M-^' (`gnus-summary-refer-article') will
     ask you for a `Message-ID', which is one of those long,
     hard-to-read thingies that look something like
     `<38o6up$6f2AThymir.no>'.  You have to get it all exactly
     right.  No fuzzy searches, I'm afraid.

     Gnus looks for the `Message-ID' in the headers that have already
     been fetched, but also tries all the select methods specified by
     `gnus-refer-article-method' if it is not found.

   If the group you are reading is located on a back end that does not
support fetching by `Message-ID' very well (like `nnspool'), you can
set `gnus-refer-article-method' to an NNTP method.  It would, perhaps,
be best if the NNTP server you consult is the one updating the spool
you are reading from, but that's not really necessary.

   It can also be a list of select methods, as well as the special
symbol `current', which means to use the current select method.  If it
is a list, Gnus will try all the methods in the list until it finds a
match.

   Here's an example setting that will first try the current method, and
then ask Google if that fails:

     (setq gnus-refer-article-method
           '(current
             (nnweb "google" (nnweb-type google))))

   Most of the mail back ends support fetching by `Message-ID', but do
not do a particularly excellent job at it.  That is, `nnmbox',
`nnbabyl', `nnmaildir', `nnml', are able to locate articles from any
groups, while `nnfolder', and `nnimap' are only able to locate articles
that have been posted to the current group.  (Anything else would be
too time consuming.)  `nnmh' does not support this at all.

File: gnus,  Node: Alternative Approaches,  Next: Tree Display,  Prev: Finding the Parent,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.24 Alternative Approaches
===========================

Different people like to read news using different methods.  This being
Gnus, we offer a small selection of minor modes for the summary buffers.

* Menu:

* Pick and Read::               First mark articles and then read them.
* Binary Groups::               Auto-decode all articles.

File: gnus,  Node: Pick and Read,  Next: Binary Groups,  Up: Alternative Approaches

3.24.1 Pick and Read
--------------------

Some newsreaders (like `nn' and, uhm, `Netnews' on VM/CMS) use a
two-phased reading interface.  The user first marks in a summary buffer
the articles she wants to read.  Then she starts reading the articles
with just an article buffer displayed.

   Gnus provides a summary buffer minor mode that allows
this--`gnus-pick-mode'.  This basically means that a few process mark
commands become one-keystroke commands to allow easy marking, and it
provides one additional command for switching to the summary buffer.

   Here are the available keystrokes when using pick mode:

`.'
     Pick the article or thread on the current line
     (`gnus-pick-article-or-thread').  If the variable
     `gnus-thread-hide-subtree' is true, then this key selects the
     entire thread when used at the first article of the thread.
     Otherwise, it selects just the article.  If given a numerical
     prefix, go to that thread or article and pick it.  (The line
     number is normally displayed at the beginning of the summary pick
     lines.)

`SPACE'
     Scroll the summary buffer up one page (`gnus-pick-next-page').  If
     at the end of the buffer, start reading the picked articles.

`u'
     Unpick the thread or article
     (`gnus-pick-unmark-article-or-thread').  If the variable
     `gnus-thread-hide-subtree' is true, then this key unpicks the
     thread if used at the first article of the thread.  Otherwise it
     unpicks just the article.  You can give this key a numerical
     prefix to unpick the thread or article at that line.

`RET'
     Start reading the picked articles (`gnus-pick-start-reading').  If
     given a prefix, mark all unpicked articles as read first.  If
     `gnus-pick-display-summary' is non-`nil', the summary buffer will
     still be visible when you are reading.


   All the normal summary mode commands are still available in the
pick-mode, with the exception of `u'.  However `!' is available which
is mapped to the same function `gnus-summary-tick-article-forward'.

   If this sounds like a good idea to you, you could say:

     (add-hook 'gnus-summary-mode-hook 'gnus-pick-mode)

   `gnus-pick-mode-hook' is run in pick minor mode buffers.

   If `gnus-mark-unpicked-articles-as-read' is non-`nil', mark all
unpicked articles as read.  The default is `nil'.

   The summary line format in pick mode is slightly different from the
standard format.  At the beginning of each line the line number is
displayed.  The pick mode line format is controlled by the
`gnus-summary-pick-line-format' variable (*note Formatting
Variables::).  It accepts the same format specs that
`gnus-summary-line-format' does (*note Summary Buffer Lines::).

File: gnus,  Node: Binary Groups,  Prev: Pick and Read,  Up: Alternative Approaches

3.24.2 Binary Groups
--------------------

If you spend much time in binary groups, you may grow tired of hitting
`X u', `n', `RET' all the time.  `M-x gnus-binary-mode' is a minor mode
for summary buffers that makes all ordinary Gnus article selection
functions uudecode series of articles and display the result instead of
just displaying the articles the normal way.

   The only way, in fact, to see the actual articles is the `g'
command, when you have turned on this mode (`gnus-binary-show-article').

   `gnus-binary-mode-hook' is called in binary minor mode buffers.

File: gnus,  Node: Tree Display,  Next: Mail Group Commands,  Prev: Alternative Approaches,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.25 Tree Display
=================

If you don't like the normal Gnus summary display, you might try setting
`gnus-use-trees' to `t'.  This will create (by default) an additional
"tree buffer".  You can execute all summary mode commands in the tree
buffer.

   There are a few variables to customize the tree display, of course:

`gnus-tree-mode-hook'
     A hook called in all tree mode buffers.

`gnus-tree-mode-line-format'
     A format string for the mode bar in the tree mode buffers (*note
     Mode Line Formatting::).  The default is `Gnus: %%b %S %Z'.  For a
     list of valid specs, *note Summary Buffer Mode Line::.

`gnus-selected-tree-face'
     Face used for highlighting the selected article in the tree
     buffer.  The default is `modeline'.

`gnus-tree-line-format'
     A format string for the tree nodes.  The name is a bit of a
     misnomer, though--it doesn't define a line, but just the node.
     The default value is `%(%[%3,3n%]%)', which displays the first
     three characters of the name of the poster.  It is vital that all
     nodes are of the same length, so you _must_ use `%4,4n'-like
     specifiers.

     Valid specs are:

    `n'
          The name of the poster.

    `f'
          The `From' header.

    `N'
          The number of the article.

    `['
          The opening bracket.

    `]'
          The closing bracket.

    `s'
          The subject.

     *Note Formatting Variables::.

     Variables related to the display are:

    `gnus-tree-brackets'
          This is used for differentiating between "real" articles and
          "sparse" articles.  The format is
               ((REAL-OPEN . REAL-CLOSE)
                (SPARSE-OPEN . SPARSE-CLOSE)
                (DUMMY-OPEN . DUMMY-CLOSE))
          and the default is `((?[ . ?]) (?( . ?)) (?{ . ?}) (?< .
          ?>))'.

    `gnus-tree-parent-child-edges'
          This is a list that contains the characters used for
          connecting parent nodes to their children.  The default is
          `(?- ?\\ ?|)'.


`gnus-tree-minimize-window'
     If this variable is non-`nil', Gnus will try to keep the tree
     buffer as small as possible to allow more room for the other Gnus
     windows.  If this variable is a number, the tree buffer will never
     be higher than that number.  The default is `t'.  Note that if you
     have several windows displayed side-by-side in a frame and the tree
     buffer is one of these, minimizing the tree window will also
     resize all other windows displayed next to it.

     You may also wish to add the following hook to keep the window
     minimized at all times:

          (add-hook 'gnus-configure-windows-hook
                    'gnus-tree-perhaps-minimize)

`gnus-generate-tree-function'
     The function that actually generates the thread tree.  Two
     predefined functions are available:
     `gnus-generate-horizontal-tree' and `gnus-generate-vertical-tree'
     (which is the default).


   Here's an example from a horizontal tree buffer:

     {***}-(***)-[odd]-[Gun]
          |      \[Jan]
          |      \[odd]-[Eri]
          |      \(***)-[Eri]
          |            \[odd]-[Paa]
          \[Bjo]
          \[Gun]
          \[Gun]-[Jor]

   Here's the same thread displayed in a vertical tree buffer:

     {***}
       |--------------------------\-----\-----\
     (***)                         [Bjo] [Gun] [Gun]
       |--\-----\-----\                          |
     [odd] [Jan] [odd] (***)                   [Jor]
       |           |     |--\
     [Gun]       [Eri] [Eri] [odd]
                               |
                             [Paa]

   If you're using horizontal trees, it might be nice to display the
trees side-by-side with the summary buffer.  You could add something
like the following to your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (setq gnus-use-trees t
           gnus-generate-tree-function 'gnus-generate-horizontal-tree
           gnus-tree-minimize-window nil)
     (gnus-add-configuration
      '(article
        (vertical 1.0
                  (horizontal 0.25
                              (summary 0.75 point)
                              (tree 1.0))
                  (article 1.0))))

   *Note Window Layout::.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail Group Commands,  Next: Various Summary Stuff,  Prev: Tree Display,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.26 Mail Group Commands
========================

Some commands only make sense in mail groups.  If these commands are
invalid in the current group, they will raise a hell and let you know.

   All these commands (except the expiry and edit commands) use the
process/prefix convention (*note Process/Prefix::).

`B e'
     Run all expirable articles in the current group through the expiry
     process (`gnus-summary-expire-articles').  That is, delete all
     expirable articles in the group that have been around for a while.
     (*note Expiring Mail::).

`B C-M-e'
     Delete all the expirable articles in the group
     (`gnus-summary-expire-articles-now').  This means that *all*
     articles eligible for expiry in the current group will disappear
     forever into that big `/dev/null' in the sky.

`B DEL'
     Delete the mail article.  This is "delete" as in "delete it from
     your disk forever and ever, never to return again." Use with
     caution.  (`gnus-summary-delete-article').

`B m'
     Move the article from one mail group to another
     (`gnus-summary-move-article').  Marks will be preserved if
     `gnus-preserve-marks' is non-`nil' (which is the default).

`B c'
     Copy the article from one group (mail group or not) to a mail group
     (`gnus-summary-copy-article').  Marks will be preserved if
     `gnus-preserve-marks' is non-`nil' (which is the default).

`B B'
     Crosspost the current article to some other group
     (`gnus-summary-crosspost-article').  This will create a new copy of
     the article in the other group, and the Xref headers of the
     article will be properly updated.

`B i'
     Import an arbitrary file into the current mail newsgroup
     (`gnus-summary-import-article').  You will be prompted for a file
     name, a `From' header and a `Subject' header.

`B I'
     Create an empty article in the current mail newsgroups
     (`gnus-summary-create-article').  You will be prompted for a
     `From' header and a `Subject' header.

`B r'
     Respool the mail article (`gnus-summary-respool-article').
     `gnus-summary-respool-default-method' will be used as the default
     select method when respooling.  This variable is `nil' by default,
     which means that the current group select method will be used
     instead.  Marks will be preserved if `gnus-preserve-marks' is
     non-`nil' (which is the default).

`B w'
`e'
     Edit the current article (`gnus-summary-edit-article').  To finish
     editing and make the changes permanent, type `C-c C-c'
     (`gnus-summary-edit-article-done').  If you give a prefix to the
     `C-c C-c' command, Gnus won't re-highlight the article.

`B q'
     If you want to re-spool an article, you might be curious as to
     what group the article will end up in before you do the
     re-spooling.  This command will tell you
     (`gnus-summary-respool-query').

`B t'
     Similarly, this command will display all fancy splitting patterns
     used when respooling, if any (`gnus-summary-respool-trace').

`B p'
     Some people have a tendency to send you "courtesy" copies when they
     follow up to articles you have posted.  These usually have a
     `Newsgroups' header in them, but not always.  This command
     (`gnus-summary-article-posted-p') will try to fetch the current
     article from your news server (or rather, from
     `gnus-refer-article-method' or `gnus-select-method') and will
     report back whether it found the article or not.  Even if it says
     that it didn't find the article, it may have been posted
     anyway--mail propagation is much faster than news propagation, and
     the news copy may just not have arrived yet.

`K E'
     Encrypt the body of an article (`gnus-article-encrypt-body').  The
     body is encrypted with the encryption protocol specified by the
     variable `gnus-article-encrypt-protocol'.


   If you move (or copy) articles regularly, you might wish to have Gnus
suggest where to put the articles.  `gnus-move-split-methods' is a
variable that uses the same syntax as `gnus-split-methods' (*note
Saving Articles::).  You may customize that variable to create
suggestions you find reasonable.  (Note that `gnus-move-split-methods'
uses group names where `gnus-split-methods' uses file names.)

     (setq gnus-move-split-methods
           '(("^From:.*Lars Magne" "nnml:junk")
             ("^Subject:.*gnus" "nnfolder:important")
             (".*" "nnml:misc")))

File: gnus,  Node: Various Summary Stuff,  Next: Exiting the Summary Buffer,  Prev: Mail Group Commands,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.27 Various Summary Stuff
==========================

* Menu:

* Summary Group Information::   Information oriented commands.
* Searching for Articles::      Multiple article commands.
* Summary Generation Commands::
* Really Various Summary Commands::  Those pesky non-conformant commands.

`gnus-summary-display-while-building'
     If non-`nil', show and update the summary buffer as it's being
     built.  If `t', update the buffer after every line is inserted.
     If the value is an integer, N, update the display every N lines.
     The default is `nil'.

`gnus-summary-display-arrow'
     If non-`nil', display an arrow in the fringe to indicate the
     current article.

`gnus-summary-mode-hook'
     This hook is called when creating a summary mode buffer.

`gnus-summary-generate-hook'
     This is called as the last thing before doing the threading and the
     generation of the summary buffer.  It's quite convenient for
     customizing the threading variables based on what data the
     newsgroup has.  This hook is called from the summary buffer after
     most summary buffer variables have been set.

`gnus-summary-prepare-hook'
     It is called after the summary buffer has been generated.  You
     might use it to, for instance, highlight lines or modify the look
     of the buffer in some other ungodly manner.  I don't care.

`gnus-summary-prepared-hook'
     A hook called as the very last thing after the summary buffer has
     been generated.

`gnus-summary-ignore-duplicates'
     When Gnus discovers two articles that have the same `Message-ID',
     it has to do something drastic.  No articles are allowed to have
     the same `Message-ID', but this may happen when reading mail from
     some sources.  Gnus allows you to customize what happens with this
     variable.  If it is `nil' (which is the default), Gnus will rename
     the `Message-ID' (for display purposes only) and display the
     article as any other article.  If this variable is `t', it won't
     display the article--it'll be as if it never existed.

`gnus-alter-articles-to-read-function'
     This function, which takes two parameters (the group name and the
     list of articles to be selected), is called to allow the user to
     alter the list of articles to be selected.

     For instance, the following function adds the list of cached
     articles to the list in one particular group:

          (defun my-add-cached-articles (group articles)
            (if (string= group "some.group")
                (append gnus-newsgroup-cached articles)
              articles))

`gnus-newsgroup-variables'
     A list of newsgroup (summary buffer) local variables, or cons of
     variables and their default expressions to be evalled (when the
     default values are not `nil'), that should be made global while
     the summary buffer is active.

     Note: The default expressions will be evaluated (using function
     `eval') before assignment to the local variable rather than just
     assigned to it.  If the default expression is the symbol `global',
     that symbol will not be evaluated but the global value of the local
     variable will be used instead.

     These variables can be used to set variables in the group
     parameters while still allowing them to affect operations done in
     other buffers.  For example:

          (setq gnus-newsgroup-variables
                '(message-use-followup-to
                  (gnus-visible-headers .
           "^From:\\|^Newsgroups:\\|^Subject:\\|^Date:\\|^To:")))

     Also *note Group Parameters::.

`gnus-propagate-marks'
     If non-`nil', propagate marks to the backends for possible
     storing.  *Note NNTP marks::, and friends, for a more fine-grained
     sieve.


File: gnus,  Node: Summary Group Information,  Next: Searching for Articles,  Up: Various Summary Stuff

3.27.1 Summary Group Information
--------------------------------

`H f'
     Try to fetch the FAQ (list of frequently asked questions) for the
     current group (`gnus-summary-fetch-faq').  Gnus will try to get
     the FAQ from `gnus-group-faq-directory', which is usually a
     directory on a remote machine.  This variable can also be a list
     of directories.  In that case, giving a prefix to this command
     will allow you to choose between the various sites.  `ange-ftp' or
     `efs' will probably be used for fetching the file.

`H d'
     Give a brief description of the current group
     (`gnus-summary-describe-group').  If given a prefix, force
     rereading the description from the server.

`H h'
     Give an extremely brief description of the most important summary
     keystrokes (`gnus-summary-describe-briefly').

`H i'
     Go to the Gnus info node (`gnus-info-find-node').

File: gnus,  Node: Searching for Articles,  Next: Summary Generation Commands,  Prev: Summary Group Information,  Up: Various Summary Stuff

3.27.2 Searching for Articles
-----------------------------

`M-s'
     Search through all subsequent (raw) articles for a regexp
     (`gnus-summary-search-article-forward').

`M-r'
     Search through all previous (raw) articles for a regexp
     (`gnus-summary-search-article-backward').

`M-S'
     Repeat the previous search forwards
     (`gnus-summary-repeat-search-article-forward').

`M-R'
     Repeat the previous search backwards
     (`gnus-summary-repeat-search-article-backward').

`&'
     This command will prompt you for a header, a regular expression to
     match on this field, and a command to be executed if the match is
     made (`gnus-summary-execute-command').  If the header is an empty
     string, the match is done on the entire article.  If given a
     prefix, search backward instead.

     For instance, `& RET some.*string RET #' will put the process mark
     on all articles that have heads or bodies that match
     `some.*string'.

`M-&'
     Perform any operation on all articles that have been marked with
     the process mark (`gnus-summary-universal-argument').

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Generation Commands,  Next: Really Various Summary Commands,  Prev: Searching for Articles,  Up: Various Summary Stuff

3.27.3 Summary Generation Commands
----------------------------------

`Y g'
     Regenerate the current summary buffer (`gnus-summary-prepare').

`Y c'
     Pull all cached articles (for the current group) into the summary
     buffer (`gnus-summary-insert-cached-articles').

`Y d'
     Pull all dormant articles (for the current group) into the summary
     buffer (`gnus-summary-insert-dormant-articles').

`Y t'
     Pull all ticked articles (for the current group) into the summary
     buffer (`gnus-summary-insert-ticked-articles').


File: gnus,  Node: Really Various Summary Commands,  Prev: Summary Generation Commands,  Up: Various Summary Stuff

3.27.4 Really Various Summary Commands
--------------------------------------

`A D'
`C-d'
     If the current article is a collection of other articles (for
     instance, a digest), you might use this command to enter a group
     based on the that article (`gnus-summary-enter-digest-group').
     Gnus will try to guess what article type is currently displayed
     unless you give a prefix to this command, which forces a "digest"
     interpretation.  Basically, whenever you see a message that is a
     collection of other messages of some format, you `C-d' and read
     these messages in a more convenient fashion.

     The variable `gnus-auto-select-on-ephemeral-exit' controls what
     article should be selected after exiting a digest group.  Valid
     values include:

    `next'
          Select the next article.

    `next-unread'
          Select the next unread article.

    `next-noselect'
          Move the cursor to the next article.  This is the default.

    `next-unread-noselect'
          Move the cursor to the next unread article.

     If it has any other value or there is no next (unread) article, the
     article selected before entering to the digest group will appear.

`C-M-d'
     This command is very similar to the one above, but lets you gather
     several documents into one biiig group
     (`gnus-summary-read-document').  It does this by opening several
     `nndoc' groups for each document, and then opening an `nnvirtual'
     group on top of these `nndoc' groups.  This command understands
     the process/prefix convention (*note Process/Prefix::).

`C-t'
     Toggle truncation of summary lines
     (`gnus-summary-toggle-truncation').  This will probably confuse the
     line centering function in the summary buffer, so it's not a good
     idea to have truncation switched off while reading articles.

`='
     Expand the summary buffer window (`gnus-summary-expand-window').
     If given a prefix, force an `article' window configuration.

`C-M-e'
     Edit the group parameters (*note Group Parameters::) of the current
     group (`gnus-summary-edit-parameters').

`C-M-a'
     Customize the group parameters (*note Group Parameters::) of the
     current group (`gnus-summary-customize-parameters').


File: gnus,  Node: Exiting the Summary Buffer,  Next: Crosspost Handling,  Prev: Various Summary Stuff,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.28 Exiting the Summary Buffer
===============================

Exiting from the summary buffer will normally update all info on the
group and return you to the group buffer.

`Z Z'
`Z Q'
`q'
     Exit the current group and update all information on the group
     (`gnus-summary-exit').  `gnus-summary-prepare-exit-hook' is called
     before doing much of the exiting, which calls
     `gnus-summary-expire-articles' by default.
     `gnus-summary-exit-hook' is called after finishing the exit
     process.  `gnus-group-no-more-groups-hook' is run when returning to
     group mode having no more (unread) groups.

`Z E'
`Q'
     Exit the current group without updating any information on the
     group (`gnus-summary-exit-no-update').

`Z c'
`c'
     Mark all unticked articles in the group as read and then exit
     (`gnus-summary-catchup-and-exit').

`Z C'
     Mark all articles, even the ticked ones, as read and then exit
     (`gnus-summary-catchup-all-and-exit').

`Z n'
     Mark all articles as read and go to the next group
     (`gnus-summary-catchup-and-goto-next-group').

`Z p'
     Mark all articles as read and go to the previous group
     (`gnus-summary-catchup-and-goto-prev-group').

`Z R'
`C-x C-s'
     Exit this group, and then enter it again
     (`gnus-summary-reselect-current-group').  If given a prefix, select
     all articles, both read and unread.

`Z G'
`M-g'
     Exit the group, check for new articles in the group, and select the
     group (`gnus-summary-rescan-group').  If given a prefix, select all
     articles, both read and unread.

`Z N'
     Exit the group and go to the next group
     (`gnus-summary-next-group').

`Z P'
     Exit the group and go to the previous group
     (`gnus-summary-prev-group').

`Z s'
     Save the current number of read/marked articles in the dribble
     buffer and then save the dribble buffer
     (`gnus-summary-save-newsrc').  If given a prefix, also save the
     `.newsrc' file(s).  Using this command will make exit without
     updating (the `Q' command) worthless.

   `gnus-exit-group-hook' is called when you exit the current group
with an "updating" exit.  For instance `Q'
(`gnus-summary-exit-no-update') does not call this hook.

   If you're in the habit of exiting groups, and then changing your mind
about it, you might set `gnus-kill-summary-on-exit' to `nil'.  If you
do that, Gnus won't kill the summary buffer when you exit it.  (Quelle
surprise!)  Instead it will change the name of the buffer to something
like `*Dead Summary ... *' and install a minor mode called
`gnus-dead-summary-mode'.  Now, if you switch back to this buffer,
you'll find that all keys are mapped to a function called
`gnus-summary-wake-up-the-dead'.  So tapping any keys in a dead summary
buffer will result in a live, normal summary buffer.

   There will never be more than one dead summary buffer at any one
time.

   The data on the current group will be updated (which articles you
have read, which articles you have replied to, etc.) when you exit the
summary buffer.  If the `gnus-use-cross-reference' variable is `t'
(which is the default), articles that are cross-referenced to this
group and are marked as read, will also be marked as read in the other
subscribed groups they were cross-posted to.  If this variable is
neither `nil' nor `t', the article will be marked as read in both
subscribed and unsubscribed groups (*note Crosspost Handling::).

File: gnus,  Node: Crosspost Handling,  Next: Duplicate Suppression,  Prev: Exiting the Summary Buffer,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.29 Crosspost Handling
=======================

Marking cross-posted articles as read ensures that you'll never have to
read the same article more than once.  Unless, of course, somebody has
posted it to several groups separately.  Posting the same article to
several groups (not cross-posting) is called "spamming", and you are by
law required to send nasty-grams to anyone who perpetrates such a
heinous crime.  You may want to try NoCeM handling to filter out spam
(*note NoCeM::).

   Remember: Cross-posting is kinda ok, but posting the same article
separately to several groups is not.  Massive cross-posting (aka.
"velveeta") is to be avoided at all costs, and you can even use the
`gnus-summary-mail-crosspost-complaint' command to complain about
excessive crossposting (*note Summary Mail Commands::).

   One thing that may cause Gnus to not do the cross-posting thing
correctly is if you use an NNTP server that supports XOVER (which is
very nice, because it speeds things up considerably) which does not
include the `Xref' header in its NOV lines.  This is Evil, but all too
common, alas, alack.  Gnus tries to Do The Right Thing even with XOVER
by registering the `Xref' lines of all articles you actually read, but
if you kill the articles, or just mark them as read without reading
them, Gnus will not get a chance to snoop the `Xref' lines out of these
articles, and will be unable to use the cross reference mechanism.

   To check whether your NNTP server includes the `Xref' header in its
overview files, try `telnet your.nntp.server nntp', `MODE READER' on
`inn' servers, and then say `LIST overview.fmt'.  This may not work,
but if it does, and the last line you get does not read `Xref:full',
then you should shout and whine at your news admin until she includes
the `Xref' header in the overview files.

   If you want Gnus to get the `Xref's right all the time, you have to
set `nntp-nov-is-evil' to `t', which slows things down considerably.
Also *note Slow/Expensive Connection::.

   C'est la vie.

   For an alternative approach, *note Duplicate Suppression::.

File: gnus,  Node: Duplicate Suppression,  Next: Security,  Prev: Crosspost Handling,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.30 Duplicate Suppression
==========================

By default, Gnus tries to make sure that you don't have to read the same
article more than once by utilizing the crossposting mechanism (*note
Crosspost Handling::).  However, that simple and efficient approach may
not work satisfactory for some users for various reasons.

  1. The NNTP server may fail to generate the `Xref' header.  This is
     evil and not very common.

  2. The NNTP server may fail to include the `Xref' header in the
     `.overview' data bases.  This is evil and all too common, alas.

  3. You may be reading the same group (or several related groups) from
     different NNTP servers.

  4. You may be getting mail that duplicates articles posted to groups.

   I'm sure there are other situations where `Xref' handling fails as
well, but these four are the most common situations.

   If, and only if, `Xref' handling fails for you, then you may
consider switching on "duplicate suppression".  If you do so, Gnus will
remember the `Message-ID's of all articles you have read or otherwise
marked as read, and then, as if by magic, mark them as read all
subsequent times you see them--in _all_ groups.  Using this mechanism
is quite likely to be somewhat inefficient, but not overly so.  It's
certainly preferable to reading the same articles more than once.

   Duplicate suppression is not a very subtle instrument.  It's more
like a sledge hammer than anything else.  It works in a very simple
fashion--if you have marked an article as read, it adds this Message-ID
to a cache.  The next time it sees this Message-ID, it will mark the
article as read with the `M' mark.  It doesn't care what group it saw
the article in.

`gnus-suppress-duplicates'
     If non-`nil', suppress duplicates.

`gnus-save-duplicate-list'
     If non-`nil', save the list of duplicates to a file.  This will
     make startup and shutdown take longer, so the default is `nil'.
     However, this means that only duplicate articles read in a single
     Gnus session are suppressed.

`gnus-duplicate-list-length'
     This variable says how many `Message-ID's to keep in the duplicate
     suppression list.  The default is 10000.

`gnus-duplicate-file'
     The name of the file to store the duplicate suppression list in.
     The default is `~/News/suppression'.

   If you have a tendency to stop and start Gnus often, setting
`gnus-save-duplicate-list' to `t' is probably a good idea.  If you
leave Gnus running for weeks on end, you may have it `nil'.  On the
other hand, saving the list makes startup and shutdown much slower, so
that means that if you stop and start Gnus often, you should set
`gnus-save-duplicate-list' to `nil'.  Uhm.  I'll leave this up to you
to figure out, I think.

File: gnus,  Node: Security,  Next: Mailing List,  Prev: Duplicate Suppression,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.31 Security
=============

Gnus is able to verify signed messages or decrypt encrypted messages.
The formats that are supported are PGP, PGP/MIME and S/MIME, however
you need some external programs to get things to work:

  1. To handle PGP and PGP/MIME messages, you have to install an
     OpenPGP implementation such as GnuPG.  The Lisp interface to GnuPG
     included with Emacs is called EasyPG (*note EasyPG: (epa)Top.),
     but PGG (*note PGG: (pgg)Top.), Mailcrypt, and gpg.el are also
     supported.

  2. To handle S/MIME message, you need to install OpenSSL.  OpenSSL
     0.9.6 or newer is recommended.


   The variables that control security functionality on reading messages
include:

`mm-verify-option'
     Option of verifying signed parts.  `never', not verify; `always',
     always verify; `known', only verify known protocols.  Otherwise,
     ask user.

`mm-decrypt-option'
     Option of decrypting encrypted parts.  `never', no decryption;
     `always', always decrypt; `known', only decrypt known protocols.
     Otherwise, ask user.

`mml1991-use'
     Symbol indicating elisp interface to OpenPGP implementation for
     PGP messages.  The default is `epg', but `pgg', `mailcrypt', and
     `gpg' are also supported although deprecated.  By default, Gnus
     uses the first available interface in this order.

`mml2015-use'
     Symbol indicating elisp interface to OpenPGP implementation for
     PGP/MIME messages.  The default is `epg', but `pgg', `mailcrypt',
     and `gpg' are also supported although deprecated.  By default,
     Gnus uses the first available interface in this order.


   By default the buttons that display security information are not
shown, because they clutter reading the actual e-mail.  You can type `K
b' manually to display the information.  Use the
`gnus-buttonized-mime-types' and `gnus-unbuttonized-mime-types'
variables to control this permanently.  *note MIME Commands:: for
further details, and hints on how to customize these variables to
always display security information.

   Snarfing OpenPGP keys (i.e., importing keys from articles into your
key ring) is not supported explicitly through a menu item or command,
rather Gnus do detect and label keys as `application/pgp-keys',
allowing you to specify whatever action you think is appropriate
through the usual MIME infrastructure.  You can use a `~/.mailcap'
entry (*note mailcap: (emacs-mime)mailcap.) such as the following to
import keys using GNU Privacy Guard when you click on the MIME button
(*note Using MIME::).

     application/pgp-keys; gpg --import --interactive --verbose; needsterminal
   This happens to also be the default action defined in
`mailcap-mime-data'.

   More information on how to set things for sending outgoing signed and
encrypted messages up can be found in the message manual (*note
Security: (message)Security.).

File: gnus,  Node: Mailing List,  Prev: Security,  Up: Summary Buffer

3.32 Mailing List
=================

Gnus understands some mailing list fields of RFC 2369.  To enable it,
add a `to-list' group parameter (*note Group Parameters::), possibly
using `A M' (`gnus-mailing-list-insinuate') in the summary buffer.

   That enables the following commands to the summary buffer:

`C-c C-n h'
     Send a message to fetch mailing list help, if List-Help field
     exists.

`C-c C-n s'
     Send a message to subscribe the mailing list, if List-Subscribe
     field exists.

`C-c C-n u'
     Send a message to unsubscribe the mailing list, if List-Unsubscribe
     field exists.

`C-c C-n p'
     Post to the mailing list, if List-Post field exists.

`C-c C-n o'
     Send a message to the mailing list owner, if List-Owner field
     exists.

`C-c C-n a'
     Browse the mailing list archive, if List-Archive field exists.


File: gnus,  Node: Article Buffer,  Next: Composing Messages,  Prev: Summary Buffer,  Up: Top

4 Article Buffer
****************

The articles are displayed in the article buffer, of which there is only
one.  All the summary buffers share the same article buffer unless you
tell Gnus otherwise.

* Menu:

* Hiding Headers::              Deciding what headers should be displayed.
* Using MIME::                  Pushing articles through MIME before reading them.
* Customizing Articles::        Tailoring the look of the articles.
* Article Keymap::              Keystrokes available in the article buffer.
* Misc Article::                Other stuff.

File: gnus,  Node: Hiding Headers,  Next: Using MIME,  Up: Article Buffer

4.1 Hiding Headers
==================

The top section of each article is the "head".  (The rest is the
"body", but you may have guessed that already.)

   There is a lot of useful information in the head: the name of the
person who wrote the article, the date it was written and the subject
of the article.  That's well and nice, but there's also lots of
information most people do not want to see--what systems the article
has passed through before reaching you, the `Message-ID', the
`References', etc. ad nauseam--and you'll probably want to get rid of
some of those lines.  If you want to keep all those lines in the
article buffer, you can set `gnus-show-all-headers' to `t'.

   Gnus provides you with two variables for sifting headers:

`gnus-visible-headers'
     If this variable is non-`nil', it should be a regular expression
     that says what headers you wish to keep in the article buffer.  All
     headers that do not match this variable will be hidden.

     For instance, if you only want to see the name of the person who
     wrote the article and the subject, you'd say:

          (setq gnus-visible-headers "^From:\\|^Subject:")

     This variable can also be a list of regexps to match headers to
     remain visible.

`gnus-ignored-headers'
     This variable is the reverse of `gnus-visible-headers'.  If this
     variable is set (and `gnus-visible-headers' is `nil'), it should
     be a regular expression that matches all lines that you want to
     hide.  All lines that do not match this variable will remain
     visible.

     For instance, if you just want to get rid of the `References' line
     and the `Xref' line, you might say:

          (setq gnus-ignored-headers "^References:\\|^Xref:")

     This variable can also be a list of regexps to match headers to be
     removed.

     Note that if `gnus-visible-headers' is non-`nil', this variable
     will have no effect.


   Gnus can also sort the headers for you.  (It does this by default.)
You can control the sorting by setting the `gnus-sorted-header-list'
variable.  It is a list of regular expressions that says in what order
the headers are to be displayed.

   For instance, if you want the name of the author of the article
first, and then the subject, you might say something like:

     (setq gnus-sorted-header-list '("^From:" "^Subject:"))

   Any headers that are to remain visible, but are not listed in this
variable, will be displayed in random order after all the headers
listed in this variable.

   You can hide further boring headers by setting
`gnus-treat-hide-boring-headers' to `head'.  What this function does
depends on the `gnus-boring-article-headers' variable.  It's a list,
but this list doesn't actually contain header names.  Instead it lists
various "boring conditions" that Gnus can check and remove from sight.

   These conditions are:
`empty'
     Remove all empty headers.

`followup-to'
     Remove the `Followup-To' header if it is identical to the
     `Newsgroups' header.

`reply-to'
     Remove the `Reply-To' header if it lists the same addresses as the
     `From' header, or if the `broken-reply-to' group parameter is set.

`newsgroups'
     Remove the `Newsgroups' header if it only contains the current
     group name.

`to-address'
     Remove the `To' header if it only contains the address identical to
     the current group's `to-address' parameter.

`to-list'
     Remove the `To' header if it only contains the address identical to
     the current group's `to-list' parameter.

`cc-list'
     Remove the `Cc' header if it only contains the address identical to
     the current group's `to-list' parameter.

`date'
     Remove the `Date' header if the article is less than three days
     old.

`long-to'
     Remove the `To' and/or `Cc' header if it is very long.

`many-to'
     Remove all `To' and/or `Cc' headers if there are more than one.

   To include these three elements, you could say something like:

     (setq gnus-boring-article-headers
           '(empty followup-to reply-to))

   This is also the default value for this variable.

File: gnus,  Node: Using MIME,  Next: Customizing Articles,  Prev: Hiding Headers,  Up: Article Buffer

4.2 Using MIME
==============

Mime is a standard for waving your hands through the air, aimlessly,
while people stand around yawning.

   MIME, however, is a standard for encoding your articles, aimlessly,
while all newsreaders die of fear.

   MIME may specify what character set the article uses, the encoding
of the characters, and it also makes it possible to embed pictures and
other naughty stuff in innocent-looking articles.

   Gnus pushes MIME articles through `gnus-display-mime-function' to
display the MIME parts.  This is `gnus-display-mime' by default, which
creates a bundle of clickable buttons that can be used to display, save
and manipulate the MIME objects.

   The following commands are available when you have placed point over
a MIME button:

`RET (Article)'
`BUTTON-2 (Article)'
     Toggle displaying of the MIME object
     (`gnus-article-press-button').  If built-in viewers can not display
     the object, Gnus resorts to external viewers in the `mailcap'
     files.  If a viewer has the `copiousoutput' specification, the
     object is displayed inline.

`M-RET (Article)'
`v (Article)'
     Prompt for a method, and then view the MIME object using this
     method (`gnus-mime-view-part').

`t (Article)'
     View the MIME object as if it were a different MIME media type
     (`gnus-mime-view-part-as-type').

`C (Article)'
     Prompt for a charset, and then view the MIME object using this
     charset (`gnus-mime-view-part-as-charset').

`o (Article)'
     Prompt for a file name, and then save the MIME object
     (`gnus-mime-save-part').

`C-o (Article)'
     Prompt for a file name, then save the MIME object and strip it from
     the article.  Then proceed to article editing, where a reasonable
     suggestion is being made on how the altered article should look
     like.  The stripped MIME object will be referred via the
     message/external-body MIME type.
     (`gnus-mime-save-part-and-strip').

`r (Article)'
     Prompt for a file name, replace the MIME object with an external
     body refering to the file via the message/external-body MIME type.
     (`gnus-mime-replace-part').

`d (Article)'
     Delete the MIME object from the article and replace it with some
     information about the removed MIME object
     (`gnus-mime-delete-part').

`c (Article)'
     Copy the MIME object to a fresh buffer and display this buffer
     (`gnus-mime-copy-part').  If given a prefix, copy the raw contents
     without decoding.  If given a numerical prefix, you can do
     semi-manual charset stuff (see
     `gnus-summary-show-article-charset-alist' in *note Paging the
     Article::).  Compressed files like `.gz' and `.bz2' are
     automatically decompressed if `auto-compression-mode' is enabled
     (*note Accessing Compressed Files: (emacs)Compressed Files.).

`p (Article)'
     Print the MIME object (`gnus-mime-print-part').  This command
     respects the `print=' specifications in the `.mailcap' file.

`i (Article)'
     Insert the contents of the MIME object into the buffer
     (`gnus-mime-inline-part') as `text/plain'.  If given a prefix,
     insert the raw contents without decoding.  If given a numerical
     prefix, you can do semi-manual charset stuff (see
     `gnus-summary-show-article-charset-alist' in *note Paging the
     Article::).  Compressed files like `.gz' and `.bz2' are
     automatically decompressed depending on `jka-compr' regardless of
     `auto-compression-mode' (*note Accessing Compressed Files:
     (emacs)Compressed Files.).

`E (Article)'
     View the MIME object with an internal viewer.  If no internal
     viewer is available, use an external viewer
     (`gnus-mime-view-part-internally').

`e (Article)'
     View the MIME object with an external viewer.
     (`gnus-mime-view-part-externally').

`| (Article)'
     Output the MIME object to a process (`gnus-mime-pipe-part').

`. (Article)'
     Interactively run an action on the MIME object
     (`gnus-mime-action-on-part').


   Gnus will display some MIME objects automatically.  The way Gnus
determines which parts to do this with is described in the Emacs MIME
manual.

   It might be best to just use the toggling functions from the article
buffer to avoid getting nasty surprises.  (For instance, you enter the
group `alt.sing-a-long' and, before you know it, MIME has decoded the
sound file in the article and some horrible sing-a-long song comes
screaming out your speakers, and you can't find the volume button,
because there isn't one, and people are starting to look at you, and you
try to stop the program, but you can't, and you can't find the program
to control the volume, and everybody else in the room suddenly decides
to look at you disdainfully, and you'll feel rather stupid.)

   Any similarity to real events and people is purely coincidental.
Ahem.

   Also *note MIME Commands::.

File: gnus,  Node: Customizing Articles,  Next: Article Keymap,  Prev: Using MIME,  Up: Article Buffer

4.3 Customizing Articles
========================

A slew of functions for customizing how the articles are to look like
exist.  You can call these functions interactively (*note Article
Washing::), or you can have them called automatically when you select
the articles.

   To have them called automatically, you should set the corresponding
"treatment" variable.  For instance, to have headers hidden, you'd set
`gnus-treat-hide-headers'.  Below is a list of variables that can be
set, but first we discuss the values these variables can have.

   Note: Some values, while valid, make little sense.  Check the list
below for sensible values.

  1. `nil': Don't do this treatment.

  2. `t': Do this treatment on all body parts.

  3. `head': Do the treatment on the headers.

  4. `first': Do this treatment on the first body part.

  5. `last': Do this treatment on the last body part.

  6. An integer: Do this treatment on all body parts that have a length
     less than this number.

  7. A list of strings: Do this treatment on all body parts that are in
     articles that are read in groups that have names that match one of
     the regexps in the list.

  8. A list where the first element is not a string:

     The list is evaluated recursively.  The first element of the list
     is a predicate.  The following predicates are recognized: `or',
     `and', `not' and `typep'.  Here's an example:

          (or last
              (typep "text/x-vcard"))


   You may have noticed that the word "part" is used here.  This refers
to the fact that some messages are MIME multipart articles that may be
divided into several parts.  Articles that are not multiparts are
considered to contain just a single part.

   Are the treatments applied to all sorts of multipart parts?  Yes, if
you want to, but by default, only `text/plain' parts are given the
treatment.  This is controlled by the `gnus-article-treat-types'
variable, which is a list of regular expressions that are matched to the
type of the part.  This variable is ignored if the value of the
controlling variable is a predicate list, as described above.

   The following treatment options are available.  The easiest way to
customize this is to examine the `gnus-article-treat' customization
group.  Values in parenthesis are suggested sensible values.  Others are
possible but those listed are probably sufficient for most people.

`gnus-treat-buttonize (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-buttonize-head (head)'
     *Note Article Buttons::.

`gnus-treat-capitalize-sentences (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-overstrike (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-strip-cr (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-strip-headers-in-body (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-strip-leading-blank-lines (t, first, integer)'

`gnus-treat-strip-multiple-blank-lines (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-strip-pem (t, last, integer)'

`gnus-treat-strip-trailing-blank-lines (t, last, integer)'

`gnus-treat-unsplit-urls (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-wash-html (t, integer)'
     *Note Article Washing::.

`gnus-treat-date-english (head)'

`gnus-treat-date-iso8601 (head)'

`gnus-treat-date-lapsed (head)'

`gnus-treat-date-local (head)'

`gnus-treat-date-original (head)'

`gnus-treat-date-user-defined (head)'

`gnus-treat-date-ut (head)'
     *Note Article Date::.

`gnus-treat-from-picon (head)'

`gnus-treat-mail-picon (head)'

`gnus-treat-newsgroups-picon (head)'
     *Note Picons::.

`gnus-treat-display-smileys (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-body-boundary (head)'
     Adds a delimiter between header and body, the string used as
     delimiter is controlled by `gnus-body-boundary-delimiter'.

     *Note Smileys::.

`gnus-treat-display-x-face (head)'
     *Note X-Face::.

`gnus-treat-display-face (head)'
     *Note Face::.

`gnus-treat-emphasize (t, head, integer)'

`gnus-treat-fill-article (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-fill-long-lines (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-hide-boring-headers (head)'

`gnus-treat-hide-citation (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-hide-citation-maybe (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-hide-headers (head)'

`gnus-treat-hide-signature (t, last)'

`gnus-treat-strip-banner (t, last)'

`gnus-treat-strip-list-identifiers (head)'
     *Note Article Hiding::.

`gnus-treat-highlight-citation (t, integer)'

`gnus-treat-highlight-headers (head)'

`gnus-treat-highlight-signature (t, last, integer)'
     *Note Article Highlighting::.

`gnus-treat-play-sounds'

`gnus-treat-translate'

`gnus-treat-ansi-sequences (t)'

`gnus-treat-x-pgp-sig (head)'

`gnus-treat-unfold-headers (head)'

`gnus-treat-fold-headers (head)'

`gnus-treat-fold-newsgroups (head)'

`gnus-treat-leading-whitespace (head)'
     *Note Article Header::.


   You can, of course, write your own functions to be called from
`gnus-part-display-hook'.  The functions are called narrowed to the
part, and you can do anything you like, pretty much.  There is no
information that you have to keep in the buffer--you can change
everything.

File: gnus,  Node: Article Keymap,  Next: Misc Article,  Prev: Customizing Articles,  Up: Article Buffer

4.4 Article Keymap
==================

Most of the keystrokes in the summary buffer can also be used in the
article buffer.  They should behave as if you typed them in the summary
buffer, which means that you don't actually have to have a summary
buffer displayed while reading.  You can do it all from the article
buffer.

   The key `v' is reserved for users.  You can bind it to some command
or better use it as a prefix key.

   A few additional keystrokes are available:

`SPACE'
     Scroll forwards one page (`gnus-article-next-page').  This is
     exactly the same as `h SPACE h'.

`DEL'
     Scroll backwards one page (`gnus-article-prev-page').  This is
     exactly the same as `h DEL h'.

`C-c ^'
     If point is in the neighborhood of a `Message-ID' and you press
     `C-c ^', Gnus will try to get that article from the server
     (`gnus-article-refer-article').

`C-c C-m'
     Send a reply to the address near point (`gnus-article-mail').  If
     given a prefix, include the mail.

`s'
     Reconfigure the buffers so that the summary buffer becomes visible
     (`gnus-article-show-summary').

`?'
     Give a very brief description of the available keystrokes
     (`gnus-article-describe-briefly').

`TAB'
     Go to the next button, if any (`gnus-article-next-button').  This
     only makes sense if you have buttonizing turned on.

`M-TAB'
     Go to the previous button, if any (`gnus-article-prev-button').

`R'
     Send a reply to the current article and yank the current article
     (`gnus-article-reply-with-original').  If the region is active,
     only yank the text in the region.

`S W'
     Send a wide reply to the current article and yank the current
     article (`gnus-article-wide-reply-with-original').  If the region
     is active, only yank the text in the region.

`F'
     Send a followup to the current article and yank the current article
     (`gnus-article-followup-with-original').  If the region is active,
     only yank the text in the region.


File: gnus,  Node: Misc Article,  Prev: Article Keymap,  Up: Article Buffer

4.5 Misc Article
================

`gnus-single-article-buffer'
     If non-`nil', use the same article buffer for all the groups.
     (This is the default.)  If `nil', each group will have its own
     article buffer.

`gnus-article-decode-hook'
     Hook used to decode MIME articles.  The default value is
     `(article-decode-charset article-decode-encoded-words)'

`gnus-article-prepare-hook'
     This hook is called right after the article has been inserted into
     the article buffer.  It is mainly intended for functions that do
     something depending on the contents; it should probably not be
     used for changing the contents of the article buffer.

`gnus-article-mode-hook'
     Hook called in article mode buffers.

`gnus-article-mode-syntax-table'
     Syntax table used in article buffers.  It is initialized from
     `text-mode-syntax-table'.

`gnus-article-over-scroll'
     If non-`nil', allow scrolling the article buffer even when there
     no more new text to scroll in.  The default is `nil'.

`gnus-article-mode-line-format'
     This variable is a format string along the same lines as
     `gnus-summary-mode-line-format' (*note Summary Buffer Mode
     Line::).  It accepts the same format specifications as that
     variable, with two extensions:

    `w'
          The "wash status" of the article.  This is a short string
          with one character for each possible article wash operation
          that may have been performed.  The characters and their
          meaning:

         `c'
               Displayed when cited text may be hidden in the article
               buffer.

         `h'
               Displayed when headers are hidden in the article buffer.

         `p'
               Displayed when article is digitally signed or encrypted,
               and Gnus has hidden the security headers.  (N.B. does
               not tell anything about security status, i.e. good or
               bad signature.)

         `s'
               Displayed when the signature has been hidden in the
               Article buffer.

         `o'
               Displayed when Gnus has treated overstrike characters in
               the article buffer.

         `e'
               Displayed when Gnus has treated emphasized strings in
               the article buffer.


    `m'
          The number of MIME parts in the article.


`gnus-break-pages'
     Controls whether "page breaking" is to take place.  If this
     variable is non-`nil', the articles will be divided into pages
     whenever a page delimiter appears in the article.  If this
     variable is `nil', paging will not be done.

`gnus-page-delimiter'
     This is the delimiter mentioned above.  By default, it is `^L'
     (formfeed).

`gnus-use-idna'
     This variable controls whether Gnus performs IDNA decoding of
     internationalized domain names inside `From', `To' and `Cc'
     headers.  *Note IDNA: (message)IDNA, for how to compose such
     messages.  This requires GNU Libidn
     (http://www.gnu.org/software/libidn/), and this variable is only
     enabled if you have installed it.


File: gnus,  Node: Composing Messages,  Next: Select Methods,  Prev: Article Buffer,  Up: Top

5 Composing Messages
********************

All commands for posting and mailing will put you in a message buffer
where you can edit the article all you like, before you send the
article by pressing `C-c C-c'.  *Note Overview: (message)Top.  Where
the message will be posted/mailed to depends on your setup (*note
Posting Server::).

* Menu:

* Mail::                        Mailing and replying.
* Posting Server::              What server should you post and mail via?
* POP before SMTP::             You cannot send a mail unless you read a mail.
* Mail and Post::               Mailing and posting at the same time.
* Archived Messages::           Where Gnus stores the messages you've sent.
* Posting Styles::              An easier way to specify who you are.
* Drafts::                      Postponing messages and rejected messages.
* Rejected Articles::           What happens if the server doesn't like your article?
* Signing and encrypting::      How to compose secure messages.

   Also *note Canceling and Superseding:: for information on how to
remove articles you shouldn't have posted.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail,  Next: Posting Server,  Up: Composing Messages

5.1 Mail
========

Variables for customizing outgoing mail:

`gnus-uu-digest-headers'
     List of regexps to match headers included in digested messages.
     The headers will be included in the sequence they are matched.  If
     `nil' include all headers.

`gnus-add-to-list'
     If non-`nil', add a `to-list' group parameter to mail groups that
     have none when you do a `a'.

`gnus-confirm-mail-reply-to-news'
     If non-`nil', Gnus will ask you for a confirmation when you are
     about to reply to news articles by mail.  If it is `nil', nothing
     interferes in what you want to do.  This can also be a function
     receiving the group name as the only parameter which should return
     non-`nil' if a confirmation is needed, or a regular expression
     matching group names, where confirmation should be asked for.

     If you find yourself never wanting to reply to mail, but
     occasionally press `R' anyway, this variable might be for you.

`gnus-confirm-treat-mail-like-news'
     If non-`nil', Gnus also requests confirmation according to
     `gnus-confirm-mail-reply-to-news' when replying to mail.  This is
     useful for treating mailing lists like newsgroups.


File: gnus,  Node: Posting Server,  Next: POP before SMTP,  Prev: Mail,  Up: Composing Messages

5.2 Posting Server
==================

When you press those magical `C-c C-c' keys to ship off your latest
(extremely intelligent, of course) article, where does it go?

   Thank you for asking.  I hate you.

   It can be quite complicated.

   When posting news, Message usually invokes `message-send-news'
(*note News Variables: (message)News Variables.).  Normally, Gnus will
post using the same select method as you're reading from (which might
be convenient if you're reading lots of groups from different private
servers).  However.  If the server you're reading from doesn't allow
posting, just reading, you probably want to use some other server to
post your (extremely intelligent and fabulously interesting) articles.
You can then set the `gnus-post-method' to some other method:

     (setq gnus-post-method '(nnspool ""))

   Now, if you've done this, and then this server rejects your article,
or this server is down, what do you do then?  To override this variable
you can use a non-zero prefix to the `C-c C-c' command to force using
the "current" server, to get back the default behavior, for posting.

   If you give a zero prefix (i.e., `C-u 0 C-c C-c') to that command,
Gnus will prompt you for what method to use for posting.

   You can also set `gnus-post-method' to a list of select methods.  If
that's the case, Gnus will always prompt you for what method to use for
posting.

   Finally, if you want to always post using the native select method,
you can set this variable to `native'.

   When sending mail, Message invokes the function specified by the
variable `message-send-mail-function'.  Gnus tries to set it to a value
suitable for your system.  *Note Mail Variables: (message)Mail
Variables, for more information.

File: gnus,  Node: POP before SMTP,  Next: Mail and Post,  Prev: Posting Server,  Up: Composing Messages

5.3 POP before SMTP
===================

Does your ISP require the POP-before-SMTP authentication?  It is
whether you need to connect to the POP mail server within a certain
time before sending mails.  If so, there is a convenient way.  To do
that, put the following lines in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (setq message-send-mail-function 'message-smtpmail-send-it)
     (add-hook 'message-send-mail-hook 'mail-source-touch-pop)

It means to let Gnus connect to the POP mail server in advance whenever
you send a mail.  The `mail-source-touch-pop' function does only a POP
authentication according to the value of `mail-sources' without
fetching mails, just before sending a mail.  Note that you have to use
`message-smtpmail-send-it' which runs `message-send-mail-hook' rather
than `smtpmail-send-it' and set the value of `mail-sources' for a POP
connection correctly.  *Note Mail Sources::.

   If you have two or more POP mail servers set in `mail-sources', you
may want to specify one of them to `mail-source-primary-source' as the
POP mail server to be used for the POP-before-SMTP authentication.  If
it is your primary POP mail server (i.e., you are fetching mails mainly
from that server), you can set it permanently as follows:

     (setq mail-source-primary-source
           '(pop :server "pop3.mail.server"
                 :password "secret"))

Otherwise, bind it dynamically only when performing the POP-before-SMTP
authentication as follows:

     (add-hook 'message-send-mail-hook
               (lambda ()
                 (let ((mail-source-primary-source
                        '(pop :server "pop3.mail.server"
                              :password "secret")))
                   (mail-source-touch-pop))))

File: gnus,  Node: Mail and Post,  Next: Archived Messages,  Prev: POP before SMTP,  Up: Composing Messages

5.4 Mail and Post
=================

Here's a list of variables relevant to both mailing and posting:

`gnus-mailing-list-groups'
     If your news server offers groups that are really mailing lists
     gatewayed to the NNTP server, you can read those groups without
     problems, but you can't post/followup to them without some
     difficulty.  One solution is to add a `to-address' to the group
     parameters (*note Group Parameters::).  An easier thing to do is
     set the `gnus-mailing-list-groups' to a regexp that matches the
     groups that really are mailing lists.  Then, at least, followups
     to the mailing lists will work most of the time.  Posting to these
     groups (`a') is still a pain, though.

`gnus-user-agent'
     This variable controls which information should be exposed in the
     User-Agent header.  It can be a list of symbols or a string.  Valid
     symbols are `gnus' (show Gnus version) and `emacs' (show Emacs
     version).  In addition to the Emacs version, you can add `codename'
     (show (S)XEmacs codename) or either `config' (show system
     configuration) or `type' (show system type).  If you set it to a
     string, be sure to use a valid format, see RFC 2616.


   You may want to do spell-checking on messages that you send out.
Or, if you don't want to spell-check by hand, you could add automatic
spell-checking via the `ispell' package:

     (add-hook 'message-send-hook 'ispell-message)

   If you want to change the `ispell' dictionary based on what group
you're in, you could say something like the following:

     (add-hook 'gnus-select-group-hook
               (lambda ()
                 (cond
                  ((string-match
                    "^de\\." (gnus-group-real-name gnus-newsgroup-name))
                   (ispell-change-dictionary "deutsch"))
                  (t
                   (ispell-change-dictionary "english")))))

   Modify to suit your needs.

   If `gnus-message-highlight-citation' is t, different levels of
citations are highlighted like in Gnus article buffers also in message
mode buffers.

File: gnus,  Node: Archived Messages,  Next: Posting Styles,  Prev: Mail and Post,  Up: Composing Messages

5.5 Archived Messages
=====================

Gnus provides a few different methods for storing the mail and news you
send.  The default method is to use the "archive virtual server" to
store the messages.  If you want to disable this completely, the
`gnus-message-archive-group' variable should be `nil', which is the
default.

   For archiving interesting messages in a group you read, see the `B
c' (`gnus-summary-copy-article') command (*note Mail Group Commands::).

   `gnus-message-archive-method' says what virtual server Gnus is to
use to store sent messages.  The default is `"archive"', and when
actually being used it is expanded into:

     (nnfolder "archive"
               (nnfolder-directory   "~/Mail/archive")
               (nnfolder-active-file "~/Mail/archive/active")
               (nnfolder-get-new-mail nil)
               (nnfolder-inhibit-expiry t))

     Note: a server like this is saved in the `~/.newsrc.eld' file first
     so that it may be used as a real method of the server which is
     named `"archive"' (that is, for the case where
     `gnus-message-archive-method' is set to `"archive"') ever since.
     If it once has been saved, it will never be updated by default
     even if you change the value of `gnus-message-archive-method'
     afterward.  Therefore, the server `"archive"' doesn't necessarily
     mean the `nnfolder' server like this at all times.  If you want the
     saved method to reflect always the value of
     `gnus-message-archive-method', set the
     `gnus-update-message-archive-method' variable to a non-`nil'
     value.  The default value of this variable is `nil'.

   You can, however, use any mail select method (`nnml', `nnmbox',
etc.).  `nnfolder' is a quite likable select method for doing this sort
of thing, though.  If you don't like the default directory chosen, you
could say something like:

     (setq gnus-message-archive-method
           '(nnfolder "archive"
                      (nnfolder-inhibit-expiry t)
                      (nnfolder-active-file "~/News/sent-mail/active")
                      (nnfolder-directory "~/News/sent-mail/")))

   Gnus will insert `Gcc' headers in all outgoing messages that point
to one or more group(s) on that server.  Which group to use is
determined by the `gnus-message-archive-group' variable.

   This variable can be used to do the following:

a string
     Messages will be saved in that group.

     Note that you can include a select method in the group name, then
     the message will not be stored in the select method given by
     `gnus-message-archive-method', but in the select method specified
     by the group name, instead.  Suppose `gnus-message-archive-method'
     has the default value shown above.  Then setting
     `gnus-message-archive-group' to `"foo"' means that outgoing
     messages are stored in `nnfolder+archive:foo', but if you use the
     value `"nnml:foo"', then outgoing messages will be stored in
     `nnml:foo'.

a list of strings
     Messages will be saved in all those groups.

an alist of regexps, functions and forms
     When a key "matches", the result is used.

`nil'
     No message archiving will take place.  This is the default.

   Let's illustrate:

   Just saving to a single group called `MisK':
     (setq gnus-message-archive-group "MisK")

   Saving to two groups, `MisK' and `safe':
     (setq gnus-message-archive-group '("MisK" "safe"))

   Save to different groups based on what group you are in:
     (setq gnus-message-archive-group
           '(("^alt" "sent-to-alt")
             ("mail" "sent-to-mail")
             (".*" "sent-to-misc")))

   More complex stuff:
     (setq gnus-message-archive-group
           '((if (message-news-p)
                 "misc-news"
               "misc-mail")))

   How about storing all news messages in one file, but storing all mail
messages in one file per month:

     (setq gnus-message-archive-group
           '((if (message-news-p)
                 "misc-news"
               (concat "mail." (format-time-string "%Y-%m")))))

   Now, when you send a message off, it will be stored in the
appropriate group.  (If you want to disable storing for just one
particular message, you can just remove the `Gcc' header that has been
inserted.)  The archive group will appear in the group buffer the next
time you start Gnus, or the next time you press `F' in the group
buffer.  You can enter it and read the articles in it just like you'd
read any other group.  If the group gets really big and annoying, you
can simply rename if (using `G r' in the group buffer) to something
nice--`misc-mail-september-1995', or whatever.  New messages will
continue to be stored in the old (now empty) group.

   That's the default method of archiving sent messages.  Gnus offers a
different way for the people who don't like the default method.  In that
case you should set `gnus-message-archive-group' to `nil'; this will
disable archiving.

`gnus-outgoing-message-group'
     All outgoing messages will be put in this group.  If you want to
     store all your outgoing mail and articles in the group
     `nnml:archive', you set this variable to that value.  This
     variable can also be a list of group names.

     If you want to have greater control over what group to put each
     message in, you can set this variable to a function that checks the
     current newsgroup name and then returns a suitable group name (or
     list of names).

     This variable can be used instead of `gnus-message-archive-group',
     but the latter is the preferred method.

`gnus-gcc-mark-as-read'
     If non-`nil', automatically mark `Gcc' articles as read.

`gnus-gcc-externalize-attachments'
     If `nil', attach files as normal parts in Gcc copies; if a regexp
     and matches the Gcc group name, attach files as external parts; if
     it is `all', attach local files as external parts; if it is other
     non-`nil', the behavior is the same as `all', but it may be
     changed in the future.


File: gnus,  Node: Posting Styles,  Next: Drafts,  Prev: Archived Messages,  Up: Composing Messages

5.6 Posting Styles
==================

All them variables, they make my head swim.

   So what if you want a different `Organization' and signature based
on what groups you post to?  And you post both from your home machine
and your work machine, and you want different `From' lines, and so on?

   One way to do stuff like that is to write clever hooks that change
the variables you need to have changed.  That's a bit boring, so
somebody came up with the bright idea of letting the user specify these
things in a handy alist.  Here's an example of a `gnus-posting-styles'
variable:

     ((".*"
       (signature "Peace and happiness")
       (organization "What me?"))
      ("^comp"
       (signature "Death to everybody"))
      ("comp.emacs.i-love-it"
       (organization "Emacs is it")))

   As you might surmise from this example, this alist consists of
several "styles".  Each style will be applicable if the first element
"matches", in some form or other.  The entire alist will be iterated
over, from the beginning towards the end, and each match will be
applied, which means that attributes in later styles that match override
the same attributes in earlier matching styles.  So
`comp.programming.literate' will have the `Death to everybody'
signature and the `What me?' `Organization' header.

   The first element in each style is called the `match'.  If it's a
string, then Gnus will try to regexp match it against the group name.
If it is the form `(header MATCH REGEXP)', then Gnus will look in the
original article for a header whose name is MATCH and compare that
REGEXP.  MATCH and REGEXP are strings.  (The original article is the
one you are replying or following up to.  If you are not composing a
reply or a followup, then there is nothing to match against.)  If the
`match' is a function symbol, that function will be called with no
arguments.  If it's a variable symbol, then the variable will be
referenced.  If it's a list, then that list will be `eval'ed.  In any
case, if this returns a non-`nil' value, then the style is said to
"match".

   Each style may contain an arbitrary amount of "attributes".  Each
attribute consists of a `(NAME VALUE)' pair.  In addition, you can also
use the `(NAME :file VALUE)' form or the `(NAME :value VALUE)' form.
Where `:file' signifies VALUE represents a file name and its contents
should be used as the attribute value, `:value' signifies VALUE does
not represent a file name explicitly.  The attribute name can be one of:

   * `signature'

   * `signature-file'

   * `x-face-file'

   * `address', overriding `user-mail-address'

   * `name', overriding `(user-full-name)'

   * `body'

   Note that the `signature-file' attribute honors the variable
`message-signature-directory'.

   The attribute name can also be a string or a symbol.  In that case,
this will be used as a header name, and the value will be inserted in
the headers of the article; if the value is `nil', the header name will
be removed.  If the attribute name is `eval', the form is evaluated,
and the result is thrown away.

   The attribute value can be a string (used verbatim), a function with
zero arguments (the return value will be used), a variable (its value
will be used) or a list (it will be `eval'ed and the return value will
be used).  The functions and sexps are called/`eval'ed in the message
buffer that is being set up.  The headers of the current article are
available through the `message-reply-headers' variable, which is a
vector of the following headers: number subject from date id references
chars lines xref extra.

   If you wish to check whether the message you are about to compose is
meant to be a news article or a mail message, you can check the values
of the `message-news-p' and `message-mail-p' functions.

   So here's a new example:

     (setq gnus-posting-styles
           '((".*"
              (signature-file "~/.signature")
              (name "User Name")
              (x-face-file "~/.xface")
              (x-url (getenv "WWW_HOME"))
              (organization "People's Front Against MWM"))
             ("^rec.humor"
              (signature my-funny-signature-randomizer))
             ((equal (system-name) "gnarly")  ;; A form
              (signature my-quote-randomizer))
             (message-news-p        ;; A function symbol
              (signature my-news-signature))
             (window-system         ;; A value symbol
              ("X-Window-System" (format "%s" window-system)))
             ;; If I'm replying to Larsi, set the Organization header.
             ((header "from" "larsi.*org")
              (Organization "Somewhere, Inc."))
             ((posting-from-work-p) ;; A user defined function
              (signature-file "~/.work-signature")
              (address "userATbar.foo")
              (body "You are fired.\n\nSincerely, your boss.")
              (organization "Important Work, Inc"))
             ("nnml:.*"
              (From (save-excursion
                      (set-buffer gnus-article-buffer)
                      (message-fetch-field "to"))))
             ("^nn.+:"
              (signature-file "~/.mail-signature"))))

   The `nnml:.*' rule means that you use the `To' address as the `From'
address in all your outgoing replies, which might be handy if you fill
many roles.  You may also use `message-alternative-emails' instead.
*Note Message Headers: (message)Message Headers.

File: gnus,  Node: Drafts,  Next: Rejected Articles,  Prev: Posting Styles,  Up: Composing Messages

5.7 Drafts
==========

If you are writing a message (mail or news) and suddenly remember that
you have a steak in the oven (or some pesto in the food processor, you
craaazy vegetarians), you'll probably wish there was a method to save
the message you are writing so that you can continue editing it some
other day, and send it when you feel its finished.

   Well, don't worry about it.  Whenever you start composing a message
of some sort using the Gnus mail and post commands, the buffer you get
will automatically associate to an article in a special "draft" group.
If you save the buffer the normal way (`C-x C-s', for instance), the
article will be saved there.  (Auto-save files also go to the draft
group.)

   The draft group is a special group (which is implemented as an
`nndraft' group, if you absolutely have to know) called
`nndraft:drafts'.  The variable `nndraft-directory' says where
`nndraft' is to store its files.  What makes this group special is that
you can't tick any articles in it or mark any articles as read--all
articles in the group are permanently unread.

   If the group doesn't exist, it will be created and you'll be
subscribed to it.  The only way to make it disappear from the Group
buffer is to unsubscribe it.  The special properties of the draft group
comes from a group property (*note Group Parameters::), and if lost the
group behaves like any other group.  This means the commands below will
not be available.  To restore the special properties of the group, the
simplest way is to kill the group, using `C-k', and restart Gnus.  The
group is automatically created again with the correct parameters.  The
content of the group is not lost.

   When you want to continue editing the article, you simply enter the
draft group and push `D e' (`gnus-draft-edit-message') to do that.  You
will be placed in a buffer where you left off.

   Rejected articles will also be put in this draft group (*note
Rejected Articles::).

   If you have lots of rejected messages you want to post (or mail)
without doing further editing, you can use the `D s' command
(`gnus-draft-send-message').  This command understands the
process/prefix convention (*note Process/Prefix::).  The `D S' command
(`gnus-draft-send-all-messages') will ship off all messages in the
buffer.

   If you have some messages that you wish not to send, you can use the
`D t' (`gnus-draft-toggle-sending') command to mark the message as
unsendable.  This is a toggling command.

File: gnus,  Node: Rejected Articles,  Next: Signing and encrypting,  Prev: Drafts,  Up: Composing Messages

5.8 Rejected Articles
=====================

Sometimes a news server will reject an article.  Perhaps the server
doesn't like your face.  Perhaps it just feels miserable.  Perhaps
_there be demons_.  Perhaps you have included too much cited text.
Perhaps the disk is full.  Perhaps the server is down.

   These situations are, of course, totally beyond the control of Gnus.
(Gnus, of course, loves the way you look, always feels great, has angels
fluttering around inside of it, doesn't care about how much cited text
you include, never runs full and never goes down.)  So Gnus saves these
articles until some later time when the server feels better.

   The rejected articles will automatically be put in a special draft
group (*note Drafts::).  When the server comes back up again, you'd then
typically enter that group and send all the articles off.

File: gnus,  Node: Signing and encrypting,  Prev: Rejected Articles,  Up: Composing Messages

5.9 Signing and encrypting
==========================

Gnus can digitally sign and encrypt your messages, using vanilla PGP
format or PGP/MIME or S/MIME.  For decoding such messages, see the
`mm-verify-option' and `mm-decrypt-option' options (*note Security::).

   Often, you would like to sign replies to people who send you signed
messages.  Even more often, you might want to encrypt messages which
are in reply to encrypted messages.  Gnus offers
`gnus-message-replysign' to enable the former, and
`gnus-message-replyencrypt' for the latter.  In addition, setting
`gnus-message-replysignencrypted' (on by default) will sign
automatically encrypted messages.

   Instructing MML to perform security operations on a MIME part is
done using the `C-c C-m s' key map for signing and the `C-c C-m c' key
map for encryption, as follows.

`C-c C-m s s'
     Digitally sign current message using S/MIME.

`C-c C-m s o'
     Digitally sign current message using PGP.

`C-c C-m s p'
     Digitally sign current message using PGP/MIME.

`C-c C-m c s'
     Digitally encrypt current message using S/MIME.

`C-c C-m c o'
     Digitally encrypt current message using PGP.

`C-c C-m c p'
     Digitally encrypt current message using PGP/MIME.

`C-c C-m C-n'
     Remove security related MML tags from message.


   *Note Security: (message)Security, for more information.

File: gnus,  Node: Select Methods,  Next: Scoring,  Prev: Composing Messages,  Up: Top

6 Select Methods
****************

A "foreign group" is a group not read by the usual (or default) means.
It could be, for instance, a group from a different NNTP server, it
could be a virtual group, or it could be your own personal mail group.

   A foreign group (or any group, really) is specified by a "name" and
a "select method".  To take the latter first, a select method is a list
where the first element says what back end to use (e.g. `nntp',
`nnspool', `nnml') and the second element is the "server name".  There
may be additional elements in the select method, where the value may
have special meaning for the back end in question.

   One could say that a select method defines a "virtual server"--so we
do just that (*note Server Buffer::).

   The "name" of the group is the name the back end will recognize the
group as.

   For instance, the group `soc.motss' on the NNTP server
`some.where.edu' will have the name `soc.motss' and select method
`(nntp "some.where.edu")'.  Gnus will call this group
`nntp+some.where.edu:soc.motss', even though the `nntp' back end just
knows this group as `soc.motss'.

   The different methods all have their peculiarities, of course.

* Menu:

* Server Buffer::               Making and editing virtual servers.
* Getting News::                Reading USENET news with Gnus.
* Getting Mail::                Reading your personal mail with Gnus.
* Browsing the Web::            Getting messages from a plethora of Web sources.
* IMAP::                        Using Gnus as a IMAP client.
* Other Sources::               Reading directories, files, SOUP packets.
* Combined Groups::             Combining groups into one group.
* Email Based Diary::           Using mails to manage diary events in Gnus.
* Gnus Unplugged::              Reading news and mail offline.

File: gnus,  Node: Server Buffer,  Next: Getting News,  Up: Select Methods

6.1 Server Buffer
=================

Traditionally, a "server" is a machine or a piece of software that one
connects to, and then requests information from.  Gnus does not connect
directly to any real servers, but does all transactions through one
back end or other.  But that's just putting one layer more between the
actual media and Gnus, so we might just as well say that each back end
represents a virtual server.

   For instance, the `nntp' back end may be used to connect to several
different actual NNTP servers, or, perhaps, to many different ports on
the same actual NNTP server.  You tell Gnus which back end to use, and
what parameters to set by specifying a "select method".

   These select method specifications can sometimes become quite
complicated--say, for instance, that you want to read from the NNTP
server `news.funet.fi' on port number 13, which hangs if queried for
NOV headers and has a buggy select.  Ahem.  Anyway, if you had to
specify that for each group that used this server, that would be too
much work, so Gnus offers a way of naming select methods, which is what
you do in the server buffer.

   To enter the server buffer, use the `^'
(`gnus-group-enter-server-mode') command in the group buffer.

* Menu:

* Server Buffer Format::        You can customize the look of this buffer.
* Server Commands::             Commands to manipulate servers.
* Example Methods::             Examples server specifications.
* Creating a Virtual Server::   An example session.
* Server Variables::            Which variables to set.
* Servers and Methods::         You can use server names as select methods.
* Unavailable Servers::         Some servers you try to contact may be down.

   `gnus-server-mode-hook' is run when creating the server buffer.

File: gnus,  Node: Server Buffer Format,  Next: Server Commands,  Up: Server Buffer

6.1.1 Server Buffer Format
--------------------------

You can change the look of the server buffer lines by changing the
`gnus-server-line-format' variable.  This is a `format'-like variable,
with some simple extensions:

`h'
     How the news is fetched--the back end name.

`n'
     The name of this server.

`w'
     Where the news is to be fetched from--the address.

`s'
     The opened/closed/denied status of the server.

`a'
     Whether this server is agentized.

   The mode line can also be customized by using the
`gnus-server-mode-line-format' variable (*note Mode Line Formatting::).
The following specs are understood:

`S'
     Server name.

`M'
     Server method.

   Also *note Formatting Variables::.

File: gnus,  Node: Server Commands,  Next: Example Methods,  Prev: Server Buffer Format,  Up: Server Buffer

6.1.2 Server Commands
---------------------

`v'
     The key `v' is reserved for users.  You can bind it to some
     command or better use it as a prefix key.

`a'
     Add a new server (`gnus-server-add-server').

`e'
     Edit a server (`gnus-server-edit-server').

`SPACE'
     Browse the current server (`gnus-server-read-server').

`q'
     Return to the group buffer (`gnus-server-exit').

`k'
     Kill the current server (`gnus-server-kill-server').

`y'
     Yank the previously killed server (`gnus-server-yank-server').

`c'
     Copy the current server (`gnus-server-copy-server').

`l'
     List all servers (`gnus-server-list-servers').

`s'
     Request that the server scan its sources for new articles
     (`gnus-server-scan-server').  This is mainly sensible with mail
     servers.

`g'
     Request that the server regenerate all its data structures
     (`gnus-server-regenerate-server').  This can be useful if you have
     a mail back end that has gotten out of sync.

`z'
     Compact all groups in the server under point
     (`gnus-server-compact-server').  Currently implemented only in
     nnml (*note Mail Spool::).  This removes gaps between article
     numbers, hence getting a correct total article count.


File: gnus,  Node: Example Methods,  Next: Creating a Virtual Server,  Prev: Server Commands,  Up: Server Buffer

6.1.3 Example Methods
---------------------

Most select methods are pretty simple and self-explanatory:

     (nntp "news.funet.fi")

   Reading directly from the spool is even simpler:

     (nnspool "")

   As you can see, the first element in a select method is the name of
the back end, and the second is the "address", or "name", if you will.

   After these two elements, there may be an arbitrary number of
`(VARIABLE FORM)' pairs.

   To go back to the first example--imagine that you want to read from
port 15 on that machine.  This is what the select method should look
like then:

     (nntp "news.funet.fi" (nntp-port-number 15))

   You should read the documentation to each back end to find out what
variables are relevant, but here's an `nnmh' example:

   `nnmh' is a mail back end that reads a spool-like structure.  Say
you have two structures that you wish to access: One is your private
mail spool, and the other is a public one.  Here's the possible spec for
your private mail:

     (nnmh "private" (nnmh-directory "~/private/mail/"))

   (This server is then called `private', but you may have guessed
that.)

   Here's the method for a public spool:

     (nnmh "public"
           (nnmh-directory "/usr/information/spool/")
           (nnmh-get-new-mail nil))

   If you are behind a firewall and only have access to the NNTP server
from the firewall machine, you can instruct Gnus to `rlogin' on the
firewall machine and connect with netcat
(http://netcat.sourceforge.net/) from there to the NNTP server.  Doing
this can be rather fiddly, but your virtual server definition should
probably look something like this:

     (nntp "firewall"
           (nntp-open-connection-function nntp-open-via-rlogin-and-netcat)
           (nntp-via-address "the.firewall.machine")
           (nntp-address "the.real.nntp.host"))

   If you want to use the wonderful `ssh' program to provide a
compressed connection over the modem line, you could add the following
configuration to the example above:

           (nntp-via-rlogin-command "ssh")

   See also `nntp-via-rlogin-command-switches'.  Here's an example for
an indirect connection:

     (setq gnus-select-method
           '(nntp "indirect"
                  (nntp-address "news.server.example")
                  (nntp-via-user-name "intermediate_user_name")
                  (nntp-via-address "intermediate.host.example")
                  (nntp-via-rlogin-command "ssh")
                  (nntp-via-rlogin-command-switches ("-C"))
                  (nntp-open-connection-function nntp-open-via-rlogin-and-netcat)))

   This means that you have to have set up `ssh-agent' correctly to
provide automatic authorization, of course.

   If you're behind a firewall, but have direct access to the outside
world through a wrapper command like "runsocks", you could open a
socksified netcat connection to the news server as follows:

     (nntp "outside"
           (nntp-pre-command "runsocks")
           (nntp-open-connection-function nntp-open-netcat-stream)
           (nntp-address "the.news.server"))

File: gnus,  Node: Creating a Virtual Server,  Next: Server Variables,  Prev: Example Methods,  Up: Server Buffer

6.1.4 Creating a Virtual Server
-------------------------------

If you're saving lots of articles in the cache by using persistent
articles, you may want to create a virtual server to read the cache.

   First you need to add a new server.  The `a' command does that.  It
would probably be best to use `nnml' to read the cache.  You could also
use `nnspool' or `nnmh', though.

   Type `a nnml RET cache RET'.

   You should now have a brand new `nnml' virtual server called
`cache'.  You now need to edit it to have the right definitions.  Type
`e' to edit the server.  You'll be entered into a buffer that will
contain the following:

     (nnml "cache")

   Change that to:

     (nnml "cache"
              (nnml-directory "~/News/cache/")
              (nnml-active-file "~/News/cache/active"))

   Type `C-c C-c' to return to the server buffer.  If you now press
`RET' over this virtual server, you should be entered into a browse
buffer, and you should be able to enter any of the groups displayed.

File: gnus,  Node: Server Variables,  Next: Servers and Methods,  Prev: Creating a Virtual Server,  Up: Server Buffer

6.1.5 Server Variables
----------------------

One sticky point when defining variables (both on back ends and in Emacs
in general) is that some variables are typically initialized from other
variables when the definition of the variables is being loaded.  If you
change the "base" variable after the variables have been loaded, you
won't change the "derived" variables.

   This typically affects directory and file variables.  For instance,
`nnml-directory' is `~/Mail/' by default, and all `nnml' directory
variables are initialized from that variable, so `nnml-active-file'
will be `~/Mail/active'.  If you define a new virtual `nnml' server, it
will _not_ suffice to set just `nnml-directory'--you have to explicitly
set all the file variables to be what you want them to be.  For a
complete list of variables for each back end, see each back end's
section later in this manual, but here's an example `nnml' definition:

     (nnml "public"
           (nnml-directory "~/my-mail/")
           (nnml-active-file "~/my-mail/active")
           (nnml-newsgroups-file "~/my-mail/newsgroups"))

   Server variables are often called "server parameters".

File: gnus,  Node: Servers and Methods,  Next: Unavailable Servers,  Prev: Server Variables,  Up: Server Buffer

6.1.6 Servers and Methods
-------------------------

Wherever you would normally use a select method (e.g.
`gnus-secondary-select-method', in the group select method, when
browsing a foreign server) you can use a virtual server name instead.
This could potentially save lots of typing.  And it's nice all over.

File: gnus,  Node: Unavailable Servers,  Prev: Servers and Methods,  Up: Server Buffer

6.1.7 Unavailable Servers
-------------------------

If a server seems to be unreachable, Gnus will mark that server as
`denied'.  That means that any subsequent attempt to make contact with
that server will just be ignored.  "It can't be opened," Gnus will tell
you, without making the least effort to see whether that is actually
the case or not.

   That might seem quite naughty, but it does make sense most of the
time.  Let's say you have 10 groups subscribed to on server
`nephelococcygia.com'.  This server is located somewhere quite far away
from you and the machine is quite slow, so it takes 1 minute just to
find out that it refuses connection to you today.  If Gnus were to
attempt to do that 10 times, you'd be quite annoyed, so Gnus won't
attempt to do that.  Once it has gotten a single "connection refused",
it will regard that server as "down".

   So, what happens if the machine was only feeling unwell temporarily?
How do you test to see whether the machine has come up again?

   You jump to the server buffer (*note Server Buffer::) and poke it
with the following commands:

`O'
     Try to establish connection to the server on the current line
     (`gnus-server-open-server').

`C'
     Close the connection (if any) to the server
     (`gnus-server-close-server').

`D'
     Mark the current server as unreachable (`gnus-server-deny-server').

`M-o'
     Open the connections to all servers in the buffer
     (`gnus-server-open-all-servers').

`M-c'
     Close the connections to all servers in the buffer
     (`gnus-server-close-all-servers').

`R'
     Remove all marks to whether Gnus was denied connection from any
     servers (`gnus-server-remove-denials').

`L'
     Set server status to offline (`gnus-server-offline-server').


File: gnus,  Node: Getting News,  Next: Getting Mail,  Prev: Server Buffer,  Up: Select Methods

6.2 Getting News
================

A newsreader is normally used for reading news.  Gnus currently provides
only two methods of getting news--it can read from an NNTP server, or
it can read from a local spool.

* Menu:

* NNTP::                        Reading news from an NNTP server.
* News Spool::                  Reading news from the local spool.

File: gnus,  Node: NNTP,  Next: News Spool,  Up: Getting News

6.2.1 NNTP
----------

Subscribing to a foreign group from an NNTP server is rather easy.  You
just specify `nntp' as method and the address of the NNTP server as
the, uhm, address.

   If the NNTP server is located at a non-standard port, setting the
third element of the select method to this port number should allow you
to connect to the right port.  You'll have to edit the group info for
that (*note Foreign Groups::).

   The name of the foreign group can be the same as a native group.  In
fact, you can subscribe to the same group from as many different servers
you feel like.  There will be no name collisions.

   The following variables can be used to create a virtual `nntp'
server:

`nntp-server-opened-hook'
     is run after a connection has been made.  It can be used to send
     commands to the NNTP server after it has been contacted.  By
     default it sends the command `MODE READER' to the server with the
     `nntp-send-mode-reader' function.  This function should always be
     present in this hook.

`nntp-authinfo-function'
     This function will be used to send `AUTHINFO' to the NNTP server.
     The default function is `nntp-send-authinfo', which looks through
     your `~/.authinfo' (or whatever you've set the
     `nntp-authinfo-file' variable to) for applicable entries.  If none
     are found, it will prompt you for a login name and a password.  The
     format of the `~/.authinfo' file is (almost) the same as the `ftp'
     `~/.netrc' file, which is defined in the `ftp' manual page, but
     here are the salient facts:

       1. The file contains one or more line, each of which define one
          server.

       2. Each line may contain an arbitrary number of token/value
          pairs.

          The valid tokens include `machine', `login', `password',
          `default'.  In addition Gnus introduces two new tokens, not
          present in the original `.netrc'/`ftp' syntax, namely `port'
          and `force'.  (This is the only way the `.authinfo' file
          format deviates from the `.netrc' file format.)  `port' is
          used to indicate what port on the server the credentials
          apply to and `force' is explained below.


     Here's an example file:

          machine news.uio.no login larsi password geheimnis
          machine nntp.ifi.uio.no login larsi force yes

     The token/value pairs may appear in any order; `machine' doesn't
     have to be first, for instance.

     In this example, both login name and password have been supplied
     for the former server, while the latter has only the login name
     listed, and the user will be prompted for the password.  The
     latter also has the `force' tag, which means that the authinfo
     will be sent to the NNTP server upon connection; the default
     (i.e., when there is not `force' tag) is to not send authinfo to
     the NNTP server until the NNTP server asks for it.

     You can also add `default' lines that will apply to all servers
     that don't have matching `machine' lines.

          default force yes

     This will force sending `AUTHINFO' commands to all servers not
     previously mentioned.

     Remember to not leave the `~/.authinfo' file world-readable.

`nntp-server-action-alist'
     This is a list of regexps to match on server types and actions to
     be taken when matches are made.  For instance, if you want Gnus to
     beep every time you connect to innd, you could say something like:

          (setq nntp-server-action-alist
                '(("innd" (ding))))

     You probably don't want to do that, though.

     The default value is

          '(("nntpd 1\\.5\\.11t"
             (remove-hook 'nntp-server-opened-hook
                          'nntp-send-mode-reader)))

     This ensures that Gnus doesn't send the `MODE READER' command to
     nntpd 1.5.11t, since that command chokes that server, I've been
     told.

`nntp-maximum-request'
     If the NNTP server doesn't support NOV headers, this back end will
     collect headers by sending a series of `head' commands.  To speed
     things up, the back end sends lots of these commands without
     waiting for reply, and then reads all the replies.  This is
     controlled by the `nntp-maximum-request' variable, and is 400 by
     default.  If your network is buggy, you should set this to 1.

`nntp-connection-timeout'
     If you have lots of foreign `nntp' groups that you connect to
     regularly, you're sure to have problems with NNTP servers not
     responding properly, or being too loaded to reply within reasonable
     time.  This is can lead to awkward problems, which can be helped
     somewhat by setting `nntp-connection-timeout'.  This is an integer
     that says how many seconds the `nntp' back end should wait for a
     connection before giving up.  If it is `nil', which is the default,
     no timeouts are done.

`nntp-nov-is-evil'
     If the NNTP server does not support NOV, you could set this
     variable to `t', but `nntp' usually checks automatically whether
     NOV can be used.

`nntp-xover-commands'
     List of strings used as commands to fetch NOV lines from a server.
     The default value of this variable is `("XOVER" "XOVERVIEW")'.

`nntp-nov-gap'
     `nntp' normally sends just one big request for NOV lines to the
     server.  The server responds with one huge list of lines.  However,
     if you have read articles 2-5000 in the group, and only want to
     read article 1 and 5001, that means that `nntp' will fetch 4999 NOV
     lines that you will not need.  This variable says how big a gap
     between two consecutive articles is allowed to be before the
     `XOVER' request is split into several request.  Note that if your
     network is fast, setting this variable to a really small number
     means that fetching will probably be slower.  If this variable is
     `nil', `nntp' will never split requests.  The default is 5.

`nntp-xref-number-is-evil'
     When Gnus refers to an article having the `Message-ID' that a user
     specifies or having the `Message-ID' of the parent article of the
     current one (*note Finding the Parent::), Gnus sends a `HEAD'
     command to the NNTP server to know where it is, and the server
     returns the data containing the pairs of a group and an article
     number in the `Xref' header.  Gnus normally uses the article
     number to refer to the article if the data shows that that article
     is in the current group, while it uses the `Message-ID' otherwise.
     However, some news servers, e.g., ones running Diablo, run
     multiple engines having the same articles but article numbers are
     not kept synchronized between them.  In that case, the article
     number that appears in the `Xref' header varies by which engine is
     chosen, so you cannot refer to the parent article that is in the
     current group, for instance.  If you connect to such a server, set
     this variable to a non-`nil' value, and Gnus never uses article
     numbers.  For example:

          (setq gnus-select-method
                '(nntp "newszilla"
                       (nntp-address "newszilla.example.com")
                       (nntp-xref-number-is-evil t)
                       ...))

     The default value of this server variable is `nil'.

`nntp-prepare-server-hook'
     A hook run before attempting to connect to an NNTP server.

`nntp-record-commands'
     If non-`nil', `nntp' will log all commands it sends to the NNTP
     server (along with a timestamp) in the `*nntp-log*' buffer.  This
     is useful if you are debugging a Gnus/NNTP connection that doesn't
     seem to work.

`nntp-open-connection-function'
     It is possible to customize how the connection to the nntp server
     will be opened.  If you specify an `nntp-open-connection-function'
     parameter, Gnus will use that function to establish the connection.
     Seven pre-made functions are supplied.  These functions can be
     grouped in two categories: direct connection functions (four
     pre-made), and indirect ones (three pre-made).

`nntp-never-echoes-commands'
     Non-`nil' means the nntp server never echoes commands.  It is
     reported that some nntps server doesn't echo commands.  So, you
     may want to set this to non-`nil' in the method for such a server
     setting `nntp-open-connection-function' to `nntp-open-ssl-stream'
     for example.  The default value is `nil'.  Note that the
     `nntp-open-connection-functions-never-echo-commands' variable
     overrides the `nil' value of this variable.

`nntp-open-connection-functions-never-echo-commands'
     List of functions that never echo commands.  Add or set a function
     which you set to `nntp-open-connection-function' to this list if
     it does not echo commands.  Note that a non-`nil' value of the
     `nntp-never-echoes-commands' variable overrides this variable.  The
     default value is `(nntp-open-network-stream)'.

`nntp-prepare-post-hook'
     A hook run just before posting an article.  If there is no
     `Message-ID' header in the article and the news server provides the
     recommended ID, it will be added to the article before running this
     hook.  It is useful to make `Cancel-Lock' headers even if you
     inhibit Gnus to add a `Message-ID' header, you could say:

          (add-hook 'nntp-prepare-post-hook 'canlock-insert-header)

     Note that not all servers support the recommended ID.  This works
     for INN versions 2.3.0 and later, for instance.


* Menu:

* Direct Functions::            Connecting directly to the server.
* Indirect Functions::          Connecting indirectly to the server.
* Common Variables::            Understood by several connection functions.
* NNTP marks::                  Storing marks for NNTP servers.

File: gnus,  Node: Direct Functions,  Next: Indirect Functions,  Up: NNTP

6.2.1.1 Direct Functions
........................

These functions are called direct because they open a direct connection
between your machine and the NNTP server.  The behavior of these
functions is also affected by commonly understood variables (*note
Common Variables::).

`nntp-open-network-stream'
     This is the default, and simply connects to some port or other on
     the remote system.

`nntp-open-tls-stream'
     Opens a connection to a server over a "secure" channel.  To use
     this you must have GNUTLS (http://www.gnu.org/software/gnutls/)
     installed.  You then define a server as follows:

          ;; "nntps" is port 563 and is predefined in our `/etc/services'
          ;; however, `gnutls-cli -p' doesn't like named ports.
          ;;
          (nntp "snews.bar.com"
                (nntp-open-connection-function nntp-open-tls-stream)
                (nntp-port-number )
                (nntp-address "snews.bar.com"))

`nntp-open-ssl-stream'
     Opens a connection to a server over a "secure" channel.  To use
     this you must have OpenSSL (http://www.openssl.org) or SSLeay
     (ftp://ftp.psy.uq.oz.au/pub/Crypto/SSL) installed.  You then
     define a server as follows:

          ;; "snews" is port 563 and is predefined in our `/etc/services'
          ;; however, `openssl s_client -port' doesn't like named ports.
          ;;
          (nntp "snews.bar.com"
                (nntp-open-connection-function nntp-open-ssl-stream)
                (nntp-port-number 563)
                (nntp-address "snews.bar.com"))

`nntp-open-netcat-stream'
     Opens a connection to an NNTP server using the `netcat' program.
     You might wonder why this function exists, since we have the
     default `nntp-open-network-stream' which would do the job.  (One
     of) the reason(s) is that if you are behind a firewall but have
     direct connections to the outside world thanks to a command
     wrapper like `runsocks', you can use it like this:

          (nntp "socksified"
                (nntp-pre-command "runsocks")
                (nntp-open-connection-function nntp-open-netcat-stream)
                (nntp-address "the.news.server"))

     With the default method, you would need to wrap your whole Emacs
     session, which is not a good idea.

`nntp-open-telnet-stream'
     Like `nntp-open-netcat-stream', but uses `telnet' rather than
     `netcat'.  `telnet' is a bit less robust because of things like
     line-end-conversion, but sometimes netcat is simply not available.
     The previous example would turn into:

          (nntp "socksified"
                (nntp-pre-command "runsocks")
                (nntp-open-connection-function nntp-open-telnet-stream)
                (nntp-address "the.news.server")
                (nntp-end-of-line "\n"))

File: gnus,  Node: Indirect Functions,  Next: Common Variables,  Prev: Direct Functions,  Up: NNTP

6.2.1.2 Indirect Functions
..........................

These functions are called indirect because they connect to an
intermediate host before actually connecting to the NNTP server.  All
of these functions and related variables are also said to belong to the
"via" family of connection: they're all prefixed with "via" to make
things cleaner.  The behavior of these functions is also affected by
commonly understood variables (*note Common Variables::).

`nntp-open-via-rlogin-and-netcat'
     Does an `rlogin' on a remote system, and then uses `netcat' to
     connect to the real NNTP server from there.  This is useful for
     instance if you need to connect to a firewall machine first.

     `nntp-open-via-rlogin-and-netcat'-specific variables:

    `nntp-via-rlogin-command'
          Command used to log in on the intermediate host.  The default
          is `rsh', but `ssh' is a popular alternative.

    `nntp-via-rlogin-command-switches'
          List of strings to be used as the switches to
          `nntp-via-rlogin-command'.  The default is `nil'.  If you use
          `ssh' for `nntp-via-rlogin-command', you may set this to
          `("-C")' in order to compress all data connections.

`nntp-open-via-rlogin-and-telnet'
     Does essentially the same, but uses `telnet' instead of `netcat'
     to connect to the real NNTP server from the intermediate host.
     `telnet' is a bit less robust because of things like
     line-end-conversion, but sometimes `netcat' is simply not
     available.

     `nntp-open-via-rlogin-and-telnet'-specific variables:

    `nntp-telnet-command'
          Command used to connect to the real NNTP server from the
          intermediate host.  The default is `telnet'.

    `nntp-telnet-switches'
          List of strings to be used as the switches to the
          `nntp-telnet-command' command.  The default is `("-8")'.

    `nntp-via-rlogin-command'
          Command used to log in on the intermediate host.  The default
          is `rsh', but `ssh' is a popular alternative.

    `nntp-via-rlogin-command-switches'
          List of strings to be used as the switches to
          `nntp-via-rlogin-command'.  If you use `ssh',  you may need
          to set this to `("-t" "-e" "none")' or `("-C" "-t" "-e"
          "none")' if the telnet command requires a pseudo-tty
          allocation on an intermediate host.  The default is `nil'.

     Note that you may want to change the value for `nntp-end-of-line'
     to `\n' (*note Common Variables::).

`nntp-open-via-telnet-and-telnet'
     Does essentially the same, but uses `telnet' instead of `rlogin'
     to connect to the intermediate host.

     `nntp-open-via-telnet-and-telnet'-specific variables:

    `nntp-via-telnet-command'
          Command used to `telnet' the intermediate host.  The default
          is `telnet'.

    `nntp-via-telnet-switches'
          List of strings to be used as the switches to the
          `nntp-via-telnet-command' command.  The default is `("-8")'.

    `nntp-via-user-password'
          Password to use when logging in on the intermediate host.

    `nntp-via-envuser'
          If non-`nil', the intermediate `telnet' session (client and
          server both) will support the `ENVIRON' option and not prompt
          for login name.  This works for Solaris `telnet', for
          instance.

    `nntp-via-shell-prompt'
          Regexp matching the shell prompt on the intermediate host.
          The default is `bash\\|\$ *\r?$\\|> *\r?'.


     Note that you may want to change the value for `nntp-end-of-line'
     to `\n' (*note Common Variables::).

   Here are some additional variables that are understood by all the
above functions:

`nntp-via-user-name'
     User name to use when connecting to the intermediate host.

`nntp-via-address'
     Address of the intermediate host to connect to.


File: gnus,  Node: Common Variables,  Next: NNTP marks,  Prev: Indirect Functions,  Up: NNTP

6.2.1.3 Common Variables
........................

The following variables affect the behavior of all, or several of the
pre-made connection functions.  When not specified, all functions are
affected (the values of the following variables will be used as the
default if each virtual `nntp' server doesn't specify those server
variables individually).

`nntp-pre-command'
     A command wrapper to use when connecting through a non native
     connection function (all except `nntp-open-network-stream',
     `nntp-open-tls-stream', and `nntp-open-ssl-stream').  This is
     where you would put a `SOCKS' wrapper for instance.

`nntp-address'
     The address of the NNTP server.

`nntp-port-number'
     Port number to connect to the NNTP server.  The default is `nntp'.
     If you use NNTP over TLS/SSL, you may want to use integer ports
     rather than named ports (i.e, use `563' instead of `snews' or
     `nntps'), because external TLS/SSL tools may not work with named
     ports.

`nntp-end-of-line'
     String to use as end-of-line marker when talking to the NNTP
     server.  This is `\r\n' by default, but should be `\n' when using
     a non native telnet connection function.

`nntp-netcat-command'
     Command to use when connecting to the NNTP server through
     `netcat'.  This is _not_ for an intermediate host.  This is just
     for the real NNTP server.  The default is `nc'.

`nntp-netcat-switches'
     A list of switches to pass to `nntp-netcat-command'.  The default
     is `()'.


File: gnus,  Node: NNTP marks,  Prev: Common Variables,  Up: NNTP

6.2.1.4 NNTP marks
..................

Gnus stores marks (*note Marking Articles::) for NNTP servers in marks
files.  A marks file records what marks you have set in a group and
each file is specific to the corresponding server.  Marks files are
stored in `~/News/marks' (`nntp-marks-directory') under a classic
hierarchy resembling that of a news server, for example marks for the
group `gmane.discuss' on the news.gmane.org server will be stored in
the file `~/News/marks/news.gmane.org/gmane/discuss/.marks'.

   Marks files are useful because you can copy the `~/News/marks'
directory (using rsync, scp or whatever) to another Gnus installation,
and it will realize what articles you have read and marked.  The data
in `~/News/marks' has priority over the same data in `~/.newsrc.eld'.

   Note that marks files are very much server-specific: Gnus remembers
the article numbers so if you don't use the same servers on both
installations things are most likely to break (most NNTP servers do not
use the same article numbers as any other server).  However, if you use
servers A, B, C on one installation and servers A, D, E on the other,
you can sync the marks files for A and then you'll get synchronization
for that server between the two installations.

   Using NNTP marks can possibly incur a performance penalty so if Gnus
feels sluggish, try setting the `nntp-marks-is-evil' variable to `t'.
Marks will then be stored in `~/.newsrc.eld'.

   Related variables:

`nntp-marks-is-evil'
     If non-`nil', this back end will ignore any marks files.  The
     default is `nil'.

`nntp-marks-directory'
     The directory where marks for nntp groups will be stored.


File: gnus,  Node: News Spool,  Prev: NNTP,  Up: Getting News

6.2.2 News Spool
----------------

Subscribing to a foreign group from the local spool is extremely easy,
and might be useful, for instance, to speed up reading groups that
contain very big articles--`alt.binaries.pictures.furniture', for
instance.

   Anyway, you just specify `nnspool' as the method and `""' (or
anything else) as the address.

   If you have access to a local spool, you should probably use that as
the native select method (*note Finding the News::).  It is normally
faster than using an `nntp' select method, but might not be.  It
depends.  You just have to try to find out what's best at your site.

`nnspool-inews-program'
     Program used to post an article.

`nnspool-inews-switches'
     Parameters given to the inews program when posting an article.

`nnspool-spool-directory'
     Where `nnspool' looks for the articles.  This is normally
     `/usr/spool/news/'.

`nnspool-nov-directory'
     Where `nnspool' will look for NOV files.  This is normally
     `/usr/spool/news/over.view/'.

`nnspool-lib-dir'
     Where the news lib dir is (`/usr/lib/news/' by default).

`nnspool-active-file'
     The name of the active file.

`nnspool-newsgroups-file'
     The name of the group descriptions file.

`nnspool-history-file'
     The name of the news history file.

`nnspool-active-times-file'
     The name of the active date file.

`nnspool-nov-is-evil'
     If non-`nil', `nnspool' won't try to use any NOV files that it
     finds.

`nnspool-sift-nov-with-sed'
     If non-`nil', which is the default, use `sed' to get the relevant
     portion from the overview file.  If `nil', `nnspool' will load the
     entire file into a buffer and process it there.


File: gnus,  Node: Getting Mail,  Next: Browsing the Web,  Prev: Getting News,  Up: Select Methods

6.3 Getting Mail
================

Reading mail with a newsreader--isn't that just plain WeIrD? But of
course.

* Menu:

* Mail in a Newsreader::        Important introductory notes.
* Getting Started Reading Mail::  A simple cookbook example.
* Splitting Mail::              How to create mail groups.
* Mail Sources::                How to tell Gnus where to get mail from.
* Mail Back End Variables::     Variables for customizing mail handling.
* Fancy Mail Splitting::        Gnus can do hairy splitting of incoming mail.
* Group Mail Splitting::        Use group customize to drive mail splitting.
* Incorporating Old Mail::      What about the old mail you have?
* Expiring Mail::               Getting rid of unwanted mail.
* Washing Mail::                Removing cruft from the mail you get.
* Duplicates::                  Dealing with duplicated mail.
* Not Reading Mail::            Using mail back ends for reading other files.
* Choosing a Mail Back End::    Gnus can read a variety of mail formats.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail in a Newsreader,  Next: Getting Started Reading Mail,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.1 Mail in a Newsreader
--------------------------

If you are used to traditional mail readers, but have decided to switch
to reading mail with Gnus, you may find yourself experiencing something
of a culture shock.

   Gnus does not behave like traditional mail readers.  If you want to
make it behave that way, you can, but it's an uphill battle.

   Gnus, by default, handles all its groups using the same approach.
This approach is very newsreaderly--you enter a group, see the
new/unread messages, and when you read the messages, they get marked as
read, and you don't see them any more.  (Unless you explicitly ask for
them.)

   In particular, you do not do anything explicitly to delete messages.

   Does this mean that all the messages that have been marked as read
are deleted?  How awful!

   But, no, it means that old messages are "expired" according to some
scheme or other.  For news messages, the expire process is controlled by
the news administrator; for mail, the expire process is controlled by
you.  The expire process for mail is covered in depth in *note Expiring
Mail::.

   What many Gnus users find, after using it a while for both news and
mail, is that the transport mechanism has very little to do with how
they want to treat a message.

   Many people subscribe to several mailing lists.  These are
transported via SMTP, and are therefore mail.  But we might go for
weeks without answering, or even reading these messages very carefully.
We may not need to save them because if we should need to read one
again, they are archived somewhere else.

   Some people have local news groups which have only a handful of
readers.  These are transported via NNTP, and are therefore news.  But
we may need to read and answer a large fraction of the messages very
carefully in order to do our work.  And there may not be an archive, so
we may need to save the interesting messages the same way we would
personal mail.

   The important distinction turns out to be not the transport
mechanism, but other factors such as how interested we are in the
subject matter, or how easy it is to retrieve the message if we need to
read it again.

   Gnus provides many options for sorting mail into "groups" which
behave like newsgroups, and for treating each group (whether mail or
news) differently.

   Some users never get comfortable using the Gnus (ahem) paradigm and
wish that Gnus should grow up and be a male, er, mail reader.  It is
possible to whip Gnus into a more mailreaderly being, but, as said
before, it's not easy.  People who prefer proper mail readers should
try VM instead, which is an excellent, and proper, mail reader.

   I don't mean to scare anybody off, but I want to make it clear that
you may be required to learn a new way of thinking about messages.
After you've been subjected to The Gnus Way, you will come to love it.
I can guarantee it.  (At least the guy who sold me the Emacs Subliminal
Brain-Washing Functions that I've put into Gnus did guarantee it.  You
Will Be Assimilated.  You Love Gnus.  You Love The Gnus Mail Way.  You
Do.)

File: gnus,  Node: Getting Started Reading Mail,  Next: Splitting Mail,  Prev: Mail in a Newsreader,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.2 Getting Started Reading Mail
----------------------------------

It's quite easy to use Gnus to read your new mail.  You just plonk the
mail back end of your choice into `gnus-secondary-select-methods', and
things will happen automatically.

   For instance, if you want to use `nnml' (which is a "one file per
mail" back end), you could put the following in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (setq gnus-secondary-select-methods '((nnml "")))

   Now, the next time you start Gnus, this back end will be queried for
new articles, and it will move all the messages in your spool file to
its directory, which is `~/Mail/' by default.  The new group that will
be created (`mail.misc') will be subscribed, and you can read it like
any other group.

   You will probably want to split the mail into several groups, though:

     (setq nnmail-split-methods
           '(("junk" "^From:.*Lars Ingebrigtsen")
             ("crazy" "^Subject:.*die\\|^Organization:.*flabby")
             ("other" "")))

   This will result in three new `nnml' mail groups being created:
`nnml:junk', `nnml:crazy', and `nnml:other'.  All the mail that doesn't
fit into the first two groups will be placed in the last group.

   This should be sufficient for reading mail with Gnus.  You might
want to give the other sections in this part of the manual a perusal,
though.  Especially *note Choosing a Mail Back End:: and *note Expiring
Mail::.

File: gnus,  Node: Splitting Mail,  Next: Mail Sources,  Prev: Getting Started Reading Mail,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.3 Splitting Mail
--------------------

The `nnmail-split-methods' variable says how the incoming mail is to be
split into groups.

     (setq nnmail-split-methods
       '(("mail.junk" "^From:.*Lars Ingebrigtsen")
         ("mail.crazy" "^Subject:.*die\\|^Organization:.*flabby")
         ("mail.other" "")))

   This variable is a list of lists, where the first element of each of
these lists is the name of the mail group (they do not have to be called
something beginning with `mail', by the way), and the second element is
a regular expression used on the header of each mail to determine if it
belongs in this mail group.  The first string may contain `\\1' forms,
like the ones used by `replace-match' to insert sub-expressions from
the matched text.  For instance:

     ("list.\\1" "From:.* \\(.*\\)-listATmajordomo.com")

In that case, `nnmail-split-lowercase-expanded' controls whether the
inserted text should be made lowercase.  *Note Fancy Mail Splitting::.

   The second element can also be a function.  In that case, it will be
called narrowed to the headers with the first element of the rule as the
argument.  It should return a non-`nil' value if it thinks that the
mail belongs in that group.

   The last of these groups should always be a general one, and the
regular expression should _always_ be `""' so that it matches any mails
that haven't been matched by any of the other regexps.  (These rules are
processed from the beginning of the alist toward the end.  The first
rule to make a match will "win", unless you have crossposting enabled.
In that case, all matching rules will "win".)  If no rule matched, the
mail will end up in the `bogus' group.  When new groups are created by
splitting mail, you may want to run `gnus-group-find-new-groups' to see
the new groups.  This also applies to the `bogus' group.

   If you like to tinker with this yourself, you can set this variable
to a function of your choice.  This function will be called without any
arguments in a buffer narrowed to the headers of an incoming mail
message.  The function should return a list of group names that it
thinks should carry this mail message.

   Note that the mail back ends are free to maul the poor, innocent,
incoming headers all they want to.  They all add `Lines' headers; some
add `X-Gnus-Group' headers; most rename the Unix mbox `From<SPACE>'
line to something else.

   The mail back ends all support cross-posting.  If several regexps
match, the mail will be "cross-posted" to all those groups.
`nnmail-crosspost' says whether to use this mechanism or not.  Note
that no articles are crossposted to the general (`""') group.

   `nnmh' and `nnml' makes crossposts by creating hard links to the
crossposted articles.  However, not all file systems support hard
links.  If that's the case for you, set
`nnmail-crosspost-link-function' to `copy-file'.  (This variable is
`add-name-to-file' by default.)

   If you wish to see where the previous mail split put the messages,
you can use the `M-x nnmail-split-history' command.  If you wish to see
where re-spooling messages would put the messages, you can use
`gnus-summary-respool-trace' and related commands (*note Mail Group
Commands::).

   Header lines longer than the value of
`nnmail-split-header-length-limit' are excluded from the split function.

   By default, splitting does not decode headers, so you can not match
on non-ASCII strings.  But it is useful if you want to match articles
based on the raw header data.  To enable it, set the
`nnmail-mail-splitting-decodes' variable to a non-`nil' value.  In
addition, the value of the `nnmail-mail-splitting-charset' variable is
used for decoding non-MIME encoded string when
`nnmail-mail-splitting-decodes' is non-`nil'.  The default value is
`nil' which means not to decode non-MIME encoded string.  A suitable
value for you will be `undecided' or be the charset used normally in
mails you are interested in.

   By default, splitting is performed on all incoming messages.  If you
specify a `directory' entry for the variable `mail-sources' (*note Mail
Source Specifiers::), however, then splitting does _not_ happen by
default.  You can set the variable `nnmail-resplit-incoming' to a
non-`nil' value to make splitting happen even in this case.  (This
variable has no effect on other kinds of entries.)

   Gnus gives you all the opportunity you could possibly want for
shooting yourself in the foot.  Let's say you create a group that will
contain all the mail you get from your boss.  And then you accidentally
unsubscribe from the group.  Gnus will still put all the mail from your
boss in the unsubscribed group, and so, when your boss mails you "Have
that report ready by Monday or you're fired!", you'll never see it and,
come Tuesday, you'll still believe that you're gainfully employed while
you really should be out collecting empty bottles to save up for next
month's rent money.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail Sources,  Next: Mail Back End Variables,  Prev: Splitting Mail,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.4 Mail Sources
------------------

Mail can be gotten from many different sources--the mail spool, from a
POP mail server, from a procmail directory, or from a maildir, for
instance.

* Menu:

* Mail Source Specifiers::      How to specify what a mail source is.
* Mail Source Customization::   Some variables that influence things.
* Fetching Mail::               Using the mail source specifiers.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail Source Specifiers,  Next: Mail Source Customization,  Up: Mail Sources

6.3.4.1 Mail Source Specifiers
..............................

You tell Gnus how to fetch mail by setting `mail-sources' (*note
Fetching Mail::) to a "mail source specifier".

   Here's an example:

     (pop :server "pop3.mailserver.com" :user "myname")

   As can be observed, a mail source specifier is a list where the first
element is a "mail source type", followed by an arbitrary number of
"keywords".  Keywords that are not explicitly specified are given
default values.

   The `mail-sources' is global for all mail groups.  You can specify
an additional mail source for a particular group by including the
`group' mail specifier in `mail-sources', and setting a `mail-source'
group parameter (*note Group Parameters::) specifying a single mail
source.  When this is used, `mail-sources' is typically just `(group)';
the `mail-source' parameter for a group might look like this:

     (mail-source . (file :path "home/user/spools/foo.spool"))

   This means that the group's (and only this group's) messages will be
fetched from the spool file `/user/spools/foo.spool'.

   The following mail source types are available:

`file'
     Get mail from a single file; typically from the mail spool.

     Keywords:

    `:path'
          The file name.  Defaults to the value of the `MAIL'
          environment variable or the value of `rmail-spool-directory'
          (usually something like `/usr/mail/spool/user-name').

    `:prescript'
    `:postscript'
          Script run before/after fetching mail.

     An example file mail source:

          (file :path "/usr/spool/mail/user-name")

     Or using the default file name:

          (file)

     If the mail spool file is not located on the local machine, it's
     best to use POP or IMAP or the like to fetch the mail.  You can
     not use ange-ftp file names here--it has no way to lock the mail
     spool while moving the mail.

     If it's impossible to set up a proper server, you can use ssh
     instead.

          (setq mail-sources
                '((file :prescript "ssh host bin/getmail >%t")))

     The `getmail' script would look something like the following:

          #!/bin/sh
          #  getmail - move mail from spool to stdout
          #  fluATiki.fi

          MOVEMAIL=/usr/lib/emacs/20.3/i386-redhat-linux/movemail
          TMP=$HOME/Mail/tmp
          rm -f $TMP; $MOVEMAIL $MAIL $TMP >/dev/null && cat $TMP

     Alter this script to fit the `movemail' and temporary file you
     want to use.

`directory'
     Get mail from several files in a directory.  This is typically used
     when you have procmail split the incoming mail into several files.
     That is, there is a one-to-one correspondence between files in that
     directory and groups, so that mail from the file `foo.bar.spool'
     will be put in the group `foo.bar'.  (You can change the suffix to
     be used instead of `.spool'.)  Setting
     `nnmail-scan-directory-mail-source-once' to non-`nil' forces Gnus
     to scan the mail source only once.  This is particularly useful if
     you want to scan mail groups at a specified level.

     There is also the variable `nnmail-resplit-incoming', if you set
     that to a non-`nil' value, then the normal splitting process is
     applied to all the files from the directory, *note Splitting
     Mail::.

     Keywords:

    `:path'
          The name of the directory where the files are.  There is no
          default value.

    `:suffix'
          Only files ending with this suffix are used.  The default is
          `.spool'.

    `:predicate'
          Only files that have this predicate return non-`nil' are
          returned.  The default is `identity'.  This is used as an
          additional filter--only files that have the right suffix
          _and_ satisfy this predicate are considered.

    `:prescript'
    `:postscript'
          Script run before/after fetching mail.


     An example directory mail source:

          (directory :path "/home/user-name/procmail-dir/"
                     :suffix ".prcml")

`pop'
     Get mail from a POP server.

     Keywords:

    `:server'
          The name of the POP server.  The default is taken from the
          `MAILHOST' environment variable.

    `:port'
          The port number of the POP server.  This can be a number (eg,
          `:port 1234') or a string (eg, `:port "pop3"').  If it is a
          string, it should be a service name as listed in
          `/etc/services' on Unix systems.  The default is `"pop3"'.
          On some systems you might need to specify it as `"pop-3"'
          instead.

    `:user'
          The user name to give to the POP server.  The default is the
          login name.

    `:password'
          The password to give to the POP server.  If not specified,
          the user is prompted.

    `:program'
          The program to use to fetch mail from the POP server.  This
          should be a `format'-like string.  Here's an example:

               fetchmail %u@%s -P %p %t

          The valid format specifier characters are:

         `t'
               The name of the file the mail is to be moved to.  This
               must always be included in this string.

         `s'
               The name of the server.

         `P'
               The port number of the server.

         `u'
               The user name to use.

         `p'
               The password to use.

          The values used for these specs are taken from the values you
          give the corresponding keywords.

    `:prescript'
          A script to be run before fetching the mail.  The syntax is
          the same as the `:program' keyword.  This can also be a
          function to be run.

    `:postscript'
          A script to be run after fetching the mail.  The syntax is
          the same as the `:program' keyword.  This can also be a
          function to be run.

    `:function'
          The function to use to fetch mail from the POP server.  The
          function is called with one parameter--the name of the file
          where the mail should be moved to.

    `:authentication'
          This can be either the symbol `password' or the symbol `apop'
          and says what authentication scheme to use.  The default is
          `password'.


     If the `:program' and `:function' keywords aren't specified,
     `pop3-movemail' will be used.  If `pop3-leave-mail-on-server' is
     non-`nil' the mail is to be left on the POP server after fetching
     when using `pop3-movemail'.  Note that POP servers maintain no
     state information between sessions, so what the client believes is
     there and what is actually there may not match up.  If they do
     not, then you may get duplicate mails or the whole thing can fall
     apart and leave you with a corrupt mailbox.

     Here are some examples for getting mail from a POP server.  Fetch
     from the default POP server, using the default user name, and
     default fetcher:

          (pop)

     Fetch from a named server with a named user and password:

          (pop :server "my.pop.server"
               :user "user-name" :password "secret")

     Use `movemail' to move the mail:

          (pop :program "movemail po:%u %t %p")

`maildir'
     Get mail from a maildir.  This is a type of mailbox that is
     supported by at least qmail and postfix, where each file in a
     special directory contains exactly one mail.

     Keywords:

    `:path'
          The name of the directory where the mails are stored.  The
          default is taken from the `MAILDIR' environment variable or
          `~/Maildir/'.

    `:subdirs'
          The subdirectories of the Maildir.  The default is `("new"
          "cur")'.

          You can also get mails from remote hosts (because maildirs
          don't suffer from locking problems).


     Two example maildir mail sources:

          (maildir :path "/home/user-name/Maildir/"
                   :subdirs ("cur" "new"))

          (maildir :path "/userATremotehost.org:~/Maildir/"
                   :subdirs ("new"))

`imap'
     Get mail from a IMAP server.  If you don't want to use IMAP as
     intended, as a network mail reading protocol (ie with nnimap), for
     some reason or other, Gnus let you treat it similar to a POP
     server and fetches articles from a given IMAP mailbox.  *Note
     IMAP::, for more information.

     Note that for the Kerberos, GSSAPI, TLS/SSL and STARTTLS support
     you may need external programs and libraries, *Note IMAP::.

     Keywords:

    `:server'
          The name of the IMAP server.  The default is taken from the
          `MAILHOST' environment variable.

    `:port'
          The port number of the IMAP server.  The default is `143', or
          `993' for TLS/SSL connections.

    `:user'
          The user name to give to the IMAP server.  The default is the
          login name.

    `:password'
          The password to give to the IMAP server.  If not specified,
          the user is prompted.

    `:stream'
          What stream to use for connecting to the server, this is one
          of the symbols in `imap-stream-alist'.  Right now, this means
          `gssapi', `kerberos4', `starttls', `tls', `ssl', `shell' or
          the default `network'.

    `:authentication'
          Which authenticator to use for authenticating to the server,
          this is one of the symbols in `imap-authenticator-alist'.
          Right now, this means `gssapi', `kerberos4', `digest-md5',
          `cram-md5', `anonymous' or the default `login'.

    `:program'
          When using the `shell' :stream, the contents of this variable
          is mapped into the `imap-shell-program' variable.  This
          should be a `format'-like string (or list of strings).
          Here's an example:

               ssh %s imapd

          Make sure nothing is interfering with the output of the
          program, e.g., don't forget to redirect the error output to
          the void.  The valid format specifier characters are:

         `s'
               The name of the server.

         `l'
               User name from `imap-default-user'.

         `p'
               The port number of the server.

          The values used for these specs are taken from the values you
          give the corresponding keywords.

    `:mailbox'
          The name of the mailbox to get mail from.  The default is
          `INBOX' which normally is the mailbox which receives incoming
          mail.

    `:predicate'
          The predicate used to find articles to fetch.  The default,
          `UNSEEN UNDELETED', is probably the best choice for most
          people, but if you sometimes peek in your mailbox with a IMAP
          client and mark some articles as read (or; SEEN) you might
          want to set this to `1:*'.  Then all articles in the mailbox
          is fetched, no matter what.  For a complete list of
          predicates, see RFC 2060 section 6.4.4.

    `:fetchflag'
          How to flag fetched articles on the server, the default
          `\Deleted' will mark them as deleted, an alternative would be
          `\Seen' which would simply mark them as read.  These are the
          two most likely choices, but more flags are defined in RFC
          2060 section 2.3.2.

    `:dontexpunge'
          If non-`nil', don't remove all articles marked as deleted in
          the mailbox after finishing the fetch.


     An example IMAP mail source:

          (imap :server "mail.mycorp.com"
                :stream kerberos4
                :fetchflag "\\Seen")

`webmail'
     Get mail from a webmail server, such as `http://www.hotmail.com/',
     `http://webmail.netscape.com/', `http://www.netaddress.com/',
     `http://mail.yahoo.com/'.

     NOTE: Webmail largely depends on cookies.  A "one-line-cookie"
     patch is required for url "4.0pre.46".

     WARNING: Mails may be lost.  NO WARRANTY.

     Keywords:

    `:subtype'
          The type of the webmail server.  The default is `hotmail'.
          The alternatives are `netscape', `netaddress', `my-deja'.

    `:user'
          The user name to give to the webmail server.  The default is
          the login name.

    `:password'
          The password to give to the webmail server.  If not
          specified, the user is prompted.

    `:dontexpunge'
          If non-`nil', only fetch unread articles and don't move them
          to trash folder after finishing the fetch.


     An example webmail source:

          (webmail :subtype 'hotmail
                   :user "user-name"
                   :password "secret")

`group'
     Get the actual mail source from the `mail-source' group parameter,
     *Note Group Parameters::.


"Common Keywords"
     Common keywords can be used in any type of mail source.

     Keywords:

    `:plugged'
          If non-`nil', fetch the mail even when Gnus is unplugged.  If
          you use directory source to get mail, you can specify it as
          in this example:

               (setq mail-sources
                     '((directory :path "/home/pavel/.Spool/"
                                  :suffix ""
                                  :plugged t)))

          Gnus will then fetch your mail even when you are unplugged.
          This is useful when you use local mail and news.


6.3.4.2 Function Interface
..........................

Some of the above keywords specify a Lisp function to be executed.  For
each keyword `:foo', the Lisp variable `foo' is bound to the value of
the keyword while the function is executing.  For example, consider the
following mail-source setting:

     (setq mail-sources '((pop :user "jrl"
                               :server "pophost" :function fetchfunc)))

   While the function `fetchfunc' is executing, the symbol `user' is
bound to `"jrl"', and the symbol `server' is bound to `"pophost"'.  The
symbols `port', `password', `program', `prescript', `postscript',
`function', and `authentication' are also bound (to their default
values).

   See above for a list of keywords for each type of mail source.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail Source Customization,  Next: Fetching Mail,  Prev: Mail Source Specifiers,  Up: Mail Sources

6.3.4.3 Mail Source Customization
.................................

The following is a list of variables that influence how the mail is
fetched.  You would normally not need to set or change any of these
variables.

`mail-source-crash-box'
     File where mail will be stored while processing it.  The default is
     `~/.emacs-mail-crash-box'.

`mail-source-delete-incoming'
     If non-`nil', delete incoming files after handling them.  If `t',
     delete the files immediately, if `nil', never delete any files.
     If a positive number, delete files older than number of days (the
     deletion will only happen when receiving new mail).  You may also
     set `mail-source-delete-incoming' to `nil' and call
     `mail-source-delete-old-incoming' from a hook or interactively.
     `mail-source-delete-incoming' defaults to `10' in alpha Gnusae and
     `2' in released Gnusae.  *Note Gnus Development::.

`mail-source-delete-old-incoming-confirm'
     If non-`nil', ask for confirmation before deleting old incoming
     files.  This variable only applies when
     `mail-source-delete-incoming' is a positive number.

`mail-source-ignore-errors'
     If non-`nil', ignore errors when reading mail from a mail source.

`mail-source-directory'
     Directory where incoming mail source files (if any) will be
     stored.  The default is `~/Mail/'.  At present, the only thing
     this is used for is to say where the incoming files will be stored
     if the variable `mail-source-delete-incoming' is `nil' or a number.

`mail-source-incoming-file-prefix'
     Prefix for file name for storing incoming mail.  The default is
     `Incoming', in which case files will end up with names like
     `Incoming30630D_' or `Incoming298602ZD'.  This is really only
     relevant if `mail-source-delete-incoming' is `nil' or a number.

`mail-source-default-file-modes'
     All new mail files will get this file mode.  The default is 384.

`mail-source-movemail-program'
     If non-`nil', name of program for fetching new mail.  If `nil',
     `movemail' in EXEC-DIRECTORY.


File: gnus,  Node: Fetching Mail,  Prev: Mail Source Customization,  Up: Mail Sources

6.3.4.4 Fetching Mail
.....................

The way to actually tell Gnus where to get new mail from is to set
`mail-sources' to a list of mail source specifiers (*note Mail Source
Specifiers::).

   If this variable is `nil', the mail back ends will never attempt to
fetch mail by themselves.

   If you want to fetch mail both from your local spool as well as a
POP mail server, you'd say something like:

     (setq mail-sources
           '((file)
             (pop :server "pop3.mail.server"
                  :password "secret")))

   Or, if you don't want to use any of the keyword defaults:

     (setq mail-sources
           '((file :path "/var/spool/mail/user-name")
             (pop :server "pop3.mail.server"
                  :user "user-name"
                  :port "pop3"
                  :password "secret")))

   When you use a mail back end, Gnus will slurp all your mail from your
inbox and plonk it down in your home directory.  Gnus doesn't move any
mail if you're not using a mail back end--you have to do a lot of magic
invocations first.  At the time when you have finished drawing the
pentagram, lightened the candles, and sacrificed the goat, you really
shouldn't be too surprised when Gnus moves your mail.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail Back End Variables,  Next: Fancy Mail Splitting,  Prev: Mail Sources,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.5 Mail Back End Variables
-----------------------------

These variables are (for the most part) pertinent to all the various
mail back ends.

`nnmail-read-incoming-hook'
     The mail back ends all call this hook after reading new mail.  You
     can use this hook to notify any mail watch programs, if you want
     to.

`nnmail-split-hook'
     Hook run in the buffer where the mail headers of each message is
     kept just before the splitting based on these headers is done.
     The hook is free to modify the buffer contents in any way it sees
     fit--the buffer is discarded after the splitting has been done,
     and no changes performed in the buffer will show up in any files.
     `gnus-article-decode-encoded-words' is one likely function to add
     to this hook.

`nnmail-pre-get-new-mail-hook'
`nnmail-post-get-new-mail-hook'
     These are two useful hooks executed when treating new incoming
     mail--`nnmail-pre-get-new-mail-hook' (is called just before
     starting to handle the new mail) and
     `nnmail-post-get-new-mail-hook' (is called when the mail handling
     is done).  Here's and example of using these two hooks to change
     the default file modes the new mail files get:

          (add-hook 'nnmail-pre-get-new-mail-hook
                    (lambda () (set-default-file-modes 511)))

          (add-hook 'nnmail-post-get-new-mail-hook
                    (lambda () (set-default-file-modes 551)))

`nnmail-use-long-file-names'
     If non-`nil', the mail back ends will use long file and directory
     names.  Groups like `mail.misc' will end up in directories
     (assuming use of `nnml' back end) or files (assuming use of
     `nnfolder' back end) like `mail.misc'.  If it is `nil', the same
     group will end up in `mail/misc'.

`nnmail-delete-file-function'
     Function called to delete files.  It is `delete-file' by default.

`nnmail-cache-accepted-message-ids'
     If non-`nil', put the `Message-ID's of articles imported into the
     back end (via `Gcc', for instance) into the mail duplication
     discovery cache.  The default is `nil'.

`nnmail-cache-ignore-groups'
     This can be a regular expression or a list of regular expressions.
     Group names that match any of the regular expressions will never be
     recorded in the `Message-ID' cache.

     This can be useful, for example, when using Fancy Splitting (*note
     Fancy Mail Splitting::) together with the function
     `nnmail-split-fancy-with-parent'.


File: gnus,  Node: Fancy Mail Splitting,  Next: Group Mail Splitting,  Prev: Mail Back End Variables,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.6 Fancy Mail Splitting
--------------------------

If the rather simple, standard method for specifying how to split mail
doesn't allow you to do what you want, you can set
`nnmail-split-methods' to `nnmail-split-fancy'.  Then you can play with
the `nnmail-split-fancy' variable.

   Let's look at an example value of this variable first:

     ;; Messages from the mailer daemon are not crossposted to any of
     ;; the ordinary groups.  Warnings are put in a separate group
     ;; from real errors.
     (| ("from" mail (| ("subject" "warn.*" "mail.warning")
                        "mail.misc"))
        ;; Non-error messages are crossposted to all relevant
        ;; groups, but we don't crosspost between the group for the
        ;; (ding) list and the group for other (ding) related mail.
        (& (| (any "ding@ifi\\.uio\\.no" "ding.list")
              ("subject" "ding" "ding.misc"))
           ;; Other mailing lists...
           (any "procmail@informatik\\.rwth-aachen\\.de" "procmail.list")
           (any "SmartList@informatik\\.rwth-aachen\\.de" "SmartList.list")
           ;; Both lists below have the same suffix, so prevent
           ;; cross-posting to mkpkg.list of messages posted only to
           ;; the bugs- list, but allow cross-posting when the
           ;; message was really cross-posted.
           (any "bugs-mypackage@somewhere" "mypkg.bugs")
           (any "mypackage@somewhere" - "bugs-mypackage" "mypkg.list")
           ;; People...
           (any "larsi@ifi\\.uio\\.no" "people.Lars_Magne_Ingebrigtsen"))
        ;; Unmatched mail goes to the catch all group.
        "misc.misc")

   This variable has the format of a "split".  A split is a (possibly)
recursive structure where each split may contain other splits.  Here
are the possible split syntaxes:

`group'
     If the split is a string, that will be taken as a group name.
     Normal regexp match expansion will be done.  See below for
     examples.

`(FIELD VALUE [- RESTRICT [...] ] SPLIT [INVERT-PARTIAL])'
     The split can be a list containing at least three elements.  If the
     first element FIELD (a regexp matching a header) contains VALUE
     (also a regexp) then store the message as specified by SPLIT.

     If RESTRICT (yet another regexp) matches some string after FIELD
     and before the end of the matched VALUE, the SPLIT is ignored.  If
     none of the RESTRICT clauses match, SPLIT is processed.

     The last element INVERT-PARTIAL is optional.  If it is non-`nil',
     the match-partial-words behavior controlled by the variable
     `nnmail-split-fancy-match-partial-words' (see below) is be
     inverted.  (New in Gnus 5.10.7)

`(| SPLIT ...)'
     If the split is a list, and the first element is `|' (vertical
     bar), then process each SPLIT until one of them matches.  A SPLIT
     is said to match if it will cause the mail message to be stored in
     one or more groups.

`(& SPLIT ...)'
     If the split is a list, and the first element is `&', then process
     all SPLITs in the list.

`junk'
     If the split is the symbol `junk', then don't save (i.e., delete)
     this message.  Use with extreme caution.

`(: FUNCTION ARG1 ARG2 ...)'
     If the split is a list, and the first element is `:', then the
     second element will be called as a function with ARGS given as
     arguments.  The function should return a SPLIT.

     For instance, the following function could be used to split based
     on the body of the messages:

          (defun split-on-body ()
            (save-excursion
              (save-restriction
                (widen)
                (goto-char (point-min))
                (when (re-search-forward "Some.*string" nil t)
                  "string.group"))))

     The buffer is narrowed to the header of the message in question
     when FUNCTION is run.  That's why `(widen)' needs to be called
     after `save-excursion' and `save-restriction' in the example
     above.  Also note that with the nnimap backend, message bodies will
     not be downloaded by default.  You need to set
     `nnimap-split-download-body' to `t' to do that (*note Splitting in
     IMAP::).

`(! FUNC SPLIT)'
     If the split is a list, and the first element is `!', then SPLIT
     will be processed, and FUNC will be called as a function with the
     result of SPLIT as argument.  FUNC should return a split.

`nil'
     If the split is `nil', it is ignored.


   In these splits, FIELD must match a complete field name.

   Normally, VALUE in these splits must match a complete _word_
according to the fundamental mode syntax table.  In other words, all
VALUE's will be implicitly surrounded by `\<...\>' markers, which are
word delimiters.  Therefore, if you use the following split, for
example,

     (any "joe" "joemail")

messages sent from `joedavisATfoo.org' will normally not be filed in
`joemail'.  If you want to alter this behavior, you can use any of the
following three ways:

  1. You can set the `nnmail-split-fancy-match-partial-words' variable
     to non-`nil' in order to ignore word boundaries and instead the
     match becomes more like a grep.  This variable controls whether
     partial words are matched during fancy splitting.  The default
     value is `nil'.

     Note that it influences all VALUE's in your split rules.

  2. VALUE beginning with `.*' ignores word boundaries in front of a
     word.  Similarly, if VALUE ends with `.*', word boundaries in the
     rear of a word will be ignored.  For example, the VALUE
     `"@example\\.com"' does not match `fooATexample.com' but
     `".*@example\\.com"' does.

  3. You can set the INVERT-PARTIAL flag in your split rules of the
     `(FIELD VALUE ...)' types, aforementioned in this section.  If the
     flag is set, word boundaries on both sides of a word are ignored
     even if `nnmail-split-fancy-match-partial-words' is `nil'.
     Contrarily, if the flag is set, word boundaries are not ignored
     even if `nnmail-split-fancy-match-partial-words' is non-`nil'.
     (New in Gnus 5.10.7)

   FIELD and VALUE can also be Lisp symbols, in that case they are
expanded as specified by the variable `nnmail-split-abbrev-alist'.
This is an alist of cons cells, where the CAR of a cell contains the
key, and the CDR contains the associated value.  Predefined entries in
`nnmail-split-abbrev-alist' include:

`from'
     Matches the `From', `Sender' and `Resent-From' fields.

`to'
     Matches the `To', `Cc', `Apparently-To', `Resent-To' and
     `Resent-Cc' fields.

`any'
     Is the union of the `from' and `to' entries.

   `nnmail-split-fancy-syntax-table' is the syntax table in effect when
all this splitting is performed.

   If you want to have Gnus create groups dynamically based on some
information in the headers (i.e., do `replace-match'-like substitutions
in the group names), you can say things like:

     (any "debian-\\b\\(\\w+\\)@lists.debian.org" "mail.debian.\\1")

   In this example, messages sent to `debian-fooATlists.org' will
be filed in `mail.debian.foo'.

   If the string contains the element `\&', then the previously matched
string will be substituted.  Similarly, the elements `\\1' up to `\\9'
will be substituted with the text matched by the groupings 1 through 9.

   Where `nnmail-split-lowercase-expanded' controls whether the
lowercase of the matched string should be used for the substitution.
Setting it as non-`nil' is useful to avoid the creation of multiple
groups when users send to an address using different case (i.e.
mailing-list@domain vs Mailing-List@Domain).  The default value is `t'.

   `nnmail-split-fancy-with-parent' is a function which allows you to
split followups into the same groups their parents are in.  Sometimes
you can't make splitting rules for all your mail.  For example, your
boss might send you personal mail regarding different projects you are
working on, and as you can't tell your boss to put a distinguishing
string into the subject line, you have to resort to manually moving the
messages into the right group.  With this function, you only have to do
it once per thread.

   To use this feature, you have to set `nnmail-treat-duplicates' and
`nnmail-cache-accepted-message-ids' to a non-`nil' value.  And then you
can include `nnmail-split-fancy-with-parent' using the colon feature,
like so:
     (setq nnmail-treat-duplicates 'warn     ; or `delete'
           nnmail-cache-accepted-message-ids t
           nnmail-split-fancy
           '(| (: nnmail-split-fancy-with-parent)
               ;; other splits go here
             ))

   This feature works as follows: when `nnmail-treat-duplicates' is
non-`nil', Gnus records the message id of every message it sees in the
file specified by the variable `nnmail-message-id-cache-file', together
with the group it is in (the group is omitted for non-mail messages).
When mail splitting is invoked, the function
`nnmail-split-fancy-with-parent' then looks at the References (and
In-Reply-To) header of each message to split and searches the file
specified by `nnmail-message-id-cache-file' for the message ids.  When
it has found a parent, it returns the corresponding group name unless
the group name matches the regexp
`nnmail-split-fancy-with-parent-ignore-groups'.  It is recommended that
you set `nnmail-message-id-cache-length' to a somewhat higher number
than the default so that the message ids are still in the cache.  (A
value of 5000 appears to create a file some 300 kBytes in size.)  When
`nnmail-cache-accepted-message-ids' is non-`nil', Gnus also records the
message ids of moved articles, so that the followup messages goes into
the new group.

   Also see the variable `nnmail-cache-ignore-groups' if you don't want
certain groups to be recorded in the cache.  For example, if all
outgoing messages are written to an "outgoing" group, you could set
`nnmail-cache-ignore-groups' to match that group name.  Otherwise,
answers to all your messages would end up in the "outgoing" group.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Mail Splitting,  Next: Incorporating Old Mail,  Prev: Fancy Mail Splitting,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.7 Group Mail Splitting
--------------------------

If you subscribe to dozens of mailing lists but you don't want to
maintain mail splitting rules manually, group mail splitting is for you.
You just have to set `to-list' and/or `to-address' in group parameters
or group customization and set `nnmail-split-methods' to
`gnus-group-split'.  This splitting function will scan all groups for
those parameters and split mail accordingly, i.e., messages posted from
or to the addresses specified in the parameters `to-list' or
`to-address' of a mail group will be stored in that group.

   Sometimes, mailing lists have multiple addresses, and you may want
mail splitting to recognize them all: just set the `extra-aliases' group
parameter to the list of additional addresses and it's done.  If you'd
rather use a regular expression, set `split-regexp'.

   All these parameters in a group will be used to create an
`nnmail-split-fancy' split, in which the FIELD is `any', the VALUE is a
single regular expression that matches `to-list', `to-address', all of
`extra-aliases' and all matches of `split-regexp', and the SPLIT is the
name of the group.  RESTRICTs are also supported: just set the
`split-exclude' parameter to a list of regular expressions.

   If you can't get the right split to be generated using all these
parameters, or you just need something fancier, you can set the
parameter `split-spec' to an `nnmail-split-fancy' split.  In this case,
all other aforementioned parameters will be ignored by
`gnus-group-split'.  In particular, `split-spec' may be set to `nil',
in which case the group will be ignored by `gnus-group-split'.

   `gnus-group-split' will do cross-posting on all groups that match,
by defining a single `&' fancy split containing one split for each
group.  If a message doesn't match any split, it will be stored in the
group named in `gnus-group-split-default-catch-all-group', unless some
group has `split-spec' set to `catch-all', in which case that group is
used as the catch-all group.  Even though this variable is often used
just to name a group, it may also be set to an arbitrarily complex
fancy split (after all, a group name is a fancy split), and this may be
useful to split mail that doesn't go to any mailing list to personal
mail folders.  Note that this fancy split is added as the last element
of a `|' split list that also contains a `&' split with the rules
extracted from group parameters.

   It's time for an example.  Assume the following group parameters have
been defined:

     nnml:mail.bar:
     ((to-address . "barATfemail.com")
      (split-regexp . ".*@femail\\.com"))
     nnml:mail.foo:
     ((to-list . "fooATnowhere.gov")
      (extra-aliases "foo@localhost" "foo-redist@home")
      (split-exclude "bugs-foo" "rambling-foo")
      (admin-address . "foo-requestATnowhere.gov"))
     nnml:mail.others:
     ((split-spec . catch-all))

   Setting `nnmail-split-methods' to `gnus-group-split' will behave as
if `nnmail-split-fancy' had been selected and variable
`nnmail-split-fancy' had been set as follows:

     (| (& (any "\\(bar@femail\\.com\\|.*@femail\\.com\\)" "mail.bar")
           (any "\\(foo@nowhere\\.gov\\|foo@localhost\\|foo-redist@home\\)"
                - "bugs-foo" - "rambling-foo" "mail.foo"))
        "mail.others")

   If you'd rather not use group splitting for all your mail groups, you
may use it for only some of them, by using `nnmail-split-fancy' splits
like this:

     (: gnus-group-split-fancy GROUPS NO-CROSSPOST CATCH-ALL)

   GROUPS may be a regular expression or a list of group names whose
parameters will be scanned to generate the output split.  NO-CROSSPOST
can be used to disable cross-posting; in this case, a single `|' split
will be output.  CATCH-ALL is the fall back fancy split, used like
`gnus-group-split-default-catch-all-group'.  If CATCH-ALL is `nil', or
if `split-regexp' matches the empty string in any selected group, no
catch-all split will be issued.  Otherwise, if some group has
`split-spec' set to `catch-all', this group will override the value of
the CATCH-ALL argument.

   Unfortunately, scanning all groups and their parameters can be quite
slow, especially considering that it has to be done for every message.
But don't despair!  The function `gnus-group-split-setup' can be used
to enable `gnus-group-split' in a much more efficient way.  It sets
`nnmail-split-methods' to `nnmail-split-fancy' and sets
`nnmail-split-fancy' to the split produced by `gnus-group-split-fancy'.
Thus, the group parameters are only scanned once, no matter how many
messages are split.

   However, if you change group parameters, you'd have to update
`nnmail-split-fancy' manually.  You can do it by running
`gnus-group-split-update'.  If you'd rather have it updated
automatically, just tell `gnus-group-split-setup' to do it for you.
For example, add to your `~/.gnus.el':

     (gnus-group-split-setup AUTO-UPDATE CATCH-ALL)

   If AUTO-UPDATE is non-`nil', `gnus-group-split-update' will be added
to `nnmail-pre-get-new-mail-hook', so you won't ever have to worry
about updating `nnmail-split-fancy' again.  If you don't omit CATCH-ALL
(it's optional, equivalent to `nil'),
`gnus-group-split-default-catch-all-group' will be set to its value.

   Because you may want to change `nnmail-split-fancy' after it is set
by `gnus-group-split-update', this function will run
`gnus-group-split-updated-hook' just before finishing.

File: gnus,  Node: Incorporating Old Mail,  Next: Expiring Mail,  Prev: Group Mail Splitting,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.8 Incorporating Old Mail
----------------------------

Most people have lots of old mail stored in various file formats.  If
you have set up Gnus to read mail using one of the spiffy Gnus mail
back ends, you'll probably wish to have that old mail incorporated into
your mail groups.

   Doing so can be quite easy.

   To take an example: You're reading mail using `nnml' (*note Mail
Spool::), and have set `nnmail-split-methods' to a satisfactory value
(*note Splitting Mail::).  You have an old Unix mbox file filled with
important, but old, mail.  You want to move it into your `nnml' groups.

   Here's how:

  1. Go to the group buffer.

  2. Type `G f' and give the file name to the mbox file when prompted
     to create an `nndoc' group from the mbox file (*note Foreign
     Groups::).

  3. Type `SPACE' to enter the newly created group.

  4. Type `M P b' to process-mark all articles in this group's buffer
     (*note Setting Process Marks::).

  5. Type `B r' to respool all the process-marked articles, and answer
     `nnml' when prompted (*note Mail Group Commands::).

   All the mail messages in the mbox file will now also be spread out
over all your `nnml' groups.  Try entering them and check whether things
have gone without a glitch.  If things look ok, you may consider
deleting the mbox file, but I wouldn't do that unless I was absolutely
sure that all the mail has ended up where it should be.

   Respooling is also a handy thing to do if you're switching from one
mail back end to another.  Just respool all the mail in the old mail
groups using the new mail back end.

File: gnus,  Node: Expiring Mail,  Next: Washing Mail,  Prev: Incorporating Old Mail,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.9 Expiring Mail
-------------------

Traditional mail readers have a tendency to remove mail articles when
you mark them as read, in some way.  Gnus takes a fundamentally
different approach to mail reading.

   Gnus basically considers mail just to be news that has been received
in a rather peculiar manner.  It does not think that it has the power to
actually change the mail, or delete any mail messages.  If you enter a
mail group, and mark articles as "read", or kill them in some other
fashion, the mail articles will still exist on the system.  I repeat:
Gnus will not delete your old, read mail.  Unless you ask it to, of
course.

   To make Gnus get rid of your unwanted mail, you have to mark the
articles as "expirable".  (With the default key bindings, this means
that you have to type `E'.)  This does not mean that the articles will
disappear right away, however.  In general, a mail article will be
deleted from your system if, 1) it is marked as expirable, AND 2) it is
more than one week old.  If you do not mark an article as expirable, it
will remain on your system until hell freezes over.  This bears
repeating one more time, with some spurious capitalizations: IF you do
NOT mark articles as EXPIRABLE, Gnus will NEVER delete those ARTICLES.

   You do not have to mark articles as expirable by hand.  Gnus provides
two features, called "auto-expire" and "total-expire", that can help you
with this.  In a nutshell, "auto-expire" means that Gnus hits `E' for
you when you select an article.  And "total-expire" means that Gnus
considers all articles as expirable that are read.  So, in addition to
the articles marked `E', also the articles marked `r', `R', `O', `K',
`Y' and so on are considered expirable.

   When should either auto-expire or total-expire be used?  Most people
who are subscribed to mailing lists split each list into its own group
and then turn on auto-expire or total-expire for those groups.  (*Note
Splitting Mail::, for more information on splitting each list into its
own group.)

   Which one is better, auto-expire or total-expire?  It's not easy to
answer.  Generally speaking, auto-expire is probably faster.  Another
advantage of auto-expire is that you get more marks to work with: for
the articles that are supposed to stick around, you can still choose
between tick and dormant and read marks.  But with total-expire, you
only have dormant and ticked to choose from.  The advantage of
total-expire is that it works well with adaptive scoring (*note
Adaptive Scoring::).  Auto-expire works with normal scoring but not
with adaptive scoring.

   Groups that match the regular expression
`gnus-auto-expirable-newsgroups' will have all articles that you read
marked as expirable automatically.  All articles marked as expirable
have an `E' in the first column in the summary buffer.

   By default, if you have auto expiry switched on, Gnus will mark all
the articles you read as expirable, no matter if they were read or
unread before.  To avoid having articles marked as read marked as
expirable automatically, you can put something like the following in
your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (remove-hook 'gnus-mark-article-hook
                  'gnus-summary-mark-read-and-unread-as-read)
     (add-hook 'gnus-mark-article-hook 'gnus-summary-mark-unread-as-read)

   Note that making a group auto-expirable doesn't mean that all read
articles are expired--only the articles marked as expirable will be
expired.  Also note that using the `d' command won't make articles
expirable--only semi-automatic marking of articles as read will mark
the articles as expirable in auto-expirable groups.

   Let's say you subscribe to a couple of mailing lists, and you want
the articles you have read to disappear after a while:

     (setq gnus-auto-expirable-newsgroups
           "mail.nonsense-list\\|mail.nice-list")

   Another way to have auto-expiry happen is to have the element
`auto-expire' in the group parameters of the group.

   If you use adaptive scoring (*note Adaptive Scoring::) and
auto-expiring, you'll have problems.  Auto-expiring and adaptive scoring
don't really mix very well.

   The `nnmail-expiry-wait' variable supplies the default time an
expirable article has to live.  Gnus starts counting days from when the
message _arrived_, not from when it was sent.  The default is seven
days.

   Gnus also supplies a function that lets you fine-tune how long
articles are to live, based on what group they are in.  Let's say you
want to have one month expiry period in the `mail.private' group, a one
day expiry period in the `mail.junk' group, and a six day expiry period
everywhere else:

     (setq nnmail-expiry-wait-function
           (lambda (group)
            (cond ((string= group "mail.private")
                    31)
                  ((string= group "mail.junk")
                    1)
                  ((string= group "important")
                    'never)
                  (t
                    6))))

   The group names this function is fed are "unadorned" group names--no
`nnml:' prefixes and the like.

   The `nnmail-expiry-wait' variable and `nnmail-expiry-wait-function'
function can either be a number (not necessarily an integer) or one of
the symbols `immediate' or `never'.

   You can also use the `expiry-wait' group parameter to selectively
change the expiry period (*note Group Parameters::).

   The normal action taken when expiring articles is to delete them.
However, in some circumstances it might make more sense to move them to
other groups instead of deleting them.  The variable
`nnmail-expiry-target' (and the `expiry-target' group parameter)
controls this.  The variable supplies a default value for all groups,
which can be overridden for specific groups by the group parameter.
default value is `delete', but this can also be a string (which should
be the name of the group the message should be moved to), or a function
(which will be called in a buffer narrowed to the message in question,
and with the name of the group being moved from as its parameter) which
should return a target--either a group name or `delete'.

   Here's an example for specifying a group name:
     (setq nnmail-expiry-target "nnml:expired")

   Gnus provides a function `nnmail-fancy-expiry-target' which will
expire mail to groups according to the variable
`nnmail-fancy-expiry-targets'.  Here's an example:

      (setq nnmail-expiry-target 'nnmail-fancy-expiry-target
            nnmail-fancy-expiry-targets
            '((to-from "boss" "nnfolder:Work")
              ("subject" "IMPORTANT" "nnfolder:IMPORTANT.%Y.%b")
              ("from" ".*" "nnfolder:Archive-%Y")))

   With this setup, any mail that has `IMPORTANT' in its Subject header
and was sent in the year `YYYY' and month `MMM', will get expired to
the group `nnfolder:IMPORTANT.YYYY.MMM'.  If its From or To header
contains the string `boss', it will get expired to `nnfolder:Work'.
All other mail will get expired to `nnfolder:Archive-YYYY'.

   If `nnmail-keep-last-article' is non-`nil', Gnus will never expire
the final article in a mail newsgroup.  This is to make life easier for
procmail users.

   By the way: That line up there, about Gnus never expiring
non-expirable articles, is a lie.  If you put `total-expire' in the
group parameters, articles will not be marked as expirable, but all read
articles will be put through the expiry process.  Use with extreme
caution.  Even more dangerous is the `gnus-total-expirable-newsgroups'
variable.  All groups that match this regexp will have all read
articles put through the expiry process, which means that _all_ old
mail articles in the groups in question will be deleted after a while.
Use with extreme caution, and don't come crying to me when you discover
that the regexp you used matched the wrong group and all your important
mail has disappeared.  Be a _man_!  Or a _woman_!  Whatever you feel
more comfortable with!  So there!

   Most people make most of their mail groups total-expirable, though.

   If `gnus-inhibit-user-auto-expire' is non-`nil', user marking
commands will not mark an article as expirable, even if the group has
auto-expire turned on.

File: gnus,  Node: Washing Mail,  Next: Duplicates,  Prev: Expiring Mail,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.10 Washing Mail
-------------------

Mailers and list servers are notorious for doing all sorts of really,
really stupid things with mail.  "Hey, RFC 822 doesn't explicitly
prohibit us from adding the string `wE aRe ElItE!!!!!1!!' to the end of
all lines passing through our server, so let's do that!!!!1!"  Yes, but
RFC 822 wasn't designed to be read by morons.  Things that were
considered to be self-evident were not discussed.  So.  Here we are.

   Case in point:  The German version of Microsoft Exchange adds `AW: '
to the subjects of replies instead of `Re: '.  I could pretend to be
shocked and dismayed by this, but I haven't got the energy.  It is to
laugh.

   Gnus provides a plethora of functions for washing articles while
displaying them, but it might be nicer to do the filtering before
storing the mail to disk.  For that purpose, we have three hooks and
various functions that can be put in these hooks.

`nnmail-prepare-incoming-hook'
     This hook is called before doing anything with the mail and is
     meant for grand, sweeping gestures.  It is called in a buffer that
     contains all the new, incoming mail.  Functions to be used include:

    `nnheader-ms-strip-cr'
          Remove trailing carriage returns from each line.  This is
          default on Emacs running on MS machines.


`nnmail-prepare-incoming-header-hook'
     This hook is called narrowed to each header.  It can be used when
     cleaning up the headers.  Functions that can be used include:

    `nnmail-remove-leading-whitespace'
          Clear leading white space that "helpful" listservs have added
          to the headers to make them look nice.  Aaah.

          (Note that this function works on both the header on the body
          of all messages, so it is a potentially dangerous function to
          use (if a body of a message contains something that looks
          like a header line).  So rather than fix the bug, it is of
          course the right solution to make it into a feature by
          documenting it.)

    `nnmail-remove-list-identifiers'
          Some list servers add an identifier--for example, `(idm)'--to
          the beginning of all `Subject' headers.  I'm sure that's nice
          for people who use stone age mail readers.  This function
          will remove strings that match the `nnmail-list-identifiers'
          regexp, which can also be a list of regexp.
          `nnmail-list-identifiers' may not contain `\\(..\\)'.

          For instance, if you want to remove the `(idm)' and the
          `nagnagnag' identifiers:

               (setq nnmail-list-identifiers
                     '("(idm)" "nagnagnag"))

          This can also be done non-destructively with
          `gnus-list-identifiers', *Note Article Hiding::.

    `nnmail-remove-tabs'
          Translate all `TAB' characters into `SPACE' characters.

    `nnmail-ignore-broken-references'
          Some mail user agents (e.g. Eudora and Pegasus) produce broken
          `References' headers, but correct `In-Reply-To' headers.  This
          function will get rid of the `References' header if the
          headers contain a line matching the regular expression
          `nnmail-broken-references-mailers'.


`nnmail-prepare-incoming-message-hook'
     This hook is called narrowed to each message.  Functions to be used
     include:

    `article-de-quoted-unreadable'
          Decode Quoted Readable encoding.


File: gnus,  Node: Duplicates,  Next: Not Reading Mail,  Prev: Washing Mail,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.11 Duplicates
-----------------

If you are a member of a couple of mailing lists, you will sometimes
receive two copies of the same mail.  This can be quite annoying, so
`nnmail' checks for and treats any duplicates it might find.  To do
this, it keeps a cache of old `Message-ID's--
`nnmail-message-id-cache-file', which is `~/.nnmail-cache' by default.
The approximate maximum number of `Message-ID's stored there is
controlled by the `nnmail-message-id-cache-length' variable, which is
1000 by default.  (So 1000 `Message-ID's will be stored.) If all this
sounds scary to you, you can set `nnmail-treat-duplicates' to `warn'
(which is what it is by default), and `nnmail' won't delete duplicate
mails.  Instead it will insert a warning into the head of the mail
saying that it thinks that this is a duplicate of a different message.

   This variable can also be a function.  If that's the case, the
function will be called from a buffer narrowed to the message in
question with the `Message-ID' as a parameter.  The function must
return either `nil', `warn', or `delete'.

   You can turn this feature off completely by setting the variable to
`nil'.

   If you want all the duplicate mails to be put into a special
"duplicates" group, you could do that using the normal mail split
methods:

     (setq nnmail-split-fancy
           '(| ;; Messages duplicates go to a separate group.
             ("gnus-warning" "duplicat\\(e\\|ion\\) of message" "duplicate")
             ;; Message from daemons, postmaster, and the like to another.
             (any mail "mail.misc")
             ;; Other rules.
             [...] ))
   Or something like:
     (setq nnmail-split-methods
           '(("duplicates" "^Gnus-Warning:.*duplicate")
             ;; Other rules.
             [...]))

   Here's a neat feature: If you know that the recipient reads her mail
with Gnus, and that she has `nnmail-treat-duplicates' set to `delete',
you can send her as many insults as you like, just by using a
`Message-ID' of a mail that you know that she's already received.
Think of all the fun!  She'll never see any of it!  Whee!

File: gnus,  Node: Not Reading Mail,  Next: Choosing a Mail Back End,  Prev: Duplicates,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.12 Not Reading Mail
-----------------------

If you start using any of the mail back ends, they have the annoying
habit of assuming that you want to read mail with them.  This might not
be unreasonable, but it might not be what you want.

   If you set `mail-sources' and `nnmail-spool-file' to `nil', none of
the back ends will ever attempt to read incoming mail, which should
help.

   This might be too much, if, for instance, you are reading mail quite
happily with `nnml' and just want to peek at some old (pre-Emacs 23)
Rmail file you have stashed away with `nnbabyl'.  All back ends have
variables called back-end-`get-new-mail'.  If you want to disable the
`nnbabyl' mail reading, you edit the virtual server for the group to
have a setting where `nnbabyl-get-new-mail' to `nil'.

   All the mail back ends will call `nn'*`-prepare-save-mail-hook'
narrowed to the article to be saved before saving it when reading
incoming mail.

File: gnus,  Node: Choosing a Mail Back End,  Prev: Not Reading Mail,  Up: Getting Mail

6.3.13 Choosing a Mail Back End
-------------------------------

Gnus will read the mail spool when you activate a mail group.  The mail
file is first copied to your home directory.  What happens after that
depends on what format you want to store your mail in.

   There are six different mail back ends in the standard Gnus, and more
back ends are available separately.  The mail back end most people use
(because it is possibly the fastest) is `nnml' (*note Mail Spool::).

* Menu:

* Unix Mail Box::               Using the (quite) standard Un*x mbox.
* Babyl::                       Babyl was used by older versions of Rmail.
* Mail Spool::                  Store your mail in a private spool?
* MH Spool::                    An mhspool-like back end.
* Maildir::                     Another one-file-per-message format.
* Mail Folders::                Having one file for each group.
* Comparing Mail Back Ends::    An in-depth looks at pros and cons.

File: gnus,  Node: Unix Mail Box,  Next: Babyl,  Up: Choosing a Mail Back End

6.3.13.1 Unix Mail Box
......................

The "nnmbox" back end will use the standard Un*x mbox file to store
mail.  `nnmbox' will add extra headers to each mail article to say
which group it belongs in.

   Virtual server settings:

`nnmbox-mbox-file'
     The name of the mail box in the user's home directory.  Default is
     `~/mbox'.

`nnmbox-active-file'
     The name of the active file for the mail box.  Default is
     `~/.mbox-active'.

`nnmbox-get-new-mail'
     If non-`nil', `nnmbox' will read incoming mail and split it into
     groups.  Default is `t'.

File: gnus,  Node: Babyl,  Next: Mail Spool,  Prev: Unix Mail Box,  Up: Choosing a Mail Back End

6.3.13.2 Babyl
..............

The "nnbabyl" back end will use a Babyl mail box to store mail.
`nnbabyl' will add extra headers to each mail article to say which
group it belongs in.

   Virtual server settings:

`nnbabyl-mbox-file'
     The name of the Babyl file.  The default is `~/RMAIL'

`nnbabyl-active-file'
     The name of the active file for the Babyl file.  The default is
     `~/.rmail-active'

`nnbabyl-get-new-mail'
     If non-`nil', `nnbabyl' will read incoming mail.  Default is `t'

File: gnus,  Node: Mail Spool,  Next: MH Spool,  Prev: Babyl,  Up: Choosing a Mail Back End

6.3.13.3 Mail Spool
...................

The "nnml" spool mail format isn't compatible with any other known
format.  It should be used with some caution.

   If you use this back end, Gnus will split all incoming mail into
files, one file for each mail, and put the articles into the
corresponding directories under the directory specified by the
`nnml-directory' variable.  The default value is `~/Mail/'.

   You do not have to create any directories beforehand; Gnus will take
care of all that.

   If you have a strict limit as to how many files you are allowed to
store in your account, you should not use this back end.  As each mail
gets its own file, you might very well occupy thousands of inodes
within a few weeks.  If this is no problem for you, and it isn't a
problem for you having your friendly systems administrator walking
around, madly, shouting "Who is eating all my inodes?! Who? Who!?!",
then you should know that this is probably the fastest format to use.
You do not have to trudge through a big mbox file just to read your new
mail.

   `nnml' is probably the slowest back end when it comes to article
splitting.  It has to create lots of files, and it also generates NOV
databases for the incoming mails.  This makes it possibly the fastest
back end when it comes to reading mail.

   When the marks file is used (which it is by default), `nnml' servers
have the property that you may backup them using `tar' or similar, and
later be able to restore them into Gnus (by adding the proper `nnml'
server) and have all your marks be preserved.  Marks for a group are
usually stored in the `.marks' file (but see `nnml-marks-file-name')
within each `nnml' group's directory.  Individual `nnml' groups are
also possible to backup, use `G m' to restore the group (after
restoring the backup into the nnml directory).

   If for some reason you believe your `.marks' files are screwed up,
you can just delete them all.  Gnus will then correctly regenerate them
next time it starts.

   Virtual server settings:

`nnml-directory'
     All `nnml' directories will be placed under this directory.  The
     default is the value of `message-directory' (whose default value
     is `~/Mail').

`nnml-active-file'
     The active file for the `nnml' server.  The default is
     `~/Mail/active'.

`nnml-newsgroups-file'
     The `nnml' group descriptions file.  *Note Newsgroups File
     Format::.  The default is `~/Mail/newsgroups'.

`nnml-get-new-mail'
     If non-`nil', `nnml' will read incoming mail.  The default is `t'.

`nnml-nov-is-evil'
     If non-`nil', this back end will ignore any NOV files.  The
     default is `nil'.

`nnml-nov-file-name'
     The name of the NOV files.  The default is `.overview'.

`nnml-prepare-save-mail-hook'
     Hook run narrowed to an article before saving.

`nnml-marks-is-evil'
     If non-`nil', this back end will ignore any MARKS files.  The
     default is `nil'.

`nnml-marks-file-name'
     The name of the "marks" files.  The default is `.marks'.

`nnml-use-compressed-files'
     If non-`nil', `nnml' will allow using compressed message files.
     This requires `auto-compression-mode' to be enabled (*note
     Compressed Files: (emacs)Compressed Files.).  If the value of
     `nnml-use-compressed-files' is a string, it is used as the file
     extension specifying the compression program.  You can set it to
     `.bz2' if your Emacs supports it.  A value of `t' is equivalent to
     `.gz'.

`nnml-compressed-files-size-threshold'
     Default size threshold for compressed message files.  Message
     files with bodies larger than that many characters will be
     automatically compressed if `nnml-use-compressed-files' is
     non-`nil'.


   If your `nnml' groups and NOV files get totally out of whack, you
can do a complete update by typing `M-x nnml-generate-nov-databases'.
This command will trawl through the entire `nnml' hierarchy, looking at
each and every article, so it might take a while to complete.  A better
interface to this functionality can be found in the server buffer
(*note Server Commands::).

File: gnus,  Node: MH Spool,  Next: Maildir,  Prev: Mail Spool,  Up: Choosing a Mail Back End

6.3.13.4 MH Spool
.................

`nnmh' is just like `nnml', except that is doesn't generate NOV
databases and it doesn't keep an active file or marks file.  This makes
`nnmh' a _much_ slower back end than `nnml', but it also makes it
easier to write procmail scripts for.

   Virtual server settings:

`nnmh-directory'
     All `nnmh' directories will be located under this directory.  The
     default is the value of `message-directory' (whose default is
     `~/Mail')

`nnmh-get-new-mail'
     If non-`nil', `nnmh' will read incoming mail.  The default is `t'.

`nnmh-be-safe'
     If non-`nil', `nnmh' will go to ridiculous lengths to make sure
     that the articles in the folder are actually what Gnus thinks they
     are.  It will check date stamps and stat everything in sight, so
     setting this to `t' will mean a serious slow-down.  If you never
     use anything but Gnus to read the `nnmh' articles, you do not have
     to set this variable to `t'.  The default is `nil'.

File: gnus,  Node: Maildir,  Next: Mail Folders,  Prev: MH Spool,  Up: Choosing a Mail Back End

6.3.13.5 Maildir
................

`nnmaildir' stores mail in the maildir format, with each maildir
corresponding to a group in Gnus.  This format is documented here:
`http://cr.yp.to/proto/maildir.html' and here:
`http://www.qmail.org/man/man5/maildir.html'.  `nnmaildir' also stores
extra information in the `.nnmaildir/' directory within a maildir.

   Maildir format was designed to allow concurrent deliveries and
reading, without needing locks.  With other back ends, you would have
your mail delivered to a spool of some kind, and then you would
configure Gnus to split mail from that spool into your groups.  You can
still do that with `nnmaildir', but the more common configuration is to
have your mail delivered directly to the maildirs that appear as group
in Gnus.

   `nnmaildir' is designed to be perfectly reliable: `C-g' will never
corrupt its data in memory, and `SIGKILL' will never corrupt its data
in the filesystem.

   `nnmaildir' stores article marks and NOV data in each maildir.  So
you can copy a whole maildir from one Gnus setup to another, and you
will keep your marks.

   Virtual server settings:

`directory'
     For each of your `nnmaildir' servers (it's very unlikely that
     you'd need more than one), you need to create a directory and
     populate it with maildirs or symlinks to maildirs (and nothing
     else; do not choose a directory already used for other purposes).
     Each maildir will be represented in Gnus as a newsgroup on that
     server; the filename of the symlink will be the name of the group.
     Any filenames in the directory starting with `.' are ignored.  The
     directory is scanned when you first start Gnus, and each time you
     type `g' in the group buffer; if any maildirs have been removed or
     added, `nnmaildir' notices at these times.

     The value of the `directory' parameter should be a Lisp form which
     is processed by `eval' and `expand-file-name' to get the path of
     the directory for this server.  The form is `eval'ed only when the
     server is opened; the resulting string is used until the server is
     closed.  (If you don't know about forms and `eval', don't worry--a
     simple string will work.)  This parameter is not optional; you
     must specify it.  I don't recommend using `"~/Mail"' or a
     subdirectory of it; several other parts of Gnus use that directory
     by default for various things, and may get confused if `nnmaildir'
     uses it too.  `"~/.nnmaildir"' is a typical value.

`target-prefix'
     This should be a Lisp form which is processed by `eval' and
     `expand-file-name'.  The form is `eval'ed only when the server is
     opened; the resulting string is used until the server is closed.

     When you create a group on an `nnmaildir' server, the maildir is
     created with `target-prefix' prepended to its name, and a symlink
     pointing to that maildir is created, named with the plain group
     name.  So if `directory' is `"~/.nnmaildir"' and `target-prefix'
     is `"../maildirs/"', then when you create the group `foo',
     `nnmaildir' will create `~/.nnmaildir/../maildirs/foo' as a
     maildir, and will create `~/.nnmaildir/foo' as a symlink pointing
     to `../maildirs/foo'.

     You can set `target-prefix' to a string without any slashes to
     create both maildirs and symlinks in the same `directory'; in this
     case, any maildirs found in `directory' whose names start with
     `target-prefix' will not be listed as groups (but the symlinks
     pointing to them will be).

     As a special case, if `target-prefix' is `""' (the default), then
     when you create a group, the maildir will be created in
     `directory' without a corresponding symlink.  Beware that you
     cannot use `gnus-group-delete-group' on such groups without the
     `force' argument.

`directory-files'
     This should be a function with the same interface as
     `directory-files' (such as `directory-files' itself).  It is used
     to scan the server's `directory' for maildirs.  This parameter is
     optional; the default is `nnheader-directory-files-safe' if
     `nnheader-directory-files-is-safe' is `nil', and `directory-files'
     otherwise.  (`nnheader-directory-files-is-safe' is checked only
     once when the server is opened; if you want to check it each time
     the directory is scanned, you'll have to provide your own function
     that does that.)

`get-new-mail'
     If non-`nil', then after scanning for new mail in the group
     maildirs themselves as usual, this server will also incorporate
     mail the conventional Gnus way, from `mail-sources' according to
     `nnmail-split-methods' or `nnmail-split-fancy'.  The default value
     is `nil'.

     Do _not_ use the same maildir both in `mail-sources' and as an
     `nnmaildir' group.  The results might happen to be useful, but
     that would be by chance, not by design, and the results might be
     different in the future.  If your split rules create new groups,
     remember to supply a `create-directory' server parameter.

6.3.13.6 Group parameters
.........................

`nnmaildir' uses several group parameters.  It's safe to ignore all
this; the default behavior for `nnmaildir' is the same as the default
behavior for other mail back ends: articles are deleted after one week,
etc.  Except for the expiry parameters, all this functionality is
unique to `nnmaildir', so you can ignore it if you're just trying to
duplicate the behavior you already have with another back end.

   If the value of any of these parameters is a vector, the first
element is evaluated as a Lisp form and the result is used, rather than
the original value.  If the value is not a vector, the value itself is
evaluated as a Lisp form.  (This is why these parameters use names
different from those of other, similar parameters supported by other
back ends: they have different, though similar, meanings.)  (For
numbers, strings, `nil', and `t', you can ignore the `eval' business
again; for other values, remember to use an extra quote and wrap the
value in a vector when appropriate.)

`expire-age'
     An integer specifying the minimum age, in seconds, of an article
     before it will be expired, or the symbol `never' to specify that
     articles should never be expired.  If this parameter is not set,
     `nnmaildir' falls back to the usual
     `nnmail-expiry-wait'(`-function') variables (the `expiry-wait'
     group parameter overrides `nnmail-expiry-wait' and makes
     `nnmail-expiry-wait-function' ineffective).  If you wanted a value
     of 3 days, you could use something like `[(* 3 24 60 60)]';
     `nnmaildir' will evaluate the form and use the result.  An
     article's age is measured starting from the article file's
     modification time.  Normally, this is the same as the article's
     delivery time, but editing an article makes it younger.  Moving an
     article (other than via expiry) may also make an article younger.

`expire-group'
     If this is set to a string such as a full Gnus group name, like
          "backend+server.address.string:group.name"
     and if it is not the name of the same group that the parameter
     belongs to, then articles will be moved to the specified group
     during expiry before being deleted.  _If this is set to an
     `nnmaildir' group, the article will be just as old in the
     destination group as it was in the source group._  So be careful
     with `expire-age' in the destination group.  If this is set to the
     name of the same group that the parameter belongs to, then the
     article is not expired at all.  If you use the vector form, the
     first element is evaluated once for each article.  So that form
     can refer to `nnmaildir-article-file-name', etc., to decide where
     to put the article.  _Even if this parameter is not set,
     `nnmaildir' does not fall back to the `expiry-target' group
     parameter or the `nnmail-expiry-target' variable._

`read-only'
     If this is set to `t', `nnmaildir' will treat the articles in this
     maildir as read-only.  This means: articles are not renamed from
     `new/' into `cur/'; articles are only found in `new/', not `cur/';
     articles are never deleted; articles cannot be edited.  `new/' is
     expected to be a symlink to the `new/' directory of another
     maildir--e.g., a system-wide mailbox containing a mailing list of
     common interest.  Everything in the maildir outside `new/' is
     _not_ treated as read-only, so for a shared mailbox, you do still
     need to set up your own maildir (or have write permission to the
     shared mailbox); your maildir just won't contain extra copies of
     the articles.

`directory-files'
     A function with the same interface as `directory-files'.  It is
     used to scan the directories in the maildir corresponding to this
     group to find articles.  The default is the function specified by
     the server's `directory-files' parameter.

`distrust-Lines:'
     If non-`nil', `nnmaildir' will always count the lines of an
     article, rather than use the `Lines:' header field.  If `nil', the
     header field will be used if present.

`always-marks'
     A list of mark symbols, such as `['(read expire)]'.  Whenever Gnus
     asks `nnmaildir' for article marks, `nnmaildir' will say that all
     articles have these marks, regardless of whether the marks stored
     in the filesystem say so.  This is a proof-of-concept feature that
     will probably be removed eventually; it ought to be done in Gnus
     proper, or abandoned if it's not worthwhile.

`never-marks'
     A list of mark symbols, such as `['(tick expire)]'.  Whenever Gnus
     asks `nnmaildir' for article marks, `nnmaildir' will say that no
     articles have these marks, regardless of whether the marks stored
     in the filesystem say so.  `never-marks' overrides `always-marks'.
     This is a proof-of-concept feature that will probably be removed
     eventually; it ought to be done in Gnus proper, or abandoned if
     it's not worthwhile.

`nov-cache-size'
     An integer specifying the size of the NOV memory cache.  To speed
     things up, `nnmaildir' keeps NOV data in memory for a limited
     number of articles in each group.  (This is probably not
     worthwhile, and will probably be removed in the future.)  This
     parameter's value is noticed only the first time a group is seen
     after the server is opened--i.e., when you first start Gnus,
     typically.  The NOV cache is never resized until the server is
     closed and reopened.  The default is an estimate of the number of
     articles that would be displayed in the summary buffer: a count of
     articles that are either marked with `tick' or not marked with
     `read', plus a little extra.

6.3.13.7 Article identification
...............................

Articles are stored in the `cur/' subdirectory of each maildir.  Each
article file is named like `uniq:info', where `uniq' contains no
colons.  `nnmaildir' ignores, but preserves, the `:info' part.  (Other
maildir readers typically use this part of the filename to store
marks.)  The `uniq' part uniquely identifies the article, and is used
in various places in the `.nnmaildir/' subdirectory of the maildir to
store information about the corresponding article.  The full pathname
of an article is available in the variable
`nnmaildir-article-file-name' after you request the article in the
summary buffer.

6.3.13.8 NOV data
.................

An article identified by `uniq' has its NOV data (used to generate
lines in the summary buffer) stored in `.nnmaildir/nov/uniq'.  There is
no `nnmaildir-generate-nov-databases' function.  (There isn't much need
for it--an article's NOV data is updated automatically when the article
or `nnmail-extra-headers' has changed.)  You can force `nnmaildir' to
regenerate the NOV data for a single article simply by deleting the
corresponding NOV file, but _beware_: this will also cause `nnmaildir'
to assign a new article number for this article, which may cause trouble
with `seen' marks, the Agent, and the cache.

6.3.13.9 Article marks
......................

An article identified by `uniq' is considered to have the mark `flag'
when the file `.nnmaildir/marks/flag/uniq' exists.  When Gnus asks
`nnmaildir' for a group's marks, `nnmaildir' looks for such files and
reports the set of marks it finds.  When Gnus asks `nnmaildir' to store
a new set of marks, `nnmaildir' creates and deletes the corresponding
files as needed.  (Actually, rather than create a new file for each
mark, it just creates hard links to `.nnmaildir/markfile', to save
inodes.)

   You can invent new marks by creating a new directory in
`.nnmaildir/marks/'.  You can tar up a maildir and remove it from your
server, untar it later, and keep your marks.  You can add and remove
marks yourself by creating and deleting mark files.  If you do this
while Gnus is running and your `nnmaildir' server is open, it's best to
exit all summary buffers for `nnmaildir' groups and type `s' in the
group buffer first, and to type `g' or `M-g' in the group buffer
afterwards.  Otherwise, Gnus might not pick up the changes, and might
undo them.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail Folders,  Next: Comparing Mail Back Ends,  Prev: Maildir,  Up: Choosing a Mail Back End

6.3.13.10 Mail Folders
......................

`nnfolder' is a back end for storing each mail group in a separate
file.  Each file is in the standard Un*x mbox format.  `nnfolder' will
add extra headers to keep track of article numbers and arrival dates.

   When the marks file is used (which it is by default), `nnfolder'
servers have the property that you may backup them using `tar' or
similar, and later be able to restore them into Gnus (by adding the
proper `nnfolder' server) and have all your marks be preserved.  Marks
for a group are usually stored in a file named as the mbox file with
`.mrk' concatenated to it (but see `nnfolder-marks-file-suffix') within
the `nnfolder' directory.  Individual `nnfolder' groups are also
possible to backup, use `G m' to restore the group (after restoring the
backup into the `nnfolder' directory).

   Virtual server settings:

`nnfolder-directory'
     All the `nnfolder' mail boxes will be stored under this directory.
     The default is the value of `message-directory' (whose default is
     `~/Mail')

`nnfolder-active-file'
     The name of the active file.  The default is `~/Mail/active'.

`nnfolder-newsgroups-file'
     The name of the group descriptions file.  *Note Newsgroups File
     Format::.  The default is `~/Mail/newsgroups'

`nnfolder-get-new-mail'
     If non-`nil', `nnfolder' will read incoming mail.  The default is
     `t'

`nnfolder-save-buffer-hook'
     Hook run before saving the folders.  Note that Emacs does the
     normal backup renaming of files even with the `nnfolder' buffers.
     If you wish to switch this off, you could say something like the
     following in your `.emacs' file:

          (defun turn-off-backup ()
            (set (make-local-variable 'backup-inhibited) t))

          (add-hook 'nnfolder-save-buffer-hook 'turn-off-backup)

`nnfolder-delete-mail-hook'
     Hook run in a buffer narrowed to the message that is to be deleted.
     This function can be used to copy the message to somewhere else,
     or to extract some information from it before removing it.

`nnfolder-nov-is-evil'
     If non-`nil', this back end will ignore any NOV files.  The
     default is `nil'.

`nnfolder-nov-file-suffix'
     The extension for NOV files.  The default is `.nov'.

`nnfolder-nov-directory'
     The directory where the NOV files should be stored.  If `nil',
     `nnfolder-directory' is used.

`nnfolder-marks-is-evil'
     If non-`nil', this back end will ignore any MARKS files.  The
     default is `nil'.

`nnfolder-marks-file-suffix'
     The extension for MARKS files.  The default is `.mrk'.

`nnfolder-marks-directory'
     The directory where the MARKS files should be stored.  If `nil',
     `nnfolder-directory' is used.


   If you have lots of `nnfolder'-like files you'd like to read with
`nnfolder', you can use the `M-x nnfolder-generate-active-file' command
to make `nnfolder' aware of all likely files in `nnfolder-directory'.
This only works if you use long file names, though.

File: gnus,  Node: Comparing Mail Back Ends,  Prev: Mail Folders,  Up: Choosing a Mail Back End

6.3.13.11 Comparing Mail Back Ends
..................................

First, just for terminology, the "back end" is the common word for a
low-level access method--a transport, if you will, by which something
is acquired.  The sense is that one's mail has to come from somewhere,
and so selection of a suitable back end is required in order to get that
mail within spitting distance of Gnus.

   The same concept exists for Usenet itself: Though access to articles
is typically done by NNTP these days, once upon a midnight dreary,
everyone in the world got at Usenet by running a reader on the machine
where the articles lay (the machine which today we call an NNTP
server), and access was by the reader stepping into the articles'
directory spool area directly.  One can still select between either the
`nntp' or `nnspool' back ends, to select between these methods, if one
happens actually to live on the server (or can see its spool directly,
anyway, via NFS).

   The goal in selecting a mail back end is to pick one which
simultaneously represents a suitable way of dealing with the original
format plus leaving mail in a form that is convenient to use in the
future.  Here are some high and low points on each:

`nnmbox'
     UNIX systems have historically had a single, very common, and well-
     defined format.  All messages arrive in a single "spool file", and
     they are delineated by a line whose regular expression matches
     `^From_'.  (My notational use of `_' is to indicate a space, to
     make it clear in this instance that this is not the RFC-specified
     `From:' header.)  Because Emacs and therefore Gnus emanate
     historically from the Unix environment, it is simplest if one does
     not mess a great deal with the original mailbox format, so if one
     chooses this back end, Gnus' primary activity in getting mail from
     the real spool area to Gnus' preferred directory is simply to copy
     it, with no (appreciable) format change in the process.  It is the
     "dumbest" way to move mail into availability in the Gnus
     environment.  This makes it fast to move into place, but slow to
     parse, when Gnus has to look at what's where.

`nnbabyl'
     Once upon a time, there was the DEC-10 and DEC-20, running
     operating systems called TOPS and related things, and the usual
     (only?) mail reading environment was a thing called Babyl.  I
     don't know what format was used for mail landing on the system,
     but Babyl had its own internal format to which mail was converted,
     primarily involving creating a spool-file-like entity with a
     scheme for inserting Babyl-specific headers and status bits above
     the top of each message in the file.  Rmail was Emacs' first mail
     reader, it was written by Richard Stallman, and Stallman came out
     of that TOPS/Babyl environment, so he wrote Rmail to understand
     the mail files folks already had in existence.  Gnus (and VM, for
     that matter) continue to support this format because it's
     perceived as having some good qualities in those mailer-specific
     headers/status bits stuff.  Rmail itself still exists as well, of
     course, and is still maintained within Emacs.  Since Emacs 23, it
     uses standard mbox format rather than Babyl.

     Both of the above forms leave your mail in a single file on your
     file system, and they must parse that entire file each time you
     take a look at your mail.

`nnml'
     `nnml' is the back end which smells the most as though you were
     actually operating with an `nnspool'-accessed Usenet system.  (In
     fact, I believe `nnml' actually derived from `nnspool' code, lo
     these years ago.)  One's mail is taken from the original spool
     file, and is then cut up into individual message files, 1:1.  It
     maintains a Usenet-style active file (analogous to what one finds
     in an INN- or CNews-based news system in (for instance)
     `/var/lib/news/active', or what is returned via the `NNTP LIST'
     verb) and also creates "overview" files for efficient group entry,
     as has been defined for NNTP servers for some years now.  It is
     slower in mail-splitting, due to the creation of lots of files,
     updates to the `nnml' active file, and additions to overview files
     on a per-message basis, but it is extremely fast on access because
     of what amounts to the indexing support provided by the active
     file and overviews.

     `nnml' costs "inodes" in a big way; that is, it soaks up the
     resource which defines available places in the file system to put
     new files.  Sysadmins take a dim view of heavy inode occupation
     within tight, shared file systems.  But if you live on a personal
     machine where the file system is your own and space is not at a
     premium, `nnml' wins big.

     It is also problematic using this back end if you are living in a
     FAT16-based Windows world, since much space will be wasted on all
     these tiny files.

`nnmh'
     The Rand MH mail-reading system has been around UNIX systems for a
     very long time; it operates by splitting one's spool file of
     messages into individual files, but with little or no indexing
     support--`nnmh' is considered to be semantically equivalent to
     "`nnml' without active file or overviews".  This is arguably the
     worst choice, because one gets the slowness of individual file
     creation married to the slowness of access parsing when learning
     what's new in one's groups.

`nnfolder'
     Basically the effect of `nnfolder' is `nnmbox' (the first method
     described above) on a per-group basis.  That is, `nnmbox' itself
     puts _all_ one's mail in one file; `nnfolder' provides a little
     bit of optimization to this so that each of one's mail groups has
     a Unix mail box file.  It's faster than `nnmbox' because each group
     can be parsed separately, and still provides the simple Unix mail
     box format requiring minimal effort in moving the mail around.  In
     addition, it maintains an "active" file making it much faster for
     Gnus to figure out how many messages there are in each separate
     group.

     If you have groups that are expected to have a massive amount of
     messages, `nnfolder' is not the best choice, but if you receive
     only a moderate amount of mail, `nnfolder' is probably the most
     friendly mail back end all over.

`nnmaildir'
     For configuring expiry and other things, `nnmaildir' uses
     incompatible group parameters, slightly different from those of
     other mail back ends.

     `nnmaildir' is largely similar to `nnml', with some notable
     differences.  Each message is stored in a separate file, but the
     filename is unrelated to the article number in Gnus.  `nnmaildir'
     also stores the equivalent of `nnml''s overview files in one file
     per article, so it uses about twice as many inodes as `nnml'.  (Use
     `df -i' to see how plentiful your inode supply is.)  If this slows
     you down or takes up very much space, consider switching to
     ReiserFS (http://www.namesys.com/) or another non-block-structured
     file system.

     Since maildirs don't require locking for delivery, the maildirs
     you use as groups can also be the maildirs your mail is directly
     delivered to.  This means you can skip Gnus' mail splitting if
     your mail is already organized into different mailboxes during
     delivery.  A `directory' entry in `mail-sources' would have a
     similar effect, but would require one set of mailboxes for
     spooling deliveries (in mbox format, thus damaging message
     bodies), and another set to be used as groups (in whatever format
     you like).  A maildir has a built-in spool, in the `new/'
     subdirectory.  Beware that currently, mail moved from `new/' to
     `cur/' instead of via mail splitting will not undergo treatment
     such as duplicate checking.

     `nnmaildir' stores article marks for a given group in the
     corresponding maildir, in a way designed so that it's easy to
     manipulate them from outside Gnus.  You can tar up a maildir,
     unpack it somewhere else, and still have your marks.  `nnml' also
     stores marks, but it's not as easy to work with them from outside
     Gnus as with `nnmaildir'.

     `nnmaildir' uses a significant amount of memory to speed things up.
     (It keeps in memory some of the things that `nnml' stores in files
     and that `nnmh' repeatedly parses out of message files.)  If this
     is a problem for you, you can set the `nov-cache-size' group
     parameter to something small (0 would probably not work, but 1
     probably would) to make it use less memory.  This caching will
     probably be removed in the future.

     Startup is likely to be slower with `nnmaildir' than with other
     back ends.  Everything else is likely to be faster, depending in
     part on your file system.

     `nnmaildir' does not use `nnoo', so you cannot use `nnoo' to write
     an `nnmaildir'-derived back end.


File: gnus,  Node: Browsing the Web,  Next: IMAP,  Prev: Getting Mail,  Up: Select Methods

6.4 Browsing the Web
====================

Web-based discussion forums are getting more and more popular.  On many
subjects, the web-based forums have become the most important forums,
eclipsing the importance of mailing lists and news groups.  The reason
is easy to understand--they are friendly to new users; you just point
and click, and there's the discussion.  With mailing lists, you have to
go through a cumbersome subscription procedure, and most people don't
even know what a news group is.

   The problem with this scenario is that web browsers are not very
good at being newsreaders.  They do not keep track of what articles
you've read; they do not allow you to score on subjects you're
interested in; they do not allow off-line browsing; they require you to
click around and drive you mad in the end.

   So--if web browsers suck at reading discussion forums, why not use
Gnus to do it instead?

   Gnus has been getting a bit of a collection of back ends for
providing interfaces to these sources.

* Menu:

* Archiving Mail::
* Web Searches::                Creating groups from articles that match a string.
* Slashdot::                    Reading the Slashdot comments.
* Ultimate::                    The Ultimate Bulletin Board systems.
* Web Archive::                 Reading mailing list archived on web.
* RSS::                         Reading RDF site summary.
* Customizing W3::              Doing stuff to Emacs/W3 from Gnus.

   All the web sources require Emacs/W3 and the url library or those
alternatives to work.

   The main caveat with all these web sources is that they probably
won't work for a very long time.  Gleaning information from the HTML
data is guesswork at best, and when the layout is altered, the Gnus
back end will fail.  If you have reasonably new versions of these back
ends, though, you should be ok.

   One thing all these Web methods have in common is that the Web
sources are often down, unavailable or just plain too slow to be fun.
In those cases, it makes a lot of sense to let the Gnus Agent (*note
Gnus Unplugged::) handle downloading articles, and then you can read
them at leisure from your local disk.  No more World Wide Wait for you.

File: gnus,  Node: Archiving Mail,  Next: Web Searches,  Up: Browsing the Web

6.4.1 Archiving Mail
--------------------

Some of the back ends, notably `nnml', `nnfolder', and `nnmaildir', now
actually store the article marks with each group.  For these servers,
archiving and restoring a group while preserving marks is fairly simple.

   (Preserving the group level and group parameters as well still
requires ritual dancing and sacrifices to the `.newsrc.eld' deity
though.)

   To archive an entire `nnml', `nnfolder', or `nnmaildir' server, take
a recursive copy of the server directory.  There is no need to shut
down Gnus, so archiving may be invoked by `cron' or similar.  You
restore the data by restoring the directory tree, and adding a server
definition pointing to that directory in Gnus.  The *note Article
Backlog::, *note Asynchronous Fetching:: and other things might
interfere with overwriting data, so you may want to shut down Gnus
before you restore the data.

   It is also possible to archive individual `nnml', `nnfolder', or
`nnmaildir' groups, while preserving marks.  For `nnml' or `nnmaildir',
you copy all files in the group's directory.  For `nnfolder' you need
to copy both the base folder file itself (`FOO', say), and the marks
file (`FOO.mrk' in this example).  Restoring the group is done with `G
m' from the Group buffer.  The last step makes Gnus notice the new
directory.  `nnmaildir' notices the new directory automatically, so `G
m' is unnecessary in that case.

File: gnus,  Node: Web Searches,  Next: Slashdot,  Prev: Archiving Mail,  Up: Browsing the Web

6.4.2 Web Searches
------------------

It's, like, too neat to search the Usenet for articles that match a
string, but it, like, totally _sucks_, like, totally, to use one of
those, like, Web browsers, and you, like, have to, rilly, like, look at
the commercials, so, like, with Gnus you can do _rad_, rilly, searches
without having to use a browser.

   The `nnweb' back end allows an easy interface to the mighty search
engine.  You create an `nnweb' group, enter a search pattern, and then
enter the group and read the articles like you would any normal group.
The `G w' command in the group buffer (*note Foreign Groups::) will do
this in an easy-to-use fashion.

   `nnweb' groups don't really lend themselves to being solid
groups--they have a very fleeting idea of article numbers.  In fact,
each time you enter an `nnweb' group (not even changing the search
pattern), you are likely to get the articles ordered in a different
manner.  Not even using duplicate suppression (*note Duplicate
Suppression::) will help, since `nnweb' doesn't even know the
`Message-ID' of the articles before reading them using some search
engines (Google, for instance).  The only possible way to keep track of
which articles you've read is by scoring on the `Date' header--mark all
articles posted before the last date you read the group as read.

   If the search engine changes its output substantially, `nnweb' won't
be able to parse it and will fail.  One could hardly fault the Web
providers if they were to do this--their _raison d'être_ is to make
money off of advertisements, not to provide services to the community.
Since `nnweb' washes the ads off all the articles, one might think that
the providers might be somewhat miffed.  We'll see.

   You must have the `url' and `W3' package or those alternatives (try
`customize-group' on the `mm-url' variable group) installed to be able
to use `nnweb'.

   Virtual server variables:

`nnweb-type'
     What search engine type is being used.  The currently supported
     types are `google', `dejanews', and `gmane'.  Note that `dejanews'
     is an alias to `google'.

`nnweb-search'
     The search string to feed to the search engine.

`nnweb-max-hits'
     Advisory maximum number of hits per search to display.  The
     default is 999.

`nnweb-type-definition'
     Type-to-definition alist.  This alist says what `nnweb' should do
     with the various search engine types.  The following elements must
     be present:

    `article'
          Function to decode the article and provide something that Gnus
          understands.

    `map'
          Function to create an article number to message header and
          URL alist.

    `search'
          Function to send the search string to the search engine.

    `address'
          The address the aforementioned function should send the
          search string to.

    `id'
          Format string URL to fetch an article by `Message-ID'.


File: gnus,  Node: Slashdot,  Next: Ultimate,  Prev: Web Searches,  Up: Browsing the Web

6.4.3 Slashdot
--------------

Slashdot (http://slashdot.org/) is a popular news site, with lively
discussion following the news articles.  `nnslashdot' will let you read
this forum in a convenient manner.

   The easiest way to read this source is to put something like the
following in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (setq gnus-secondary-select-methods
           '((nnslashdot "")))

   This will make Gnus query the `nnslashdot' back end for new comments
and groups.  The `F' command will subscribe each new news article as a
new Gnus group, and you can read the comments by entering these groups.
(Note that the default subscription method is to subscribe new groups
as zombies.  Other methods are available (*note Subscription Methods::).

   If you want to remove an old `nnslashdot' group, the `G DEL' command
is the most handy tool (*note Foreign Groups::).

   When following up to `nnslashdot' comments (or posting new
comments), some light HTMLizations will be performed.  In particular,
text quoted with `> ' will be quoted with `blockquote' instead, and
signatures will have `br' added to the end of each line.  Other than
that, you can just write HTML directly into the message buffer.  Note
that Slashdot filters out some HTML forms.

   The following variables can be altered to change its behavior:

`nnslashdot-threaded'
     Whether `nnslashdot' should display threaded groups or not.  The
     default is `t'.  To be able to display threads, `nnslashdot' has
     to retrieve absolutely all comments in a group upon entry.  If a
     threaded display is not required, `nnslashdot' will only retrieve
     the comments that are actually wanted by the user.  Threading is
     nicer, but much, much slower than unthreaded.

`nnslashdot-login-name'
     The login name to use when posting.

`nnslashdot-password'
     The password to use when posting.

`nnslashdot-directory'
     Where `nnslashdot' will store its files.  The default is
     `~/News/slashdot/'.

`nnslashdot-active-url'
     The URL format string that will be used to fetch the information
     on news articles and comments.  The default is
     `http://slashdot.org/search.pl?section=&min=%d'.

`nnslashdot-comments-url'
     The URL format string that will be used to fetch comments.

`nnslashdot-article-url'
     The URL format string that will be used to fetch the news article.
     The default is
     `http://slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=%s&mode=nocomment'.

`nnslashdot-threshold'
     The score threshold.  The default is -1.

`nnslashdot-group-number'
     The number of old groups, in addition to the ten latest, to keep
     updated.  The default is 0.


File: gnus,  Node: Ultimate,  Next: Web Archive,  Prev: Slashdot,  Up: Browsing the Web

6.4.4 Ultimate
--------------

The Ultimate Bulletin Board (http://www.ultimatebb.com/) is probably
the most popular Web bulletin board system used.  It has a quite
regular and nice interface, and it's possible to get the information
Gnus needs to keep groups updated.

   The easiest way to get started with `nnultimate' is to say something
like the following in the group buffer:  `B nnultimate RET
http://www.tcj.com/messboard/ubbcgi/ RET'.  (Substitute the URL (not
including `Ultimate.cgi' or the like at the end) for a forum you're
interested in; there's quite a list of them on the Ultimate web site.)
Then subscribe to the groups you're interested in from the server
buffer, and read them from the group buffer.

   The following `nnultimate' variables can be altered:

`nnultimate-directory'
     The directory where `nnultimate' stores its files.  The default is
     `~/News/ultimate/'.

File: gnus,  Node: Web Archive,  Next: RSS,  Prev: Ultimate,  Up: Browsing the Web

6.4.5 Web Archive
-----------------

Some mailing lists only have archives on Web servers, such as
`http://www.egroups.com/' and `http://www.mail-archive.com/'.  It has a
quite regular and nice interface, and it's possible to get the
information Gnus needs to keep groups updated.

   The easiest way to get started with `nnwarchive' is to say something
like the following in the group buffer: `M-x
gnus-group-make-warchive-group RET AN_EGROUP RET egroups RET
www.egroups.com RET YOURATEMAIL.ADDRESS RET'.  (Substitute the AN_EGROUP
with the mailing list you subscribed, the YOURATEMAIL.ADDRESS with your
email address.), or to browse the back end by `B nnwarchive RET
mail-archive RET'.

   The following `nnwarchive' variables can be altered:

`nnwarchive-directory'
     The directory where `nnwarchive' stores its files.  The default is
     `~/News/warchive/'.

`nnwarchive-login'
     The account name on the web server.

`nnwarchive-passwd'
     The password for your account on the web server.

File: gnus,  Node: RSS,  Next: Customizing W3,  Prev: Web Archive,  Up: Browsing the Web

6.4.6 RSS
---------

Some web sites have an RDF Site Summary (RSS).  RSS is a format for
summarizing headlines from news related sites (such as BBC or CNN).
But basically anything list-like can be presented as an RSS feed:
weblogs, changelogs or recent changes to a wiki (e.g.
`http://cliki.net/recent-changes.rdf').

   RSS has a quite regular and nice interface, and it's possible to get
the information Gnus needs to keep groups updated.

   Note: you had better use Emacs which supports the `utf-8' coding
system because RSS uses UTF-8 for encoding non-ASCII text by default.
It is also used by default for non-ASCII group names.

   Use `G R' from the group buffer to subscribe to a feed--you will be
prompted for the location, the title and the description of the feed.
The title, which allows any characters, will be used for the group name
and the name of the group data file.  The description can be omitted.

   An easy way to get started with `nnrss' is to say something like the
following in the group buffer: `B nnrss RET RET y', then subscribe to
groups.

   The `nnrss' back end saves the group data file in `nnrss-directory'
(see below) for each `nnrss' group.  File names containing non-ASCII
characters will be encoded by the coding system specified with the
`nnmail-pathname-coding-system' variable or other.  Also *Note
Non-ASCII Group Names::, for more information.

   The `nnrss' back end generates `multipart/alternative' MIME articles
in which each contains a `text/plain' part and a `text/html' part.

   You can also use the following commands to import and export your
subscriptions from a file in OPML format (Outline Processor Markup
Language).

 -- Function: nnrss-opml-import file
     Prompt for an OPML file, and subscribe to each feed in the file.

 -- Function: nnrss-opml-export
     Write your current RSS subscriptions to a buffer in OPML format.

   The following `nnrss' variables can be altered:

`nnrss-directory'
     The directory where `nnrss' stores its files.  The default is
     `~/News/rss/'.

`nnrss-file-coding-system'
     The coding system used when reading and writing the `nnrss' groups
     data files.  The default is the value of
     `mm-universal-coding-system' (which defaults to `emacs-mule' in
     Emacs or `escape-quoted' in XEmacs).

`nnrss-ignore-article-fields'
     Some feeds update constantly article fields during their
     publications, e.g. to indicate the number of comments.  However,
     if there is a difference between the local article and the distant
     one, the latter is considered to be new.  To avoid this and
     discard some fields, set this variable to the list of fields to be
     ignored.  The default is `'(slash:comments)'.

`nnrss-use-local'
     If you set `nnrss-use-local' to `t', `nnrss' will read the feeds
     from local files in `nnrss-directory'.  You can use the command
     `nnrss-generate-download-script' to generate a download script
     using `wget'.

`nnrss-wash-html-in-text-plain-parts'
     Non-`nil' means that `nnrss' renders text in `text/plain' parts as
     HTML.  The function specified by the `mm-text-html-renderer'
     variable (*note Display Customization: (emacs-mime)Display
     Customization.) will be used to render text.  If it is `nil',
     which is the default, text will simply be folded.  Leave it `nil'
     if you prefer to see `text/html' parts.

   The following code may be helpful, if you want to show the
description in the summary buffer.

     (add-to-list 'nnmail-extra-headers nnrss-description-field)
     (setq gnus-summary-line-format "%U%R%z%I%(%[%4L: %-15,15f%]%) %s%uX\n")

     (defun gnus-user-format-function-X (header)
       (let ((descr
              (assq nnrss-description-field (mail-header-extra header))))
         (if descr (concat "\n\t" (cdr descr)) "")))

   The following code may be useful to open an nnrss url directly from
the summary buffer.

     (require 'browse-url)

     (defun browse-nnrss-url (arg)
       (interactive "p")
       (let ((url (assq nnrss-url-field
                        (mail-header-extra
                         (gnus-data-header
                          (assq (gnus-summary-article-number)
                                gnus-newsgroup-data))))))
         (if url
             (progn
               (browse-url (cdr url))
               (gnus-summary-mark-as-read-forward 1))
           (gnus-summary-scroll-up arg))))

     (eval-after-load "gnus"
       #'(define-key gnus-summary-mode-map
           (kbd "<RET>") 'browse-nnrss-url))
     (add-to-list 'nnmail-extra-headers nnrss-url-field)

   Even if you have added `text/html' to the
`mm-discouraged-alternatives' variable (*note Display Customization:
(emacs-mime)Display Customization.) since you don't want to see HTML
parts, it might be more useful especially in `nnrss' groups to display
`text/html' parts.  Here's an example of setting
`mm-discouraged-alternatives' as a group parameter (*note Group
Parameters::) in order to display `text/html' parts only in `nnrss'
groups:

     ;; Set the default value of `mm-discouraged-alternatives'.
     (eval-after-load "gnus-sum"
       '(add-to-list
         'gnus-newsgroup-variables
         '(mm-discouraged-alternatives
           . '("text/html" "image/.*"))))

     ;; Display `text/html' parts in `nnrss' groups.
     (add-to-list
      'gnus-parameters
      '("\\`nnrss:" (mm-discouraged-alternatives nil)))

File: gnus,  Node: Customizing W3,  Prev: RSS,  Up: Browsing the Web

6.4.7 Customizing W3
--------------------

Gnus uses the url library to fetch web pages and Emacs/W3 (or those
alternatives) to display web pages.  Emacs/W3 is documented in its own
manual, but there are some things that may be more relevant for Gnus
users.

   For instance, a common question is how to make Emacs/W3 follow links
using the `browse-url' functions (which will call some external web
browser like Netscape).  Here's one way:

     (eval-after-load "w3"
       '(progn
         (fset 'w3-fetch-orig (symbol-function 'w3-fetch))
         (defun w3-fetch (&optional url target)
           (interactive (list (w3-read-url-with-default)))
           (if (eq major-mode 'gnus-article-mode)
               (browse-url url)
             (w3-fetch-orig url target)))))

   Put that in your `.emacs' file, and hitting links in W3-rendered
HTML in the Gnus article buffers will use `browse-url' to follow the
link.

File: gnus,  Node: IMAP,  Next: Other Sources,  Prev: Browsing the Web,  Up: Select Methods

6.5 IMAP
========

IMAP is a network protocol for reading mail (or news, or ...), think of
it as a modernized NNTP.  Connecting to a IMAP server is much similar
to connecting to a news server, you just specify the network address of
the server.

   IMAP has two properties.  First, IMAP can do everything that POP
can, it can hence be viewed as a POP++.  Secondly, IMAP is a mail
storage protocol, similar to NNTP being a news storage
protocol--however, IMAP offers more features than NNTP because news is
more or less read-only whereas mail is read-write.

   If you want to use IMAP as a POP++, use an imap entry in
`mail-sources'.  With this, Gnus will fetch mails from the IMAP server
and store them on the local disk.  This is not the usage described in
this section--*Note Mail Sources::.

   If you want to use IMAP as a mail storage protocol, use an nnimap
entry in `gnus-secondary-select-methods'.  With this, Gnus will
manipulate mails stored on the IMAP server.  This is the kind of usage
explained in this section.

   A server configuration in `~/.gnus.el' with a few IMAP servers might
look something like the following.  (Note that for TLS/SSL, you need
external programs and libraries, see below.)

     (setq gnus-secondary-select-methods
           '((nnimap "simpleserver") ; no special configuration
             ; perhaps a ssh port forwarded server:
             (nnimap "dolk"
                     (nnimap-address "localhost")
                     (nnimap-server-port 1430))
             ; a UW server running on localhost
             (nnimap "barbar"
                     (nnimap-server-port 143)
                     (nnimap-address "localhost")
                     (nnimap-list-pattern ("INBOX" "mail/*")))
             ; anonymous public cyrus server:
             (nnimap "cyrus.andrew.cmu.edu"
                     (nnimap-authenticator anonymous)
                     (nnimap-list-pattern "archive.*")
                     (nnimap-stream network))
             ; a ssl server on a non-standard port:
             (nnimap "vic20"
                     (nnimap-address "vic20.somewhere.com")
                     (nnimap-server-port 9930)
                     (nnimap-stream ssl))))

   After defining the new server, you can subscribe to groups on the
server using normal Gnus commands such as `U' in the Group Buffer
(*note Subscription Commands::) or via the Server Buffer (*note Server
Buffer::).

   The following variables can be used to create a virtual `nnimap'
server:

`nnimap-address'
     The address of the remote IMAP server.  Defaults to the virtual
     server name if not specified.

`nnimap-server-port'
     Port on server to contact.  Defaults to port 143, or 993 for
     TLS/SSL.

     Note that this should be an integer, example server specification:

          (nnimap "mail.server.com"
                  (nnimap-server-port 4711))

`nnimap-list-pattern'
     String or list of strings of mailboxes to limit available groups
     to.  This is used when the server has very many mailboxes and
     you're only interested in a few--some servers export your home
     directory via IMAP, you'll probably want to limit the mailboxes to
     those in `~/Mail/*' then.

     The string can also be a cons of REFERENCE and the string as
     above, what REFERENCE is used for is server specific, but on the
     University of Washington server it's a directory that will be
     concatenated with the mailbox.

     Example server specification:

          (nnimap "mail.server.com"
                  (nnimap-list-pattern ("INBOX" "Mail/*" "alt.sex.*"
                                         ("~friend/Mail/" . "list/*"))))

`nnimap-stream'
     The type of stream used to connect to your server.  By default,
     nnimap will detect and automatically use all of the below, with
     the exception of TLS/SSL.  (IMAP over TLS/SSL is being replaced by
     STARTTLS, which can be automatically detected, but it's not widely
     deployed yet.)

     Example server specification:

          (nnimap "mail.server.com"
                  (nnimap-stream ssl))

     Please note that the value of `nnimap-stream' is a symbol!

        * "gssapi:" Connect with GSSAPI (usually Kerberos 5).  Requires
          the `gsasl' or `imtest' program.

        * "kerberos4:" Connect with Kerberos 4.  Requires the `imtest'
          program.

        * "starttls:" Connect via the STARTTLS extension (similar to
          TLS/SSL).  Requires the external library `starttls.el' and
          program `starttls'.

        * "tls:" Connect through TLS.  Requires GNUTLS (the program
          `gnutls-cli').

        * "ssl:" Connect through SSL.  Requires OpenSSL (the program
          `openssl') or SSLeay (`s_client').

        * "shell:" Use a shell command to start IMAP connection.

        * "network:" Plain, TCP/IP network connection.

     The `imtest' program is shipped with Cyrus IMAPD.  If you're using
     `imtest' from Cyrus IMAPD < 2.0.14 (which includes version 1.5.x
     and 1.6.x) you need to frob `imap-process-connection-type' to make
     `imap.el' use a pty instead of a pipe when communicating with
     `imtest'.  You will then suffer from a line length restrictions on
     IMAP commands, which might make Gnus seem to hang indefinitely if
     you have many articles in a mailbox.  The variable
     `imap-kerberos4-program' contain parameters to pass to the imtest
     program.

     For TLS connection, the `gnutls-cli' program from GNUTLS is
     needed.  It is available from
     `http://www.gnu.org/software/gnutls/'.

     This parameter specifies a list of command lines that invoke a
     GSSAPI authenticated IMAP stream in a subshell.  They are tried
     sequentially until a connection is made, or the list has been
     exhausted.  By default, `gsasl' from GNU SASL, available from
     `http://www.gnu.org/software/gsasl/', and the `imtest' program
     from Cyrus IMAPD (see `imap-kerberos4-program'), are tried.

     For SSL connections, the OpenSSL program is available from
     `http://www.openssl.org/'.  OpenSSL was formerly known as SSLeay,
     and nnimap support it too--although the most recent versions of
     SSLeay, 0.9.x, are known to have serious bugs making it useless.
     Earlier versions, especially 0.8.x, of SSLeay are known to work.
     The variable `imap-ssl-program' contain parameters to pass to
     OpenSSL/SSLeay.

     For IMAP connections using the `shell' stream, the variable
     `imap-shell-program' specify what program to call.  Make sure
     nothing is interfering with the output of the program, e.g., don't
     forget to redirect the error output to the void.

`nnimap-authenticator'
     The authenticator used to connect to the server.  By default,
     nnimap will use the most secure authenticator your server is
     capable of.

     Example server specification:

          (nnimap "mail.server.com"
                  (nnimap-authenticator anonymous))

     Please note that the value of `nnimap-authenticator' is a symbol!

        * "gssapi:" GSSAPI (usually kerberos 5) authentication.
          Requires external program `gsasl' or `imtest'.

        * "kerberos4:" Kerberos 4 authentication.  Requires external
          program `imtest'.

        * "digest-md5:" Encrypted username/password via DIGEST-MD5.
          Requires external library `digest-md5.el'.

        * "cram-md5:" Encrypted username/password via CRAM-MD5.

        * "login:" Plain-text username/password via LOGIN.

        * "anonymous:" Login as "anonymous", supplying your email
          address as password.

`nnimap-expunge-on-close'
     Unlike Parmenides the IMAP designers have decided things that
     don't exist actually do exist.  More specifically, IMAP has this
     concept of marking articles `Deleted' which doesn't actually
     delete them, and this (marking them `Deleted', that is) is what
     nnimap does when you delete an article in Gnus (with `B DEL' or
     similar).

     Since the articles aren't really removed when we mark them with the
     `Deleted' flag we'll need a way to actually delete them.  Feel like
     running in circles yet?

     Traditionally, nnimap has removed all articles marked as `Deleted'
     when closing a mailbox but this is now configurable by this server
     variable.

     The possible options are:

    `always'
          The default behavior, delete all articles marked as "Deleted"
          when closing a mailbox.

    `never'
          Never actually delete articles.  Currently there is no way of
          showing the articles marked for deletion in nnimap, but other
          IMAP clients may allow you to do this.  If you ever want to
          run the EXPUNGE command manually, *Note Expunging mailboxes::.

    `ask'
          When closing mailboxes, nnimap will ask if you wish to
          expunge deleted articles or not.


`nnimap-importantize-dormant'
     If non-`nil' (the default), marks dormant articles as ticked (as
     well), for other IMAP clients.  Within Gnus, dormant articles will
     naturally still (only) be marked as dormant.  This is to make
     dormant articles stand out, just like ticked articles, in other
     IMAP clients.  (In other words, Gnus has two "Tick" marks and IMAP
     has only one.)

     Probably the only reason for frobbing this would be if you're
     trying enable per-user persistent dormant flags, using something
     like:

          (setcdr (assq 'dormant nnimap-mark-to-flag-alist)
                  (format "gnus-dormant-%s" (user-login-name)))
          (setcdr (assq 'dormant nnimap-mark-to-predicate-alist)
                  (format "KEYWORD gnus-dormant-%s" (user-login-name)))

     In this case, you would not want the per-user dormant flag showing
     up as ticked for other users.

`nnimap-expunge-search-string'
     This variable contain the IMAP search command sent to server when
     searching for articles eligible for expiring.  The default is
     `"UID %s NOT SINCE %s"', where the first `%s' is replaced by UID
     set and the second `%s' is replaced by a date.

     Probably the only useful value to change this to is `"UID %s NOT
     SENTSINCE %s"', which makes nnimap use the Date: in messages
     instead of the internal article date.  See section 6.4.4 of RFC
     2060 for more information on valid strings.

     However, if `nnimap-search-uids-not-since-is-evil' is true, this
     variable has no effect since the search logic is reversed, as
     described below.

`nnimap-authinfo-file'
     A file containing credentials used to log in on servers.  The
     format is (almost) the same as the `ftp' `~/.netrc' file.  See the
     variable `nntp-authinfo-file' for exact syntax; also see *note
     NNTP::.  An example of an .authinfo line for an IMAP server, is:

          machine students.uio.no login larsi password geheimnis port imap

     Note that it should be `port imap', or `port 143', if you use a
     `nnimap-stream' of `tls' or `ssl', even if the actual port number
     used is port 993 for secured IMAP.  For convenience, Gnus will
     accept `port imaps' as a synonym of `port imap'.

`nnimap-need-unselect-to-notice-new-mail'
     Unselect mailboxes before looking for new mail in them.  Some
     servers seem to need this under some circumstances; it was
     reported that Courier 1.7.1 did.

`nnimap-nov-is-evil'
     Never generate or use a local NOV database. Defaults to the value
     of `gnus-agent'.

     Using a NOV database usually makes header fetching much faster,
     but it uses the `UID SEARCH UID' command, which is very slow on
     some servers (notably some versions of Courier). Since the Gnus
     Agent caches the information in the NOV database without using the
     slow command, this variable defaults to true if the Agent is in
     use, and false otherwise.

`nnimap-search-uids-not-since-is-evil'
     Avoid the `UID SEARCH UID MESSAGE NUMBERS NOT SINCE DATE' command,
     which is slow on some IMAP servers (notably, some versions of
     Courier). Instead, use `UID SEARCH SINCE DATE' and prune the list
     of expirable articles within Gnus.

     When Gnus expires your mail (*note Expiring Mail::), it starts
     with a list of expirable articles and asks the IMAP server
     questions like "Of these articles, which ones are older than a
     week?" While this seems like a perfectly reasonable question, some
     IMAP servers take a long time to answer it, since they seemingly
     go looking into every old article to see if it is one of the
     expirable ones. Curiously, the question "Of _all_ articles, which
     ones are newer than a week?" seems to be much faster to answer, so
     setting this variable causes Gnus to ask this question and figure
     out the answer to the real question itself.

     This problem can really sneak up on you: when you first configure
     Gnus, everything works fine, but once you accumulate a couple
     thousand messages, you start cursing Gnus for being so slow. On
     the other hand, if you get a lot of email within a week, setting
     this variable will cause a lot of network traffic between Gnus and
     the IMAP server.

`nnimap-logout-timeout'
     There is a case where a connection to a IMAP server is unable to
     close, when connecting to the server via a certain kind of network,
     e.g. VPN.  In that case, it will be observed that a connection
     between Emacs and the local network looks alive even if the server
     has closed a connection for some reason (typically, a timeout).
     Consequently, Emacs continues waiting for a response from the
     server for the `LOGOUT' command that Emacs sent, or hangs in other
     words.  If you are in such a network, setting this variable to a
     number of seconds will be helpful.  If it is set, a hung
     connection will be closed forcibly, after this number of seconds
     from the time Emacs sends the `LOGOUT' command.  It should not be
     too small value but too large value will be inconvenient too.
     Perhaps the value 1.0 will be a good candidate but it might be
     worth trying some other values.

     Example server specification:

          (nnimap "mail.server.com"
                  (nnimap-logout-timeout 1.0))


* Menu:

* Splitting in IMAP::           Splitting mail with nnimap.
* Expiring in IMAP::            Expiring mail with nnimap.
* Editing IMAP ACLs::           Limiting/enabling other users access to a mailbox.
* Expunging mailboxes::         Equivalent of a ``compress mailbox'' button.
* A note on namespaces::        How to (not) use IMAP namespace in Gnus.
* Debugging IMAP::              What to do when things don't work.

File: gnus,  Node: Splitting in IMAP,  Next: Expiring in IMAP,  Up: IMAP

6.5.1 Splitting in IMAP
-----------------------

Splitting is something Gnus users have loved and used for years, and now
the rest of the world is catching up.  Yeah, dream on, not many IMAP
servers have server side splitting and those that have splitting seem
to use some non-standard protocol.  This means that IMAP support for
Gnus has to do its own splitting.

   And it does.

   (Incidentally, people seem to have been dreaming on, and Sieve has
gaining a market share and is supported by several IMAP servers.
Fortunately, Gnus support it too, *Note Sieve Commands::.)

   Here are the variables of interest:

`nnimap-split-crosspost'
     If non-`nil', do crossposting if several split methods match the
     mail.  If `nil', the first match in `nnimap-split-rule' found will
     be used.

     Nnmail equivalent: `nnmail-crosspost'.

`nnimap-split-inbox'
     A string or a list of strings that gives the name(s) of IMAP
     mailboxes to split from.  Defaults to `nil', which means that
     splitting is disabled!

          (setq nnimap-split-inbox
                '("INBOX" ("~/friend/Mail" . "lists/*") "lists.imap"))

     No nnmail equivalent.

`nnimap-split-rule'
     New mail found in `nnimap-split-inbox' will be split according to
     this variable.

     This variable contains a list of lists, where the first element in
     the sublist gives the name of the IMAP mailbox to move articles
     matching the regexp in the second element in the sublist.  Got
     that?  Neither did I, we need examples.

          (setq nnimap-split-rule
                '(("INBOX.nnimap"
                   "^Sender: owner-nnimapATvic20.se")
                  ("INBOX.junk"    "^Subject:.*MAKE MONEY")
                  ("INBOX.private" "")))

     This will put all articles from the nnimap mailing list into
     mailbox INBOX.nnimap, all articles containing MAKE MONEY in the
     Subject: line into INBOX.junk and everything else in INBOX.private.

     The first string may contain `\\1' forms, like the ones used by
     replace-match to insert sub-expressions from the matched text.  For
     instance:

          ("INBOX.lists.\\1"     "^Sender: owner-\\([a-z-]+\\)@")

     The first element can also be the symbol `junk' to indicate that
     matching messages should simply be deleted.  Use with care.

     The second element can also be a function.  In that case, it will
     be called with the first element of the rule as the argument, in a
     buffer containing the headers of the article.  It should return a
     non-`nil' value if it thinks that the mail belongs in that group.

     Nnmail users might recollect that the last regexp had to be empty
     to match all articles (like in the example above).  This is not
     required in nnimap.  Articles not matching any of the regexps will
     not be moved out of your inbox.  (This might affect performance if
     you keep lots of unread articles in your inbox, since the
     splitting code would go over them every time you fetch new mail.)

     These rules are processed from the beginning of the alist toward
     the end.  The first rule to make a match will "win", unless you
     have crossposting enabled.  In that case, all matching rules will
     "win".

     This variable can also have a function as its value, the function
     will be called with the headers narrowed and should return a group
     where it thinks the article should be split to.  See
     `nnimap-split-fancy'.

     The splitting code tries to create mailboxes if it needs to.

     To allow for different split rules on different virtual servers,
     and even different split rules in different inboxes on the same
     server, the syntax of this variable have been extended along the
     lines of:

          (setq nnimap-split-rule
                '(("my1server"    (".*" (("ding"    "dingATgnus.org")
                                         ("junk"    "From:.*Simon"))))
                  ("my2server"    ("INBOX" nnimap-split-fancy))
                  ("my[34]server" (".*" (("private" "To:.*Simon")
                                         ("junk"    my-junk-func))))))

     The virtual server name is in fact a regexp, so that the same rules
     may apply to several servers.  In the example, the servers
     `my3server' and `my4server' both use the same rules.  Similarly,
     the inbox string is also a regexp.  The actual splitting rules are
     as before, either a function, or a list with group/regexp or
     group/function elements.

     Nnmail equivalent: `nnmail-split-methods'.

`nnimap-split-predicate'
     Mail matching this predicate in `nnimap-split-inbox' will be
     split, it is a string and the default is `UNSEEN UNDELETED'.

     This might be useful if you use another IMAP client to read mail in
     your inbox but would like Gnus to split all articles in the inbox
     regardless of readedness.  Then you might change this to
     `UNDELETED'.

`nnimap-split-fancy'
     It's possible to set `nnimap-split-rule' to `nnmail-split-fancy'
     if you want to use fancy splitting.  *Note Fancy Mail Splitting::.

     However, to be able to have different fancy split rules for nnmail
     and nnimap back ends you can set `nnimap-split-rule' to
     `nnimap-split-fancy' and define the nnimap specific fancy split
     rule in `nnimap-split-fancy'.

     Example:

          (setq nnimap-split-rule 'nnimap-split-fancy
                nnimap-split-fancy ...)

     Nnmail equivalent: `nnmail-split-fancy'.

`nnimap-split-download-body'
     Set to non-`nil' to download entire articles during splitting.
     This is generally not required, and will slow things down
     considerably.  You may need it if you want to use an advanced
     splitting function that analyzes the body to split the article.


File: gnus,  Node: Expiring in IMAP,  Next: Editing IMAP ACLs,  Prev: Splitting in IMAP,  Up: IMAP

6.5.2 Expiring in IMAP
----------------------

Even though `nnimap' is not a proper `nnmail' derived back end, it
supports most features in regular expiring (*note Expiring Mail::).
Unlike splitting in IMAP (*note Splitting in IMAP::) it does not clone
the `nnmail' variables (i.e., creating NNIMAP-EXPIRY-WAIT) but reuse
the `nnmail' variables.  What follows below are the variables used by
the `nnimap' expiry process.

   A note on how the expire mark is stored on the IMAP server is
appropriate here as well.  The expire mark is translated into a `imap'
client specific mark, `gnus-expire', and stored on the message.  This
means that likely only Gnus will understand and treat the `gnus-expire'
mark properly, although other clients may allow you to view client
specific flags on the message.  It also means that your server must
support permanent storage of client specific flags on messages.  Most
do, fortunately.

   If expiring IMAP mail seems very slow, try setting the server
variable `nnimap-search-uids-not-since-is-evil'.

`nnmail-expiry-wait'

`nnmail-expiry-wait-function'
     These variables are fully supported.  The expire value can be a
     number, the symbol `immediate' or `never'.

`nnmail-expiry-target'
     This variable is supported, and internally implemented by calling
     the `nnmail' functions that handle this.  It contains an
     optimization that if the destination is a IMAP group on the same
     server, the article is copied instead of appended (that is,
     uploaded again).


File: gnus,  Node: Editing IMAP ACLs,  Next: Expunging mailboxes,  Prev: Expiring in IMAP,  Up: IMAP

6.5.3 Editing IMAP ACLs
-----------------------

ACL stands for Access Control List.  ACLs are used in IMAP for limiting
(or enabling) other users access to your mail boxes.  Not all IMAP
servers support this, this function will give an error if it doesn't.

   To edit an ACL for a mailbox, type `G l'
(`gnus-group-edit-nnimap-acl') and you'll be presented with an ACL
editing window with detailed instructions.

   Some possible uses:

   * Giving "anyone" the "lrs" rights (lookup, read, keep seen/unseen
     flags) on your mailing list mailboxes enables other users on the
     same server to follow the list without subscribing to it.

   * At least with the Cyrus server, you are required to give the user
     "anyone" posting ("p") capabilities to have "plussing" work (that
     is, mail sent to user+mailbox@domain ending up in the IMAP mailbox
     INBOX.mailbox).

File: gnus,  Node: Expunging mailboxes,  Next: A note on namespaces,  Prev: Editing IMAP ACLs,  Up: IMAP

6.5.4 Expunging mailboxes
-------------------------

If you're using the `never' setting of `nnimap-expunge-on-close', you
may want the option of expunging all deleted articles in a mailbox
manually.  This is exactly what `G x' does.

   Currently there is no way of showing deleted articles, you can just
delete them.

File: gnus,  Node: A note on namespaces,  Next: Debugging IMAP,  Prev: Expunging mailboxes,  Up: IMAP

6.5.5 A note on namespaces
--------------------------

The IMAP protocol has a concept called namespaces, described by the
following text in the RFC2060:

     5.1.2.  Mailbox Namespace Naming Convention

        By convention, the first hierarchical element of any mailbox name
        which begins with "#" identifies the "namespace" of the remainder of
        the name.  This makes it possible to disambiguate between different
        types of mailbox stores, each of which have their own namespaces.

           For example, implementations which offer access to USENET
           newsgroups MAY use the "#news" namespace to partition the USENET
           newsgroup namespace from that of other mailboxes.  Thus, the
           comp.mail.misc newsgroup would have an mailbox name of
           "#news.comp.mail.misc", and the name "comp.mail.misc" could refer
           to a different object (e.g. a user's private mailbox).

   While there is nothing in this text that warrants concern for the
IMAP implementation in Gnus, some servers use namespace prefixes in a
way that does not work with how Gnus uses mailbox names.

   Specifically, University of Washington's IMAP server uses mailbox
names like `#driver.mbx/read-mail' which are valid only in the CREATE
and APPEND commands.  After the mailbox is created (or a messages is
appended to a mailbox), it must be accessed without the namespace
prefix, i.e. `read-mail'.  Since Gnus do not make it possible for the
user to guarantee that user entered mailbox names will only be used
with the CREATE and APPEND commands, you should simply not use the
namespace prefixed mailbox names in Gnus.

   See the UoW IMAPD documentation for the `#driver.*/' prefix for more
information on how to use the prefixes.  They are a power tool and
should be used only if you are sure what the effects are.

File: gnus,  Node: Debugging IMAP,  Prev: A note on namespaces,  Up: IMAP

6.5.6 Debugging IMAP
--------------------

IMAP is a complex protocol, more so than NNTP or POP3.  Implementation
bugs are not unlikely, and we do our best to fix them right away.  If
you encounter odd behavior, chances are that either the server or Gnus
is buggy.

   If you are familiar with network protocols in general, you will
probably be able to extract some clues from the protocol dump of the
exchanges between Gnus and the server.  Even if you are not familiar
with network protocols, when you include the protocol dump in
IMAP-related bug reports you are helping us with data critical to
solving the problem.  Therefore, we strongly encourage you to include
the protocol dump when reporting IMAP bugs in Gnus.

   Because the protocol dump, when enabled, generates lots of data, it
is disabled by default.  You can enable it by setting `imap-log' as
follows:

     (setq imap-log t)

   This instructs the `imap.el' package to log any exchanges with the
server.  The log is stored in the buffer `*imap-log*'.  Look for error
messages, which sometimes are tagged with the keyword `BAD'--but when
submitting a bug, make sure to include all the data.

File: gnus,  Node: Other Sources,  Next: Combined Groups,  Prev: IMAP,  Up: Select Methods

6.6 Other Sources
=================

Gnus can do more than just read news or mail.  The methods described
below allow Gnus to view directories and files as if they were
newsgroups.

* Menu:

* Directory Groups::            You can read a directory as if it was a newsgroup.
* Anything Groups::             Dired?  Who needs dired?
* Document Groups::             Single files can be the basis of a group.
* SOUP::                        Reading SOUP packets ``offline''.
* Mail-To-News Gateways::       Posting articles via mail-to-news gateways.

File: gnus,  Node: Directory Groups,  Next: Anything Groups,  Up: Other Sources

6.6.1 Directory Groups
----------------------

If you have a directory that has lots of articles in separate files in
it, you might treat it as a newsgroup.  The files have to have numerical
names, of course.

   This might be an opportune moment to mention `ange-ftp' (and its
successor `efs'), that most wonderful of all wonderful Emacs packages.
When I wrote `nndir', I didn't think much about it--a back end to read
directories.  Big deal.

   `ange-ftp' changes that picture dramatically.  For instance, if you
enter the `ange-ftp' file name `/ftp.hpc.uh.edu:/pub/emacs/ding-list/'
as the directory name, `ange-ftp' or `efs' will actually allow you to
read this directory over at `sina' as a newsgroup.  Distributed news
ahoy!

   `nndir' will use NOV files if they are present.

   `nndir' is a "read-only" back end--you can't delete or expire
articles with this method.  You can use `nnmh' or `nnml' for whatever
you use `nndir' for, so you could switch to any of those methods if you
feel the need to have a non-read-only `nndir'.


File: gnus,  Node: Anything Groups,  Next: Document Groups,  Prev: Directory Groups,  Up: Other Sources

6.6.2 Anything Groups
---------------------

From the `nndir' back end (which reads a single spool-like directory),
it's just a hop and a skip to `nneething', which pretends that any
arbitrary directory is a newsgroup.  Strange, but true.

   When `nneething' is presented with a directory, it will scan this
directory and assign article numbers to each file.  When you enter such
a group, `nneething' must create "headers" that Gnus can use.  After
all, Gnus is a newsreader, in case you're forgetting.  `nneething' does
this in a two-step process.  First, it snoops each file in question.
If the file looks like an article (i.e., the first few lines look like
headers), it will use this as the head.  If this is just some arbitrary
file without a head (e.g. a C source file), `nneething' will cobble up
a header out of thin air.  It will use file ownership, name and date
and do whatever it can with these elements.

   All this should happen automatically for you, and you will be
presented with something that looks very much like a newsgroup.
Totally like a newsgroup, to be precise.  If you select an article, it
will be displayed in the article buffer, just as usual.

   If you select a line that represents a directory, Gnus will pop you
into a new summary buffer for this `nneething' group.  And so on.  You
can traverse the entire disk this way, if you feel like, but remember
that Gnus is not dired, really, and does not intend to be, either.

   There are two overall modes to this action--ephemeral or solid.  When
doing the ephemeral thing (i.e., `G D' from the group buffer), Gnus
will not store information on what files you have read, and what files
are new, and so on.  If you create a solid `nneething' group the normal
way with `G m', Gnus will store a mapping table between article numbers
and file names, and you can treat this group like any other groups.
When you activate a solid `nneething' group, you will be told how many
unread articles it contains, etc., etc.

   Some variables:

`nneething-map-file-directory'
     All the mapping files for solid `nneething' groups will be stored
     in this directory, which defaults to `~/.nneething/'.

`nneething-exclude-files'
     All files that match this regexp will be ignored.  Nice to use to
     exclude auto-save files and the like, which is what it does by
     default.

`nneething-include-files'
     Regexp saying what files to include in the group.  If this
     variable is non-`nil', only files matching this regexp will be
     included.

`nneething-map-file'
     Name of the map files.

File: gnus,  Node: Document Groups,  Next: SOUP,  Prev: Anything Groups,  Up: Other Sources

6.6.3 Document Groups
---------------------

`nndoc' is a cute little thing that will let you read a single file as
a newsgroup.  Several files types are supported:

`babyl'
     The Babyl format.

`mbox'
     The standard Unix mbox file.

`mmdf'
     The MMDF mail box format.

`news'
     Several news articles appended into a file.

`rnews'
     The rnews batch transport format.

`nsmail'
     Netscape mail boxes.

`mime-parts'
     MIME multipart messages.

`standard-digest'
     The standard (RFC 1153) digest format.

`mime-digest'
     A MIME digest of messages.

`lanl-gov-announce'
     Announcement messages from LANL Gov Announce.

`rfc822-forward'
     A message forwarded according to RFC822.

`outlook'
     The Outlook mail box.

`oe-dbx'
     The Outlook Express dbx mail box.

`exim-bounce'
     A bounce message from the Exim MTA.

`forward'
     A message forwarded according to informal rules.

`rfc934'
     An RFC934-forwarded message.

`mailman'
     A mailman digest.

`clari-briefs'
     A digest of Clarinet brief news items.

`slack-digest'
     Non-standard digest format--matches most things, but does it badly.

`mail-in-mail'
     The last resort.

   You can also use the special "file type" `guess', which means that
`nndoc' will try to guess what file type it is looking at.  `digest'
means that `nndoc' should guess what digest type the file is.

   `nndoc' will not try to change the file or insert any extra headers
into it--it will simply, like, let you use the file as the basis for a
group.  And that's it.

   If you have some old archived articles that you want to insert into
your new & spiffy Gnus mail back end, `nndoc' can probably help you with
that.  Say you have an old `RMAIL' file with mail that you now want to
split into your new `nnml' groups.  You look at that file using `nndoc'
(using the `G f' command in the group buffer (*note Foreign Groups::)),
set the process mark on all the articles in the buffer (`M P b', for
instance), and then re-spool (`B r') using `nnml'.  If all goes well,
all the mail in the `RMAIL' file is now also stored in lots of `nnml'
directories, and you can delete that pesky `RMAIL' file.  If you have
the guts!

   Virtual server variables:

`nndoc-article-type'
     This should be one of `mbox', `babyl', `digest', `news', `rnews',
     `mmdf', `forward', `rfc934', `rfc822-forward', `mime-parts',
     `standard-digest', `slack-digest', `clari-briefs', `nsmail',
     `outlook', `oe-dbx', `mailman', and `mail-in-mail' or `guess'.

`nndoc-post-type'
     This variable says whether Gnus is to consider the group a news
     group or a mail group.  There are two valid values:  `mail' (the
     default) and `news'.

* Menu:

* Document Server Internals::   How to add your own document types.

File: gnus,  Node: Document Server Internals,  Up: Document Groups

6.6.3.1 Document Server Internals
.................................

Adding new document types to be recognized by `nndoc' isn't difficult.
You just have to whip up a definition of what the document looks like,
write a predicate function to recognize that document type, and then
hook into `nndoc'.

   First, here's an example document type definition:

     (mmdf
      (article-begin .  "^\^A\^A\^A\^A\n")
      (body-end .  "^\^A\^A\^A\^A\n"))

   The definition is simply a unique "name" followed by a series of
regexp pseudo-variable settings.  Below are the possible
variables--don't be daunted by the number of variables; most document
types can be defined with very few settings:

`first-article'
     If present, `nndoc' will skip past all text until it finds
     something that match this regexp.  All text before this will be
     totally ignored.

`article-begin'
     This setting has to be present in all document type definitions.
     It says what the beginning of each article looks like.  To do more
     complicated things that cannot be dealt with a simple regexp, you
     can use `article-begin-function' instead of this.

`article-begin-function'
     If present, this should be a function that moves point to the
     beginning of each article.  This setting overrides `article-begin'.

`head-begin'
     If present, this should be a regexp that matches the head of the
     article.  To do more complicated things that cannot be dealt with a
     simple regexp, you can use `head-begin-function' instead of this.

`head-begin-function'
     If present, this should be a function that moves point to the head
     of the article.  This setting overrides `head-begin'.

`head-end'
     This should match the end of the head of the article.  It defaults
     to `^$'--the empty line.

`body-begin'
     This should match the beginning of the body of the article.  It
     defaults to `^\n'.  To do more complicated things that cannot be
     dealt with a simple regexp, you can use `body-begin-function'
     instead of this.

`body-begin-function'
     If present, this function should move point to the beginning of
     the body of the article.  This setting overrides `body-begin'.

`body-end'
     If present, this should match the end of the body of the article.
     To do more complicated things that cannot be dealt with a simple
     regexp, you can use `body-end-function' instead of this.

`body-end-function'
     If present, this function should move point to the end of the body
     of the article.  This setting overrides `body-end'.

`file-begin'
     If present, this should match the beginning of the file.  All text
     before this regexp will be totally ignored.

`file-end'
     If present, this should match the end of the file.  All text after
     this regexp will be totally ignored.


   So, using these variables `nndoc' is able to dissect a document file
into a series of articles, each with a head and a body.  However, a few
more variables are needed since not all document types are all that
news-like--variables needed to transform the head or the body into
something that's palatable for Gnus:

`prepare-body-function'
     If present, this function will be called when requesting an
     article.  It will be called with point at the start of the body,
     and is useful if the document has encoded some parts of its
     contents.

`article-transform-function'
     If present, this function is called when requesting an article.
     It's meant to be used for more wide-ranging transformation of both
     head and body of the article.

`generate-head-function'
     If present, this function is called to generate a head that Gnus
     can understand.  It is called with the article number as a
     parameter, and is expected to generate a nice head for the article
     in question.  It is called when requesting the headers of all
     articles.

`generate-article-function'
     If present, this function is called to generate an entire article
     that Gnus can understand.  It is called with the article number as
     a parameter when requesting all articles.

`dissection-function'
     If present, this function is called to dissect a document by
     itself, overriding `first-article', `article-begin',
     `article-begin-function', `head-begin', `head-begin-function',
     `head-end', `body-begin', `body-begin-function', `body-end',
     `body-end-function', `file-begin', and `file-end'.


   Let's look at the most complicated example I can come up
with--standard digests:

     (standard-digest
      (first-article . ,(concat "^" (make-string 70 ?-) "\n\n+"))
      (article-begin . ,(concat "\n\n" (make-string 30 ?-) "\n\n+"))
      (prepare-body-function . nndoc-unquote-dashes)
      (body-end-function . nndoc-digest-body-end)
      (head-end . "^ ?$")
      (body-begin . "^ ?\n")
      (file-end . "^End of .*digest.*[0-9].*\n\\*\\*\\|^End of.*Digest *$")
      (subtype digest guess))

   We see that all text before a 70-width line of dashes is ignored; all
text after a line that starts with that `^End of' is also ignored; each
article begins with a 30-width line of dashes; the line separating the
head from the body may contain a single space; and that the body is run
through `nndoc-unquote-dashes' before being delivered.

   To hook your own document definition into `nndoc', use the
`nndoc-add-type' function.  It takes two parameters--the first is the
definition itself and the second (optional) parameter says where in the
document type definition alist to put this definition.  The alist is
traversed sequentially, and `nndoc-TYPE-type-p' is called for a given
type TYPE.  So `nndoc-mmdf-type-p' is called to see whether a document
is of `mmdf' type, and so on.  These type predicates should return
`nil' if the document is not of the correct type; `t' if it is of the
correct type; and a number if the document might be of the correct
type.  A high number means high probability; a low number means low
probability with `0' being the lowest valid number.

File: gnus,  Node: SOUP,  Next: Mail-To-News Gateways,  Prev: Document Groups,  Up: Other Sources

6.6.4 SOUP
----------

In the PC world people often talk about "offline" newsreaders.  These
are thingies that are combined reader/news transport monstrosities.
With built-in modem programs.  Yecchh!

   Of course, us Unix Weenie types of human beans use things like
`uucp' and, like, `nntpd' and set up proper news and mail transport
things like Ghod intended.  And then we just use normal newsreaders.

   However, it can sometimes be convenient to do something that's a bit
easier on the brain if you have a very slow modem, and you're not really
that interested in doing things properly.

   A file format called SOUP has been developed for transporting news
and mail from servers to home machines and back again.  It can be a bit
fiddly.

   First some terminology:

"server"
     This is the machine that is connected to the outside world and
     where you get news and/or mail from.

"home machine"
     This is the machine that you want to do the actual reading and
     responding on.  It is typically not connected to the rest of the
     world in any way.

"packet"
     Something that contains messages and/or commands.  There are two
     kinds of packets:

    "message packets"
          These are packets made at the server, and typically contain
          lots of messages for you to read.  These are called
          `SoupoutX.tgz' by default, where X is a number.

    "response packets"
          These are packets made at the home machine, and typically
          contains replies that you've written.  These are called
          `SoupinX.tgz' by default, where X is a number.



  1. You log in on the server and create a SOUP packet.  You can either
     use a dedicated SOUP thingie (like the `awk' program), or you can
     use Gnus to create the packet with its SOUP commands (`O s' and/or
     `G s b'; and then `G s p') (*note SOUP Commands::).

  2. You transfer the packet home.  Rail, boat, car or modem will do
     fine.

  3. You put the packet in your home directory.

  4. You fire up Gnus on your home machine using the `nnsoup' back end
     as the native or secondary server.

  5. You read articles and mail and answer and followup to the things
     you want (*note SOUP Replies::).

  6. You do the `G s r' command to pack these replies into a SOUP
     packet.

  7. You transfer this packet to the server.

  8. You use Gnus to mail this packet out with the `G s s' command.

  9. You then repeat until you die.


   So you basically have a bipartite system--you use `nnsoup' for
reading and Gnus for packing/sending these SOUP packets.

* Menu:

* SOUP Commands::               Commands for creating and sending SOUP packets
* SOUP Groups::                 A back end for reading SOUP packets.
* SOUP Replies::                How to enable `nnsoup' to take over mail and news.

File: gnus,  Node: SOUP Commands,  Next: SOUP Groups,  Up: SOUP

6.6.4.1 SOUP Commands
.....................

These are commands for creating and manipulating SOUP packets.

`G s b'
     Pack all unread articles in the current group
     (`gnus-group-brew-soup').  This command understands the
     process/prefix convention.

`G s w'
     Save all SOUP data files (`gnus-soup-save-areas').

`G s s'
     Send all replies from the replies packet
     (`gnus-soup-send-replies').

`G s p'
     Pack all files into a SOUP packet (`gnus-soup-pack-packet').

`G s r'
     Pack all replies into a replies packet (`nnsoup-pack-replies').

`O s'
     This summary-mode command adds the current article to a SOUP packet
     (`gnus-soup-add-article').  It understands the process/prefix
     convention (*note Process/Prefix::).


   There are a few variables to customize where Gnus will put all these
thingies:

`gnus-soup-directory'
     Directory where Gnus will save intermediate files while composing
     SOUP packets.  The default is `~/SoupBrew/'.

`gnus-soup-replies-directory'
     This is what Gnus will use as a temporary directory while sending
     our reply packets.  `~/SoupBrew/SoupReplies/' is the default.

`gnus-soup-prefix-file'
     Name of the file where Gnus stores the last used prefix.  The
     default is `gnus-prefix'.

`gnus-soup-packer'
     A format string command for packing a SOUP packet.  The default is
     `tar cf - %s | gzip > $HOME/Soupout%d.tgz'.

`gnus-soup-unpacker'
     Format string command for unpacking a SOUP packet.  The default is
     `gunzip -c %s | tar xvf -'.

`gnus-soup-packet-directory'
     Where Gnus will look for reply packets.  The default is `~/'.

`gnus-soup-packet-regexp'
     Regular expression matching SOUP reply packets in
     `gnus-soup-packet-directory'.


File: gnus,  Node: SOUP Groups,  Next: SOUP Replies,  Prev: SOUP Commands,  Up: SOUP

6.6.4.2 SOUP Groups
...................

`nnsoup' is the back end for reading SOUP packets.  It will read
incoming packets, unpack them, and put them in a directory where you
can read them at leisure.

   These are the variables you can use to customize its behavior:

`nnsoup-tmp-directory'
     When `nnsoup' unpacks a SOUP packet, it does it in this directory.
     (`/tmp/' by default.)

`nnsoup-directory'
     `nnsoup' then moves each message and index file to this directory.
     The default is `~/SOUP/'.

`nnsoup-replies-directory'
     All replies will be stored in this directory before being packed
     into a reply packet.  The default is `~/SOUP/replies/'.

`nnsoup-replies-format-type'
     The SOUP format of the replies packets.  The default is `?n'
     (rnews), and I don't think you should touch that variable.  I
     probably shouldn't even have documented it.  Drats!  Too late!

`nnsoup-replies-index-type'
     The index type of the replies packet.  The default is `?n', which
     means "none".  Don't fiddle with this one either!

`nnsoup-active-file'
     Where `nnsoup' stores lots of information.  This is not an "active
     file" in the `nntp' sense; it's an Emacs Lisp file.  If you lose
     this file or mess it up in any way, you're dead.  The default is
     `~/SOUP/active'.

`nnsoup-packer'
     Format string command for packing a reply SOUP packet.  The default
     is `tar cf - %s | gzip > $HOME/Soupin%d.tgz'.

`nnsoup-unpacker'
     Format string command for unpacking incoming SOUP packets.  The
     default is `gunzip -c %s | tar xvf -'.

`nnsoup-packet-directory'
     Where `nnsoup' will look for incoming packets.  The default is
     `~/'.

`nnsoup-packet-regexp'
     Regular expression matching incoming SOUP packets.  The default is
     `Soupout'.

`nnsoup-always-save'
     If non-`nil', save the replies buffer after each posted message.


File: gnus,  Node: SOUP Replies,  Prev: SOUP Groups,  Up: SOUP

6.6.4.3 SOUP Replies
....................

Just using `nnsoup' won't mean that your postings and mailings end up
in SOUP reply packets automagically.  You have to work a bit more for
that to happen.

   The `nnsoup-set-variables' command will set the appropriate
variables to ensure that all your followups and replies end up in the
SOUP system.

   In specific, this is what it does:

     (setq message-send-news-function 'nnsoup-request-post)
     (setq message-send-mail-function 'nnsoup-request-mail)

   And that's it, really.  If you only want news to go into the SOUP
system you just use the first line.  If you only want mail to be SOUPed
you use the second.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail-To-News Gateways,  Prev: SOUP,  Up: Other Sources

6.6.5 Mail-To-News Gateways
---------------------------

If your local `nntp' server doesn't allow posting, for some reason or
other, you can post using one of the numerous mail-to-news gateways.
The `nngateway' back end provides the interface.

   Note that you can't read anything from this back end--it can only be
used to post with.

   Server variables:

`nngateway-address'
     This is the address of the mail-to-news gateway.

`nngateway-header-transformation'
     News headers often have to be transformed in some odd way or other
     for the mail-to-news gateway to accept it.  This variable says what
     transformation should be called, and defaults to
     `nngateway-simple-header-transformation'.  The function is called
     narrowed to the headers to be transformed and with one
     parameter--the gateway address.

     This default function just inserts a new `To' header based on the
     `Newsgroups' header and the gateway address.  For instance, an
     article with this `Newsgroups' header:

          Newsgroups: alt.religion.emacs

     will get this `To' header inserted:

          To: alt-religion-emacs@GATEWAY

     The following pre-defined functions exist:

    `nngateway-simple-header-transformation'
          Creates a `To' header that looks like
          NEWSGROUP@`nngateway-address'.

    `nngateway-mail2news-header-transformation'
          Creates a `To' header that looks like `nngateway-address'.


   Here's an example:

     (setq gnus-post-method
           '(nngateway
             "mail2newsATreplay.com"
             (nngateway-header-transformation
              nngateway-mail2news-header-transformation)))

   So, to use this, simply say something like:

     (setq gnus-post-method '(nngateway "GATEWAY.ADDRESS"))

File: gnus,  Node: Combined Groups,  Next: Email Based Diary,  Prev: Other Sources,  Up: Select Methods

6.7 Combined Groups
===================

Gnus allows combining a mixture of all the other group types into bigger
groups.

* Menu:

* Virtual Groups::              Combining articles from many groups.
* Kibozed Groups::              Looking through parts of the newsfeed for articles.

File: gnus,  Node: Virtual Groups,  Next: Kibozed Groups,  Up: Combined Groups

6.7.1 Virtual Groups
--------------------

An "nnvirtual group" is really nothing more than a collection of other
groups.

   For instance, if you are tired of reading many small groups, you can
put them all in one big group, and then grow tired of reading one big,
unwieldy group.  The joys of computing!

   You specify `nnvirtual' as the method.  The address should be a
regexp to match component groups.

   All marks in the virtual group will stick to the articles in the
component groups.  So if you tick an article in a virtual group, the
article will also be ticked in the component group from whence it came.
(And vice versa--marks from the component groups will also be shown in
the virtual group.).  To create an empty virtual group, run `G V'
(`gnus-group-make-empty-virtual') in the group buffer and edit the
method regexp with `M-e' (`gnus-group-edit-group-method')

   Here's an example `nnvirtual' method that collects all Andrea Dworkin
newsgroups into one, big, happy newsgroup:

     (nnvirtual "^alt\\.fan\\.andrea-dworkin$\\|^rec\\.dworkin.*")

   The component groups can be native or foreign; everything should work
smoothly, but if your computer explodes, it was probably my fault.

   Collecting the same group from several servers might actually be a
good idea if users have set the Distribution header to limit
distribution.  If you would like to read `soc.motss' both from a server
in Japan and a server in Norway, you could use the following as the
group regexp:

     "^nntp\\+server\\.jp:soc\\.motss$\\|^nntp\\+server\\.no:soc\\.motss$"

   (Remember, though, that if you're creating the group with `G m', you
shouldn't double the backslashes, and you should leave off the quote
characters at the beginning and the end of the string.)

   This should work kinda smoothly--all articles from both groups should
end up in this one, and there should be no duplicates.  Threading (and
the rest) will still work as usual, but there might be problems with the
sequence of articles.  Sorting on date might be an option here (*note
Selecting a Group::).

   One limitation, however--all groups included in a virtual group have
to be alive (i.e., subscribed or unsubscribed).  Killed or zombie
groups can't be component groups for `nnvirtual' groups.

   If the `nnvirtual-always-rescan' variable is non-`nil' (which is the
default), `nnvirtual' will always scan groups for unread articles when
entering a virtual group.  If this variable is `nil' and you read
articles in a component group after the virtual group has been
activated, the read articles from the component group will show up when
you enter the virtual group.  You'll also see this effect if you have
two virtual groups that have a component group in common.  If that's
the case, you should set this variable to `t'.  Or you can just tap
`M-g' on the virtual group every time before you enter it--it'll have
much the same effect.

   `nnvirtual' can have both mail and news groups as component groups.
When responding to articles in `nnvirtual' groups, `nnvirtual' has to
ask the back end of the component group the article comes from whether
it is a news or mail back end.  However, when you do a `^', there is
typically no sure way for the component back end to know this, and in
that case `nnvirtual' tells Gnus that the article came from a not-news
back end.  (Just to be on the safe side.)

   `C-c C-n' in the message buffer will insert the `Newsgroups' line
from the article you respond to in these cases.

   `nnvirtual' groups do not inherit anything but articles and marks
from component groups--group parameters, for instance, are not
inherited.

File: gnus,  Node: Kibozed Groups,  Prev: Virtual Groups,  Up: Combined Groups

6.7.2 Kibozed Groups
--------------------

"Kibozing" is defined by the OED as "grepping through (parts of) the
news feed".  `nnkiboze' is a back end that will do this for you.  Oh
joy!  Now you can grind any NNTP server down to a halt with useless
requests!  Oh happiness!

   To create a kibozed group, use the `G k' command in the group buffer.

   The address field of the `nnkiboze' method is, as with `nnvirtual',
a regexp to match groups to be "included" in the `nnkiboze' group.
That's where most similarities between `nnkiboze' and `nnvirtual' end.

   In addition to this regexp detailing component groups, an `nnkiboze'
group must have a score file to say what articles are to be included in
the group (*note Scoring::).

   You must run `M-x nnkiboze-generate-groups' after creating the
`nnkiboze' groups you want to have.  This command will take time.  Lots
of time.  Oodles and oodles of time.  Gnus has to fetch the headers
from all the articles in all the component groups and run them through
the scoring process to determine if there are any articles in the
groups that are to be part of the `nnkiboze' groups.

   Please limit the number of component groups by using restrictive
regexps.  Otherwise your sysadmin may become annoyed with you, and the
NNTP site may throw you off and never let you back in again.  Stranger
things have happened.

   `nnkiboze' component groups do not have to be alive--they can be
dead, and they can be foreign.  No restrictions.

   The generation of an `nnkiboze' group means writing two files in
`nnkiboze-directory', which is `~/News/kiboze/' by default.  One
contains the NOV header lines for all the articles in the group, and
the other is an additional `.newsrc' file to store information on what
groups have been searched through to find component articles.

   Articles marked as read in the `nnkiboze' group will have their NOV
lines removed from the NOV file.

File: gnus,  Node: Email Based Diary,  Next: Gnus Unplugged,  Prev: Combined Groups,  Up: Select Methods

6.8 Email Based Diary
=====================

This section describes a special mail back end called `nndiary', and
its companion library `gnus-diary'.  It is "special" in the sense that
it is not meant to be one of the standard alternatives for reading mail
with Gnus.  See *note Choosing a Mail Back End:: for that.  Instead, it
is used to treat _some_ of your mails in a special way, namely, as
event reminders.

   Here is a typical scenario:

   * You've got a date with Andy Mc Dowell or Bruce Willis (select
     according to your sexual preference) in one month.  You don't want
     to forget it.

   * So you send a "reminder" message (actually, a diary one) to
     yourself.

   * You forget all about it and keep on getting and reading new mail,
     as usual.

   * From time to time, as you type `g' in the group buffer and as the
     date is getting closer, the message will pop up again to remind
     you of your appointment, just as if it were new and unread.

   * Read your "new" messages, this one included, and start dreaming
     again of the night you're gonna have.

   * Once the date is over (you actually fell asleep just after
     dinner), the message will be automatically deleted if it is marked
     as expirable.

   The Gnus Diary back end has the ability to handle regular
appointments (that wouldn't ever be deleted) as well as punctual ones,
operates as a real mail back end and is configurable in many ways.  All
of this is explained in the sections below.

* Menu:

* The NNDiary Back End::        Basic setup and usage.
* The Gnus Diary Library::      Utility toolkit on top of nndiary.
* Sending or Not Sending::      A final note on sending diary messages.

File: gnus,  Node: The NNDiary Back End,  Next: The Gnus Diary Library,  Up: Email Based Diary

6.8.1 The NNDiary Back End
--------------------------

`nndiary' is a back end very similar to `nnml' (*note Mail Spool::).
Actually, it could appear as a mix of `nnml' and `nndraft'.  If you
know `nnml', you're already familiar with the message storing scheme of
`nndiary': one file per message, one directory per group.

   Before anything, there is one requirement to be able to run
`nndiary' properly: you _must_ use the group timestamp feature of Gnus.
This adds a timestamp to each group's parameters.  *note Group
Timestamp:: to see how it's done.

* Menu:

* Diary Messages::              What makes a message valid for nndiary.
* Running NNDiary::             NNDiary has two modes of operation.
* Customizing NNDiary::         Bells and whistles.

File: gnus,  Node: Diary Messages,  Next: Running NNDiary,  Up: The NNDiary Back End

6.8.1.1 Diary Messages
......................

`nndiary' messages are just normal ones, except for the mandatory
presence of 7 special headers.  These headers are of the form
`X-Diary-<something>', `<something>' being one of `Minute', `Hour',
`Dom', `Month', `Year', `Time-Zone' and `Dow'.  `Dom' means "Day of
Month", and `dow' means "Day of Week".  These headers actually behave
like crontab specifications and define the event date(s):

   * For all headers except the `Time-Zone' one, a header value is
     either a star (meaning all possible values), or a list of fields
     (separated by a comma).

   * A field is either an integer, or a range.

   * A range is two integers separated by a dash.

   * Possible integer values are 0-59 for `Minute', 0-23 for `Hour',
     1-31 for `Dom', 1-12 for `Month', above 1971 for `Year' and 0-6
     for `Dow' (0 meaning Sunday).

   * As a special case, a star in either `Dom' or `Dow' doesn't mean
     "all possible values", but "use only the other field".  Note that
     if both are star'ed, the use of either one gives the same result.

   * The `Time-Zone' header is special in that it can only have one
     value (`GMT', for instance).  A star doesn't mean "all possible
     values" (because it makes no sense), but "the current local time
     zone".  Most of the time, you'll be using a star here.  However,
     for a list of available time zone values, see the variable
     `nndiary-headers'.

   As a concrete example, here are the diary headers to add to your
message for specifying "Each Monday and each 1st of month, at 12:00,
20:00, 21:00, 22:00, 23:00 and 24:00, from 1999 to 2010" (I'll let you
find what to do then):

     X-Diary-Minute: 0
     X-Diary-Hour: 12, 20-24
     X-Diary-Dom: 1
     X-Diary-Month: *
     X-Diary-Year: 1999-2010
     X-Diary-Dow: 1
     X-Diary-Time-Zone: *

File: gnus,  Node: Running NNDiary,  Next: Customizing NNDiary,  Prev: Diary Messages,  Up: The NNDiary Back End

6.8.1.2 Running NNDiary
.......................

`nndiary' has two modes of operation: "traditional" (the default) and
"autonomous".  In traditional mode, `nndiary' does not get new mail by
itself.  You have to move (`B m') or copy (`B c') mails from your
primary mail back end to nndiary groups in order to handle them as
diary messages.  In autonomous mode, `nndiary' retrieves its own mail
and handles it independently from your primary mail back end.

   One should note that Gnus is not inherently designed to allow several
"master" mail back ends at the same time.  However, this does make
sense with `nndiary': you really want to send and receive diary
messages to your diary groups directly.  So, `nndiary' supports being
sort of a "second primary mail back end" (to my knowledge, it is the
only back end offering this feature).  However, there is a limitation
(which I hope to fix some day): respooling doesn't work in autonomous
mode.

   In order to use `nndiary' in autonomous mode, you have several
things to do:

   * Allow `nndiary' to retrieve new mail by itself.  Put the following
     line in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

          (setq nndiary-get-new-mail t)

   * You must arrange for diary messages (those containing `X-Diary-*'
     headers) to be split in a private folder _before_ Gnus treat them.
     Again, this is needed because Gnus cannot (yet ?) properly handle
     multiple primary mail back ends.  Getting those messages from a
     separate source will compensate this misfeature to some extent.

     As an example, here's my procmailrc entry to store diary files in
     `~/.nndiary' (the default `nndiary' mail source file):

          :0 HD :
          * ^X-Diary
          .nndiary

   Once this is done, you might want to customize the following two
options that affect the diary mail retrieval and splitting processes:

 -- Variable: nndiary-mail-sources
     This is the diary-specific replacement for the standard
     `mail-sources' variable.  It obeys the same syntax, and defaults to
     `(file :path "~/.nndiary")'.

 -- Variable: nndiary-split-methods
     This is the diary-specific replacement for the standard
     `nnmail-split-methods' variable.  It obeys the same syntax.

   Finally, you may add a permanent `nndiary' virtual server (something
like `(nndiary "diary")' should do) to your
`gnus-secondary-select-methods'.

   Hopefully, almost everything (see the TODO section in `nndiary.el')
will work as expected when you restart Gnus: in autonomous mode, typing
`g' and `M-g' in the group buffer, will also get your new diary mails
and split them according to your diary-specific rules, `F' will find
your new diary groups etc.

File: gnus,  Node: Customizing NNDiary,  Prev: Running NNDiary,  Up: The NNDiary Back End

6.8.1.3 Customizing NNDiary
...........................

Now that `nndiary' is up and running, it's time to customize it.  The
custom group is called `nndiary' (no, really ?!).  You should browse it
to figure out which options you'd like to tweak.  The following two
variables are probably the only ones you will want to change:

 -- Variable: nndiary-reminders
     This is the list of times when you want to be reminded of your
     appointments (e.g. 3 weeks before, then 2 days before, then 1 hour
     before and that's it).  Remember that "being reminded" means that
     the diary message will pop up as brand new and unread again when
     you get new mail.

 -- Variable: nndiary-week-starts-on-monday
     Rather self-explanatory.  Otherwise, Sunday is assumed (this is the
     default).

File: gnus,  Node: The Gnus Diary Library,  Next: Sending or Not Sending,  Prev: The NNDiary Back End,  Up: Email Based Diary

6.8.2 The Gnus Diary Library
----------------------------

Using `nndiary' manually (I mean, writing the headers by hand and so
on) would be rather boring.  Fortunately, there is a library called
`gnus-diary' written on top of `nndiary', that does many useful things
for you.

   In order to use it, add the following line to your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (require 'gnus-diary)

   Also, you shouldn't use any `gnus-user-format-function-[d|D]' (*note
Summary Buffer Lines::).  `gnus-diary' provides both of these (sorry if
you used them before).

* Menu:

* Diary Summary Line Format::           A nicer summary buffer line format.
* Diary Articles Sorting::              A nicer way to sort messages.
* Diary Headers Generation::            Not doing it manually.
* Diary Group Parameters::              Not handling them manually.

File: gnus,  Node: Diary Summary Line Format,  Next: Diary Articles Sorting,  Up: The Gnus Diary Library

6.8.2.1 Diary Summary Line Format
.................................

Displaying diary messages in standard summary line format (usually
something like `From Joe: Subject') is pretty useless.  Most of the
time, you're the one who wrote the message, and you mostly want to see
the event's date.

   `gnus-diary' provides two supplemental user formats to be used in
summary line formats.  `D' corresponds to a formatted time string for
the next occurrence of the event (e.g. "Sat, Sep 22 01, 12:00"), while
`d' corresponds to an approximative remaining time until the next
occurrence of the event (e.g. "in 6 months, 1 week").

   For example, here's how Joe's birthday is displayed in my
`nndiary+diary:birthdays' summary buffer (note that the message is
expirable, but will never be deleted, as it specifies a periodic event):

        E  Sat, Sep 22 01, 12:00: Joe's birthday (in 6 months, 1 week)

   In order to get something like the above, you would normally add the
following line to your diary groups'parameters:

     (gnus-summary-line-format "%U%R%z %uD: %(%s%) (%ud)\n")

   However, `gnus-diary' does it automatically (*note Diary Group
Parameters::).  You can however customize the provided summary line
format with the following user options:

 -- Variable: gnus-diary-summary-line-format
     Defines the summary line format used for diary groups (*note
     Summary Buffer Lines::).  `gnus-diary' uses it to automatically
     update the diary groups'parameters.

 -- Variable: gnus-diary-time-format
     Defines the format to display dates in diary summary buffers.
     This is used by the `D' user format.  See the docstring for
     details.

 -- Variable: gnus-diary-delay-format-function
     Defines the format function to use for displaying delays (remaining
     times) in diary summary buffers.  This is used by the `d' user
     format.  There are currently built-in functions for English and
     French; you can also define your own.  See the docstring for
     details.

File: gnus,  Node: Diary Articles Sorting,  Next: Diary Headers Generation,  Prev: Diary Summary Line Format,  Up: The Gnus Diary Library

6.8.2.2 Diary Articles Sorting
..............................

`gnus-diary' provides new sorting functions (*note Sorting the Summary
Buffer:: ) called `gnus-summary-sort-by-schedule',
`gnus-thread-sort-by-schedule' and `gnus-article-sort-by-schedule'.
These functions let you organize your diary summary buffers from the
closest event to the farthest one.

   `gnus-diary' automatically installs `gnus-summary-sort-by-schedule'
as a menu item in the summary buffer's "sort" menu, and the two others
as the primary (hence default) sorting functions in the group
parameters (*note Diary Group Parameters::).

File: gnus,  Node: Diary Headers Generation,  Next: Diary Group Parameters,  Prev: Diary Articles Sorting,  Up: The Gnus Diary Library

6.8.2.3 Diary Headers Generation
................................

`gnus-diary' provides a function called `gnus-diary-check-message' to
help you handle the `X-Diary-*' headers.  This function ensures that
the current message contains all the required diary headers, and
prompts you for values or corrections if needed.

   This function is hooked into the `nndiary' back end, so that moving
or copying an article to a diary group will trigger it automatically.
It is also bound to `C-c C-f d' in `message-mode' and
`article-edit-mode' in order to ease the process of converting a usual
mail to a diary one.

   This function takes a prefix argument which will force prompting of
all diary headers, regardless of their presence or validity.  That way,
you can very easily reschedule an already valid diary message, for
instance.

File: gnus,  Node: Diary Group Parameters,  Prev: Diary Headers Generation,  Up: The Gnus Diary Library

6.8.2.4 Diary Group Parameters
..............................

When you create a new diary group, or visit one, `gnus-diary'
automatically checks your group parameters and if needed, sets the
summary line format to the diary-specific value, installs the
diary-specific sorting functions, and also adds the different
`X-Diary-*' headers to the group's posting-style.  It is then easier to
send a diary message, because if you use `C-u a' or `C-u m' on a diary
group to prepare a message, these headers will be inserted
automatically (although not filled with proper values yet).

File: gnus,  Node: Sending or Not Sending,  Prev: The Gnus Diary Library,  Up: Email Based Diary

6.8.3 Sending or Not Sending
----------------------------

Well, assuming you've read all of the above, here are two final notes on
mail sending with `nndiary':

   * `nndiary' is a _real_ mail back end.  You really send real diary
     messsages for real.  This means for instance that you can give
     appointments to anybody (provided they use Gnus and `nndiary') by
     sending the diary message to them as well.

   * However, since `nndiary' also has a `request-post' method, you can
     also use `C-u a' instead of `C-u m' on a diary group and the
     message won't actually be sent; just stored locally in the group.
     This comes in very handy for private appointments.

File: gnus,  Node: Gnus Unplugged,  Prev: Email Based Diary,  Up: Select Methods

6.9 Gnus Unplugged
==================

In olden times (ca. February '88), people used to run their newsreaders
on big machines with permanent connections to the net.  News transport
was dealt with by news servers, and all the newsreaders had to do was to
read news.  Believe it or not.

   Nowadays most people read news and mail at home, and use some sort of
modem to connect to the net.  To avoid running up huge phone bills, it
would be nice to have a way to slurp down all the news and mail, hang up
the phone, read for several hours, and then upload any responses you
have to make.  And then you repeat the procedure.

   Of course, you can use news servers for doing this as well.  I've
used `inn' together with `slurp', `pop' and `sendmail' for some years,
but doing that's a bore.  Moving the news server functionality up to
the newsreader makes sense if you're the only person reading news on a
machine.

   Setting up Gnus as an "offline" newsreader is quite simple.  In
fact, you don't have to configure anything as the agent is now enabled
by default (*note gnus-agent: Agent Variables.).

   Of course, to use it as such, you have to learn a few new commands.

* Menu:

* Agent Basics::                How it all is supposed to work.
* Agent Categories::            How to tell the Gnus Agent what to download.
* Agent Commands::              New commands for all the buffers.
* Agent Visuals::               Ways that the agent may effect your summary buffer.
* Agent as Cache::              The Agent is a big cache too.
* Agent Expiry::                How to make old articles go away.
* Agent Regeneration::          How to recover from lost connections and other accidents.
* Agent and flags::             How the Agent maintains flags.
* Agent and IMAP::              How to use the Agent with IMAP.
* Outgoing Messages::           What happens when you post/mail something?
* Agent Variables::             Customizing is fun.
* Example Setup::               An example `~/.gnus.el' file for offline people.
* Batching Agents::             How to fetch news from a `cron' job.
* Agent Caveats::               What you think it'll do and what it does.

File: gnus,  Node: Agent Basics,  Next: Agent Categories,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.1 Agent Basics
------------------

First, let's get some terminology out of the way.

   The Gnus Agent is said to be "unplugged" when you have severed the
connection to the net (and notified the Agent that this is the case).
When the connection to the net is up again (and Gnus knows this), the
Agent is "plugged".

   The "local" machine is the one you're running on, and which isn't
connected to the net continuously.

   "Downloading" means fetching things from the net to your local
machine.  "Uploading" is doing the opposite.

   You know that Gnus gives you all the opportunity you'd ever want for
shooting yourself in the foot.  Some people call it flexibility.  Gnus
is also customizable to a great extent, which means that the user has a
say on how Gnus behaves.  Other newsreaders might unconditionally shoot
you in your foot, but with Gnus, you have a choice!

   Gnus is never really in plugged or unplugged state.  Rather, it
applies that state to each server individually.  This means that some
servers can be plugged while others can be unplugged.  Additionally,
some servers can be ignored by the Agent altogether (which means that
they're kinda like plugged always).

   So when you unplug the Agent and then wonder why is Gnus opening a
connection to the Net, the next step to do is to look whether all
servers are agentized.  If there is an unagentized server, you found
the culprit.

   Another thing is the "offline" state.  Sometimes, servers aren't
reachable.  When Gnus notices this, it asks you whether you want the
server to be switched to offline state.  If you say yes, then the
server will behave somewhat as if it was unplugged, except that Gnus
will ask you whether you want to switch it back online again.

   Let's take a typical Gnus session using the Agent.

   * You start Gnus with `gnus-unplugged'.  This brings up the Gnus
     Agent in a disconnected state.  You can read all the news that you
     have already fetched while in this mode.

   * You then decide to see whether any new news has arrived.  You
     connect your machine to the net (using PPP or whatever), and then
     hit `J j' to make Gnus become "plugged" and use `g' to check for
     new mail as usual.  To check for new mail in unplugged mode (*note
     Mail Source Specifiers::).

   * You can then read the new news immediately, or you can download the
     news onto your local machine.  If you want to do the latter, you
     press `g' to check if there are any new news and then `J s' to
     fetch all the eligible articles in all the groups.  (To let Gnus
     know which articles you want to download, *note Agent
     Categories::).

   * After fetching the articles, you press `J j' to make Gnus become
     unplugged again, and you shut down the PPP thing (or whatever).
     And then you read the news offline.

   * And then you go to step 2.

   Here are some things you should do the first time (or so) that you
use the Agent.

   * Decide which servers should be covered by the Agent.  If you have
     a mail back end, it would probably be nonsensical to have it
     covered by the Agent.  Go to the server buffer (`^' in the group
     buffer) and press `J a' on the server (or servers) that you wish
     to have covered by the Agent (*note Server Agent Commands::), or
     `J r' on automatically added servers you do not wish to have
     covered by the Agent.  By default, all `nntp' and `nnimap' servers
     in `gnus-select-method' and `gnus-secondary-select-methods' are
     agentized.

   * Decide on download policy.  It's fairly simple once you decide
     whether you are going to use agent categories, topic parameters,
     and/or group parameters to implement your policy.  If you're new
     to gnus, it is probably best to start with a category, *Note Agent
     Categories::.

     Both topic parameters (*note Topic Parameters::) and agent
     categories (*note Agent Categories::) provide for setting a policy
     that applies to multiple groups.  Which you use is entirely up to
     you.  Topic parameters do override categories so, if you mix the
     two, you'll have to take that into account.  If you have a few
     groups that deviate from your policy, you can use group parameters
     (*note Group Parameters::) to configure them.

   * Uhm... that's it.

File: gnus,  Node: Agent Categories,  Next: Agent Commands,  Prev: Agent Basics,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.2 Agent Categories
----------------------

One of the main reasons to integrate the news transport layer into the
newsreader is to allow greater control over what articles to download.
There's not much point in downloading huge amounts of articles, just to
find out that you're not interested in reading any of them.  It's better
to be somewhat more conservative in choosing what to download, and then
mark the articles for downloading manually if it should turn out that
you're interested in the articles anyway.

   One of the more effective methods for controlling what is to be
downloaded is to create a "category" and then assign some (or all)
groups to this category.  Groups that do not belong in any other
category belong to the `default' category.  Gnus has its own buffer for
creating and managing categories.

   If you prefer, you can also use group parameters (*note Group
Parameters::) and topic parameters (*note Topic Parameters::) for an
alternative approach to controlling the agent.  The only real
difference is that categories are specific to the agent (so there is
less to learn) while group and topic parameters include the kitchen
sink.

   Since you can set agent parameters in several different places we
have a rule to decide which source to believe.  This rule specifies that
the parameter sources are checked in the following order: group
parameters, topic parameters, agent category, and finally customizable
variables.  So you can mix all of these sources to produce a wide range
of behavior, just don't blame me if you don't remember where you put
your settings.

* Menu:

* Category Syntax::             What a category looks like.
* Category Buffer::             A buffer for maintaining categories.
* Category Variables::          Customize'r'Us.

File: gnus,  Node: Category Syntax,  Next: Category Buffer,  Up: Agent Categories

6.9.2.1 Category Syntax
.......................

A category consists of a name, the list of groups belonging to the
category, and a number of optional parameters that override the
customizable variables.  The complete list of agent parameters are
listed below.

`agent-groups'
     The list of groups that are in this category.

`agent-predicate'
     A predicate which (generally) gives a rough outline of which
     articles are eligible for downloading; and

`agent-score'
     a score rule which (generally) gives you a finer granularity when
     deciding what articles to download.  (Note that this "download
     score" is not necessarily related to normal scores.)

`agent-enable-expiration'
     a boolean indicating whether the agent should expire old articles
     in this group.  Most groups should be expired to conserve disk
     space.  In fact, its probably safe to say that the gnus.*
     hierarchy contains the only groups that should not be expired.

`agent-days-until-old'
     an integer indicating the number of days that the agent should wait
     before deciding that a read article is safe to expire.

`agent-low-score'
     an integer that overrides the value of `gnus-agent-low-score'.

`agent-high-score'
     an integer that overrides the value of `gnus-agent-high-score'.

`agent-short-article'
     an integer that overrides the value of `gnus-agent-short-article'.

`agent-long-article'
     an integer that overrides the value of `gnus-agent-long-article'.

`agent-enable-undownloaded-faces'
     a symbol indicating whether the summary buffer should display
     undownloaded articles using the `gnus-summary-*-undownloaded-face'
     faces.  Any symbol other than `nil' will enable the use of
     undownloaded faces.

   The name of a category can not be changed once the category has been
created.

   Each category maintains a list of groups that are exclusive members
of that category.  The exclusivity rule is automatically enforced, add a
group to a new category and it is automatically removed from its old
category.

   A predicate in its simplest form can be a single predicate such as
`true' or `false'.  These two will download every available article or
nothing respectively.  In the case of these two special predicates an
additional score rule is superfluous.

   Predicates of `high' or `low' download articles in respect of their
scores in relationship to `gnus-agent-high-score' and
`gnus-agent-low-score' as described below.

   To gain even finer control of what is to be regarded eligible for
download a predicate can consist of a number of predicates with logical
operators sprinkled in between.

   Perhaps some examples are in order.

   Here's a simple predicate.  (It's the default predicate, in fact,
used for all groups that don't belong to any other category.)

     short

   Quite simple, eh?  This predicate is true if and only if the article
is short (for some value of "short").

   Here's a more complex predicate:

     (or high
         (and
          (not low)
          (not long)))

   This means that an article should be downloaded if it has a high
score, or if the score is not low and the article is not long.  You get
the drift.

   The available logical operators are `or', `and' and `not'.  (If you
prefer, you can use the more "C"-ish operators `|', `&' and `!'
instead.)

   The following predicates are pre-defined, but if none of these fit
what you want to do, you can write your own.

   When evaluating each of these predicates, the named constant will be
bound to the value determined by calling `gnus-agent-find-parameter' on
the appropriate parameter.  For example, gnus-agent-short-article will
be bound to `(gnus-agent-find-parameter group 'agent-short-article)'.
This means that you can specify a predicate in your category then tune
that predicate to individual groups.

`short'
     True if the article is shorter than `gnus-agent-short-article'
     lines; default 100.

`long'
     True if the article is longer than `gnus-agent-long-article'
     lines; default 200.

`low'
     True if the article has a download score less than
     `gnus-agent-low-score'; default 0.

`high'
     True if the article has a download score greater than
     `gnus-agent-high-score'; default 0.

`spam'
     True if the Gnus Agent guesses that the article is spam.  The
     heuristics may change over time, but at present it just computes a
     checksum and sees whether articles match.

`true'
     Always true.

`false'
     Always false.

   If you want to create your own predicate function, here's what you
have to know:  The functions are called with no parameters, but the
`gnus-headers' and `gnus-score' dynamic variables are bound to useful
values.

   For example, you could decide that you don't want to download
articles that were posted more than a certain number of days ago (e.g.
posted more than `gnus-agent-expire-days' ago) you might write a
function something along the lines of the following:

     (defun my-article-old-p ()
       "Say whether an article is old."
       (< (time-to-days (date-to-time (mail-header-date gnus-headers)))
          (- (time-to-days (current-time)) gnus-agent-expire-days)))

   with the predicate then defined as:

     (not my-article-old-p)

   or you could append your predicate to the predefined
`gnus-category-predicate-alist' in your `~/.gnus.el' or wherever.

     (require 'gnus-agent)
     (setq  gnus-category-predicate-alist
       (append gnus-category-predicate-alist
              '((old . my-article-old-p))))

   and simply specify your predicate as:

     (not old)

   If/when using something like the above, be aware that there are many
misconfigured systems/mailers out there and so an article's date is not
always a reliable indication of when it was posted.  Hell, some people
just don't give a damn.

   The above predicates apply to _all_ the groups which belong to the
category.  However, if you wish to have a specific predicate for an
individual group within a category, or you're just too lazy to set up a
new category, you can enter a group's individual predicate in its group
parameters like so:

     (agent-predicate . short)

   This is the group/topic parameter equivalent of the agent category
default.  Note that when specifying a single word predicate like this,
the `agent-predicate' specification must be in dotted pair notation.

   The equivalent of the longer example from above would be:

     (agent-predicate or high (and (not low) (not long)))

   The outer parenthesis required in the category specification are not
entered here as, not being in dotted pair notation, the value of the
predicate is assumed to be a list.

   Now, the syntax of the download score is the same as the syntax of
normal score files, except that all elements that require actually
seeing the article itself are verboten.  This means that only the
following headers can be scored on: `Subject', `From', `Date',
`Message-ID', `References', `Chars', `Lines', and `Xref'.

   As with predicates, the specification of the `download score rule'
to use in respect of a group can be in either the category definition if
it's to be applicable to all groups in therein, or a group's parameters
if it's to be specific to that group.

   In both of these places the `download score rule' can take one of
three forms:

  1. Score rule

     This has the same syntax as a normal Gnus score file except only a
     subset of scoring keywords are available as mentioned above.

     example:

        * Category specification

               (("from"
                      ("Lars Ingebrigtsen" 1000000 nil s))
               ("lines"
                      (500 -100 nil <)))

        * Group/Topic Parameter specification

               (agent-score ("from"
                                  ("Lars Ingebrigtsen" 1000000 nil s))
                            ("lines"
                                  (500 -100 nil <)))

          Again, note the omission of the outermost parenthesis here.

  2. Agent score file

     These score files must _only_ contain the permitted scoring
     keywords stated above.

     example:

        * Category specification

               ("~/News/agent.SCORE")

          or perhaps

               ("~/News/agent.SCORE" "~/News/agent.group.SCORE")

        * Group Parameter specification

               (agent-score "~/News/agent.SCORE")

          Additional score files can be specified as above.  Need I say
          anything about parenthesis?

  3. Use `normal' score files

     If you don't want to maintain two sets of scoring rules for a
     group, and your desired `downloading' criteria for a group are the
     same as your `reading' criteria then you can tell the agent to
     refer to your `normal' score files when deciding what to download.

     These directives in either the category definition or a group's
     parameters will cause the agent to read in all the applicable score
     files for a group, _filtering out_ those sections that do not
     relate to one of the permitted subset of scoring keywords.

        * Category Specification

               file

        * Group Parameter specification

               (agent-score . file)

File: gnus,  Node: Category Buffer,  Next: Category Variables,  Prev: Category Syntax,  Up: Agent Categories

6.9.2.2 Category Buffer
.......................

You'd normally do all category maintenance from the category buffer.
When you enter it for the first time (with the `J c' command from the
group buffer), you'll only see the `default' category.

   The following commands are available in this buffer:

`q'
     Return to the group buffer (`gnus-category-exit').

`e'
     Use a customization buffer to set all of the selected category's
     parameters at one time (`gnus-category-customize-category').

`k'
     Kill the current category (`gnus-category-kill').

`c'
     Copy the current category (`gnus-category-copy').

`a'
     Add a new category (`gnus-category-add').

`p'
     Edit the predicate of the current category
     (`gnus-category-edit-predicate').

`g'
     Edit the list of groups belonging to the current category
     (`gnus-category-edit-groups').

`s'
     Edit the download score rule of the current category
     (`gnus-category-edit-score').

`l'
     List all the categories (`gnus-category-list').

File: gnus,  Node: Category Variables,  Prev: Category Buffer,  Up: Agent Categories

6.9.2.3 Category Variables
..........................

`gnus-category-mode-hook'
     Hook run in category buffers.

`gnus-category-line-format'
     Format of the lines in the category buffer (*note Formatting
     Variables::).  Valid elements are:

    `c'
          The name of the category.

    `g'
          The number of groups in the category.

`gnus-category-mode-line-format'
     Format of the category mode line (*note Mode Line Formatting::).

`gnus-agent-short-article'
     Articles that have fewer lines than this are short.  Default 100.

`gnus-agent-long-article'
     Articles that have more lines than this are long.  Default 200.

`gnus-agent-low-score'
     Articles that have a score lower than this have a low score.
     Default 0.

`gnus-agent-high-score'
     Articles that have a score higher than this have a high score.
     Default 0.

`gnus-agent-expire-days'
     The number of days that a `read' article must stay in the agent's
     local disk before becoming eligible for expiration (While the name
     is the same, this doesn't mean expiring the article on the server.
     It just means deleting the local copy of the article).  What is
     also important to understand is that the counter starts with the
     time the article was written to the local disk and not the time
     the article was read.  Default 7.

`gnus-agent-enable-expiration'
     Determines whether articles in a group are, by default, expired or
     retained indefinitely.  The default is `ENABLE' which means that
     you'll have to disable expiration when desired.  On the other hand,
     you could set this to `DISABLE'.  In that case, you would then
     have to enable expiration in selected groups.


File: gnus,  Node: Agent Commands,  Next: Agent Visuals,  Prev: Agent Categories,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.3 Agent Commands
--------------------

All the Gnus Agent commands are on the `J' submap.  The `J j'
(`gnus-agent-toggle-plugged') command works in all modes, and toggles
the plugged/unplugged state of the Gnus Agent.

* Menu:

* Group Agent Commands::        Configure groups and fetch their contents.
* Summary Agent Commands::      Manually select then fetch specific articles.
* Server Agent Commands::       Select the servers that are supported by the agent.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Agent Commands,  Next: Summary Agent Commands,  Up: Agent Commands

6.9.3.1 Group Agent Commands
............................

`J u'
     Fetch all eligible articles in the current group
     (`gnus-agent-fetch-groups').

`J c'
     Enter the Agent category buffer (`gnus-enter-category-buffer').

`J s'
     Fetch all eligible articles in all groups
     (`gnus-agent-fetch-session').

`J S'
     Send all sendable messages in the queue group
     (`gnus-group-send-queue').  *Note Drafts::.

`J a'
     Add the current group to an Agent category
     (`gnus-agent-add-group').  This command understands the
     process/prefix convention (*note Process/Prefix::).

`J r'
     Remove the current group from its category, if any
     (`gnus-agent-remove-group').  This command understands the
     process/prefix convention (*note Process/Prefix::).

`J Y'
     Synchronize flags changed while unplugged with remote server, if
     any.


File: gnus,  Node: Summary Agent Commands,  Next: Server Agent Commands,  Prev: Group Agent Commands,  Up: Agent Commands

6.9.3.2 Summary Agent Commands
..............................

`J #'
     Mark the article for downloading (`gnus-agent-mark-article').

`J M-#'
     Remove the downloading mark from the article
     (`gnus-agent-unmark-article').

`@'
     Toggle whether to download the article (`gnus-agent-toggle-mark').
     The download mark is `%' by default.

`J c'
     Mark all articles as read (`gnus-agent-catchup') that are neither
     cached, downloaded, nor downloadable.

`J S'
     Download all eligible (*note Agent Categories::) articles in this
     group.  (`gnus-agent-fetch-group').

`J s'
     Download all processable articles in this group.
     (`gnus-agent-summary-fetch-series').

`J u'
     Download all downloadable articles in the current group
     (`gnus-agent-summary-fetch-group').


File: gnus,  Node: Server Agent Commands,  Prev: Summary Agent Commands,  Up: Agent Commands

6.9.3.3 Server Agent Commands
.............................

`J a'
     Add the current server to the list of servers covered by the Gnus
     Agent (`gnus-agent-add-server').

`J r'
     Remove the current server from the list of servers covered by the
     Gnus Agent (`gnus-agent-remove-server').


File: gnus,  Node: Agent Visuals,  Next: Agent as Cache,  Prev: Agent Commands,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.4 Agent Visuals
-------------------

If you open a summary while unplugged and, Gnus knows from the group's
active range that there are more articles than the headers currently
stored in the Agent, you may see some articles whose subject looks
something like `[Undownloaded article #####]'.  These are placeholders
for the missing headers.  Aside from setting a mark, there is not much
that can be done with one of these placeholders.  When Gnus finally
gets a chance to fetch the group's headers, the placeholders will
automatically be replaced by the actual headers.  You can configure the
summary buffer's maneuvering to skip over the placeholders if you care
(See `gnus-auto-goto-ignores').

   While it may be obvious to all, the only headers and articles
available while unplugged are those headers and articles that were
fetched into the Agent while previously plugged.  To put it another
way, "If you forget to fetch something while plugged, you might have a
less than satisfying unplugged session".  For this reason, the Agent
adds two visual effects to your summary buffer.  These effects display
the download status of each article so that you always know which
articles will be available when unplugged.

   The first visual effect is the `%O' spec.  If you customize
`gnus-summary-line-format' to include this specifier, you will add a
single character field that indicates an article's download status.
Articles that have been fetched into either the Agent or the Cache,
will display `gnus-downloaded-mark' (defaults to `+').  All other
articles will display `gnus-undownloaded-mark' (defaults to `-').  If
you open a group that has not been agentized, a space (` ') will be
displayed.

   The second visual effect are the undownloaded faces.  The faces,
there are three indicating the article's score (low, normal, high),
seem to result in a love/hate response from many Gnus users.  The
problem is that the face selection is controlled by a list of condition
tests and face names (See `gnus-summary-highlight').  Each condition is
tested in the order in which it appears in the list so early conditions
have precedence over later conditions.  All of this means that, if you
tick an undownloaded article, the article will continue to be displayed
in the undownloaded face rather than the ticked face.

   If you use the Agent as a cache (to avoid downloading the same
article each time you visit it or to minimize your connection time), the
undownloaded face will probably seem like a good idea.  The reason
being that you do all of our work (marking, reading, deleting) with
downloaded articles so the normal faces always appear.  For those users
using the agent to improve online performance by caching the NOV
database (most users since 5.10.2), the undownloaded faces may appear
to be an absolutely horrible idea.  The issue being that, since none of
their articles have been fetched into the Agent, all of the normal
faces will be obscured by the undownloaded faces.

   If you would like to use the undownloaded faces, you must enable the
undownloaded faces by setting the `agent-enable-undownloaded-faces'
group parameter to `t'.  This parameter, like all other agent
parameters, may be set on an Agent Category (*note Agent Categories::),
a Group Topic (*note Topic Parameters::), or an individual group (*note
Group Parameters::).

   The one problem common to all users using the agent is how quickly it
can consume disk space.  If you using the agent on many groups, it is
even more difficult to effectively recover disk space.  One solution is
the `%F' format available in `gnus-group-line-format'.  This format
will display the actual disk space used by articles fetched into both
the agent and cache.  By knowing which groups use the most space, users
know where to focus their efforts when "agent expiring" articles.

File: gnus,  Node: Agent as Cache,  Next: Agent Expiry,  Prev: Agent Visuals,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.5 Agent as Cache
--------------------

When Gnus is plugged, it is not efficient to download headers or
articles from the server again, if they are already stored in the
Agent.  So, Gnus normally only downloads headers once, and stores them
in the Agent.  These headers are later used when generating the summary
buffer, regardless of whether you are plugged or unplugged.  Articles
are not cached in the Agent by default though (that would potentially
consume lots of disk space), but if you have already downloaded an
article into the Agent, Gnus will not download the article from the
server again but use the locally stored copy instead.

   If you so desire, you can configure the agent (see `gnus-agent-cache'
*note Agent Variables::) to always download headers and articles while
plugged.  Gnus will almost certainly be slower, but it will be kept
synchronized with the server.  That last point probably won't make any
sense if you are using a nntp or nnimap back end.

File: gnus,  Node: Agent Expiry,  Next: Agent Regeneration,  Prev: Agent as Cache,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.6 Agent Expiry
------------------

The Agent back end, `nnagent', doesn't handle expiry.  Well, at least
it doesn't handle it like other back ends.  Instead, there are special
`gnus-agent-expire' and `gnus-agent-expire-group' commands that will
expire all read articles that are older than `gnus-agent-expire-days'
days.  They can be run whenever you feel that you're running out of
space.  Neither are particularly fast or efficient, and it's not a
particularly good idea to interrupt them (with `C-g' or anything else)
once you've started one of them.

   Note that other functions, e.g. `gnus-request-expire-articles',
might run `gnus-agent-expire' for you to keep the agent synchronized
with the group.

   The agent parameter `agent-enable-expiration' may be used to prevent
expiration in selected groups.

   If `gnus-agent-expire-all' is non-`nil', the agent expiration
commands will expire all articles--unread, read, ticked and dormant.
If `nil' (which is the default), only read articles are eligible for
expiry, and unread, ticked and dormant articles will be kept
indefinitely.

   If you find that some articles eligible for expiry are never expired,
perhaps some Gnus Agent files are corrupted.  There's are special
commands, `gnus-agent-regenerate' and `gnus-agent-regenerate-group', to
fix possible problems.

File: gnus,  Node: Agent Regeneration,  Next: Agent and flags,  Prev: Agent Expiry,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.7 Agent Regeneration
------------------------

The local data structures used by `nnagent' may become corrupted due to
certain exceptional conditions.  When this happens, `nnagent'
functionality may degrade or even fail.  The solution to this problem
is to repair the local data structures by removing all internal
inconsistencies.

   For example, if your connection to your server is lost while
downloaded articles into the agent, the local data structures will not
know about articles successfully downloaded prior to the connection
failure.  Running `gnus-agent-regenerate' or
`gnus-agent-regenerate-group' will update the data structures such that
you don't need to download these articles a second time.

   The command `gnus-agent-regenerate' will perform
`gnus-agent-regenerate-group' on every agentized group.  While you can
run `gnus-agent-regenerate' in any buffer, it is strongly recommended
that you first close all summary buffers.

   The command `gnus-agent-regenerate-group' uses the local copies of
individual articles to repair the local NOV(header) database.  It then
updates the internal data structures that document which articles are
stored locally.  An optional argument will mark articles in the agent
as unread.

File: gnus,  Node: Agent and flags,  Next: Agent and IMAP,  Prev: Agent Regeneration,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.8 Agent and flags
---------------------

The Agent works with any Gnus back end including those, such as nnimap,
that store flags (read, ticked, etc) on the server.  Sadly, the Agent
does not actually know which backends keep their flags in the backend
server rather than in `.newsrc'.  This means that the Agent, while
unplugged or disconnected, will always record all changes to the flags
in its own files.

   When you plug back in, Gnus will then check to see if you have any
changed any flags and ask if you wish to synchronize these with the
server.  This behavior is customizable by
`gnus-agent-synchronize-flags'.

   If `gnus-agent-synchronize-flags' is `nil', the Agent will never
automatically synchronize flags.  If it is `ask', which is the default,
the Agent will check if you made any changes and if so ask if you wish
to synchronize these when you re-connect.  If it has any other value,
all flags will be synchronized automatically.

   If you do not wish to synchronize flags automatically when you
re-connect, you can do it manually with the
`gnus-agent-synchronize-flags' command that is bound to `J Y' in the
group buffer.

   Technical note: the synchronization algorithm does not work by
"pushing" all local flags to the server, but rather by incrementally
updated the server view of flags by changing only those flags that were
changed by the user.  Thus, if you set one flag on an article, quit the
group then re-select the group and remove the flag; the flag will be
set and removed from the server when you "synchronize".  The queued flag
operations can be found in the per-server `flags' file in the Agent
directory.  It's emptied when you synchronize flags.

File: gnus,  Node: Agent and IMAP,  Next: Outgoing Messages,  Prev: Agent and flags,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.9 Agent and IMAP
--------------------

The Agent works with any Gnus back end, including nnimap.  However,
since there are some conceptual differences between NNTP and IMAP, this
section (should) provide you with some information to make Gnus Agent
work smoother as a IMAP Disconnected Mode client.

   Some things are currently not implemented in the Agent that you'd
might expect from a disconnected IMAP client, including:

   * Copying/moving articles into nnimap groups when unplugged.

   * Creating/deleting nnimap groups when unplugged.


File: gnus,  Node: Outgoing Messages,  Next: Agent Variables,  Prev: Agent and IMAP,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.10 Outgoing Messages
------------------------

By default, when Gnus is unplugged, all outgoing messages (both mail
and news) are stored in the draft group "queue" (*note Drafts::).  You
can view them there after posting, and edit them at will.

   You can control the circumstances under which outgoing mail is queued
(see `gnus-agent-queue-mail', *note Agent Variables::).  Outgoing news
is always queued when Gnus is unplugged, and never otherwise.

   You can send the messages either from the draft group with the
special commands available there, or you can use the `J S' command in
the group buffer to send all the sendable messages in the draft group.
Posting news will only work when Gnus is plugged, but you can send mail
at any time.

   If sending mail while unplugged does not work for you and you worry
about hitting `J S' by accident when unplugged, you can have Gnus ask
you to confirm your action (see `gnus-agent-prompt-send-queue', *note
Agent Variables::).

File: gnus,  Node: Agent Variables,  Next: Example Setup,  Prev: Outgoing Messages,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.11 Agent Variables
----------------------

`gnus-agent'
     Is the agent enabled?  The default is `t'.  When first enabled,
     the agent will use `gnus-agent-auto-agentize-methods' to
     automatically mark some back ends as agentized.  You may change
     which back ends are agentized using the agent commands in the
     server buffer.

     To enter the server buffer, use the `^'
     (`gnus-group-enter-server-mode') command in the group buffer.

`gnus-agent-directory'
     Where the Gnus Agent will store its files.  The default is
     `~/News/agent/'.

`gnus-agent-handle-level'
     Groups on levels (*note Group Levels::) higher than this variable
     will be ignored by the Agent.  The default is
     `gnus-level-subscribed', which means that only subscribed group
     will be considered by the Agent by default.

`gnus-agent-plugged-hook'
     Hook run when connecting to the network.

`gnus-agent-unplugged-hook'
     Hook run when disconnecting from the network.

`gnus-agent-fetched-hook'
     Hook run when finished fetching articles.

`gnus-agent-cache'
     Variable to control whether use the locally stored NOV and
     articles when plugged, e.g. essentially using the Agent as a cache.
     The default is non-`nil', which means to use the Agent as a cache.

`gnus-agent-go-online'
     If `gnus-agent-go-online' is `nil', the Agent will never
     automatically switch offline servers into online status.  If it is
     `ask', the default, the Agent will ask if you wish to switch
     offline servers into online status when you re-connect.  If it has
     any other value, all offline servers will be automatically
     switched into online status.

`gnus-agent-mark-unread-after-downloaded'
     If `gnus-agent-mark-unread-after-downloaded' is non-`nil', mark
     articles as unread after downloading.  This is usually a safe
     thing to do as the newly downloaded article has obviously not been
     read.  The default is `t'.

`gnus-agent-synchronize-flags'
     If `gnus-agent-synchronize-flags' is `nil', the Agent will never
     automatically synchronize flags.  If it is `ask', which is the
     default, the Agent will check if you made any changes and if so
     ask if you wish to synchronize these when you re-connect.  If it
     has any other value, all flags will be synchronized automatically.

`gnus-agent-consider-all-articles'
     If `gnus-agent-consider-all-articles' is non-`nil', the agent will
     let the agent predicate decide whether articles need to be
     downloaded or not, for all articles.  When `nil', the default, the
     agent will only let the predicate decide whether unread articles
     are downloaded or not.  If you enable this, you may also want to
     look into the agent expiry settings (*note Category Variables::),
     so that the agent doesn't download articles which the agent will
     later expire, over and over again.

`gnus-agent-max-fetch-size'
     The agent fetches articles into a temporary buffer prior to parsing
     them into individual files.  To avoid exceeding the max. buffer
     size, the agent alternates between fetching and parsing until all
     articles have been fetched.  `gnus-agent-max-fetch-size' provides
     a size limit to control how often the cycling occurs.  A large
     value improves performance.  A small value minimizes the time lost
     should the connection be lost while fetching (You may need to run
     `gnus-agent-regenerate-group' to update the group's state.
     However, all articles parsed prior to loosing the connection will
     be available while unplugged).  The default is 10M so it is
     unusual to see any cycling.

`gnus-server-unopen-status'
     Perhaps not an Agent variable, but closely related to the Agent,
     this variable says what will happen if Gnus cannot open a server.
     If the Agent is enabled, the default, `nil', makes Gnus ask the
     user whether to deny the server or whether to unplug the agent.
     If the Agent is disabled, Gnus always simply deny the server.
     Other choices for this variable include `denied' and `offline' the
     latter is only valid if the Agent is used.

`gnus-auto-goto-ignores'
     Another variable that isn't an Agent variable, yet so closely
     related that most will look for it here, this variable tells the
     summary buffer how to maneuver around undownloaded (only headers
     stored in the agent) and unfetched (neither article nor headers
     stored) articles.

     The valid values are `nil' (maneuver to any article),
     `undownloaded' (maneuvering while unplugged ignores articles that
     have not been fetched), `always-undownloaded' (maneuvering always
     ignores articles that have not been fetched), `unfetched'
     (maneuvering ignores articles whose headers have not been fetched).

`gnus-agent-queue-mail'
     When `gnus-agent-queue-mail' is `always', Gnus will always queue
     mail rather than sending it straight away.  When `t', Gnus will
     queue mail when unplugged only.  When `nil', never queue mail.
     The default is `t'.

`gnus-agent-prompt-send-queue'
     When `gnus-agent-prompt-send-queue' is non-`nil' Gnus will prompt
     you to confirm that you really wish to proceed if you hit `J S'
     while unplugged.  The default is `nil'.

`gnus-agent-auto-agentize-methods'
     If you have never used the Agent before (or more technically, if
     `~/News/agent/lib/servers' does not exist), Gnus will
     automatically agentize a few servers for you.  This variable
     control which back ends should be auto-agentized.  It is typically
     only useful to agentize remote back ends.  The auto-agentizing has
     the same effect as running `J a' on the servers (*note Server
     Agent Commands::).  If the file exist, you must manage the servers
     manually by adding or removing them, this variable is only
     applicable the first time you start Gnus.  The default is `(nntp
     nnimap)'.


File: gnus,  Node: Example Setup,  Next: Batching Agents,  Prev: Agent Variables,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.12 Example Setup
--------------------

If you don't want to read this manual, and you have a fairly standard
setup, you may be able to use something like the following as your
`~/.gnus.el' file to get started.

     ;; Define how Gnus is to fetch news.  We do this over NNTP
     ;; from your ISP's server.
     (setq gnus-select-method '(nntp "news.your-isp.com"))

     ;; Define how Gnus is to read your mail.  We read mail from
     ;; your ISP's POP server.
     (setq mail-sources '((pop :server "pop.your-isp.com")))

     ;; Say how Gnus is to store the mail.  We use nnml groups.
     (setq gnus-secondary-select-methods '((nnml "")))

     ;; Make Gnus into an offline newsreader.
     ;; (gnus-agentize) ; The obsolete setting.
     ;; (setq gnus-agent t) ; Now the default.

   That should be it, basically.  Put that in your `~/.gnus.el' file,
edit to suit your needs, start up PPP (or whatever), and type `M-x
gnus'.

   If this is the first time you've run Gnus, you will be subscribed
automatically to a few default newsgroups.  You'll probably want to
subscribe to more groups, and to do that, you have to query the NNTP
server for a complete list of groups with the `A A' command.  This
usually takes quite a while, but you only have to do it once.

   After reading and parsing a while, you'll be presented with a list of
groups.  Subscribe to the ones you want to read with the `u' command.
`l' to make all the killed groups disappear after you've subscribe to
all the groups you want to read.  (`A k' will bring back all the killed
groups.)

   You can now read the groups at once, or you can download the articles
with the `J s' command.  And then read the rest of this manual to find
out which of the other gazillion things you want to customize.

File: gnus,  Node: Batching Agents,  Next: Agent Caveats,  Prev: Example Setup,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.13 Batching Agents
----------------------

Having the Gnus Agent fetch articles (and post whatever messages you've
written) is quite easy once you've gotten things set up properly.  The
following shell script will do everything that is necessary:

   You can run a complete batch command from the command line with the
following incantation:

     #!/bin/sh
     emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs -l ~/.gnus.el -f gnus-agent-batch >/dev/null 2>&1

File: gnus,  Node: Agent Caveats,  Prev: Batching Agents,  Up: Gnus Unplugged

6.9.14 Agent Caveats
--------------------

The Gnus Agent doesn't seem to work like most other offline
newsreaders.  Here are some common questions that some imaginary people
may ask:

"If I read an article while plugged, do they get entered into the Agent?"
     *No*.  If you want this behavior, add
     `gnus-agent-fetch-selected-article' to `gnus-select-article-hook'.

"If I read an article while plugged, and the article already exists in"
     the Agent, will it get downloaded once more?

     *No*, unless `gnus-agent-cache' is `nil'.


   In short, when Gnus is unplugged, it only looks into the locally
stored articles; when it's plugged, it talks to your ISP and may also
use the locally stored articles.

File: gnus,  Node: Scoring,  Next: Various,  Prev: Select Methods,  Up: Top

7 Scoring
*********

Other people use "kill files", but we here at Gnus Towers like scoring
better than killing, so we'd rather switch than fight.  They do
something completely different as well, so sit up straight and pay
attention!

   All articles have a default score (`gnus-summary-default-score'),
which is 0 by default.  This score may be raised or lowered either
interactively or by score files.  Articles that have a score lower than
`gnus-summary-mark-below' are marked as read.

   Gnus will read any "score files" that apply to the current group
before generating the summary buffer.

   There are several commands in the summary buffer that insert score
entries based on the current article.  You can, for instance, ask Gnus
to lower or increase the score of all articles with a certain subject.

   There are two sorts of scoring entries: Permanent and temporary.
Temporary score entries are self-expiring entries.  Any entries that are
temporary and have not been used for, say, a week, will be removed
silently to help keep the sizes of the score files down.

* Menu:

* Summary Score Commands::      Adding score entries for the current group.
* Group Score Commands::        General score commands.
* Score Variables::             Customize your scoring.  (My, what terminology).
* Score File Format::           What a score file may contain.
* Score File Editing::          You can edit score files by hand as well.
* Adaptive Scoring::            Big Sister Gnus knows what you read.
* Home Score File::             How to say where new score entries are to go.
* Followups To Yourself::       Having Gnus notice when people answer you.
* Scoring On Other Headers::    Scoring on non-standard headers.
* Scoring Tips::                How to score effectively.
* Reverse Scoring::             That problem child of old is not problem.
* Global Score Files::          Earth-spanning, ear-splitting score files.
* Kill Files::                  They are still here, but they can be ignored.
* Converting Kill Files::       Translating kill files to score files.
* Advanced Scoring::            Using logical expressions to build score rules.
* Score Decays::                It can be useful to let scores wither away.

File: gnus,  Node: Summary Score Commands,  Next: Group Score Commands,  Up: Scoring

7.1 Summary Score Commands
==========================

The score commands that alter score entries do not actually modify real
score files.  That would be too inefficient.  Gnus maintains a cache of
previously loaded score files, one of which is considered the "current
score file alist".  The score commands simply insert entries into this
list, and upon group exit, this list is saved.

   The current score file is by default the group's local score file,
even if no such score file actually exists.  To insert score commands
into some other score file (e.g. `all.SCORE'), you must first make this
score file the current one.

   General score commands that don't actually change the score file:

`V s'
     Set the score of the current article (`gnus-summary-set-score').

`V S'
     Display the score of the current article
     (`gnus-summary-current-score').

`V t'
     Display all score rules that have been used on the current article
     (`gnus-score-find-trace').  In the `*Score Trace*' buffer, you may
     type `e' to edit score file corresponding to the score rule on
     current line and `f' to format (`gnus-score-pretty-print') the
     score file and edit it.

`V w'
     List words used in scoring (`gnus-score-find-favourite-words').

`V R'
     Run the current summary through the scoring process
     (`gnus-summary-rescore').  This might be useful if you're playing
     around with your score files behind Gnus' back and want to see the
     effect you're having.

`V c'
     Make a different score file the current
     (`gnus-score-change-score-file').

`V e'
     Edit the current score file (`gnus-score-edit-current-scores').
     You will be popped into a `gnus-score-mode' buffer (*note Score
     File Editing::).

`V f'
     Edit a score file and make this score file the current one
     (`gnus-score-edit-file').

`V F'
     Flush the score cache (`gnus-score-flush-cache').  This is useful
     after editing score files.

`V C'
     Customize a score file in a visually pleasing manner
     (`gnus-score-customize').


   The rest of these commands modify the local score file.

`V m'
     Prompt for a score, and mark all articles with a score below this
     as read (`gnus-score-set-mark-below').

`V x'
     Prompt for a score, and add a score rule to the current score file
     to expunge all articles below this score
     (`gnus-score-set-expunge-below').

   The keystrokes for actually making score entries follow a very
regular pattern, so there's no need to list all the commands.
(Hundreds of them.)

  1. The first key is either `I' (upper case i) for increasing the score
     or `L' for lowering the score.

  2. The second key says what header you want to score on.  The
     following keys are available:
    `a'
          Score on the author name.

    `s'
          Score on the subject line.

    `x'
          Score on the `Xref' line--i.e., the cross-posting line.

    `r'
          Score on the `References' line.

    `d'
          Score on the date.

    `l'
          Score on the number of lines.

    `i'
          Score on the `Message-ID' header.

    `e'
          Score on an "extra" header, that is, one of those in
          gnus-extra-headers, if your NNTP server tracks additional
          header data in overviews.

    `f'
          Score on followups--this matches the author name, and adds
          scores to the followups to this author.  (Using this key
          leads to the creation of `ADAPT' files.)

    `b'
          Score on the body.

    `h'
          Score on the head.

    `t'
          Score on thread.  (Using this key leads to the creation of
          `ADAPT' files.)


  3. The third key is the match type.  Which match types are valid
     depends on what headers you are scoring on.

    `strings'

         `e'
               Exact matching.

         `s'
               Substring matching.

         `f'
               Fuzzy matching (*note Fuzzy Matching::).

         `r'
               Regexp matching

    `date'

         `b'
               Before date.

         `a'
               After date.

         `n'
               This date.

    `number'

         `<'
               Less than number.

         `='
               Equal to number.

         `>'
               Greater than number.

  4. The fourth and usually final key says whether this is a temporary
     (i.e., expiring) score entry, or a permanent (i.e., non-expiring)
     score entry, or whether it is to be done immediately, without
     adding to the score file.
    `t'
          Temporary score entry.

    `p'
          Permanent score entry.

    `i'
          Immediately scoring.

  5. If you are scoring on `e' (extra) headers, you will then be
     prompted for the header name on which you wish to score.  This
     must be a header named in gnus-extra-headers, and `TAB' completion
     is available.


   So, let's say you want to increase the score on the current author
with exact matching permanently: `I a e p'.  If you want to lower the
score based on the subject line, using substring matching, and make a
temporary score entry: `L s s t'.  Pretty easy.

   To make things a bit more complicated, there are shortcuts.  If you
use a capital letter on either the second or third keys, Gnus will use
defaults for the remaining one or two keystrokes.  The defaults are
"substring" and "temporary".  So `I A' is the same as `I a s t', and `I
a R' is the same as `I a r t'.

   These functions take both the numerical prefix and the symbolic
prefix (*note Symbolic Prefixes::).  A numerical prefix says how much
to lower (or increase) the score of the article.  A symbolic prefix of
`a' says to use the `all.SCORE' file for the command instead of the
current score file.

   The `gnus-score-mimic-keymap' says whether these commands will
pretend they are keymaps or not.

File: gnus,  Node: Group Score Commands,  Next: Score Variables,  Prev: Summary Score Commands,  Up: Scoring

7.2 Group Score Commands
========================

There aren't many of these as yet, I'm afraid.

`W e'
     Edit the apply-to-all-groups all.SCORE file.  You will be popped
     into a `gnus-score-mode' buffer (*note Score File Editing::).

`W f'
     Gnus maintains a cache of score alists to avoid having to reload
     them all the time.  This command will flush the cache
     (`gnus-score-flush-cache').


   You can do scoring from the command line by saying something like:

     $ emacs -batch -l ~/.emacs -l ~/.gnus.el -f gnus-batch-score

File: gnus,  Node: Score Variables,  Next: Score File Format,  Prev: Group Score Commands,  Up: Scoring

7.3 Score Variables
===================

`gnus-use-scoring'
     If `nil', Gnus will not check for score files, and will not, in
     general, do any score-related work.  This is `t' by default.

`gnus-kill-killed'
     If this variable is `nil', Gnus will never apply score files to
     articles that have already been through the kill process.  While
     this may save you lots of time, it also means that if you apply a
     kill file to a group, and then change the kill file and want to
     run it over you group again to kill more articles, it won't work.
     You have to set this variable to `t' to do that.  (It is `t' by
     default.)

`gnus-kill-files-directory'
     All kill and score files will be stored in this directory, which is
     initialized from the `SAVEDIR' environment variable by default.
     This is `~/News/' by default.

`gnus-score-file-suffix'
     Suffix to add to the group name to arrive at the score file name
     (`SCORE' by default.)

`gnus-score-uncacheable-files'
     All score files are normally cached to avoid excessive re-loading
     of score files.  However, this might make your Emacs grow big and
     bloated, so this regexp can be used to weed out score files
     unlikely to be needed again.  It would be a bad idea to deny
     caching of `all.SCORE', while it might be a good idea to not cache
     `comp.infosystems.www.authoring.misc.ADAPT'.  In fact, this
     variable is `ADAPT$' by default, so no adaptive score files will
     be cached.

`gnus-save-score'
     If you have really complicated score files, and do lots of batch
     scoring, then you might set this variable to `t'.  This will make
     Gnus save the scores into the `.newsrc.eld' file.

     If you do not set this to `t', then manual scores (like those set
     with `V s' (`gnus-summary-set-score')) will not be preserved
     across group visits.

`gnus-score-interactive-default-score'
     Score used by all the interactive raise/lower commands to
     raise/lower score with.  Default is 1000, which may seem
     excessive, but this is to ensure that the adaptive scoring scheme
     gets enough room to play with.  We don't want the small changes
     from the adaptive scoring to overwrite manually entered data.

`gnus-summary-default-score'
     Default score of an article, which is 0 by default.

`gnus-summary-expunge-below'
     Don't display the summary lines of articles that have scores lower
     than this variable.  This is `nil' by default, which means that no
     articles will be hidden.  This variable is local to the summary
     buffers, and has to be set from `gnus-summary-mode-hook'.

`gnus-score-over-mark'
     Mark (in the third column) used for articles with a score over the
     default.  Default is `+'.

`gnus-score-below-mark'
     Mark (in the third column) used for articles with a score below the
     default.  Default is `-'.

`gnus-score-find-score-files-function'
     Function used to find score files for the current group.  This
     function is called with the name of the group as the argument.

     Predefined functions available are:
    `gnus-score-find-single'
          Only apply the group's own score file.

    `gnus-score-find-bnews'
          Apply all score files that match, using bnews syntax.  This
          is the default.  If the current group is `gnu.emacs.gnus',
          for instance, `all.emacs.all.SCORE', `not.alt.all.SCORE' and
          `gnu.all.SCORE' would all apply.  In short, the instances of
          `all' in the score file names are translated into `.*', and
          then a regexp match is done.

          This means that if you have some score entries that you want
          to apply to all groups, then you put those entries in the
          `all.SCORE' file.

          The score files are applied in a semi-random order, although
          Gnus will try to apply the more general score files before
          the more specific score files.  It does this by looking at
          the number of elements in the score file names--discarding
          the `all' elements.

    `gnus-score-find-hierarchical'
          Apply all score files from all the parent groups.  This means
          that you can't have score files like `all.SCORE', but you can
          have `SCORE', `comp.SCORE' and `comp.emacs.SCORE' for each
          server.

     This variable can also be a list of functions.  In that case, all
     these functions will be called with the group name as argument, and
     all the returned lists of score files will be applied.  These
     functions can also return lists of lists of score alists directly.
     In that case, the functions that return these non-file score alists
     should probably be placed before the "real" score file functions,
     to ensure that the last score file returned is the local score
     file.  Phu.

     For example, to do hierarchical scoring but use a
     non-server-specific overall score file, you could use the value
          (list (lambda (group) ("all.SCORE"))
                'gnus-score-find-hierarchical)

`gnus-score-expiry-days'
     This variable says how many days should pass before an unused
     score file entry is expired.  If this variable is `nil', no score
     file entries are expired.  It's 7 by default.

`gnus-update-score-entry-dates'
     If this variable is non-`nil', temporary score entries that have
     been triggered (matched) will have their dates updated.  (This is
     how Gnus controls expiry--all non-matched-entries will become too
     old while matched entries will stay fresh and young.)  However, if
     you set this variable to `nil', even matched entries will grow old
     and will have to face that oh-so grim reaper.

`gnus-score-after-write-file-function'
     Function called with the name of the score file just written.

`gnus-score-thread-simplify'
     If this variable is non-`nil', article subjects will be simplified
     for subject scoring purposes in the same manner as with
     threading--according to the current value of
     `gnus-simplify-subject-functions'.  If the scoring entry uses
     `substring' or `exact' matching, the match will also be simplified
     in this manner.


File: gnus,  Node: Score File Format,  Next: Score File Editing,  Prev: Score Variables,  Up: Scoring

7.4 Score File Format
=====================

A score file is an `emacs-lisp' file that normally contains just a
single form.  Casual users are not expected to edit these files;
everything can be changed from the summary buffer.

   Anyway, if you'd like to dig into it yourself, here's an example:

     (("from"
       ("Lars Ingebrigtsen" -10000)
       ("Per Abrahamsen")
       ("larsi\\|lmi" -50000 nil R))
      ("subject"
       ("Ding is Badd" nil 728373))
      ("xref"
       ("alt.politics" -1000 728372 s))
      ("lines"
       (2 -100 nil <))
      (mark 0)
      (expunge -1000)
      (mark-and-expunge -10)
      (read-only nil)
      (orphan -10)
      (adapt t)
      (files "/hom/larsi/News/gnu.SCORE")
      (exclude-files "all.SCORE")
      (local (gnus-newsgroup-auto-expire t)
             (gnus-summary-make-false-root empty))
      (eval (ding)))

   This example demonstrates most score file elements.  *Note Advanced
Scoring::, for a different approach.

   Even though this looks much like Lisp code, nothing here is actually
`eval'ed.  The Lisp reader is used to read this form, though, so it has
to be valid syntactically, if not semantically.

   Six keys are supported by this alist:

`STRING'
     If the key is a string, it is the name of the header to perform the
     match on.  Scoring can only be performed on these eight headers:
     `From', `Subject', `References', `Message-ID', `Xref', `Lines',
     `Chars' and `Date'.  In addition to these headers, there are three
     strings to tell Gnus to fetch the entire article and do the match
     on larger parts of the article: `Body' will perform the match on
     the body of the article, `Head' will perform the match on the head
     of the article, and `All' will perform the match on the entire
     article.  Note that using any of these last three keys will slow
     down group entry _considerably_.  The final "header" you can score
     on is `Followup'.  These score entries will result in new score
     entries being added for all follow-ups to articles that matches
     these score entries.

     Following this key is an arbitrary number of score entries, where
     each score entry has one to four elements.
       1. The first element is the "match element".  On most headers
          this will be a string, but on the Lines and Chars headers,
          this must be an integer.

       2. If the second element is present, it should be a number--the
          "score element".  This number should be an integer in the
          neginf to posinf interval.  This number is added to the score
          of the article if the match is successful.  If this element
          is not present, the `gnus-score-interactive-default-score'
          number will be used instead.  This is 1000 by default.

       3. If the third element is present, it should be a number--the
          "date element".  This date says when the last time this score
          entry matched, which provides a mechanism for expiring the
          score entries.  It this element is not present, the score
          entry is permanent.  The date is represented by the number of
          days since December 31, 1 BCE.

       4. If the fourth element is present, it should be a symbol--the
          "type element".  This element specifies what function should
          be used to see whether this score entry matches the article.
          What match types that can be used depends on what header you
          wish to perform the match on.
         "From, Subject, References, Xref, Message-ID"
               For most header types, there are the `r' and `R'
               (regexp), as well as `s' and `S' (substring) types, and
               `e' and `E' (exact match), and `w' (word match) types.
               If this element is not present, Gnus will assume that
               substring matching should be used.  `R', `S', and `E'
               differ from the others in that the matches will be done
               in a case-sensitive manner.  All these one-letter types
               are really just abbreviations for the `regexp',
               `string', `exact', and `word' types, which you can use
               instead, if you feel like.

         "Extra"
               Just as for the standard string overview headers, if you
               are using gnus-extra-headers, you can score on these
               headers' values.  In this case, there is a 5th element
               in the score entry, being the name of the header to be
               scored.  The following entry is useful in your
               `all.SCORE' file in case of spam attacks from a single
               origin host, if your NNTP server tracks
               `NNTP-Posting-Host' in overviews:

                    ("111.222.333.444" -1000 nil s
                     "NNTP-Posting-Host")

         "Lines, Chars"
               These two headers use different match types: `<', `>',
               `=', `>=' and `<='.

               These predicates are true if

                    (PREDICATE HEADER MATCH)

               evaluates to non-`nil'.  For instance, the advanced match
               `("lines" 4 <)' (*note Advanced Scoring::) will result
               in the following form:

                    (< header-value 4)

               Or to put it another way: When using `<' on `Lines' with
               4 as the match, we get the score added if the article
               has less than 4 lines.  (It's easy to get confused and
               think it's the other way around.  But it's not.  I
               think.)

               When matching on `Lines', be careful because some back
               ends (like `nndir') do not generate `Lines' header, so
               every article ends up being marked as having 0 lines.
               This can lead to strange results if you happen to lower
               score of the articles with few lines.

         "Date"
               For the Date header we have three kinda silly match
               types: `before', `at' and `after'.  I can't really
               imagine this ever being useful, but, like, it would feel
               kinda silly not to provide this function.  Just in case.
               You never know.  Better safe than sorry.  Once burnt,
               twice shy.  Don't judge a book by its cover.  Never not
               have sex on a first date.  (I have been told that at
               least one person, and I quote, "found this function
               indispensable", however.)

               A more useful match type is `regexp'.  With it, you can
               match the date string using a regular expression.  The
               date is normalized to ISO8601 compact format
               first--YYYYMMDD`T'HHMMSS.  If you want to match all
               articles that have been posted on April 1st in every
               year, you could use `....0401.........' as a match
               string, for instance.  (Note that the date is kept in
               its original time zone, so this will match articles that
               were posted when it was April 1st where the article was
               posted from.  Time zones are such wholesome fun for the
               whole family, eh?)

         "Head, Body, All"
               These three match keys use the same match types as the
               `From' (etc) header uses.

         "Followup"
               This match key is somewhat special, in that it will
               match the `From' header, and affect the score of not
               only the matching articles, but also all followups to
               the matching articles.  This allows you e.g. increase
               the score of followups to your own articles, or decrease
               the score of followups to the articles of some known
               trouble-maker.  Uses the same match types as the `From'
               header uses.  (Using this match key will lead to
               creation of `ADAPT' files.)

         "Thread"
               This match key works along the same lines as the
               `Followup' match key.  If you say that you want to score
               on a (sub-)thread started by an article with a
               `Message-ID' X, then you add a `thread' match.  This
               will add a new `thread' match for each article that has
               X in its `References' header.  (These new `thread'
               matches will use the `Message-ID's of these matching
               articles.)  This will ensure that you can raise/lower
               the score of an entire thread, even though some articles
               in the thread may not have complete `References'
               headers.  Note that using this may lead to
               undeterministic scores of the articles in the thread.
               (Using this match key will lead to creation of `ADAPT'
               files.)

`mark'
     The value of this entry should be a number.  Any articles with a
     score lower than this number will be marked as read.

`expunge'
     The value of this entry should be a number.  Any articles with a
     score lower than this number will be removed from the summary
     buffer.

`mark-and-expunge'
     The value of this entry should be a number.  Any articles with a
     score lower than this number will be marked as read and removed
     from the summary buffer.

`thread-mark-and-expunge'
     The value of this entry should be a number.  All articles that
     belong to a thread that has a total score below this number will
     be marked as read and removed from the summary buffer.
     `gnus-thread-score-function' says how to compute the total score
     for a thread.

`files'
     The value of this entry should be any number of file names.  These
     files are assumed to be score files as well, and will be loaded
     the same way this one was.

`exclude-files'
     The clue of this entry should be any number of files.  These files
     will not be loaded, even though they would normally be so, for
     some reason or other.

`eval'
     The value of this entry will be `eval'el.  This element will be
     ignored when handling global score files.

`read-only'
     Read-only score files will not be updated or saved.  Global score
     files should feature this atom (*note Global Score Files::).
     (Note: "Global" here really means "global"; not your personal
     apply-to-all-groups score files.)

`orphan'
     The value of this entry should be a number.  Articles that do not
     have parents will get this number added to their scores.  Imagine
     you follow some high-volume newsgroup, like `comp.lang.c'.  Most
     likely you will only follow a few of the threads, also want to see
     any new threads.

     You can do this with the following two score file entries:

                  (orphan -500)
                  (mark-and-expunge -100)

     When you enter the group the first time, you will only see the new
     threads.  You then raise the score of the threads that you find
     interesting (with `I T' or `I S'), and ignore (`C y') the rest.
     Next time you enter the group, you will see new articles in the
     interesting threads, plus any new threads.

     I.e.--the orphan score atom is for high-volume groups where a few
     interesting threads which can't be found automatically by ordinary
     scoring rules exist.

`adapt'
     This entry controls the adaptive scoring.  If it is `t', the
     default adaptive scoring rules will be used.  If it is `ignore', no
     adaptive scoring will be performed on this group.  If it is a
     list, this list will be used as the adaptive scoring rules.  If it
     isn't present, or is something other than `t' or `ignore', the
     default adaptive scoring rules will be used.  If you want to use
     adaptive scoring on most groups, you'd set
     `gnus-use-adaptive-scoring' to `t', and insert an `(adapt ignore)'
     in the groups where you do not want adaptive scoring.  If you only
     want adaptive scoring in a few groups, you'd set
     `gnus-use-adaptive-scoring' to `nil', and insert `(adapt t)' in
     the score files of the groups where you want it.

`adapt-file'
     All adaptive score entries will go to the file named by this
     entry.  It will also be applied when entering the group.  This
     atom might be handy if you want to adapt on several groups at
     once, using the same adaptive file for a number of groups.

`local'
     The value of this entry should be a list of `(VAR VALUE)' pairs.
     Each VAR will be made buffer-local to the current summary buffer,
     and set to the value specified.  This is a convenient, if somewhat
     strange, way of setting variables in some groups if you don't like
     hooks much.  Note that the VALUE won't be evaluated.

File: gnus,  Node: Score File Editing,  Next: Adaptive Scoring,  Prev: Score File Format,  Up: Scoring

7.5 Score File Editing
======================

You normally enter all scoring commands from the summary buffer, but you
might feel the urge to edit them by hand as well, so we've supplied you
with a mode for that.

   It's simply a slightly customized `emacs-lisp' mode, with these
additional commands:

`C-c C-c'
     Save the changes you have made and return to the summary buffer
     (`gnus-score-edit-exit').

`C-c C-d'
     Insert the current date in numerical format
     (`gnus-score-edit-insert-date').  This is really the day number, if
     you were wondering.

`C-c C-p'
     The adaptive score files are saved in an unformatted fashion.  If
     you intend to read one of these files, you want to "pretty print"
     it first.  This command (`gnus-score-pretty-print') does that for
     you.


   Type `M-x gnus-score-mode' to use this mode.

   `gnus-score-menu-hook' is run in score mode buffers.

   In the summary buffer you can use commands like `V f', `V e' and `V
t' to begin editing score files.

File: gnus,  Node: Adaptive Scoring,  Next: Home Score File,  Prev: Score File Editing,  Up: Scoring

7.6 Adaptive Scoring
====================

If all this scoring is getting you down, Gnus has a way of making it all
happen automatically--as if by magic.  Or rather, as if by artificial
stupidity, to be precise.

   When you read an article, or mark an article as read, or kill an
article, you leave marks behind.  On exit from the group, Gnus can sniff
these marks and add score elements depending on what marks it finds.
You turn on this ability by setting `gnus-use-adaptive-scoring' to `t'
or `(line)'.  If you want score adaptively on separate words appearing
in the subjects, you should set this variable to `(word)'.  If you want
to use both adaptive methods, set this variable to `(word line)'.

   To give you complete control over the scoring process, you can
customize the `gnus-default-adaptive-score-alist' variable.  For
instance, it might look something like this:

     (setq gnus-default-adaptive-score-alist
       '((gnus-unread-mark)
         (gnus-ticked-mark (from 4))
         (gnus-dormant-mark (from 5))
         (gnus-del-mark (from -4) (subject -1))
         (gnus-read-mark (from 4) (subject 2))
         (gnus-expirable-mark (from -1) (subject -1))
         (gnus-killed-mark (from -1) (subject -3))
         (gnus-kill-file-mark)
         (gnus-ancient-mark)
         (gnus-low-score-mark)
         (gnus-catchup-mark (from -1) (subject -1))))

   As you see, each element in this alist has a mark as a key (either a
variable name or a "real" mark--a character).  Following this key is a
arbitrary number of header/score pairs.  If there are no header/score
pairs following the key, no adaptive scoring will be done on articles
that have that key as the article mark.  For instance, articles with
`gnus-unread-mark' in the example above will not get adaptive score
entries.

   Each article can have only one mark, so just a single of these rules
will be applied to each article.

   To take `gnus-del-mark' as an example--this alist says that all
articles that have that mark (i.e., are marked with `e') will have a
score entry added to lower based on the `From' header by -4, and
lowered by `Subject' by -1.  Change this to fit your prejudices.

   If you have marked 10 articles with the same subject with
`gnus-del-mark', the rule for that mark will be applied ten times.
That means that that subject will get a score of ten times -1, which
should be, unless I'm much mistaken, -10.

   If you have auto-expirable (mail) groups (*note Expiring Mail::), all
the read articles will be marked with the `E' mark.  This'll probably
make adaptive scoring slightly impossible, so auto-expiring and
adaptive scoring doesn't really mix very well.

   The headers you can score on are `from', `subject', `message-id',
`references', `xref', `lines', `chars' and `date'.  In addition, you
can score on `followup', which will create an adaptive score entry that
matches on the `References' header using the `Message-ID' of the
current article, thereby matching the following thread.

   If you use this scheme, you should set the score file atom `mark' to
something small--like -300, perhaps, to avoid having small random
changes result in articles getting marked as read.

   After using adaptive scoring for a week or so, Gnus should start to
become properly trained and enhance the authors you like best, and kill
the authors you like least, without you having to say so explicitly.

   You can control what groups the adaptive scoring is to be performed
on by using the score files (*note Score File Format::).  This will also
let you use different rules in different groups.

   The adaptive score entries will be put into a file where the name is
the group name with `gnus-adaptive-file-suffix' appended.  The default
is `ADAPT'.

   Adaptive score files can get huge and are not meant to be edited by
human hands.  If `gnus-adaptive-pretty-print' is `nil' (the deafult)
those files will not be written in a human readable way.

   When doing adaptive scoring, substring or fuzzy matching would
probably give you the best results in most cases.  However, if the
header one matches is short, the possibility for false positives is
great, so if the length of the match is less than
`gnus-score-exact-adapt-limit', exact matching will be used.  If this
variable is `nil', exact matching will always be used to avoid this
problem.

   As mentioned above, you can adapt either on individual words or
entire headers.  If you adapt on words, the
`gnus-default-adaptive-word-score-alist' variable says what score each
instance of a word should add given a mark.

     (setq gnus-default-adaptive-word-score-alist
           `((,gnus-read-mark . 30)
             (,gnus-catchup-mark . -10)
             (,gnus-killed-mark . -20)
             (,gnus-del-mark . -15)))

   This is the default value.  If you have adaption on words enabled,
every word that appears in subjects of articles marked with
`gnus-read-mark' will result in a score rule that increase the score
with 30 points.

   Words that appear in the `gnus-default-ignored-adaptive-words' list
will be ignored.  If you wish to add more words to be ignored, use the
`gnus-ignored-adaptive-words' list instead.

   Some may feel that short words shouldn't count when doing adaptive
scoring.  If so, you may set `gnus-adaptive-word-length-limit' to an
integer.  Words shorter than this number will be ignored.  This
variable defaults to `nil'.

   When the scoring is done, `gnus-adaptive-word-syntax-table' is the
syntax table in effect.  It is similar to the standard syntax table, but
it considers numbers to be non-word-constituent characters.

   If `gnus-adaptive-word-minimum' is set to a number, the adaptive
word scoring process will never bring down the score of an article to
below this number.  The default is `nil'.

   If `gnus-adaptive-word-no-group-words' is set to `t', gnus won't
adaptively word score any of the words in the group name.  Useful for
groups like `comp.editors.emacs', where most of the subject lines
contain the word `emacs'.

   After using this scheme for a while, it might be nice to write a
`gnus-psychoanalyze-user' command to go through the rules and see what
words you like and what words you don't like.  Or perhaps not.

   Note that the adaptive word scoring thing is highly experimental and
is likely to change in the future.  Initial impressions seem to indicate
that it's totally useless as it stands.  Some more work (involving more
rigorous statistical methods) will have to be done to make this useful.

File: gnus,  Node: Home Score File,  Next: Followups To Yourself,  Prev: Adaptive Scoring,  Up: Scoring

7.7 Home Score File
===================

The score file where new score file entries will go is called the "home
score file".  This is normally (and by default) the score file for the
group itself.  For instance, the home score file for `gnu.emacs.gnus'
is `gnu.emacs.gnus.SCORE'.

   However, this may not be what you want.  It is often convenient to
share a common home score file among many groups--all `emacs' groups
could perhaps use the same home score file.

   The variable that controls this is `gnus-home-score-file'.  It can
be:

  1. A string.  Then this file will be used as the home score file for
     all groups.

  2. A function.  The result of this function will be used as the home
     score file.  The function will be called with the name of the
     group as the parameter.

  3. A list.  The elements in this list can be:

       1. `(REGEXP FILE-NAME)'.  If the REGEXP matches the group name,
          the FILE-NAME will be used as the home score file.

       2. A function.  If the function returns non-`nil', the result
          will be used as the home score file.  The function will be
          called with the name of the group as the parameter.

       3. A string.  Use the string as the home score file.

     The list will be traversed from the beginning towards the end
     looking for matches.


   So, if you want to use just a single score file, you could say:

     (setq gnus-home-score-file
           "my-total-score-file.SCORE")

   If you want to use `gnu.SCORE' for all `gnu' groups and `rec.SCORE'
for all `rec' groups (and so on), you can say:

     (setq gnus-home-score-file
           'gnus-hierarchial-home-score-file)

   This is a ready-made function provided for your convenience.  Other
functions include

`gnus-current-home-score-file'
     Return the "current" regular score file.  This will make scoring
     commands add entry to the "innermost" matching score file.


   If you want to have one score file for the `emacs' groups and
another for the `comp' groups, while letting all other groups use their
own home score files:

     (setq gnus-home-score-file
           ;; All groups that match the regexp `"\\.emacs"'
           '(("\\.emacs" "emacs.SCORE")
             ;; All the comp groups in one score file
             ("^comp" "comp.SCORE")))

   `gnus-home-adapt-file' works exactly the same way as
`gnus-home-score-file', but says what the home adaptive score file is
instead.  All new adaptive file entries will go into the file specified
by this variable, and the same syntax is allowed.

   In addition to using `gnus-home-score-file' and
`gnus-home-adapt-file', you can also use group parameters (*note Group
Parameters::) and topic parameters (*note Topic Parameters::) to
achieve much the same.  Group and topic parameters take precedence over
this variable.

File: gnus,  Node: Followups To Yourself,  Next: Scoring On Other Headers,  Prev: Home Score File,  Up: Scoring

7.8 Followups To Yourself
=========================

Gnus offers two commands for picking out the `Message-ID' header in the
current buffer.  Gnus will then add a score rule that scores using this
`Message-ID' on the `References' header of other articles.  This will,
in effect, increase the score of all articles that respond to the
article in the current buffer.  Quite useful if you want to easily note
when people answer what you've said.

`gnus-score-followup-article'
     This will add a score to articles that directly follow up your own
     article.

`gnus-score-followup-thread'
     This will add a score to all articles that appear in a thread
     "below" your own article.

   These two functions are both primarily meant to be used in hooks like
`message-sent-hook', like this:
     (add-hook 'message-sent-hook 'gnus-score-followup-thread)

   If you look closely at your own `Message-ID', you'll notice that the
first two or three characters are always the same.  Here's two of mine:

     <x6u3u47icf.fsfATeyesore.no>
     <x6sp9o7ibw.fsfATeyesore.no>

   So "my" ident on this machine is `x6'.  This can be exploited--the
following rule will raise the score on all followups to myself:

     ("references"
      ("<x6[0-9a-z]+\\.fsf\\(_-_\\)?@.*eyesore\\.no>"
       1000 nil r))

   Whether it's the first two or first three characters that are "yours"
is system-dependent.

File: gnus,  Node: Scoring On Other Headers,  Next: Scoring Tips,  Prev: Followups To Yourself,  Up: Scoring

7.9 Scoring On Other Headers
============================

Gnus is quite fast when scoring the "traditional" headers--`From',
`Subject' and so on.  However, scoring other headers requires writing a
`head' scoring rule, which means that Gnus has to request every single
article from the back end to find matches.  This takes a long time in
big groups.

   You can inhibit this slow scoring on headers or body by setting the
variable `gnus-inhibit-slow-scoring'.  If `gnus-inhibit-slow-scoring'
is regexp, slow scoring is inhibited if the group matches the regexp.
If it is t, slow scoring on it is inhibited for all groups.

   Now, there's not much you can do about the slowness for news groups,
but for mail groups, you have greater control.  In *note To From
Newsgroups::, it's explained in greater detail what this mechanism
does, but here's a cookbook example for `nnml' on how to allow scoring
on the `To' and `Cc' headers.

   Put the following in your `~/.gnus.el' file.

     (setq gnus-extra-headers '(To Cc Newsgroups Keywords)
           nnmail-extra-headers gnus-extra-headers)

   Restart Gnus and rebuild your `nnml' overview files with the `M-x
nnml-generate-nov-databases' command.  This will take a long time if
you have much mail.

   Now you can score on `To' and `Cc' as "extra headers" like so: `I e
s p To RET <your name> RET'.

   See?  Simple.

File: gnus,  Node: Scoring Tips,  Next: Reverse Scoring,  Prev: Scoring On Other Headers,  Up: Scoring

7.10 Scoring Tips
=================

"Crossposts"
     If you want to lower the score of crossposts, the line to match on
     is the `Xref' header.
          ("xref" (" talk.politics.misc:" -1000))

"Multiple crossposts"
     If you want to lower the score of articles that have been
     crossposted to more than, say, 3 groups:
          ("xref"
            ("[^:\n]+:[0-9]+ +[^:\n]+:[0-9]+ +[^:\n]+:[0-9]+"
             -1000 nil r))

"Matching on the body"
     This is generally not a very good idea--it takes a very long time.
     Gnus actually has to fetch each individual article from the
     server.  But you might want to anyway, I guess.  Even though there
     are three match keys (`Head', `Body' and `All'), you should choose
     one and stick with it in each score file.  If you use any two,
     each article will be fetched _twice_.  If you want to match a bit
     on the `Head' and a bit on the `Body', just use `All' for all the
     matches.

"Marking as read"
     You will probably want to mark articles that have scores below a
     certain number as read.  This is most easily achieved by putting
     the following in your `all.SCORE' file:
          ((mark -100))
     You may also consider doing something similar with `expunge'.

"Negated character classes"
     If you say stuff like `[^abcd]*', you may get unexpected results.
     That will match newlines, which might lead to, well, The Unknown.
     Say `[^abcd\n]*' instead.

File: gnus,  Node: Reverse Scoring,  Next: Global Score Files,  Prev: Scoring Tips,  Up: Scoring

7.11 Reverse Scoring
====================

If you want to keep just articles that have `Sex with Emacs' in the
subject header, and expunge all other articles, you could put something
like this in your score file:

     (("subject"
       ("Sex with Emacs" 2))
      (mark 1)
      (expunge 1))

   So, you raise all articles that match `Sex with Emacs' and mark the
rest as read, and expunge them to boot.

File: gnus,  Node: Global Score Files,  Next: Kill Files,  Prev: Reverse Scoring,  Up: Scoring

7.12 Global Score Files
=======================

Sure, other newsreaders have "global kill files".  These are usually
nothing more than a single kill file that applies to all groups, stored
in the user's home directory.  Bah!  Puny, weak newsreaders!

   What I'm talking about here are Global Score Files.  Score files from
all over the world, from users everywhere, uniting all nations in one
big, happy score file union!  Ange-score!  New and untested!

   All you have to do to use other people's score files is to set the
`gnus-global-score-files' variable.  One entry for each score file, or
each score file directory.  Gnus will decide by itself what score files
are applicable to which group.

   To use the score file
`/ftpATftp.org:/pub/larsi/ding/score/soc.motss.SCORE' and all score
files in the `/ftpATftp.some-where:/pub/score' directory, say this:

     (setq gnus-global-score-files
           '("/ftpATftp.org:/pub/larsi/ding/score/soc.motss.SCORE"
             "/ftpATftp.some-where:/pub/score/"))

Simple, eh?  Directory names must end with a `/'.  These directories
are typically scanned only once during each Gnus session.  If you feel
the need to manually re-scan the remote directories, you can use the
`gnus-score-search-global-directories' command.

   Note that, at present, using this option will slow down group entry
somewhat.  (That is--a lot.)

   If you want to start maintaining score files for other people to use,
just put your score file up for anonymous ftp and announce it to the
world.  Become a retro-moderator!  Participate in the retro-moderator
wars sure to ensue, where retro-moderators battle it out for the
sympathy of the people, luring them to use their score files on false
premises!  Yay!  The net is saved!

   Here are some tips for the would-be retro-moderator, off the top of
my head:

   * Articles heavily crossposted are probably junk.

   * To lower a single inappropriate article, lower by `Message-ID'.

   * Particularly brilliant authors can be raised on a permanent basis.

   * Authors that repeatedly post off-charter for the group can safely
     be lowered out of existence.

   * Set the `mark' and `expunge' atoms to obliterate the nastiest
     articles completely.

   * Use expiring score entries to keep the size of the file down.  You
     should probably have a long expiry period, though, as some sites
     keep old articles for a long time.

   ... I wonder whether other newsreaders will support global score
files in the future.  _Snicker_.  Yup, any day now, newsreaders like
Blue Wave, xrn and 1stReader are bound to implement scoring.  Should we
start holding our breath yet?

File: gnus,  Node: Kill Files,  Next: Converting Kill Files,  Prev: Global Score Files,  Up: Scoring

7.13 Kill Files
===============

Gnus still supports those pesky old kill files.  In fact, the kill file
entries can now be expiring, which is something I wrote before Daniel
Quinlan thought of doing score files, so I've left the code in there.

   In short, kill processing is a lot slower (and I do mean _a lot_)
than score processing, so it might be a good idea to rewrite your kill
files into score files.

   Anyway, a kill file is a normal `emacs-lisp' file.  You can put any
forms into this file, which means that you can use kill files as some
sort of primitive hook function to be run on group entry, even though
that isn't a very good idea.

   Normal kill files look like this:

     (gnus-kill "From" "Lars Ingebrigtsen")
     (gnus-kill "Subject" "ding")
     (gnus-expunge "X")

   This will mark every article written by me as read, and remove the
marked articles from the summary buffer.  Very useful, you'll agree.

   Other programs use a totally different kill file syntax.  If Gnus
encounters what looks like a `rn' kill file, it will take a stab at
interpreting it.

   Two summary functions for editing a GNUS kill file:

`M-k'
     Edit this group's kill file (`gnus-summary-edit-local-kill').

`M-K'
     Edit the general kill file (`gnus-summary-edit-global-kill').

   Two group mode functions for editing the kill files:

`M-k'
     Edit this group's kill file (`gnus-group-edit-local-kill').

`M-K'
     Edit the general kill file (`gnus-group-edit-global-kill').

   Kill file variables:

`gnus-kill-file-name'
     A kill file for the group `soc.motss' is normally called
     `soc.motss.KILL'.  The suffix appended to the group name to get
     this file name is detailed by the `gnus-kill-file-name' variable.
     The "global" kill file (not in the score file sense of "global", of
     course) is just called `KILL'.

`gnus-kill-save-kill-file'
     If this variable is non-`nil', Gnus will save the kill file after
     processing, which is necessary if you use expiring kills.

`gnus-apply-kill-hook'
     A hook called to apply kill files to a group.  It is
     `(gnus-apply-kill-file)' by default.  If you want to ignore the
     kill file if you have a score file for the same group, you can set
     this hook to `(gnus-apply-kill-file-unless-scored)'.  If you don't
     want kill files to be processed, you should set this variable to
     `nil'.

`gnus-kill-file-mode-hook'
     A hook called in kill-file mode buffers.


File: gnus,  Node: Converting Kill Files,  Next: Advanced Scoring,  Prev: Kill Files,  Up: Scoring

7.14 Converting Kill Files
==========================

If you have loads of old kill files, you may want to convert them into
score files.  If they are "regular", you can use the
`gnus-kill-to-score.el' package; if not, you'll have to do it by hand.

   The kill to score conversion package isn't included in Emacs by
default.  You can fetch it from the contrib directory of the Gnus
distribution or from
`http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~larsi/ding-various/gnus-kill-to-score.el'.

   If your old kill files are very complex--if they contain more
non-`gnus-kill' forms than not, you'll have to convert them by hand.
Or just let them be as they are.  Gnus will still use them as before.

File: gnus,  Node: Advanced Scoring,  Next: Score Decays,  Prev: Converting Kill Files,  Up: Scoring

7.15 Advanced Scoring
=====================

Scoring on Subjects and From headers is nice enough, but what if you're
really interested in what a person has to say only when she's talking
about a particular subject?  Or what if you really don't want to read
what person A has to say when she's following up to person B, but want
to read what she says when she's following up to person C?

   By using advanced scoring rules you may create arbitrarily complex
scoring patterns.

* Menu:

* Advanced Scoring Syntax::     A definition.
* Advanced Scoring Examples::   What they look like.
* Advanced Scoring Tips::       Getting the most out of it.

File: gnus,  Node: Advanced Scoring Syntax,  Next: Advanced Scoring Examples,  Up: Advanced Scoring

7.15.1 Advanced Scoring Syntax
------------------------------

Ordinary scoring rules have a string as the first element in the rule.
Advanced scoring rules have a list as the first element.  The second
element is the score to be applied if the first element evaluated to a
non-`nil' value.

   These lists may consist of three logical operators, one redirection
operator, and various match operators.

   Logical operators:

`&'
`and'
     This logical operator will evaluate each of its arguments until it
     finds one that evaluates to `false', and then it'll stop.  If all
     arguments evaluate to `true' values, then this operator will return
     `true'.

`|'
`or'
     This logical operator will evaluate each of its arguments until it
     finds one that evaluates to `true'.  If no arguments are `true',
     then this operator will return `false'.

`!'
`not'
`¬'
     This logical operator only takes a single argument.  It returns the
     logical negation of the value of its argument.


   There is an "indirection operator" that will make its arguments
apply to the ancestors of the current article being scored.  For
instance, `1-' will make score rules apply to the parent of the current
article.  `2-' will make score rules apply to the grandparent of the
current article.  Alternatively, you can write `^^', where the number
of `^'s (carets) says how far back into the ancestry you want to go.

   Finally, we have the match operators.  These are the ones that do the
real work.  Match operators are header name strings followed by a match
and a match type.  A typical match operator looks like `("from" "Lars
Ingebrigtsen" s)'.  The header names are the same as when using simple
scoring, and the match types are also the same.

File: gnus,  Node: Advanced Scoring Examples,  Next: Advanced Scoring Tips,  Prev: Advanced Scoring Syntax,  Up: Advanced Scoring

7.15.2 Advanced Scoring Examples
--------------------------------

Please note that the following examples are score file rules.  To make
a complete score file from them, surround them with another pair of
parentheses.

   Let's say you want to increase the score of articles written by Lars
when he's talking about Gnus:

     ((&
       ("from" "Lars Ingebrigtsen")
       ("subject" "Gnus"))
      1000)

   Quite simple, huh?

   When he writes long articles, he sometimes has something nice to say:

     ((&
       ("from" "Lars Ingebrigtsen")
       (|
        ("subject" "Gnus")
        ("lines" 100 >)))
      1000)

   However, when he responds to things written by Reig Eigil Logge, you
really don't want to read what he's written:

     ((&
       ("from" "Lars Ingebrigtsen")
       (1- ("from" "Reig Eigil Logge")))
      -100000)

   Everybody that follows up Redmondo when he writes about disappearing
socks should have their scores raised, but only when they talk about
white socks.  However, when Lars talks about socks, it's usually not
very interesting:

     ((&
       (1-
        (&
         ("from" "redmondo@.*no" r)
         ("body" "disappearing.*socks" t)))
       (! ("from" "Lars Ingebrigtsen"))
       ("body" "white.*socks"))
      1000)

   Suppose you're reading a high volume group and you're only interested
in replies. The plan is to score down all articles that don't have
subject that begin with "Re:", "Fw:" or "Fwd:" and then score up all
parents of articles that have subjects that begin with reply marks.

     ((! ("subject" "re:\\|fwd?:" r))
       -200)
     ((1- ("subject" "re:\\|fwd?:" r))
       200)

   The possibilities are endless.

File: gnus,  Node: Advanced Scoring Tips,  Prev: Advanced Scoring Examples,  Up: Advanced Scoring

7.15.3 Advanced Scoring Tips
----------------------------

The `&' and `|' logical operators do short-circuit logic.  That is,
they stop processing their arguments when it's clear what the result of
the operation will be.  For instance, if one of the arguments of an `&'
evaluates to `false', there's no point in evaluating the rest of the
arguments.  This means that you should put slow matches (`body',
`header') last and quick matches (`from', `subject') first.

   The indirection arguments (`1-' and so on) will make their arguments
work on previous generations of the thread.  If you say something like:

     ...
     (1-
      (1-
       ("from" "lars")))
     ...

   Then that means "score on the from header of the grandparent of the
current article".  An indirection is quite fast, but it's better to say:

     (1-
      (&
       ("from" "Lars")
       ("subject" "Gnus")))

   than it is to say:

     (&
      (1- ("from" "Lars"))
      (1- ("subject" "Gnus")))

File: gnus,  Node: Score Decays,  Prev: Advanced Scoring,  Up: Scoring

7.16 Score Decays
=================

You may find that your scores have a tendency to grow without bounds,
especially if you're using adaptive scoring.  If scores get too big,
they lose all meaning--they simply max out and it's difficult to use
them in any sensible way.

   Gnus provides a mechanism for decaying scores to help with this
problem.  When score files are loaded and `gnus-decay-scores' is
non-`nil', Gnus will run the score files through the decaying mechanism
thereby lowering the scores of all non-permanent score rules.  If
`gnus-decay-scores' is a regexp, only score files matching this regexp
are treated.  E.g. you may set it to `\\.ADAPT\\'' if only _adaptive_
score files should be decayed.  The decay itself if performed by the
`gnus-decay-score-function' function, which is `gnus-decay-score' by
default.  Here's the definition of that function:

     (defun gnus-decay-score (score)
       "Decay SCORE according to `gnus-score-decay-constant'
     and `gnus-score-decay-scale'."
       (let ((n (- score
                   (* (if (< score 0) -1 1)
                      (min (abs score)
                           (max gnus-score-decay-constant
                                (* (abs score)
                                   gnus-score-decay-scale)))))))
         (if (and (featurep 'xemacs)
                  ;; XEmacs' floor can handle only the floating point
                  ;; number below the half of the maximum integer.
                  (> (abs n) (lsh -1 -2)))
             (string-to-number
              (car (split-string (number-to-string n) "\\.")))
           (floor n))))

   `gnus-score-decay-constant' is 3 by default and
`gnus-score-decay-scale' is 0.05.  This should cause the following:

  1. Scores between -3 and 3 will be set to 0 when this function is
     called.

  2. Scores with magnitudes between 3 and 60 will be shrunk by 3.

  3. Scores with magnitudes greater than 60 will be shrunk by 5% of the
     score.

   If you don't like this decay function, write your own.  It is called
with the score to be decayed as its only parameter, and it should return
the new score, which should be an integer.

   Gnus will try to decay scores once a day.  If you haven't run Gnus
for four days, Gnus will decay the scores four times, for instance.

File: gnus,  Node: Various,  Next: The End,  Prev: Scoring,  Up: Top

8 Various
*********

* Menu:

* Process/Prefix::              A convention used by many treatment commands.
* Interactive::                 Making Gnus ask you many questions.
* Symbolic Prefixes::           How to supply some Gnus functions with options.
* Formatting Variables::        You can specify what buffers should look like.
* Window Layout::               Configuring the Gnus buffer windows.
* Faces and Fonts::             How to change how faces look.
* Compilation::                 How to speed Gnus up.
* Mode Lines::                  Displaying information in the mode lines.
* Highlighting and Menus::      Making buffers look all nice and cozy.
* Buttons::                     Get tendinitis in ten easy steps!
* Daemons::                     Gnus can do things behind your back.
* NoCeM::                       How to avoid spam and other fatty foods.
* Undo::                        Some actions can be undone.
* Predicate Specifiers::        Specifying predicates.
* Moderation::                  What to do if you're a moderator.
* Fetching a Group::            Starting Gnus just to read a group.
* Image Enhancements::          Modern versions of Emacs/XEmacs can display images.
* Fuzzy Matching::              What's the big fuzz?
* Thwarting Email Spam::        Simple ways to avoid unsolicited commercial email.
* Spam Package::                A package for filtering and processing spam.
* The Gnus Registry::           A package for tracking messages by Message-ID.
* Other modes::                 Interaction with other modes.
* Various Various::             Things that are really various.

File: gnus,  Node: Process/Prefix,  Next: Interactive,  Up: Various

8.1 Process/Prefix
==================

Many functions, among them functions for moving, decoding and saving
articles, use what is known as the "Process/Prefix convention".

   This is a method for figuring out what articles the user wants the
command to be performed on.

   It goes like this:

   If the numeric prefix is N, perform the operation on the next N
articles, starting with the current one.  If the numeric prefix is
negative, perform the operation on the previous N articles, starting
with the current one.

   If `transient-mark-mode' in non-`nil' and the region is active, all
articles in the region will be worked upon.

   If there is no numeric prefix, but some articles are marked with the
process mark, perform the operation on the articles marked with the
process mark.

   If there is neither a numeric prefix nor any articles marked with the
process mark, just perform the operation on the current article.

   Quite simple, really, but it needs to be made clear so that surprises
are avoided.

   Commands that react to the process mark will push the current list of
process marked articles onto a stack and will then clear all process
marked articles.  You can restore the previous configuration with the
`M P y' command (*note Setting Process Marks::).

   One thing that seems to shock & horrify lots of people is that, for
instance, `3 d' does exactly the same as `d' `d' `d'.  Since each `d'
(which marks the current article as read) by default goes to the next
unread article after marking, this means that `3 d' will mark the next
three unread articles as read, no matter what the summary buffer looks
like.  Set `gnus-summary-goto-unread' to `nil' for a more
straightforward action.

   Many commands do not use the process/prefix convention.  All commands
that do explicitly say so in this manual.  To apply the process/prefix
convention to commands that do not use it, you can use the `M-&'
command.  For instance, to mark all the articles in the group as
expirable, you could say `M P b M-& E'.

File: gnus,  Node: Interactive,  Next: Symbolic Prefixes,  Prev: Process/Prefix,  Up: Various

8.2 Interactive
===============

`gnus-novice-user'
     If this variable is non-`nil', you are either a newcomer to the
     World of Usenet, or you are very cautious, which is a nice thing
     to be, really.  You will be given questions of the type "Are you
     sure you want to do this?" before doing anything dangerous.  This
     is `t' by default.

`gnus-expert-user'
     If this variable is non-`nil', you will seldom be asked any
     questions by Gnus.  It will simply assume you know what you're
     doing, no matter how strange.

`gnus-interactive-catchup'
     Require confirmation before catching up a group if non-`nil'.  It
     is `t' by default.

`gnus-interactive-exit'
     Require confirmation before exiting Gnus.  This variable is `t' by
     default.

File: gnus,  Node: Symbolic Prefixes,  Next: Formatting Variables,  Prev: Interactive,  Up: Various

8.3 Symbolic Prefixes
=====================

Quite a lot of Emacs commands react to the (numeric) prefix.  For
instance, `C-u 4 C-f' moves point four characters forward, and `C-u 9 0
0 I s s p' adds a permanent `Subject' substring score rule of 900 to
the current article.

   This is all nice and well, but what if you want to give a command
some additional information?  Well, what most commands do is interpret
the "raw" prefix in some special way.  `C-u 0 C-x C-s' means that one
doesn't want a backup file to be created when saving the current buffer,
for instance.  But what if you want to save without making a backup
file, and you want Emacs to flash lights and play a nice tune at the
same time?  You can't, and you're probably perfectly happy that way.

   I'm not, so I've added a second prefix--the "symbolic prefix".  The
prefix key is `M-i' (`gnus-symbolic-argument'), and the next character
typed in is the value.  You can stack as many `M-i' prefixes as you
want.  `M-i a C-M-u' means "feed the `C-M-u' command the symbolic
prefix `a'".  `M-i a M-i b C-M-u' means "feed the `C-M-u' command the
symbolic prefixes `a' and `b'".  You get the drift.

   Typing in symbolic prefixes to commands that don't accept them
doesn't hurt, but it doesn't do any good either.  Currently not many
Gnus functions make use of the symbolic prefix.

   If you're interested in how Gnus implements this, *note Extended
Interactive::.

File: gnus,  Node: Formatting Variables,  Next: Window Layout,  Prev: Symbolic Prefixes,  Up: Various

8.4 Formatting Variables
========================

Throughout this manual you've probably noticed lots of variables called
things like `gnus-group-line-format' and
`gnus-summary-mode-line-format'.  These control how Gnus is to output
lines in the various buffers.  There's quite a lot of them.
Fortunately, they all use the same syntax, so there's not that much to
be annoyed by.

   Here's an example format spec (from the group buffer): `%M%S%5y:
%(%g%)\n'.  We see that it is indeed extremely ugly, and that there are
lots of percentages everywhere.

* Menu:

* Formatting Basics::           A formatting variable is basically a format string.
* Mode Line Formatting::        Some rules about mode line formatting variables.
* Advanced Formatting::         Modifying output in various ways.
* User-Defined Specs::          Having Gnus call your own functions.
* Formatting Fonts::            Making the formatting look colorful and nice.
* Positioning Point::           Moving point to a position after an operation.
* Tabulation::                  Tabulating your output.
* Wide Characters::             Dealing with wide characters.

   Currently Gnus uses the following formatting variables:
`gnus-group-line-format', `gnus-summary-line-format',
`gnus-server-line-format', `gnus-topic-line-format',
`gnus-group-mode-line-format', `gnus-summary-mode-line-format',
`gnus-article-mode-line-format', `gnus-server-mode-line-format', and
`gnus-summary-pick-line-format'.

   All these format variables can also be arbitrary elisp forms.  In
that case, they will be `eval'ed to insert the required lines.

   Gnus includes a command to help you while creating your own format
specs.  `M-x gnus-update-format' will `eval' the current form, update
the spec in question and pop you to a buffer where you can examine the
resulting Lisp code to be run to generate the line.

File: gnus,  Node: Formatting Basics,  Next: Mode Line Formatting,  Up: Formatting Variables

8.4.1 Formatting Basics
-----------------------

Each `%' element will be replaced by some string or other when the
buffer in question is generated.  `%5y' means "insert the `y' spec, and
pad with spaces to get a 5-character field".

   As with normal C and Emacs Lisp formatting strings, the numerical
modifier between the `%' and the formatting type character will "pad"
the output so that it is always at least that long.  `%5y' will make
the field always (at least) five characters wide by padding with spaces
to the left.  If you say `%-5y', it will pad to the right instead.

   You may also wish to limit the length of the field to protect against
particularly wide values.  For that you can say `%4,6y', which means
that the field will never be more than 6 characters wide and never less
than 4 characters wide.

   Also Gnus supports some extended format specifications, such as
`%&user-date;'.

File: gnus,  Node: Mode Line Formatting,  Next: Advanced Formatting,  Prev: Formatting Basics,  Up: Formatting Variables

8.4.2 Mode Line Formatting
--------------------------

Mode line formatting variables (e.g., `gnus-summary-mode-line-format')
follow the same rules as other, buffer line oriented formatting
variables (*note Formatting Basics::) with the following two
differences:

  1. There must be no newline (`\n') at the end.

  2. The special `%%b' spec can be used to display the buffer name.
     Well, it's no spec at all, really--`%%' is just a way to quote `%'
     to allow it to pass through the formatting machinery unmangled, so
     that Emacs receives `%b', which is something the Emacs mode line
     display interprets to mean "show the buffer name".  For a full
     list of mode line specs Emacs understands, see the documentation
     of the `mode-line-format' variable.


File: gnus,  Node: Advanced Formatting,  Next: User-Defined Specs,  Prev: Mode Line Formatting,  Up: Formatting Variables

8.4.3 Advanced Formatting
-------------------------

It is frequently useful to post-process the fields in some way.
Padding, limiting, cutting off parts and suppressing certain values can
be achieved by using "tilde modifiers".  A typical tilde spec might
look like `%~(cut 3)~(ignore "0")y'.

   These are the valid modifiers:

`pad'
`pad-left'
     Pad the field to the left with spaces until it reaches the required
     length.

`pad-right'
     Pad the field to the right with spaces until it reaches the
     required length.

`max'
`max-left'
     Cut off characters from the left until it reaches the specified
     length.

`max-right'
     Cut off characters from the right until it reaches the specified
     length.

`cut'
`cut-left'
     Cut off the specified number of characters from the left.

`cut-right'
     Cut off the specified number of characters from the right.

`ignore'
     Return an empty string if the field is equal to the specified
     value.

`form'
     Use the specified form as the field value when the `@' spec is
     used.

     Here's an example:

          "~(form (current-time-string))@"


   Let's take an example.  The `%o' spec in the summary mode lines will
return a date in compact ISO8601 format--`19960809T230410'.  This is
quite a mouthful, so we want to shave off the century number and the
time, leaving us with a six-character date.  That would be `%~(cut-left
2)~(max-right 6)~(pad 6)o'.  (Cutting is done before maxing, and we
need the padding to ensure that the date is never less than 6
characters to make it look nice in columns.)

   Ignoring is done first; then cutting; then maxing; and then as the
very last operation, padding.

   If you use lots of these advanced thingies, you'll find that Gnus
gets quite slow.  This can be helped enormously by running `M-x
gnus-compile' when you are satisfied with the look of your lines.
*Note Compilation::.

File: gnus,  Node: User-Defined Specs,  Next: Formatting Fonts,  Prev: Advanced Formatting,  Up: Formatting Variables

8.4.4 User-Defined Specs
------------------------

All the specs allow for inserting user defined specifiers--`u'.  The
next character in the format string should be a letter.  Gnus will call
the function `gnus-user-format-function-'`X', where `X' is the letter
following `%u'.  The function will be passed a single parameter--what
the parameter means depends on what buffer it's being called from.  The
function should return a string, which will be inserted into the buffer
just like information from any other specifier.  This function may also
be called with dummy values, so it should protect against that.

   Also Gnus supports extended user-defined specs, such as `%u&foo;'.
Gnus will call the function `gnus-user-format-function-'`foo'.

   You can also use tilde modifiers (*note Advanced Formatting:: to
achieve much the same without defining new functions.  Here's an
example: `%~(form (count-lines (point-min) (point)))@'.  The form given
here will be evaluated to yield the current line number, and then
inserted.

File: gnus,  Node: Formatting Fonts,  Next: Positioning Point,  Prev: User-Defined Specs,  Up: Formatting Variables

8.4.5 Formatting Fonts
----------------------

There are specs for highlighting, and these are shared by all the format
variables.  Text inside the `%(' and `%)' specifiers will get the
special `mouse-face' property set, which means that it will be
highlighted (with `gnus-mouse-face') when you put the mouse pointer
over it.

   Text inside the `%{' and `%}' specifiers will have their normal
faces set using `gnus-face-0', which is `bold' by default.  If you say
`%1{', you'll get `gnus-face-1' instead, and so on.  Create as many
faces as you wish.  The same goes for the `mouse-face' specs--you can
say `%3(hello%)' to have `hello' mouse-highlighted with
`gnus-mouse-face-3'.

   Text inside the `%<<' and `%>>' specifiers will get the special
`balloon-help' property set to `gnus-balloon-face-0'.  If you say
`%1<<', you'll get `gnus-balloon-face-1' and so on.  The
`gnus-balloon-face-*' variables should be either strings or symbols
naming functions that return a string.  When the mouse passes over text
with this property set, a balloon window will appear and display the
string.  Please refer to *note Tooltips: (emacs)Tooltips, (in GNU
Emacs) or the doc string of `balloon-help-mode' (in XEmacs) for more
information on this.  (For technical reasons, the guillemets have been
approximated as `<<' and `>>' in this paragraph.)

   Here's an alternative recipe for the group buffer:

     ;; Create three face types.
     (setq gnus-face-1 'bold)
     (setq gnus-face-3 'italic)

     ;; We want the article count to be in
     ;; a bold and green face.  So we create
     ;; a new face called `my-green-bold'.
     (copy-face 'bold 'my-green-bold)
     ;; Set the color.
     (set-face-foreground 'my-green-bold "ForestGreen")
     (setq gnus-face-2 'my-green-bold)

     ;; Set the new & fancy format.
     (setq gnus-group-line-format
           "%M%S%3{%5y%}%2[:%] %(%1{%g%}%)\n")

   I'm sure you'll be able to use this scheme to create totally
unreadable and extremely vulgar displays.  Have fun!

   Note that the `%(' specs (and friends) do not make any sense on the
mode-line variables.

File: gnus,  Node: Positioning Point,  Next: Tabulation,  Prev: Formatting Fonts,  Up: Formatting Variables

8.4.6 Positioning Point
-----------------------

Gnus usually moves point to a pre-defined place on each line in most
buffers.  By default, point move to the first colon character on the
line.  You can customize this behavior in three different ways.

   You can move the colon character to somewhere else on the line.

   You can redefine the function that moves the point to the colon.  The
function is called `gnus-goto-colon'.

   But perhaps the most convenient way to deal with this, if you don't
want to have a colon in your line, is to use the `%*' specifier.  If you
put a `%*' somewhere in your format line definition, Gnus will place
point there.

File: gnus,  Node: Tabulation,  Next: Wide Characters,  Prev: Positioning Point,  Up: Formatting Variables

8.4.7 Tabulation
----------------

You can usually line up your displays by padding and cutting your
strings.  However, when combining various strings of different size, it
can often be more convenient to just output the strings, and then worry
about lining up the following text afterwards.

   To do that, Gnus supplies tabulator specs--`%='.  There are two
different types--"hard tabulators" and "soft tabulators".

   `%50=' will insert space characters to pad the line up to column 50.
If the text is already past column 50, nothing will be inserted.  This
is the soft tabulator.

   `%-50=' will insert space characters to pad the line up to column
50.  If the text is already past column 50, the excess text past column
50 will be removed.  This is the hard tabulator.

File: gnus,  Node: Wide Characters,  Prev: Tabulation,  Up: Formatting Variables

8.4.8 Wide Characters
---------------------

Fixed width fonts in most countries have characters of the same width.
Some countries, however, use Latin characters mixed with wider
characters--most notable East Asian countries.

   The problem is that when formatting, Gnus assumes that if a string
is 10 characters wide, it'll be 10 Latin characters wide on the screen.
In these countries, that's not true.

   To help fix this, you can set `gnus-use-correct-string-widths' to
`t'.  This makes buffer generation slower, but the results will be
prettier.  The default value under XEmacs is `t' but `nil' for Emacs.

File: gnus,  Node: Window Layout,  Next: Faces and Fonts,  Prev: Formatting Variables,  Up: Various

8.5 Window Layout
=================

No, there's nothing here about X, so be quiet.

   If `gnus-use-full-window' non-`nil', Gnus will delete all other
windows and occupy the entire Emacs screen by itself.  It is `t' by
default.

   Setting this variable to `nil' kinda works, but there are glitches.
Use at your own peril.

   `gnus-buffer-configuration' describes how much space each Gnus
buffer should be given.  Here's an excerpt of this variable:

     ((group (vertical 1.0 (group 1.0 point)
                           (if gnus-carpal (group-carpal 4))))
      (article (vertical 1.0 (summary 0.25 point)
                             (article 1.0))))

   This is an alist.  The "key" is a symbol that names some action or
other.  For instance, when displaying the group buffer, the window
configuration function will use `group' as the key.  A full list of
possible names is listed below.

   The "value" (i.e., the "split") says how much space each buffer
should occupy.  To take the `article' split as an example -

     (article (vertical 1.0 (summary 0.25 point)
                            (article 1.0)))

   This "split" says that the summary buffer should occupy 25% of upper
half of the screen, and that it is placed over the article buffer.  As
you may have noticed, 100% + 25% is actually 125% (yup, I saw y'all
reaching for that calculator there).  However, the special number `1.0'
is used to signal that this buffer should soak up all the rest of the
space available after the rest of the buffers have taken whatever they
need.  There should be only one buffer with the `1.0' size spec per
split.

   Point will be put in the buffer that has the optional third element
`point'.  In a `frame' split, the last subsplit having a leaf split
where the tag `frame-focus' is a member (i.e. is the third or fourth
element in the list, depending on whether the `point' tag is present)
gets focus.

   Here's a more complicated example:

     (article (vertical 1.0 (group 4)
                            (summary 0.25 point)
                            (if gnus-carpal (summary-carpal 4))
                            (article 1.0)))

   If the size spec is an integer instead of a floating point number,
then that number will be used to say how many lines a buffer should
occupy, not a percentage.

   If the "split" looks like something that can be `eval'ed (to be
precise--if the `car' of the split is a function or a subr), this split
will be `eval'ed.  If the result is non-`nil', it will be used as a
split.  This means that there will be three buffers if `gnus-carpal' is
`nil', and four buffers if `gnus-carpal' is non-`nil'.

   Not complicated enough for you?  Well, try this on for size:

     (article (horizontal 1.0
                  (vertical 0.5
                      (group 1.0)
                      (gnus-carpal 4))
                  (vertical 1.0
                      (summary 0.25 point)
                      (summary-carpal 4)
                      (article 1.0))))

   Whoops.  Two buffers with the mystery 100% tag.  And what's that
`horizontal' thingie?

   If the first element in one of the split is `horizontal', Gnus will
split the window horizontally, giving you two windows side-by-side.
Inside each of these strips you may carry on all you like in the normal
fashion.  The number following `horizontal' says what percentage of the
screen is to be given to this strip.

   For each split, there _must_ be one element that has the 100% tag.
The splitting is never accurate, and this buffer will eat any leftover
lines from the splits.

   To be slightly more formal, here's a definition of what a valid split
may look like:

     split      = frame | horizontal | vertical | buffer | form
     frame      = "(frame " size *split ")"
     horizontal = "(horizontal " size *split ")"
     vertical   = "(vertical " size *split ")"
     buffer     = "(" buf-name " " size *[ "point" ] *[ "frame-focus"] ")"
     size       = number | frame-params
     buf-name   = group | article | summary ...

   The limitations are that the `frame' split can only appear as the
top-level split.  FORM should be an Emacs Lisp form that should return
a valid split.  We see that each split is fully recursive, and may
contain any number of `vertical' and `horizontal' splits.

   Finding the right sizes can be a bit complicated.  No window may be
less than `gnus-window-min-height' (default 1) characters high, and all
windows must be at least `gnus-window-min-width' (default 1) characters
wide.  Gnus will try to enforce this before applying the splits.  If
you want to use the normal Emacs window width/height limit, you can
just set these two variables to `nil'.

   If you're not familiar with Emacs terminology, `horizontal' and
`vertical' splits may work the opposite way of what you'd expect.
Windows inside a `horizontal' split are shown side-by-side, and windows
within a `vertical' split are shown above each other.

   If you want to experiment with window placement, a good tip is to
call `gnus-configure-frame' directly with a split.  This is the function
that does all the real work when splitting buffers.  Below is a pretty
nonsensical configuration with 5 windows; two for the group buffer and
three for the article buffer.  (I said it was nonsensical.)  If you
`eval' the statement below, you can get an idea of how that would look
straight away, without going through the normal Gnus channels.  Play
with it until you're satisfied, and then use `gnus-add-configuration'
to add your new creation to the buffer configuration list.

     (gnus-configure-frame
      '(horizontal 1.0
         (vertical 10
           (group 1.0)
           (article 0.3 point))
         (vertical 1.0
           (article 1.0)
           (horizontal 4
             (group 1.0)
             (article 10)))))

   You might want to have several frames as well.  No prob--just use the
`frame' split:

     (gnus-configure-frame
      '(frame 1.0
              (vertical 1.0
                        (summary 0.25 point frame-focus)
                        (article 1.0))
              (vertical ((height . 5) (width . 15)
                         (user-position . t)
                         (left . -1) (top . 1))
                        (picon 1.0))))

   This split will result in the familiar summary/article window
configuration in the first (or "main") frame, while a small additional
frame will be created where picons will be shown.  As you can see,
instead of the normal `1.0' top-level spec, each additional split
should have a frame parameter alist as the size spec.  *Note Frame
Parameters: (elisp)Frame Parameters.  Under XEmacs, a frame property
list will be accepted, too--for instance, `(height 5 width 15 left -1
top 1)' is such a plist.  The list of all possible keys for
`gnus-buffer-configuration' can be found in its default value.

   Note that the `message' key is used for both `gnus-group-mail' and
`gnus-summary-mail-other-window'.  If it is desirable to distinguish
between the two, something like this might be used:

     (message (horizontal 1.0
                          (vertical 1.0 (message 1.0 point))
                          (vertical 0.24
                                    (if (buffer-live-p gnus-summary-buffer)
                                        '(summary 0.5))
                                    (group 1.0))))

   One common desire for a multiple frame split is to have a separate
frame for composing mail and news while leaving the original frame
intact.  To accomplish that, something like the following can be done:

     (message
       (frame 1.0
              (if (not (buffer-live-p gnus-summary-buffer))
                  (car (cdr (assoc 'group gnus-buffer-configuration)))
                (car (cdr (assoc 'summary gnus-buffer-configuration))))
              (vertical ((user-position . t) (top . 1) (left . 1)
                         (name . "Message"))
                        (message 1.0 point))))

   Since the `gnus-buffer-configuration' variable is so long and
complicated, there's a function you can use to ease changing the config
of a single setting: `gnus-add-configuration'.  If, for instance, you
want to change the `article' setting, you could say:

     (gnus-add-configuration
      '(article (vertical 1.0
                    (group 4)
                    (summary .25 point)
                    (article 1.0))))

   You'd typically stick these `gnus-add-configuration' calls in your
`~/.gnus.el' file or in some startup hook--they should be run after
Gnus has been loaded.

   If all windows mentioned in the configuration are already visible,
Gnus won't change the window configuration.  If you always want to
force the "right" window configuration, you can set
`gnus-always-force-window-configuration' to non-`nil'.

   If you're using tree displays (*note Tree Display::), and the tree
window is displayed vertically next to another window, you may also want
to fiddle with `gnus-tree-minimize-window' to avoid having the windows
resized.

8.5.1 Example Window Configurations
-----------------------------------

   * Narrow left hand side occupied by group buffer.  Right hand side
     split between summary buffer (top one-sixth) and article buffer
     (bottom).

          +---+---------+
          | G | Summary |
          | r +---------+
          | o |         |
          | u | Article |
          | p |         |
          +---+---------+

          (gnus-add-configuration
           '(article
             (horizontal 1.0
                         (vertical 25 (group 1.0))
                         (vertical 1.0
                                   (summary 0.16 point)
                                   (article 1.0)))))

          (gnus-add-configuration
           '(summary
             (horizontal 1.0
                         (vertical 25 (group 1.0))
                         (vertical 1.0 (summary 1.0 point)))))


File: gnus,  Node: Faces and Fonts,  Next: Compilation,  Prev: Window Layout,  Up: Various

8.6 Faces and Fonts
===================

Fiddling with fonts and faces used to be very difficult, but these days
it is very simple.  You simply say `M-x customize-face', pick out the
face you want to alter, and alter it via the standard Customize
interface.

File: gnus,  Node: Compilation,  Next: Mode Lines,  Prev: Faces and Fonts,  Up: Various

8.7 Compilation
===============

Remember all those line format specification variables?
`gnus-summary-line-format', `gnus-group-line-format', and so on.  Now,
Gnus will of course heed whatever these variables are, but,
unfortunately, changing them will mean a quite significant slow-down.
(The default values of these variables have byte-compiled functions
associated with them, while the user-generated versions do not, of
course.)

   To help with this, you can run `M-x gnus-compile' after you've
fiddled around with the variables and feel that you're (kind of)
satisfied.  This will result in the new specs being byte-compiled, and
you'll get top speed again.  Gnus will save these compiled specs in the
`.newsrc.eld' file.  (User-defined functions aren't compiled by this
function, though--you should compile them yourself by sticking them
into the `~/.gnus.el' file and byte-compiling that file.)

File: gnus,  Node: Mode Lines,  Next: Highlighting and Menus,  Prev: Compilation,  Up: Various

8.8 Mode Lines
==============

`gnus-updated-mode-lines' says what buffers should keep their mode
lines updated.  It is a list of symbols.  Supported symbols include
`group', `article', `summary', `server', `browse', and `tree'.  If the
corresponding symbol is present, Gnus will keep that mode line updated
with information that may be pertinent.  If this variable is `nil',
screen refresh may be quicker.

   By default, Gnus displays information on the current article in the
mode lines of the summary and article buffers.  The information Gnus
wishes to display (e.g. the subject of the article) is often longer
than the mode lines, and therefore have to be cut off at some point.
The `gnus-mode-non-string-length' variable says how long the other
elements on the line is (i.e., the non-info part).  If you put
additional elements on the mode line (e.g. a clock), you should modify
this variable:

     (add-hook 'display-time-hook
               (lambda () (setq gnus-mode-non-string-length
                                (+ 21
                                   (if line-number-mode 5 0)
                                   (if column-number-mode 4 0)
                                   (length display-time-string)))))

   If this variable is `nil' (which is the default), the mode line
strings won't be chopped off, and they won't be padded either.  Note
that the default is unlikely to be desirable, as even the percentage
complete in the buffer may be crowded off the mode line; the user should
configure this variable appropriately for her configuration.

File: gnus,  Node: Highlighting and Menus,  Next: Buttons,  Prev: Mode Lines,  Up: Various

8.9 Highlighting and Menus
==========================

The `gnus-visual' variable controls most of the Gnus-prettifying
aspects.  If `nil', Gnus won't attempt to create menus or use fancy
colors or fonts.  This will also inhibit loading the `gnus-vis.el' file.

   This variable can be a list of visual properties that are enabled.
The following elements are valid, and are all included by default:

`group-highlight'
     Do highlights in the group buffer.

`summary-highlight'
     Do highlights in the summary buffer.

`article-highlight'
     Do highlights in the article buffer.

`highlight'
     Turn on highlighting in all buffers.

`group-menu'
     Create menus in the group buffer.

`summary-menu'
     Create menus in the summary buffers.

`article-menu'
     Create menus in the article buffer.

`browse-menu'
     Create menus in the browse buffer.

`server-menu'
     Create menus in the server buffer.

`score-menu'
     Create menus in the score buffers.

`menu'
     Create menus in all buffers.

   So if you only want highlighting in the article buffer and menus in
all buffers, you could say something like:

     (setq gnus-visual '(article-highlight menu))

   If you want highlighting only and no menus whatsoever, you'd say:

     (setq gnus-visual '(highlight))

   If `gnus-visual' is `t', highlighting and menus will be used in all
Gnus buffers.

   Other general variables that influence the look of all buffers
include:

`gnus-mouse-face'
     This is the face (i.e., font) used for mouse highlighting in Gnus.
     No mouse highlights will be done if `gnus-visual' is `nil'.


   There are hooks associated with the creation of all the different
menus:

`gnus-article-menu-hook'
     Hook called after creating the article mode menu.

`gnus-group-menu-hook'
     Hook called after creating the group mode menu.

`gnus-summary-menu-hook'
     Hook called after creating the summary mode menu.

`gnus-server-menu-hook'
     Hook called after creating the server mode menu.

`gnus-browse-menu-hook'
     Hook called after creating the browse mode menu.

`gnus-score-menu-hook'
     Hook called after creating the score mode menu.


File: gnus,  Node: Buttons,  Next: Daemons,  Prev: Highlighting and Menus,  Up: Various

8.10 Buttons
============

Those new-fangled "mouse" contraptions is very popular with the young,
hep kids who don't want to learn the proper way to do things these
days.  Why, I remember way back in the summer of '89, when I was using
Emacs on a Tops 20 system.  Three hundred users on one single machine,
and every user was running Simula compilers.  Bah!

   Right.

   Well, you can make Gnus display bufferfuls of buttons you can click
to do anything by setting `gnus-carpal' to `t'.  Pretty simple, really.
Tell the chiropractor I sent you.

`gnus-carpal-mode-hook'
     Hook run in all carpal mode buffers.

`gnus-carpal-button-face'
     Face used on buttons.

`gnus-carpal-header-face'
     Face used on carpal buffer headers.

`gnus-carpal-group-buffer-buttons'
     Buttons in the group buffer.

`gnus-carpal-summary-buffer-buttons'
     Buttons in the summary buffer.

`gnus-carpal-server-buffer-buttons'
     Buttons in the server buffer.

`gnus-carpal-browse-buffer-buttons'
     Buttons in the browse buffer.

   All the `buttons' variables are lists.  The elements in these list
are either cons cells where the `car' contains a text to be displayed
and the `cdr' contains a function symbol, or a simple string.

File: gnus,  Node: Daemons,  Next: NoCeM,  Prev: Buttons,  Up: Various

8.11 Daemons
============

Gnus, being larger than any program ever written (allegedly), does lots
of strange stuff that you may wish to have done while you're not
present.  For instance, you may want it to check for new mail once in a
while.  Or you may want it to close down all connections to all servers
when you leave Emacs idle.  And stuff like that.

   Gnus will let you do stuff like that by defining various "handlers".
Each handler consists of three elements:  A FUNCTION, a TIME, and an
IDLE parameter.

   Here's an example of a handler that closes connections when Emacs has
been idle for thirty minutes:

     (gnus-demon-close-connections nil 30)

   Here's a handler that scans for PGP headers every hour when Emacs is
idle:

     (gnus-demon-scan-pgp 60 t)

   This TIME parameter and that IDLE parameter work together in a
strange, but wonderful fashion.  Basically, if IDLE is `nil', then the
function will be called every TIME minutes.

   If IDLE is `t', then the function will be called after TIME minutes
only if Emacs is idle.  So if Emacs is never idle, the function will
never be called.  But once Emacs goes idle, the function will be called
every TIME minutes.

   If IDLE is a number and TIME is a number, the function will be
called every TIME minutes only when Emacs has been idle for IDLE
minutes.

   If IDLE is a number and TIME is `nil', the function will be called
once every time Emacs has been idle for IDLE minutes.

   And if TIME is a string, it should look like `07:31', and the
function will then be called once every day somewhere near that time.
Modified by the IDLE parameter, of course.

   (When I say "minute" here, I really mean `gnus-demon-timestep'
seconds.  This is 60 by default.  If you change that variable, all the
timings in the handlers will be affected.)

   So, if you want to add a handler, you could put something like this
in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (gnus-demon-add-handler 'gnus-demon-close-connections 30 t)

   Some ready-made functions to do this have been created:
`gnus-demon-add-nocem', `gnus-demon-add-disconnection',
`gnus-demon-add-nntp-close-connection',
`gnus-demon-add-scan-timestamps', `gnus-demon-add-rescan', and
`gnus-demon-add-scanmail'.  Just put those functions in your
`~/.gnus.el' if you want those abilities.

   If you add handlers to `gnus-demon-handlers' directly, you should
run `gnus-demon-init' to make the changes take hold.  To cancel all
daemons, you can use the `gnus-demon-cancel' function.

   Note that adding daemons can be pretty naughty if you over do it.
Adding functions that scan all news and mail from all servers every two
seconds is a sure-fire way of getting booted off any respectable
system.  So behave.

File: gnus,  Node: NoCeM,  Next: Undo,  Prev: Daemons,  Up: Various

8.12 NoCeM
==========

"Spamming" is posting the same article lots and lots of times.
Spamming is bad.  Spamming is evil.

   Spamming is usually canceled within a day or so by various
anti-spamming agencies.  These agencies usually also send out "NoCeM"
messages.  NoCeM is pronounced "no see-'em", and means what the name
implies--these are messages that make the offending articles, like, go
away.

   What use are these NoCeM messages if the articles are canceled
anyway?  Some sites do not honor cancel messages and some sites just
honor cancels from a select few people.  Then you may wish to make use
of the NoCeM messages, which are distributed in the newsgroups
`news.lists.filters', `alt.nocem.misc', etc.

   Gnus can read and parse the messages in this group automatically, and
this will make spam disappear.

   There are some variables to customize, of course:

`gnus-use-nocem'
     Set this variable to `t' to set the ball rolling.  It is `nil' by
     default.

     You can also set this variable to a positive number as a group
     level.  In that case, Gnus scans NoCeM messages when checking new
     news if this value is not exceeding a group level that you specify
     as the prefix argument to some commands, e.g. `gnus',
     `gnus-group-get-new-news', etc.  Otherwise, Gnus does not scan
     NoCeM messages if you specify a group level that is smaller than
     this value to those commands.  For example, if you use 1 or 2 on
     the mail groups and the levels on the news groups remain the
     default, 3 is the best choice.

`gnus-nocem-groups'
     Gnus will look for NoCeM messages in the groups in this list.  The
     default is
          ("news.lists.filters" "alt.nocem.misc")

`gnus-nocem-issuers'
     There are many people issuing NoCeM messages.  This list says what
     people you want to listen to.  The default is:

          ("Adri Verhoef"
           "alba-nocemATalbasani.net"
           "bleachbotAThttrack.com"
           "newsATarcor-online.net"
           "newsATuni-berlin.de"
           "nocemATarcor.de"
           "pgpmooseATkillfile.org"
           "xjspplATgmx.de")

     Known despammers that you can put in this list are listed at
     `http://www.xs4all.nl/~rosalind/nocemreg/nocemreg.html'.

     You do not have to heed NoCeM messages from all these people--just
     the ones you want to listen to.  You also don't have to accept all
     NoCeM messages from the people you like.  Each NoCeM message has a
     "type" header that gives the message a (more or less, usually
     less) rigorous definition.  Common types are `spam', `spew', `mmf',
     `binary', and `troll'.  To specify this, you have to use `(ISSUER
     CONDITIONS ...)' elements in the list.  Each condition is either a
     string (which is a regexp that matches types you want to use) or a
     list on the form `(not STRING)', where STRING is a regexp that
     matches types you don't want to use.

     For instance, if you want all NoCeM messages from Chris Lewis
     except his `troll' messages, you'd say:

          ("clewisATferret.ca" ".*" (not "troll"))

     On the other hand, if you just want nothing but his `spam' and
     `spew' messages, you'd say:

          ("clewisATferret.ca" (not ".*") "spew" "spam")

     The specs are applied left-to-right.

`gnus-nocem-verifyer'
     This should be a function for verifying that the NoCeM issuer is
     who she says she is.  This variable defaults to
     `gnus-nocem-epg-verify' if EasyPG is available, otherwise defaults
     to `pgg-verify'.  The function should return non-`nil' if the
     verification is successful, otherwise (including the case the
     NoCeM message was not signed) should return `nil'.  If this is too
     slow and you don't care for verification (which may be dangerous),
     you can set this variable to `nil'.

     Formerly the default was `mc-verify', which is a Mailcrypt
     function.  While you can still use it, you can change it into
     `gnus-nocem-epg-verify' or `pgg-verify' running with GnuPG if you
     are willing to add the PGP public keys to GnuPG's keyring.

`gnus-nocem-directory'
     This is where Gnus will store its NoCeM cache files.  The default
     is
     `~/News/NoCeM/'.

`gnus-nocem-expiry-wait'
     The number of days before removing old NoCeM entries from the
     cache.  The default is 15.  If you make it shorter Gnus will be
     faster, but you might then see old spam.

`gnus-nocem-check-from'
     Non-`nil' means check for valid issuers in message bodies.
     Otherwise don't bother fetching articles unless their author
     matches a valid issuer; that is much faster if you are selective
     about the issuers.

`gnus-nocem-check-article-limit'
     If non-`nil', the maximum number of articles to check in any NoCeM
     group.  `nil' means no restriction.  NoCeM groups can be huge and
     very slow to process.


   Using NoCeM could potentially be a memory hog.  If you have many
living (i. e., subscribed or unsubscribed groups), your Emacs process
will grow big.  If this is a problem, you should kill off all (or most)
of your unsubscribed groups (*note Subscription Commands::).

File: gnus,  Node: Undo,  Next: Predicate Specifiers,  Prev: NoCeM,  Up: Various

8.13 Undo
=========

It is very useful to be able to undo actions one has done.  In normal
Emacs buffers, it's easy enough--you just push the `undo' button.  In
Gnus buffers, however, it isn't that simple.

   The things Gnus displays in its buffer is of no value whatsoever to
Gnus--it's all just data designed to look nice to the user.  Killing a
group in the group buffer with `C-k' makes the line disappear, but
that's just a side-effect of the real action--the removal of the group
in question from the internal Gnus structures.  Undoing something like
that can't be done by the normal Emacs `undo' function.

   Gnus tries to remedy this somewhat by keeping track of what the user
does and coming up with actions that would reverse the actions the user
takes.  When the user then presses the `undo' key, Gnus will run the
code to reverse the previous action, or the previous actions.  However,
not all actions are easily reversible, so Gnus currently offers a few
key functions to be undoable.  These include killing groups, yanking
groups, and changing the list of read articles of groups.  That's it,
really.  More functions may be added in the future, but each added
function means an increase in data to be stored, so Gnus will never be
totally undoable.

   The undoability is provided by the `gnus-undo-mode' minor mode.  It
is used if `gnus-use-undo' is non-`nil', which is the default.  The
`C-M-_' key performs the `gnus-undo' command, which should feel kinda
like the normal Emacs `undo' command.

File: gnus,  Node: Predicate Specifiers,  Next: Moderation,  Prev: Undo,  Up: Various

8.14 Predicate Specifiers
=========================

Some Gnus variables are "predicate specifiers".  This is a special form
that allows flexible specification of predicates without having to type
all that much.

   These specifiers are lists consisting of functions, symbols and
lists.

   Here's an example:

     (or gnus-article-unseen-p
         gnus-article-unread-p)

   The available symbols are `or', `and' and `not'.  The functions all
take one parameter.

   Internally, Gnus calls `gnus-make-predicate' on these specifiers to
create a function that can be called.  This input parameter to this
function will be passed along to all the functions in the predicate
specifier.

File: gnus,  Node: Moderation,  Next: Fetching a Group,  Prev: Predicate Specifiers,  Up: Various

8.15 Moderation
===============

If you are a moderator, you can use the `gnus-mdrtn.el' package.  It is
not included in the standard Gnus package.  Write a mail to
`larsiATgnus.org' and state what group you moderate, and you'll get a
copy.

   The moderation package is implemented as a minor mode for summary
buffers.  Put

     (add-hook 'gnus-summary-mode-hook 'gnus-moderate)

   in your `~/.gnus.el' file.

   If you are the moderator of `rec.zoofle', this is how it's supposed
to work:

  1. You split your incoming mail by matching on
     `Newsgroups:.*rec.zoofle', which will put all the to-be-posted
     articles in some mail group--for instance, `nnml:rec.zoofle'.

  2. You enter that group once in a while and post articles using the
     `e' (edit-and-post) or `s' (just send unedited) commands.

  3. If, while reading the `rec.zoofle' newsgroup, you happen upon some
     articles that weren't approved by you, you can cancel them with the
     `c' command.

   To use moderation mode in these two groups, say:

     (setq gnus-moderated-list
           "^nnml:rec.zoofle$\\|^rec.zoofle$")

File: gnus,  Node: Fetching a Group,  Next: Image Enhancements,  Prev: Moderation,  Up: Various

8.16 Fetching a Group
=====================

It is sometimes convenient to be able to just say "I want to read this
group and I don't care whether Gnus has been started or not".  This is
perhaps more useful for people who write code than for users, but the
command `gnus-fetch-group' provides this functionality in any case.  It
takes the group name as a parameter.

File: gnus,  Node: Image Enhancements,  Next: Fuzzy Matching,  Prev: Fetching a Group,  Up: Various

8.17 Image Enhancements
=======================

XEmacs, as well as Emacs 21(1) and up, are able to display pictures and
stuff, so Gnus has taken advantage of that.

* Menu:

* X-Face::                      Display a funky, teensy black-and-white image.
* Face::                        Display a funkier, teensier colored image.
* Smileys::                     Show all those happy faces the way they were meant to be shown.
* Picons::                      How to display pictures of what you're reading.
* XVarious::                    Other XEmacsy Gnusey variables.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Emacs 21 on MS Windows doesn't support images, Emacs 22 does.

File: gnus,  Node: X-Face,  Next: Face,  Up: Image Enhancements

8.17.1 X-Face
-------------

`X-Face' headers describe a 48x48 pixel black-and-white (1 bit depth)
image that's supposed to represent the author of the message.  It seems
to be supported by an ever-growing number of mail and news readers.

   Viewing an `X-Face' header either requires an Emacs that has
`compface' support (which most XEmacs versions have), or that you have
suitable conversion or display programs installed.  If your Emacs has
image support the default action is to display the face before the
`From' header.  If there's no native `X-Face' support, Gnus will try to
convert the `X-Face' header using external programs from the `pbmplus'
package and friends, see below.  For XEmacs it's faster if XEmacs has
been compiled with `X-Face' support.  The default action under Emacs
without image support is to fork off the `display' program.

   On a GNU/Linux system, the `display' program is included in the
ImageMagick package.  For external conversion programs look for packages
with names like `netpbm', `libgr-progs' and `compface'.  On Windows,
you may use the packages `netpbm' and `compface' from
`http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net'.  You need to add the `bin' directory
to your `PATH' environment variable.

   The variable `gnus-article-x-face-command' controls which programs
are used to display the `X-Face' header.  If this variable is a string,
this string will be executed in a sub-shell.  If it is a function, this
function will be called with the face as the argument.  If
`gnus-article-x-face-too-ugly' (which is a regexp) matches the `From'
header, the face will not be shown.

   (Note: `x-face' is used in the variable/function names, not `xface').

Face and variable:

`gnus-x-face'
     Face to show X-Face.  The colors from this face are used as the
     foreground and background colors of the displayed X-Faces.  The
     default colors are black and white.

`gnus-face-properties-alist'
     Alist of image types and properties applied to Face (*note Face::)
     and X-Face images.  The default value is `((pbm . (:face
     gnus-x-face)) (png . nil))' for Emacs or `((xface . (:face
     gnus-x-face)))' for XEmacs.  Here are examples:

          ;; Specify the altitude of Face and X-Face images in the From header.
          (setq gnus-face-properties-alist
                '((pbm . (:face gnus-x-face :ascent 80))
                  (png . (:ascent 80))))

          ;; Show Face and X-Face images as pressed buttons.
          (setq gnus-face-properties-alist
                '((pbm . (:face gnus-x-face :relief -2))
                  (png . (:relief -2))))

     *note Image Descriptors: (elisp)Image Descriptors. for the valid
     properties for various image types.  Currently, `pbm' is used for
     X-Face images and `png' is used for Face images in Emacs.  Only
     the `:face' property is effective on the `xface' image type in
     XEmacs if it is built with the `libcompface' library.

   If you use posting styles, you can use an `x-face-file' entry in
`gnus-posting-styles', *Note Posting Styles::.  If you don't, Gnus
provides a few convenience functions and variables to allow easier
insertion of X-Face headers in outgoing messages.  You also need the
above mentioned ImageMagick, netpbm or other image conversion packages
(depending the values of the variables below) for these functions.

   `gnus-random-x-face' goes through all the `pbm' files in
`gnus-x-face-directory' and picks one at random, and then converts it
to the X-Face format by using the `gnus-convert-pbm-to-x-face-command'
shell command.  The `pbm' files should be 48x48 pixels big.  It returns
the X-Face header data as a string.

   `gnus-insert-random-x-face-header' calls `gnus-random-x-face' and
inserts a `X-Face' header with the randomly generated data.

   `gnus-x-face-from-file' takes a GIF file as the parameter, and then
converts the file to X-Face format by using the
`gnus-convert-image-to-x-face-command' shell command.

   Here's how you would typically use the first function.  Put something
like the following in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (setq message-required-news-headers
           (nconc message-required-news-headers
                  (list '(X-Face . gnus-random-x-face))))

   Using the last function would be something like this:

     (setq message-required-news-headers
           (nconc message-required-news-headers
                  (list '(X-Face . (lambda ()
                                     (gnus-x-face-from-file
                                      "~/My-face.gif"))))))

File: gnus,  Node: Face,  Next: Smileys,  Prev: X-Face,  Up: Image Enhancements

8.17.2 Face
-----------

`Face' headers are essentially a funkier version of `X-Face' ones. They
describe a 48x48 pixel colored image that's supposed to represent the
author of the message.

   The contents of a `Face' header must be a base64 encoded PNG image.
See `http://quimby.gnus.org/circus/face/' for the precise
specifications.

   The `gnus-face-properties-alist' variable affects the appearance of
displayed Face images.  *Note X-Face::.

   Viewing an `Face' header requires an Emacs that is able to display
PNG images.

   Gnus provides a few convenience functions and variables to allow
easier insertion of Face headers in outgoing messages.

   `gnus-convert-png-to-face' takes a 48x48 PNG image, no longer than
726 bytes long, and converts it to a face.

   `gnus-face-from-file' takes a JPEG file as the parameter, and then
converts the file to Face format by using the
`gnus-convert-image-to-face-command' shell command.

   Here's how you would typically use this function. Put something like
the following in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (setq message-required-news-headers
           (nconc message-required-news-headers
                  (list '(Face . (lambda ()
                                   (gnus-face-from-file "~/face.jpg"))))))

File: gnus,  Node: Smileys,  Next: Picons,  Prev: Face,  Up: Image Enhancements

8.17.3 Smileys
--------------

"Smiley" is a package separate from Gnus, but since Gnus is currently
the only package that uses Smiley, it is documented here.

   In short--to use Smiley in Gnus, put the following in your
`~/.gnus.el' file:

     (setq gnus-treat-display-smileys t)

   Smiley maps text smiley faces--`:-)', `8-)', `:-(' and the like--to
pictures and displays those instead of the text smiley faces.  The
conversion is controlled by a list of regexps that matches text and
maps that to file names.

   The alist used is specified by the `smiley-regexp-alist' variable.
The first item in each element is the regexp to be matched; the second
element is the regexp match group that is to be replaced by the
picture; and the third element is the name of the file to be displayed.

   The following variables customize the appearance of the smileys:

`smiley-style'
     Specifies the smiley style.  Predefined smiley styles include
     `low-color' (small 13x14 pixel, three-color images), `medium'
     (more colorful images, 16x16 pixel), and `grayscale' (grayscale
     images, 14x14 pixel).  The default depends on the height of the
     default face.

`smiley-data-directory'
     Where Smiley will look for smiley faces files.  You shouldn't set
     this variable anymore.  Customize `smiley-style' instead.

`gnus-smiley-file-types'
     List of suffixes on smiley file names to try.


File: gnus,  Node: Picons,  Next: XVarious,  Prev: Smileys,  Up: Image Enhancements

8.17.4 Picons
-------------

So...  You want to slow down your news reader even more!  This is a
good way to do so.  It's also a great way to impress people staring
over your shoulder as you read news.

   What are Picons?  To quote directly from the Picons Web site:

     "Picons" is short for "personal icons".  They're small,
     constrained images used to represent users and domains on the net,
     organized into databases so that the appropriate image for a given
     e-mail address can be found.  Besides users and domains, there are
     picon databases for Usenet newsgroups and weather forecasts.  The
     picons are in either monochrome `XBM' format or color `XPM' and
     `GIF' formats.

   For instructions on obtaining and installing the picons databases,
point your Web browser at
`http://www.cs.indiana.edu/picons/ftp/index.html'.

   If you are using Debian GNU/Linux, saying `apt-get install picons.*'
will install the picons where Gnus can find them.

   To enable displaying picons, simply make sure that
`gnus-picon-databases' points to the directory containing the Picons
databases.

   The variable `gnus-picon-style' controls how picons are displayed.
If `inline', the textual representation is replaced.  If `right',
picons are added right to the textual representation.

   The following variables offer control over where things are located.

`gnus-picon-databases'
     The location of the picons database.  This is a list of directories
     containing the `news', `domains', `users' (and so on)
     subdirectories.  Defaults to `("/usr/lib/picon"
     "/usr/local/faces")'.

`gnus-picon-news-directories'
     List of subdirectories to search in `gnus-picon-databases' for
     newsgroups faces.  `("news")' is the default.

`gnus-picon-user-directories'
     List of subdirectories to search in `gnus-picon-databases' for user
     faces.  `("users" "usenix" "local" "misc")' is the default.

`gnus-picon-domain-directories'
     List of subdirectories to search in `gnus-picon-databases' for
     domain name faces.  Defaults to `("domains")'.  Some people may
     want to add `"unknown"' to this list.

`gnus-picon-file-types'
     Ordered list of suffixes on picon file names to try.  Defaults to
     `("xpm" "gif" "xbm")' minus those not built-in your Emacs.


File: gnus,  Node: XVarious,  Prev: Picons,  Up: Image Enhancements

8.17.5 Various XEmacs Variables
-------------------------------

`gnus-xmas-glyph-directory'
     This is where Gnus will look for pictures.  Gnus will normally
     auto-detect this directory, but you may set it manually if you
     have an unusual directory structure.

`gnus-xmas-modeline-glyph'
     A glyph displayed in all Gnus mode lines.  It is a tiny gnu head by
     default.


8.17.5.1 Toolbar
................

`gnus-use-toolbar'
     This variable specifies the position to display the toolbar.  If
     `nil', don't display toolbars.  If it is non-`nil', it should be
     one of the symbols `default', `top', `bottom', `right', and
     `left'.  `default' means to use the default toolbar, the rest mean
     to display the toolbar on the place which those names show.  The
     default is `default'.

`gnus-toolbar-thickness'
     Cons of the height and the width specifying the thickness of a
     toolbar.  The height is used for the toolbar displayed on the top
     or the bottom, the width is used for the toolbar displayed on the
     right or the left.  The default is that of the default toolbar.

`gnus-group-toolbar'
     The toolbar in the group buffer.

`gnus-summary-toolbar'
     The toolbar in the summary buffer.

`gnus-summary-mail-toolbar'
     The toolbar in the summary buffer of mail groups.


File: gnus,  Node: Fuzzy Matching,  Next: Thwarting Email Spam,  Prev: Image Enhancements,  Up: Various

8.18 Fuzzy Matching
===================

Gnus provides "fuzzy matching" of `Subject' lines when doing things
like scoring, thread gathering and thread comparison.

   As opposed to regular expression matching, fuzzy matching is very
fuzzy.  It's so fuzzy that there's not even a definition of what
"fuzziness" means, and the implementation has changed over time.

   Basically, it tries to remove all noise from lines before comparing.
`Re: ', parenthetical remarks, white space, and so on, are filtered out
of the strings before comparing the results.  This often leads to
adequate results--even when faced with strings generated by text
manglers masquerading as newsreaders.

File: gnus,  Node: Thwarting Email Spam,  Next: Spam Package,  Prev: Fuzzy Matching,  Up: Various

8.19 Thwarting Email Spam
=========================

In these last days of the Usenet, commercial vultures are hanging about
and grepping through news like crazy to find email addresses they can
foist off their scams and products to.  As a reaction to this, many
people have started putting nonsense addresses into their `From' lines.
I think this is counterproductive--it makes it difficult for people to
send you legitimate mail in response to things you write, as well as
making it difficult to see who wrote what.  This rewriting may perhaps
be a bigger menace than the unsolicited commercial email itself in the
end.

   The biggest problem I have with email spam is that it comes in under
false pretenses.  I press `g' and Gnus merrily informs me that I have
10 new emails.  I say "Golly gee!  Happy is me!" and select the mail
group, only to find two pyramid schemes, seven advertisements ("New!
Miracle tonic for growing full, lustrous hair on your toes!")  and one
mail asking me to repent and find some god.

   This is annoying.  Here's what you can do about it.

* Menu:

* The problem of spam::         Some background, and some solutions
* Anti-Spam Basics::            Simple steps to reduce the amount of spam.
* SpamAssassin::                How to use external anti-spam tools.
* Hashcash::                    Reduce spam by burning CPU time.

File: gnus,  Node: The problem of spam,  Next: Anti-Spam Basics,  Up: Thwarting Email Spam

8.19.1 The problem of spam
--------------------------

First, some background on spam.

   If you have access to e-mail, you are familiar with spam (technically
termed UCE, Unsolicited Commercial E-mail).  Simply put, it exists
because e-mail delivery is very cheap compared to paper mail, so only a
very small percentage of people need to respond to an UCE to make it
worthwhile to the advertiser.  Ironically, one of the most common spams
is the one offering a database of e-mail addresses for further
spamming.  Senders of spam are usually called _spammers_, but terms
like _vermin_, _scum_, _sociopaths_, and _morons_ are in common use as
well.

   Spam comes from a wide variety of sources.  It is simply impossible
to dispose of all spam without discarding useful messages.  A good
example is the TMDA system, which requires senders unknown to you to
confirm themselves as legitimate senders before their e-mail can reach
you.  Without getting into the technical side of TMDA, a downside is
clearly that e-mail from legitimate sources may be discarded if those
sources can't or won't confirm themselves through the TMDA system.
Another problem with TMDA is that it requires its users to have a basic
understanding of e-mail delivery and processing.

   The simplest approach to filtering spam is filtering, at the mail
server or when you sort through incoming mail.  If you get 200 spam
messages per day from `random-addressATvmadmin.com', you block
`vmadmin.com'.  If you get 200 messages about `VIAGRA', you discard all
messages with `VIAGRA' in the message.  If you get lots of spam from
Bulgaria, for example, you try to filter all mail from Bulgarian IPs.

   This, unfortunately, is a great way to discard legitimate e-mail.
The risks of blocking a whole country (Bulgaria, Norway, Nigeria, China,
etc.) or even a continent (Asia, Africa, Europe, etc.) from contacting
you should be obvious, so don't do it if you have the choice.

   In another instance, the very informative and useful RISKS digest has
been blocked by overzealous mail filters because it *contained* words
that were common in spam messages.  Nevertheless, in isolated cases,
with great care, direct filtering of mail can be useful.

   Another approach to filtering e-mail is the distributed spam
processing, for instance DCC implements such a system.  In essence, N
systems around the world agree that a machine X in Ghana, Estonia, or
California is sending out spam e-mail, and these N systems enter X or
the spam e-mail from X into a database.  The criteria for spam
detection vary--it may be the number of messages sent, the content of
the messages, and so on.  When a user of the distributed processing
system wants to find out if a message is spam, he consults one of those
N systems.

   Distributed spam processing works very well against spammers that
send a large number of messages at once, but it requires the user to
set up fairly complicated checks.  There are commercial and free
distributed spam processing systems.  Distributed spam processing has
its risks as well.  For instance legitimate e-mail senders have been
accused of sending spam, and their web sites and mailing lists have
been shut down for some time because of the incident.

   The statistical approach to spam filtering is also popular.  It is
based on a statistical analysis of previous spam messages.  Usually the
analysis is a simple word frequency count, with perhaps pairs of words
or 3-word combinations thrown into the mix.  Statistical analysis of
spam works very well in most of the cases, but it can classify
legitimate e-mail as spam in some cases.  It takes time to run the
analysis, the full message must be analyzed, and the user has to store
the database of spam analysis.  Statistical analysis on the server is
gaining popularity.  This has the advantage of letting the user Just
Read Mail, but has the disadvantage that it's harder to tell the server
that it has misclassified mail.

   Fighting spam is not easy, no matter what anyone says.  There is no
magic switch that will distinguish Viagra ads from Mom's e-mails.  Even
people are having a hard time telling spam apart from non-spam, because
spammers are actively looking to fool us into thinking they are Mom,
essentially.  Spamming is irritating, irresponsible, and idiotic
behavior from a bunch of people who think the world owes them a favor.
We hope the following sections will help you in fighting the spam
plague.

File: gnus,  Node: Anti-Spam Basics,  Next: SpamAssassin,  Prev: The problem of spam,  Up: Thwarting Email Spam

8.19.2 Anti-Spam Basics
-----------------------

One way of dealing with spam is having Gnus split out all spam into a
`spam' mail group (*note Splitting Mail::).

   First, pick one (1) valid mail address that you can be reached at,
and put it in your `From' header of all your news articles.  (I've
chosen `larsiATtrym.no', but for many addresses on the form
`larsi+usenetATifi.no' will be a better choice.  Ask your sysadmin
whether your sendmail installation accepts keywords in the local part
of the mail address.)

     (setq message-default-news-headers
           "From: Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <larsiATtrym.no>\n")

   Then put the following split rule in `nnmail-split-fancy' (*note
Fancy Mail Splitting::):

     (...
      (to "larsiATtrym.no"
          (| ("subject" "re:.*" "misc")
             ("references" ".*@.*" "misc")
             "spam"))
      ...)

   This says that all mail to this address is suspect, but if it has a
`Subject' that starts with a `Re:' or has a `References' header, it's
probably ok.  All the rest goes to the `spam' group.  (This idea
probably comes from Tim Pierce.)

   In addition, many mail spammers talk directly to your SMTP server
and do not include your email address explicitly in the `To' header.
Why they do this is unknown--perhaps it's to thwart this thwarting
scheme?  In any case, this is trivial to deal with--you just put
anything not addressed to you in the `spam' group by ending your fancy
split rule in this way:

     (
      ...
      (to "larsi" "misc")
      "spam")

   In my experience, this will sort virtually everything into the right
group.  You still have to check the `spam' group from time to time to
check for legitimate mail, though.  If you feel like being a good net
citizen, you can even send off complaints to the proper authorities on
each unsolicited commercial email--at your leisure.

   This works for me.  It allows people an easy way to contact me (they
can just press `r' in the usual way), and I'm not bothered at all with
spam.  It's a win-win situation.  Forging `From' headers to point to
non-existent domains is yucky, in my opinion.

   Be careful with this approach.  Spammers are wise to it.

File: gnus,  Node: SpamAssassin,  Next: Hashcash,  Prev: Anti-Spam Basics,  Up: Thwarting Email Spam

8.19.3 SpamAssassin, Vipul's Razor, DCC, etc
--------------------------------------------

The days where the hints in the previous section were sufficient in
avoiding spam are coming to an end.  There are many tools out there
that claim to reduce the amount of spam you get.  This section could
easily become outdated fast, as new products replace old, but
fortunately most of these tools seem to have similar interfaces.  Even
though this section will use SpamAssassin as an example, it should be
easy to adapt it to most other tools.

   Note that this section does not involve the `spam.el' package, which
is discussed in the next section.  If you don't care for all the
features of `spam.el', you can make do with these simple recipes.

   If the tool you are using is not installed on the mail server, you
need to invoke it yourself.  Ideas on how to use the `:postscript' mail
source parameter (*note Mail Source Specifiers::) follow.

     (setq mail-sources
           '((file :prescript "formail -bs spamassassin < /var/mail/%u")
             (pop :user "jrl"
                  :server "pophost"
                  :postscript
                  "mv %t /tmp/foo; formail -bs spamc < /tmp/foo > %t")))

   Once you manage to process your incoming spool somehow, thus making
the mail contain e.g. a header indicating it is spam, you are ready to
filter it out.  Using normal split methods (*note Splitting Mail::):

     (setq nnmail-split-methods '(("spam"  "^X-Spam-Flag: YES")
                                  ...))

   Or using fancy split methods (*note Fancy Mail Splitting::):

     (setq nnmail-split-methods 'nnmail-split-fancy
           nnmail-split-fancy '(| ("X-Spam-Flag" "YES" "spam")
                                  ...))

   Some people might not like the idea of piping the mail through
various programs using a `:prescript' (if some program is buggy, you
might lose all mail).  If you are one of them, another solution is to
call the external tools during splitting.  Example fancy split method:

     (setq nnmail-split-fancy '(| (: kevin-spamassassin)
                                  ...))
     (defun kevin-spamassassin ()
       (save-excursion
         (save-restriction
           (widen)
           (if (eq 1 (call-process-region (point-min) (point-max)
                                          "spamc" nil nil nil "-c"))
               "spam"))))

   Note that with the nnimap back end, message bodies will not be
downloaded by default.  You need to set `nnimap-split-download-body' to
`t' to do that (*note Splitting in IMAP::).

   That is about it.  As some spam is likely to get through anyway, you
might want to have a nifty function to call when you happen to read
spam.  And here is the nifty function:

     (defun my-gnus-raze-spam ()
       "Submit SPAM to Vipul's Razor, then mark it as expirable."
       (interactive)
       (gnus-summary-save-in-pipe "razor-report -f -d" t)
       (gnus-summary-mark-as-expirable 1))

File: gnus,  Node: Hashcash,  Prev: SpamAssassin,  Up: Thwarting Email Spam

8.19.4 Hashcash
---------------

A novel technique to fight spam is to require senders to do something
costly and demonstrably unique for each message they send.  This has
the obvious drawback that you cannot rely on everyone in the world
using this technique, since it is not part of the Internet standards,
but it may be useful in smaller communities.

   While the tools in the previous section work well in practice, they
work only because the tools are constantly maintained and updated as
new form of spam appears.  This means that a small percentage of spam
will always get through.  It also means that somewhere, someone needs
to read lots of spam to update these tools.  Hashcash avoids that, but
instead prefers that everyone you contact through e-mail supports the
scheme.  You can view the two approaches as pragmatic vs dogmatic.  The
approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages, but as often in
the real world, a combination of them is stronger than either one of
them separately.

   The "something costly" is to burn CPU time, more specifically to
compute a hash collision up to a certain number of bits.  The resulting
hashcash cookie is inserted in a `X-Hashcash:' header.  For more
details, and for the external application `hashcash' you need to
install to use this feature, see `http://www.hashcash.org/'.  Even more
information can be found at `http://www.camram.org/'.

   If you wish to generate hashcash for each message you send, you can
customize `message-generate-hashcash' (*note Mail Headers:
(message)Mail Headers.), as in:

     (setq message-generate-hashcash t)

   You will need to set up some additional variables as well:

`hashcash-default-payment'
     This variable indicates the default number of bits the hash
     collision should consist of.  By default this is 20.  Suggested
     useful values include 17 to 29.

`hashcash-payment-alist'
     Some receivers may require you to spend burn more CPU time than the
     default.  This variable contains a list of `(ADDR AMOUNT)' cells,
     where ADDR is the receiver (email address or newsgroup) and AMOUNT
     is the number of bits in the collision that is needed.  It can
     also contain `(ADDR STRING AMOUNT)' cells, where the STRING is the
     string to use (normally the email address or newsgroup name is
     used).

`hashcash-path'
     Where the `hashcash' binary is installed.  This variable should be
     automatically set by `executable-find', but if it's `nil' (usually
     because the `hashcash' binary is not in your path) you'll get a
     warning when you check hashcash payments and an error when you
     generate hashcash payments.


   Gnus can verify hashcash cookies, although this can also be done by
hand customized mail filtering scripts.  To verify a hashcash cookie in
a message, use the `mail-check-payment' function in the `hashcash.el'
library.  You can also use the `spam.el' package with the
`spam-use-hashcash' back end to validate hashcash cookies in incoming
mail and filter mail accordingly (*note Anti-spam Hashcash Payments::).

File: gnus,  Node: Spam Package,  Next: The Gnus Registry,  Prev: Thwarting Email Spam,  Up: Various

8.20 Spam Package
=================

The Spam package provides Gnus with a centralized mechanism for
detecting and filtering spam.  It filters new mail, and processes
messages according to whether they are spam or ham.  ("Ham" is the name
used throughout this manual to indicate non-spam messages.)

* Menu:

* Spam Package Introduction::
* Filtering Incoming Mail::
* Detecting Spam in Groups::
* Spam and Ham Processors::
* Spam Package Configuration Examples::
* Spam Back Ends::
* Extending the Spam package::
* Spam Statistics Package::

File: gnus,  Node: Spam Package Introduction,  Next: Filtering Incoming Mail,  Up: Spam Package

8.20.1 Spam Package Introduction
--------------------------------

You must read this section to understand how the Spam package works.
Do not skip, speed-read, or glance through this section.

   Make sure you read the section on the `spam.el' sequence of events.
See *Note Extending the Spam package::.

   To use the Spam package, you *must* first run the function
`spam-initialize':

     (spam-initialize)

   This autoloads `spam.el' and installs the various hooks necessary to
let the Spam package do its job.  In order to make use of the Spam
package, you have to set up certain group parameters and variables,
which we will describe below.  All of the variables controlling the
Spam package can be found in the `spam' customization group.

   There are two "contact points" between the Spam package and the rest
of Gnus: checking new mail for spam, and leaving a group.

   Checking new mail for spam is done in one of two ways: while
splitting incoming mail, or when you enter a group.

   The first way, checking for spam while splitting incoming mail, is
suited to mail back ends such as `nnml' or `nnimap', where new mail
appears in a single spool file.  The Spam package processes incoming
mail, and sends mail considered to be spam to a designated "spam"
group.  *Note Filtering Incoming Mail::.

   The second way is suited to back ends such as `nntp', which have no
incoming mail spool, or back ends where the server is in charge of
splitting incoming mail.  In this case, when you enter a Gnus group,
the unseen or unread messages in that group are checked for spam.
Detected spam messages are marked as spam.  *Note Detecting Spam in
Groups::.

   In either case, you have to tell the Spam package what method to use
to detect spam messages.  There are several methods, or "spam back
ends" (not to be confused with Gnus back ends!) to choose from: spam
"blacklists" and "whitelists", dictionary-based filters, and so forth.
*Note Spam Back Ends::.

   In the Gnus summary buffer, messages that have been identified as
spam always appear with a `$' symbol.

   The Spam package divides Gnus groups into three categories: ham
groups, spam groups, and unclassified groups.  You should mark each of
the groups you subscribe to as either a ham group or a spam group,
using the `spam-contents' group parameter (*note Group Parameters::).
Spam groups have a special property: when you enter a spam group, all
unseen articles are marked as spam.  Thus, mail split into a spam group
is automatically marked as spam.

   Identifying spam messages is only half of the Spam package's job.
The second half comes into play whenever you exit a group buffer.  At
this point, the Spam package does several things:

   First, it calls "spam and ham processors" to process the articles
according to whether they are spam or ham.  There is a pair of spam and
ham processors associated with each spam back end, and what the
processors do depends on the back end.  At present, the main role of
spam and ham processors is for dictionary-based spam filters: they add
the contents of the messages in the group to the filter's dictionary,
to improve its ability to detect future spam.  The `spam-process' group
parameter specifies what spam processors to use.  *Note Spam and Ham
Processors::.

   If the spam filter failed to mark a spam message, you can mark it
yourself, so that the message is processed as spam when you exit the
group:

`M-d'
`M s x'
`S x'
     Mark current article as spam, showing it with the `$' mark
     (`gnus-summary-mark-as-spam').

Similarly, you can unmark an article if it has been erroneously marked
as spam.  *Note Setting Marks::.

   Normally, a ham message found in a non-ham group is not processed as
ham--the rationale is that it should be moved into a ham group for
further processing (see below).  However, you can force these articles
to be processed as ham by setting `spam-process-ham-in-spam-groups' and
`spam-process-ham-in-nonham-groups'.

   The second thing that the Spam package does when you exit a group is
to move ham articles out of spam groups, and spam articles out of ham
groups.  Ham in a spam group is moved to the group specified by the
variable `gnus-ham-process-destinations', or the group parameter
`ham-process-destination'.  Spam in a ham group is moved to the group
specified by the variable `gnus-spam-process-destinations', or the
group parameter `spam-process-destination'.  If these variables are not
set, the articles are left in their current group.  If an article
cannot be moved (e.g., with a read-only backend such as NNTP), it is
copied.

   If an article is moved to another group, it is processed again when
you visit the new group.  Normally, this is not a problem, but if you
want each article to be processed only once, load the
`gnus-registry.el' package and set the variable `spam-log-to-registry'
to `t'.  *Note Spam Package Configuration Examples::.

   Normally, spam groups ignore `gnus-spam-process-destinations'.
However, if you set `spam-move-spam-nonspam-groups-only' to `nil', spam
will also be moved out of spam groups, depending on the
`spam-process-destination' parameter.

   The final thing the Spam package does is to mark spam articles as
expired, which is usually the right thing to do.

   If all this seems confusing, don't worry.  Soon it will be as natural
as typing Lisp one-liners on a neural interface... err, sorry, that's
50 years in the future yet.  Just trust us, it's not so bad.

File: gnus,  Node: Filtering Incoming Mail,  Next: Detecting Spam in Groups,  Prev: Spam Package Introduction,  Up: Spam Package

8.20.2 Filtering Incoming Mail
------------------------------

To use the Spam package to filter incoming mail, you must first set up
fancy mail splitting.  *Note Fancy Mail Splitting::.  The Spam package
defines a special splitting function that you can add to your fancy
split variable (either `nnmail-split-fancy' or `nnimap-split-fancy',
depending on your mail back end):

     (: spam-split)

The `spam-split' function scans incoming mail according to your chosen
spam back end(s), and sends messages identified as spam to a spam
group.  By default, the spam group is a group named `spam', but you can
change this by customizing `spam-split-group'.  Make sure the contents
of `spam-split-group' are an unqualified group name.  For instance, in
an `nnimap' server `your-server', the value `spam' means
`nnimap+your-server:spam'.  The value `nnimap+server:spam' is therefore
wrong--it gives the group `nnimap+your-server:nnimap+server:spam'.

   `spam-split' does not modify the contents of messages in any way.

   Note for IMAP users: if you use the `spam-check-bogofilter',
`spam-check-ifile', and `spam-check-stat' spam back ends, you should
also set the variable `nnimap-split-download-body' to `t'.  These spam
back ends are most useful when they can "scan" the full message body.
By default, the nnimap back end only retrieves the message headers;
`nnimap-split-download-body' tells it to retrieve the message bodies as
well.  We don't set this by default because it will slow IMAP down, and
that is not an appropriate decision to make on behalf of the user.
*Note Splitting in IMAP::.

   You have to specify one or more spam back ends for `spam-split' to
use, by setting the `spam-use-*' variables.  *Note Spam Back Ends::.
Normally, `spam-split' simply uses all the spam back ends you enabled
in this way.  However, you can tell `spam-split' to use only some of
them.  Why this is useful?  Suppose you are using the
`spam-use-regex-headers' and `spam-use-blackholes' spam back ends, and
the following split rule:

      nnimap-split-fancy '(|
                           (any "ding" "ding")
                           (: spam-split)
                           ;; default mailbox
                           "mail")

The problem is that you want all ding messages to make it to the ding
folder.  But that will let obvious spam (for example, spam detected by
SpamAssassin, and `spam-use-regex-headers') through, when it's sent to
the ding list.  On the other hand, some messages to the ding list are
from a mail server in the blackhole list, so the invocation of
`spam-split' can't be before the ding rule.

   The solution is to let SpamAssassin headers supersede ding rules, and
perform the other `spam-split' rules (including a second invocation of
the regex-headers check) after the ding rule.  This is done by passing
a parameter to `spam-split':

     nnimap-split-fancy
           '(|
             ;; spam detected by `spam-use-regex-headers' goes to `regex-spam'
             (: spam-split "regex-spam" 'spam-use-regex-headers)
             (any "ding" "ding")
             ;; all other spam detected by spam-split goes to `spam-split-group'
             (: spam-split)
             ;; default mailbox
             "mail")

This lets you invoke specific `spam-split' checks depending on your
particular needs, and target the results of those checks to a
particular spam group.  You don't have to throw all mail into all the
spam tests.  Another reason why this is nice is that messages to
mailing lists you have rules for don't have to have resource-intensive
blackhole checks performed on them.  You could also specify different
spam checks for your nnmail split vs. your nnimap split.  Go crazy.

   You should set the `spam-use-*' variables for whatever spam back
ends you intend to use.  The reason is that when loading `spam.el',
some conditional loading is done depending on what `spam-use-xyz'
variables you have set.  *Note Spam Back Ends::.

File: gnus,  Node: Detecting Spam in Groups,  Next: Spam and Ham Processors,  Prev: Filtering Incoming Mail,  Up: Spam Package

8.20.3 Detecting Spam in Groups
-------------------------------

To detect spam when visiting a group, set the group's `spam-autodetect'
and `spam-autodetect-methods' group parameters.  These are accessible
with `G c' or `G p', as usual (*note Group Parameters::).

   You should set the `spam-use-*' variables for whatever spam back
ends you intend to use.  The reason is that when loading `spam.el',
some conditional loading is done depending on what `spam-use-xyz'
variables you have set.

   By default, only unseen articles are processed for spam.  You can
force Gnus to recheck all messages in the group by setting the variable
`spam-autodetect-recheck-messages' to `t'.

   If you use the `spam-autodetect' method of checking for spam, you
can specify different spam detection methods for different groups.  For
instance, the `ding' group may have `spam-use-BBDB' as the
autodetection method, while the `suspect' group may have the
`spam-use-blacklist' and `spam-use-bogofilter' methods enabled.  Unlike
with `spam-split', you don't have any control over the _sequence_ of
checks, but this is probably unimportant.

File: gnus,  Node: Spam and Ham Processors,  Next: Spam Package Configuration Examples,  Prev: Detecting Spam in Groups,  Up: Spam Package

8.20.4 Spam and Ham Processors
------------------------------

Spam and ham processors specify special actions to take when you exit a
group buffer.  Spam processors act on spam messages, and ham processors
on ham messages.  At present, the main role of these processors is to
update the dictionaries of dictionary-based spam back ends such as
Bogofilter (*note Bogofilter::) and the Spam Statistics package (*note
Spam Statistics Filtering::).

   The spam and ham processors that apply to each group are determined
by the group's`spam-process' group parameter.  If this group parameter
is not defined, they are determined by the variable
`gnus-spam-process-newsgroups'.

   Gnus learns from the spam you get.  You have to collect your spam in
one or more spam groups, and set or customize the variable
`spam-junk-mailgroups' as appropriate.  You can also declare groups to
contain spam by setting their group parameter `spam-contents' to
`gnus-group-spam-classification-spam', or by customizing the
corresponding variable `gnus-spam-newsgroup-contents'.  The
`spam-contents' group parameter and the `gnus-spam-newsgroup-contents'
variable can also be used to declare groups as _ham_ groups if you set
their classification to `gnus-group-spam-classification-ham'.  If
groups are not classified by means of `spam-junk-mailgroups',
`spam-contents', or `gnus-spam-newsgroup-contents', they are considered
_unclassified_.  All groups are unclassified by default.

   In spam groups, all messages are considered to be spam by default:
they get the `$' mark (`gnus-spam-mark') when you enter the group.  If
you have seen a message, had it marked as spam, then unmarked it, it
won't be marked as spam when you enter the group thereafter.  You can
disable that behavior, so all unread messages will get the `$' mark, if
you set the `spam-mark-only-unseen-as-spam' parameter to `nil'.  You
should remove the `$' mark when you are in the group summary buffer for
every message that is not spam after all.  To remove the `$' mark, you
can use `M-u' to "unread" the article, or `d' for declaring it read the
non-spam way.  When you leave a group, all spam-marked (`$') articles
are sent to a spam processor which will study them as spam samples.

   Messages may also be deleted in various other ways, and unless
`ham-marks' group parameter gets overridden below, marks `R' and `r'
for default read or explicit delete, marks `X' and `K' for automatic or
explicit kills, as well as mark `Y' for low scores, are all considered
to be associated with articles which are not spam.  This assumption
might be false, in particular if you use kill files or score files as
means for detecting genuine spam, you should then adjust the
`ham-marks' group parameter.

 -- Variable: ham-marks
     You can customize this group or topic parameter to be the list of
     marks you want to consider ham.  By default, the list contains the
     deleted, read, killed, kill-filed, and low-score marks (the idea is
     that these articles have been read, but are not spam).  It can be
     useful to also include the tick mark in the ham marks.  It is not
     recommended to make the unread mark a ham mark, because it normally
     indicates a lack of classification.  But you can do it, and we'll
     be happy for you.

 -- Variable: spam-marks
     You can customize this group or topic parameter to be the list of
     marks you want to consider spam.  By default, the list contains
     only the spam mark.  It is not recommended to change that, but you
     can if you really want to.

   When you leave _any_ group, regardless of its `spam-contents'
classification, all spam-marked articles are sent to a spam processor,
which will study these as spam samples.  If you explicit kill a lot,
you might sometimes end up with articles marked `K' which you never
saw, and which might accidentally contain spam.  Best is to make sure
that real spam is marked with `$', and nothing else.

   When you leave a _spam_ group, all spam-marked articles are marked
as expired after processing with the spam processor.  This is not done
for _unclassified_ or _ham_ groups.  Also, any *ham* articles in a spam
group will be moved to a location determined by either the
`ham-process-destination' group parameter or a match in the
`gnus-ham-process-destinations' variable, which is a list of regular
expressions matched with group names (it's easiest to customize this
variable with `M-x customize-variable <RET>
gnus-ham-process-destinations').  Each group name list is a standard
Lisp list, if you prefer to customize the variable manually.  If the
`ham-process-destination' parameter is not set, ham articles are left
in place.  If the `spam-mark-ham-unread-before-move-from-spam-group'
parameter is set, the ham articles are marked as unread before being
moved.

   If ham can not be moved--because of a read-only back end such as
NNTP, for example, it will be copied.

   Note that you can use multiples destinations per group or regular
expression!  This enables you to send your ham to a regular mail group
and to a _ham training_ group.

   When you leave a _ham_ group, all ham-marked articles are sent to a
ham processor, which will study these as non-spam samples.

   By default the variable `spam-process-ham-in-spam-groups' is `nil'.
Set it to `t' if you want ham found in spam groups to be processed.
Normally this is not done, you are expected instead to send your ham to
a ham group and process it there.

   By default the variable `spam-process-ham-in-nonham-groups' is
`nil'.  Set it to `t' if you want ham found in non-ham (spam or
unclassified) groups to be processed.  Normally this is not done, you
are expected instead to send your ham to a ham group and process it
there.

   When you leave a _ham_ or _unclassified_ group, all *spam* articles
are moved to a location determined by either the
`spam-process-destination' group parameter or a match in the
`gnus-spam-process-destinations' variable, which is a list of regular
expressions matched with group names (it's easiest to customize this
variable with `M-x customize-variable <RET>
gnus-spam-process-destinations').  Each group name list is a standard
Lisp list, if you prefer to customize the variable manually.  If the
`spam-process-destination' parameter is not set, the spam articles are
only expired.  The group name is fully qualified, meaning that if you
see `nntp:servername' before the group name in the group buffer then
you need it here as well.

   If spam can not be moved--because of a read-only back end such as
NNTP, for example, it will be copied.

   Note that you can use multiples destinations per group or regular
expression!  This enables you to send your spam to multiple _spam
training_ groups.

   The problem with processing ham and spam is that Gnus doesn't track
this processing by default.  Enable the `spam-log-to-registry' variable
so `spam.el' will use `gnus-registry.el' to track what articles have
been processed, and avoid processing articles multiple times.  Keep in
mind that if you limit the number of registry entries, this won't work
as well as it does without a limit.

   Set this variable if you want only unseen articles in spam groups to
be marked as spam.  By default, it is set.  If you set it to `nil',
unread articles will also be marked as spam.

   Set this variable if you want ham to be unmarked before it is moved
out of the spam group.  This is very useful when you use something like
the tick mark `!' to mark ham--the article will be placed in your
`ham-process-destination', unmarked as if it came fresh from the mail
server.

   When autodetecting spam, this variable tells `spam.el' whether only
unseen articles or all unread articles should be checked for spam.  It
is recommended that you leave it off.

File: gnus,  Node: Spam Package Configuration Examples,  Next: Spam Back Ends,  Prev: Spam and Ham Processors,  Up: Spam Package

8.20.5 Spam Package Configuration Examples
------------------------------------------

Ted's setup
...........

From Ted Zlatanov <tzzATlifelogs.com>.
     ;; for `gnus-registry-split-fancy-with-parent' and spam autodetection
     ;; see `gnus-registry.el' for more information
     (gnus-registry-initialize)
     (spam-initialize)

     (setq
      spam-log-to-registry t     ; for spam autodetection
      spam-use-BBDB t
      spam-use-regex-headers t   ; catch X-Spam-Flag (SpamAssassin)
      ;; all groups with `spam' in the name contain spam
      gnus-spam-newsgroup-contents
       '(("spam" gnus-group-spam-classification-spam))
      ;; see documentation for these
      spam-move-spam-nonspam-groups-only nil
      spam-mark-only-unseen-as-spam t
      spam-mark-ham-unread-before-move-from-spam-group t
      nnimap-split-rule 'nnimap-split-fancy
      ;; understand what this does before you copy it to your own setup!
      nnimap-split-fancy '(|
                           ;; trace references to parents and put in their group
                           (: gnus-registry-split-fancy-with-parent)
                           ;; this will catch server-side SpamAssassin tags
                           (: spam-split 'spam-use-regex-headers)
                           (any "ding" "ding")
                           ;; note that spam by default will go to `spam'
                           (: spam-split)
                           ;; default mailbox
                           "mail"))

     ;; my parameters, set with `G p'

     ;; all nnml groups, and all nnimap groups except
     ;; `nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:train' and
     ;; `nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:spam': any spam goes to nnimap training,
     ;; because it must have been detected manually

     ((spam-process-destination . "nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:train"))

     ;; all NNTP groups
     ;; autodetect spam with the blacklist and ham with the BBDB
     ((spam-autodetect-methods spam-use-blacklist spam-use-BBDB)
     ;; send all spam to the training group
      (spam-process-destination . "nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:train"))

     ;; only some NNTP groups, where I want to autodetect spam
     ((spam-autodetect . t))

     ;; my nnimap `nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:spam' group

     ;; this is a spam group
     ((spam-contents gnus-group-spam-classification-spam)

      ;; any spam (which happens when I enter for all unseen messages,
      ;; because of the `gnus-spam-newsgroup-contents' setting above), goes to
      ;; `nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:train' unless I mark it as ham

      (spam-process-destination "nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:train")

      ;; any ham goes to my `nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:mail' folder, but
      ;; also to my `nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:trainham' folder for training

      (ham-process-destination "nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:mail"
                               "nnimap+mail.lifelogs.com:trainham")
      ;; in this group, only `!' marks are ham
      (ham-marks
       (gnus-ticked-mark))
      ;; remembers senders in the blacklist on the way out--this is
      ;; definitely not needed, it just makes me feel better
      (spam-process (gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-blacklist)))

     ;; Later, on the IMAP server I use the `train' group for training
     ;; SpamAssassin to recognize spam, and the `trainham' group fora
     ;; recognizing ham--but Gnus has nothing to do with it.

Using `spam.el' on an IMAP server with a statistical filter on the server
.........................................................................

From Reiner Steib <reiner.steibATgmx.de>.

   My provider has set up bogofilter (in combination with DCC) on the
mail server (IMAP).  Recognized spam goes to `spam.detected', the rest
goes through the normal filter rules, i.e. to `some.folder' or to
`INBOX'.  Training on false positives or negatives is done by copying
or moving the article to `training.ham' or `training.spam'
respectively.  A cron job on the server feeds those to bogofilter with
the suitable ham or spam options and deletes them from the
`training.ham' and `training.spam' folders.

   With the following entries in `gnus-parameters', `spam.el' does most
of the job for me:

        ("nnimap:spam\\.detected"
         (gnus-article-sort-functions '(gnus-article-sort-by-chars))
         (ham-process-destination "nnimap:INBOX" "nnimap:training.ham")
         (spam-contents gnus-group-spam-classification-spam))
        ("nnimap:\\(INBOX\\|other-folders\\)"
         (spam-process-destination . "nnimap:training.spam")
         (spam-contents gnus-group-spam-classification-ham))

   * The Spam folder:

     In the folder `spam.detected', I have to check for false positives
     (i.e. legitimate mails, that were wrongly judged as spam by
     bogofilter or DCC).

     Because of the `gnus-group-spam-classification-spam' entry, all
     messages are marked as spam (with `$').  When I find a false
     positive, I mark the message with some other ham mark
     (`ham-marks', *note Spam and Ham Processors::).  On group exit,
     those messages are copied to both groups, `INBOX' (where I want to
     have the article) and `training.ham' (for training bogofilter) and
     deleted from the `spam.detected' folder.

     The `gnus-article-sort-by-chars' entry simplifies detection of
     false positives for me.  I receive lots of worms (sweN, ...), that
     all have a similar size.  Grouping them by size (i.e. chars) makes
     finding other false positives easier.  (Of course worms aren't spam
     (UCE, UBE) strictly speaking.  Anyhow, bogofilter is an excellent
     tool for filtering those unwanted mails for me.)

   * Ham folders:

     In my ham folders, I just hit `S x' (`gnus-summary-mark-as-spam')
     whenever I see an unrecognized spam mail (false negative).  On
     group exit, those messages are moved to `training.spam'.

Reporting spam articles in Gmane groups with `spam-report.el'
.............................................................

From Reiner Steib <reiner.steibATgmx.de>.

   With following entry in `gnus-parameters', `S x'
(`gnus-summary-mark-as-spam') marks articles in `gmane.*' groups as
spam and reports the to Gmane at group exit:

        ("^gmane\\."
         (spam-process (gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-report-gmane)))

   Additionally, I use `(setq spam-report-gmane-use-article-number nil)'
because I don't read the groups directly from news.gmane.org, but
through my local news server (leafnode).  I.e. the article numbers are
not the same as on news.gmane.org, thus `spam-report.el' has to check
the `X-Report-Spam' header to find the correct number.

File: gnus,  Node: Spam Back Ends,  Next: Extending the Spam package,  Prev: Spam Package Configuration Examples,  Up: Spam Package

8.20.6 Spam Back Ends
---------------------

The spam package offers a variety of back ends for detecting spam.
Each back end defines a set of methods for detecting spam (*note
Filtering Incoming Mail::, *note Detecting Spam in Groups::), and a
pair of spam and ham processors (*note Spam and Ham Processors::).

* Menu:

* Blacklists and Whitelists::
* BBDB Whitelists::
* Gmane Spam Reporting::
* Anti-spam Hashcash Payments::
* Blackholes::
* Regular Expressions Header Matching::
* Bogofilter::
* SpamAssassin back end::
* ifile spam filtering::
* Spam Statistics Filtering::
* SpamOracle::

File: gnus,  Node: Blacklists and Whitelists,  Next: BBDB Whitelists,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.1 Blacklists and Whitelists
..................................

 -- Variable: spam-use-blacklist
     Set this variable to `t' if you want to use blacklists when
     splitting incoming mail.  Messages whose senders are in the
     blacklist will be sent to the `spam-split-group'.  This is an
     explicit filter, meaning that it acts only on mail senders
     _declared_ to be spammers.


 -- Variable: spam-use-whitelist
     Set this variable to `t' if you want to use whitelists when
     splitting incoming mail.  Messages whose senders are not in the
     whitelist will be sent to the next spam-split rule.  This is an
     explicit filter, meaning that unless someone is in the whitelist,
     their messages are not assumed to be spam or ham.


 -- Variable: spam-use-whitelist-exclusive
     Set this variable to `t' if you want to use whitelists as an
     implicit filter, meaning that every message will be considered spam
     unless the sender is in the whitelist.  Use with care.


 -- Variable: gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-blacklist
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameters or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is
     added to a group's `spam-process' parameter, the senders of
     spam-marked articles will be added to the blacklist.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete
     `gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-blacklist', it is recommended that
     you use `(spam spam-use-blacklist)'.  Everything will work the
     same way, we promise.


 -- Variable: gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-whitelist
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameters or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is
     added to a group's `spam-process' parameter, the senders of
     ham-marked articles in _ham_ groups will be added to the whitelist.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete `gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-whitelist',
     it is recommended that you use `(ham spam-use-whitelist)'.
     Everything will work the same way, we promise.


   Blacklists are lists of regular expressions matching addresses you
consider to be spam senders.  For instance, to block mail from any
sender at `vmadmin.com', you can put `vmadmin.com' in your blacklist.
You start out with an empty blacklist.  Blacklist entries use the Emacs
regular expression syntax.

   Conversely, whitelists tell Gnus what addresses are considered
legitimate.  All messages from whitelisted addresses are considered
non-spam.  Also see *note BBDB Whitelists::.  Whitelist entries use the
Emacs regular expression syntax.

   The blacklist and whitelist file locations can be customized with the
`spam-directory' variable (`~/News/spam' by default), or the
`spam-whitelist' and `spam-blacklist' variables directly.  The
whitelist and blacklist files will by default be in the
`spam-directory' directory, named `whitelist' and `blacklist'
respectively.

File: gnus,  Node: BBDB Whitelists,  Next: Gmane Spam Reporting,  Prev: Blacklists and Whitelists,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.2 BBDB Whitelists
........................

 -- Variable: spam-use-BBDB
     Analogous to `spam-use-whitelist' (*note Blacklists and
     Whitelists::), but uses the BBDB as the source of whitelisted
     addresses, without regular expressions.  You must have the BBDB
     loaded for `spam-use-BBDB' to work properly.  Messages whose
     senders are not in the BBDB will be sent to the next spam-split
     rule.  This is an explicit filter, meaning that unless someone is
     in the BBDB, their messages are not assumed to be spam or ham.


 -- Variable: spam-use-BBDB-exclusive
     Set this variable to `t' if you want to use the BBDB as an
     implicit filter, meaning that every message will be considered spam
     unless the sender is in the BBDB.  Use with care.  Only sender
     addresses in the BBDB will be allowed through; all others will be
     classified as spammers.

     While `spam-use-BBDB-exclusive' _can_ be used as an alias for
     `spam-use-BBDB' as far as `spam.el' is concerned, it is _not_ a
     separate back end.  If you set `spam-use-BBDB-exclusive' to t,
     _all_ your BBDB splitting will be exclusive.


 -- Variable: gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-BBDB
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameters or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is
     added to a group's `spam-process' parameter, the senders of
     ham-marked articles in _ham_ groups will be added to the BBDB.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete `gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-BBDB', it
     is recommended that you use `(ham spam-use-BBDB)'.  Everything
     will work the same way, we promise.


File: gnus,  Node: Gmane Spam Reporting,  Next: Anti-spam Hashcash Payments,  Prev: BBDB Whitelists,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.3 Gmane Spam Reporting
.............................

 -- Variable: gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-report-gmane
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameters or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is
     added to a group's `spam-process' parameter, the spam-marked
     articles groups will be reported to the Gmane administrators via a
     HTTP request.

     Gmane can be found at `http://gmane.org'.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete
     `gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-report-gmane', it is recommended
     that you use `(spam spam-use-gmane)'.  Everything will work the
     same way, we promise.


 -- Variable: spam-report-gmane-use-article-number
     This variable is `t' by default.  Set it to `nil' if you are
     running your own news server, for instance, and the local article
     numbers don't correspond to the Gmane article numbers.  When
     `spam-report-gmane-use-article-number' is `nil', `spam-report.el'
     will fetch the number from the article headers.


 -- Variable: spam-report-user-mail-address
     Mail address exposed in the User-Agent spam reports to Gmane.  It
     allows the Gmane administrators to contact you in case of
     misreports.  The default is `user-mail-address'.


File: gnus,  Node: Anti-spam Hashcash Payments,  Next: Blackholes,  Prev: Gmane Spam Reporting,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.4 Anti-spam Hashcash Payments
....................................

 -- Variable: spam-use-hashcash
     Similar to `spam-use-whitelist' (*note Blacklists and
     Whitelists::), but uses hashcash tokens for whitelisting messages
     instead of the sender address.  Messages without a hashcash payment
     token will be sent to the next spam-split rule.  This is an
     explicit filter, meaning that unless a hashcash token is found,
     the messages are not assumed to be spam or ham.


File: gnus,  Node: Blackholes,  Next: Regular Expressions Header Matching,  Prev: Anti-spam Hashcash Payments,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.5 Blackholes
...................

 -- Variable: spam-use-blackholes
     This option is disabled by default.  You can let Gnus consult the
     blackhole-type distributed spam processing systems (DCC, for
     instance) when you set this option.  The variable
     `spam-blackhole-servers' holds the list of blackhole servers Gnus
     will consult.  The current list is fairly comprehensive, but make
     sure to let us know if it contains outdated servers.

     The blackhole check uses the `dig.el' package, but you can tell
     `spam.el' to use `dns.el' instead for better performance if you
     set `spam-use-dig' to `nil'.  It is not recommended at this time
     to set `spam-use-dig' to `nil' despite the possible performance
     improvements, because some users may be unable to use it, but you
     can try it and see if it works for you.


 -- Variable: spam-blackhole-servers
     The list of servers to consult for blackhole checks.


 -- Variable: spam-blackhole-good-server-regex
     A regular expression for IPs that should not be checked against the
     blackhole server list.  When set to `nil', it has no effect.


 -- Variable: spam-use-dig
     Use the `dig.el' package instead of the `dns.el' package.  The
     default setting of `t' is recommended.


   Blackhole checks are done only on incoming mail.  There is no spam or
ham processor for blackholes.

File: gnus,  Node: Regular Expressions Header Matching,  Next: Bogofilter,  Prev: Blackholes,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.6 Regular Expressions Header Matching
............................................

 -- Variable: spam-use-regex-headers
     This option is disabled by default.  You can let Gnus check the
     message headers against lists of regular expressions when you set
     this option.  The variables `spam-regex-headers-spam' and
     `spam-regex-headers-ham' hold the list of regular expressions.
     Gnus will check against the message headers to determine if the
     message is spam or ham, respectively.


 -- Variable: spam-regex-headers-spam
     The list of regular expressions that, when matched in the headers
     of the message, positively identify it as spam.


 -- Variable: spam-regex-headers-ham
     The list of regular expressions that, when matched in the headers
     of the message, positively identify it as ham.


   Regular expression header checks are done only on incoming mail.
There is no specific spam or ham processor for regular expressions.

File: gnus,  Node: Bogofilter,  Next: SpamAssassin back end,  Prev: Regular Expressions Header Matching,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.7 Bogofilter
...................

 -- Variable: spam-use-bogofilter
     Set this variable if you want `spam-split' to use Eric Raymond's
     speedy Bogofilter.

     With a minimum of care for associating the `$' mark for spam
     articles only, Bogofilter training all gets fairly automatic.  You
     should do this until you get a few hundreds of articles in each
     category, spam or not.  The command `S t' in summary mode, either
     for debugging or for curiosity, shows the _spamicity_ score of the
     current article (between 0.0 and 1.0).

     Bogofilter determines if a message is spam based on a specific
     threshold.  That threshold can be customized, consult the
     Bogofilter documentation.

     If the `bogofilter' executable is not in your path, Bogofilter
     processing will be turned off.

     You should not enable this if you use
     `spam-use-bogofilter-headers'.


`M s t'
`S t'
     Get the Bogofilter spamicity score (`spam-bogofilter-score').

 -- Variable: spam-use-bogofilter-headers
     Set this variable if you want `spam-split' to use Eric Raymond's
     speedy Bogofilter, looking only at the message headers.  It works
     similarly to `spam-use-bogofilter', but the `X-Bogosity' header
     must be in the message already.  Normally you would do this with a
     procmail recipe or something similar; consult the Bogofilter
     installation documents for details.

     You should not enable this if you use `spam-use-bogofilter'.


 -- Variable: gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-bogofilter
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameters or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is
     added to a group's `spam-process' parameter, spam-marked articles
     will be added to the Bogofilter spam database.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete
     `gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-bogofilter', it is recommended
     that you use `(spam spam-use-bogofilter)'.  Everything will work
     the same way, we promise.

 -- Variable: gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-bogofilter
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameters or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is
     added to a group's `spam-process' parameter, the ham-marked
     articles in _ham_ groups will be added to the Bogofilter database
     of non-spam messages.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete
     `gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-bogofilter', it is recommended that
     you use `(ham spam-use-bogofilter)'.  Everything will work the
     same way, we promise.

 -- Variable: spam-bogofilter-database-directory
     This is the directory where Bogofilter will store its databases.
     It is not specified by default, so Bogofilter will use its own
     default database directory.


   The Bogofilter mail classifier is similar to `ifile' in intent and
purpose.  A ham and a spam processor are provided, plus the
`spam-use-bogofilter' and `spam-use-bogofilter-headers' variables to
indicate to spam-split that Bogofilter should either be used, or has
already been used on the article.  The 0.9.2.1 version of Bogofilter
was used to test this functionality.

File: gnus,  Node: SpamAssassin back end,  Next: ifile spam filtering,  Prev: Bogofilter,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.8 SpamAssassin back end
..............................

 -- Variable: spam-use-spamassassin
     Set this variable if you want `spam-split' to use SpamAssassin.

     SpamAssassin assigns a score to each article based on a set of
     rules and tests, including a Bayesian filter.  The Bayesian filter
     can be trained by associating the `$' mark for spam articles.  The
     spam score can be viewed by using the command `S t' in summary
     mode.

     If you set this variable, each article will be processed by
     SpamAssassin when `spam-split' is called.  If your mail is
     preprocessed by SpamAssassin, and you want to just use the
     SpamAssassin headers, set `spam-use-spamassassin-headers' instead.

     You should not enable this if you use
     `spam-use-spamassassin-headers'.


 -- Variable: spam-use-spamassassin-headers
     Set this variable if your mail is preprocessed by SpamAssassin and
     want `spam-split' to split based on the SpamAssassin headers.

     You should not enable this if you use `spam-use-spamassassin'.


 -- Variable: spam-spamassassin-program
     This variable points to the SpamAssassin executable.  If you have
     `spamd' running, you can set this variable to the `spamc'
     executable for faster processing.  See the SpamAssassin
     documentation for more information on `spamd'/`spamc'.


   SpamAssassin is a powerful and flexible spam filter that uses a wide
variety of tests to identify spam.  A ham and a spam processors are
provided, plus the `spam-use-spamassassin' and
`spam-use-spamassassin-headers' variables to indicate to spam-split
that SpamAssassin should be either used, or has already been used on
the article.  The 2.63 version of SpamAssassin was used to test this
functionality.

File: gnus,  Node: ifile spam filtering,  Next: Spam Statistics Filtering,  Prev: SpamAssassin back end,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.9 ifile spam filtering
.............................

 -- Variable: spam-use-ifile
     Enable this variable if you want `spam-split' to use `ifile', a
     statistical analyzer similar to Bogofilter.


 -- Variable: spam-ifile-all-categories
     Enable this variable if you want `spam-use-ifile' to give you all
     the ifile categories, not just spam/non-spam.  If you use this,
     make sure you train ifile as described in its documentation.


 -- Variable: spam-ifile-spam-category
     This is the category of spam messages as far as ifile is concerned.
     The actual string used is irrelevant, but you probably want to
     leave the default value of `spam'.

 -- Variable: spam-ifile-database
     This is the filename for the ifile database.  It is not specified
     by default, so ifile will use its own default database name.


   The ifile mail classifier is similar to Bogofilter in intent and
purpose.  A ham and a spam processor are provided, plus the
`spam-use-ifile' variable to indicate to spam-split that ifile should
be used.  The 1.2.1 version of ifile was used to test this
functionality.

File: gnus,  Node: Spam Statistics Filtering,  Next: SpamOracle,  Prev: ifile spam filtering,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.10 Spam Statistics Filtering
...................................

This back end uses the Spam Statistics Emacs Lisp package to perform
statistics-based filtering (*note Spam Statistics Package::).  Before
using this, you may want to perform some additional steps to initialize
your Spam Statistics dictionary.  *Note Creating a spam-stat
dictionary::.

 -- Variable: spam-use-stat

 -- Variable: gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-stat
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameters or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is
     added to a group's `spam-process' parameter, the spam-marked
     articles will be added to the spam-stat database of spam messages.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete `gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-stat', it
     is recommended that you use `(spam spam-use-stat)'.  Everything
     will work the same way, we promise.

 -- Variable: gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-stat
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameters or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is
     added to a group's `spam-process' parameter, the ham-marked
     articles in _ham_ groups will be added to the spam-stat database
     of non-spam messages.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete `gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-stat', it
     is recommended that you use `(ham spam-use-stat)'.  Everything
     will work the same way, we promise.

   This enables `spam.el' to cooperate with `spam-stat.el'.
`spam-stat.el' provides an internal (Lisp-only) spam database, which
unlike ifile or Bogofilter does not require external programs.  A spam
and a ham processor, and the `spam-use-stat' variable for `spam-split'
are provided.

File: gnus,  Node: SpamOracle,  Prev: Spam Statistics Filtering,  Up: Spam Back Ends

8.20.6.11 Using SpamOracle with Gnus
....................................

An easy way to filter out spam is to use SpamOracle.  SpamOracle is an
statistical mail filtering tool written by Xavier Leroy and needs to be
installed separately.

   There are several ways to use SpamOracle with Gnus.  In all cases,
your mail is piped through SpamOracle in its _mark_ mode.  SpamOracle
will then enter an `X-Spam' header indicating whether it regards the
mail as a spam mail or not.

   One possibility is to run SpamOracle as a `:prescript' from the
*Note Mail Source Specifiers::, (*note SpamAssassin::).  This method has
the advantage that the user can see the _X-Spam_ headers.

   The easiest method is to make `spam.el' (*note Spam Package::) call
SpamOracle.

   To enable SpamOracle usage by `spam.el', set the variable
`spam-use-spamoracle' to `t' and configure the `nnmail-split-fancy' or
`nnimap-split-fancy'.  *Note Spam Package::.  In this example the
`INBOX' of an nnimap server is filtered using SpamOracle.  Mails
recognized as spam mails will be moved to `spam-split-group', `Junk' in
this case.  Ham messages stay in `INBOX':

     (setq spam-use-spamoracle t
           spam-split-group "Junk"
           nnimap-split-inbox '("INBOX")
           nnimap-split-rule 'nnimap-split-fancy
           nnimap-split-fancy '(| (: spam-split) "INBOX"))

 -- Variable: spam-use-spamoracle
     Set to `t' if you want Gnus to enable spam filtering using
     SpamOracle.

 -- Variable: spam-spamoracle-binary
     Gnus uses the SpamOracle binary called `spamoracle' found in the
     user's PATH.  Using the variable `spam-spamoracle-binary', this
     can be customized.

 -- Variable: spam-spamoracle-database
     By default, SpamOracle uses the file `~/.spamoracle.db' as a
     database to store its analysis.  This is controlled by the variable
     `spam-spamoracle-database' which defaults to `nil'.  That means
     the default SpamOracle database will be used.  In case you want
     your database to live somewhere special, set
     `spam-spamoracle-database' to this path.

   SpamOracle employs a statistical algorithm to determine whether a
message is spam or ham.  In order to get good results, meaning few
false hits or misses, SpamOracle needs training.  SpamOracle learns the
characteristics of your spam mails.  Using the _add_ mode (training
mode) one has to feed good (ham) and spam mails to SpamOracle.  This
can be done by pressing `|' in the Summary buffer and pipe the mail to
a SpamOracle process or using `spam.el''s spam- and ham-processors,
which is much more convenient.  For a detailed description of spam- and
ham-processors, *Note Spam Package::.

 -- Variable: gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-spamoracle
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameter or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is added
     to a group's `spam-process' parameter, spam-marked articles will be
     sent to SpamOracle as spam samples.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete
     `gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-spamoracle', it is recommended
     that you use `(spam spam-use-spamoracle)'.  Everything will work
     the same way, we promise.

 -- Variable: gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-spamoracle
     Add this symbol to a group's `spam-process' parameter by
     customizing the group parameter or the
     `gnus-spam-process-newsgroups' variable.  When this symbol is added
     to a group's `spam-process' parameter, the ham-marked articles in
     _ham_ groups will be sent to the SpamOracle as samples of ham
     messages.

     _WARNING_

     Instead of the obsolete
     `gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-spamoracle', it is recommended that
     you use `(ham spam-use-spamoracle)'.  Everything will work the
     same way, we promise.

   _Example:_ These are the Group Parameters of a group that has been
classified as a ham group, meaning that it should only contain ham
messages.
      ((spam-contents gnus-group-spam-classification-ham)
       (spam-process ((ham spam-use-spamoracle)
                      (spam spam-use-spamoracle))))
   For this group the `spam-use-spamoracle' is installed for both ham
and spam processing.  If the group contains spam message (e.g. because
SpamOracle has not had enough sample messages yet) and the user marks
some messages as spam messages, these messages will be processed by
SpamOracle.  The processor sends the messages to SpamOracle as new
samples for spam.

File: gnus,  Node: Extending the Spam package,  Next: Spam Statistics Package,  Prev: Spam Back Ends,  Up: Spam Package

8.20.7 Extending the Spam package
---------------------------------

Say you want to add a new back end called blackbox.  For filtering
incoming mail, provide the following:

  1. Code

          (defvar spam-use-blackbox nil
            "True if blackbox should be used.")

     Write `spam-check-blackbox' if Blackbox can check incoming mail.

     Write `spam-blackbox-register-routine' and
     `spam-blackbox-unregister-routine' using the bogofilter
     register/unregister routines as a start, or other
     restister/unregister routines more appropriate to Blackbox, if
     Blackbox can register/unregister spam and ham.

  2. Functionality

     The `spam-check-blackbox' function should return `nil' or
     `spam-split-group', observing the other conventions.  See the
     existing `spam-check-*' functions for examples of what you can do,
     and stick to the template unless you fully understand the reasons
     why you aren't.


   For processing spam and ham messages, provide the following:

  1. Code

     Note you don't have to provide a spam or a ham processor.  Only
     provide them if Blackbox supports spam or ham processing.

     Also, ham and spam processors are being phased out as single
     variables.  Instead the form `(spam spam-use-blackbox)' or `(ham
     spam-use-blackbox)' is favored.  For now, spam/ham processor
     variables are still around but they won't be for long.

          (defvar gnus-group-spam-exit-processor-blackbox "blackbox-spam"
            "The Blackbox summary exit spam processor.
          Only applicable to spam groups.")

          (defvar gnus-group-ham-exit-processor-blackbox "blackbox-ham"
            "The whitelist summary exit ham processor.
          Only applicable to non-spam (unclassified and ham) groups.")

  2. Gnus parameters

     Add
          (const :tag "Spam: Blackbox" (spam spam-use-blackbox))
          (const :tag "Ham: Blackbox"  (ham spam-use-blackbox))
     to the `spam-process' group parameter in `gnus.el'.  Make sure you
     do it twice, once for the parameter and once for the variable
     customization.

     Add
          (variable-item spam-use-blackbox)
     to the `spam-autodetect-methods' group parameter in `gnus.el' if
     Blackbox can check incoming mail for spam contents.

     Finally, use the appropriate `spam-install-*-backend' function in
     `spam.el'.  Here are the available functions.

       1. `spam-install-backend-alias'

          This function will simply install an alias for a back end
          that does everything like the original back end.  It is
          currently only used to make `spam-use-BBDB-exclusive' act
          like `spam-use-BBDB'.

       2. `spam-install-nocheck-backend'

          This function installs a back end that has no check function,
          but can register/unregister ham or spam.  The
          `spam-use-gmane' back end is such a back end.

       3. `spam-install-checkonly-backend'

          This function will install a back end that can only check
          incoming mail for spam contents.  It can't register or
          unregister messages.  `spam-use-blackholes' and
          `spam-use-hashcash' are such back ends.

       4. `spam-install-statistical-checkonly-backend'

          This function installs a statistical back end (one which
          requires the full body of a message to check it) that can
          only check incoming mail for contents.  `spam-use-regex-body'
          is such a filter.

       5. `spam-install-statistical-backend'

          This function install a statistical back end with incoming
          checks and registration/unregistration routines.
          `spam-use-bogofilter' is set up this way.

       6. `spam-install-backend'

          This is the most normal back end installation, where a back
          end that can check and register/unregister messages is set up
          without statistical abilities.  The `spam-use-BBDB' is such a
          back end.

       7. `spam-install-mover-backend'

          Mover back ends are internal to `spam.el' and specifically
          move articles around when the summary is exited.  You will
          very probably never install such a back end.


File: gnus,  Node: Spam Statistics Package,  Prev: Extending the Spam package,  Up: Spam Package

8.20.8 Spam Statistics Package
------------------------------

Paul Graham has written an excellent essay about spam filtering using
statistics: A Plan for Spam (http://www.paulgraham.com/spam.html).  In
it he describes the inherent deficiency of rule-based filtering as used
by SpamAssassin, for example: Somebody has to write the rules, and
everybody else has to install these rules.  You are always late.  It
would be much better, he argues, to filter mail based on whether it
somehow resembles spam or non-spam.  One way to measure this is word
distribution.  He then goes on to describe a solution that checks
whether a new mail resembles any of your other spam mails or not.

   The basic idea is this:  Create a two collections of your mail, one
with spam, one with non-spam.  Count how often each word appears in
either collection, weight this by the total number of mails in the
collections, and store this information in a dictionary.  For every
word in a new mail, determine its probability to belong to a spam or a
non-spam mail.  Use the 15 most conspicuous words, compute the total
probability of the mail being spam.  If this probability is higher than
a certain threshold, the mail is considered to be spam.

   The Spam Statistics package adds support to Gnus for this kind of
filtering.  It can be used as one of the back ends of the Spam package
(*note Spam Package::), or by itself.

   Before using the Spam Statistics package, you need to set it up.
First, you need two collections of your mail, one with spam, one with
non-spam.  Then you need to create a dictionary using these two
collections, and save it.  And last but not least, you need to use this
dictionary in your fancy mail splitting rules.

* Menu:

* Creating a spam-stat dictionary::
* Splitting mail using spam-stat::
* Low-level interface to the spam-stat dictionary::

File: gnus,  Node: Creating a spam-stat dictionary,  Next: Splitting mail using spam-stat,  Up: Spam Statistics Package

8.20.8.1 Creating a spam-stat dictionary
........................................

Before you can begin to filter spam based on statistics, you must
create these statistics based on two mail collections, one with spam,
one with non-spam.  These statistics are then stored in a dictionary
for later use.  In order for these statistics to be meaningful, you
need several hundred emails in both collections.

   Gnus currently supports only the nnml back end for automated
dictionary creation.  The nnml back end stores all mails in a
directory, one file per mail.  Use the following:

 -- Function: spam-stat-process-spam-directory
     Create spam statistics for every file in this directory.  Every
     file is treated as one spam mail.

 -- Function: spam-stat-process-non-spam-directory
     Create non-spam statistics for every file in this directory.  Every
     file is treated as one non-spam mail.

   Usually you would call `spam-stat-process-spam-directory' on a
directory such as `~/Mail/mail/spam' (this usually corresponds to the
group `nnml:mail.spam'), and you would call
`spam-stat-process-non-spam-directory' on a directory such as
`~/Mail/mail/misc' (this usually corresponds to the group
`nnml:mail.misc').

   When you are using IMAP, you won't have the mails available locally,
so that will not work.  One solution is to use the Gnus Agent to cache
the articles.  Then you can use directories such as
`"~/News/agent/nnimap/mail.yourisp.com/personal_spam"' for
`spam-stat-process-spam-directory'.  *Note Agent as Cache::.

 -- Variable: spam-stat
     This variable holds the hash-table with all the statistics--the
     dictionary we have been talking about.  For every word in either
     collection, this hash-table stores a vector describing how often
     the word appeared in spam and often it appeared in non-spam mails.

   If you want to regenerate the statistics from scratch, you need to
reset the dictionary.

 -- Function: spam-stat-reset
     Reset the `spam-stat' hash-table, deleting all the statistics.

   When you are done, you must save the dictionary.  The dictionary may
be rather large.  If you will not update the dictionary incrementally
(instead, you will recreate it once a month, for example), then you can
reduce the size of the dictionary by deleting all words that did not
appear often enough or that do not clearly belong to only spam or only
non-spam mails.

 -- Function: spam-stat-reduce-size
     Reduce the size of the dictionary.  Use this only if you do not
     want to update the dictionary incrementally.

 -- Function: spam-stat-save
     Save the dictionary.

 -- Variable: spam-stat-file
     The filename used to store the dictionary.  This defaults to
     `~/.spam-stat.el'.

File: gnus,  Node: Splitting mail using spam-stat,  Next: Low-level interface to the spam-stat dictionary,  Prev: Creating a spam-stat dictionary,  Up: Spam Statistics Package

8.20.8.2 Splitting mail using spam-stat
.......................................

This section describes how to use the Spam statistics _independently_
of the *Note Spam Package::.

   First, add the following to your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (require 'spam-stat)
     (spam-stat-load)

   This will load the necessary Gnus code, and the dictionary you
created.

   Next, you need to adapt your fancy splitting rules:  You need to
determine how to use `spam-stat'.  The following examples are for the
nnml back end.  Using the nnimap back end works just as well.  Just use
`nnimap-split-fancy' instead of `nnmail-split-fancy'.

   In the simplest case, you only have two groups, `mail.misc' and
`mail.spam'.  The following expression says that mail is either spam or
it should go into `mail.misc'.  If it is spam, then
`spam-stat-split-fancy' will return `mail.spam'.

     (setq nnmail-split-fancy
           `(| (: spam-stat-split-fancy)
               "mail.misc"))

 -- Variable: spam-stat-split-fancy-spam-group
     The group to use for spam.  Default is `mail.spam'.

   If you also filter mail with specific subjects into other groups, use
the following expression.  Only mails not matching the regular
expression are considered potential spam.

     (setq nnmail-split-fancy
           `(| ("Subject" "\\bspam-stat\\b" "mail.emacs")
               (: spam-stat-split-fancy)
               "mail.misc"))

   If you want to filter for spam first, then you must be careful when
creating the dictionary.  Note that `spam-stat-split-fancy' must
consider both mails in `mail.emacs' and in `mail.misc' as non-spam,
therefore both should be in your collection of non-spam mails, when
creating the dictionary!

     (setq nnmail-split-fancy
           `(| (: spam-stat-split-fancy)
               ("Subject" "\\bspam-stat\\b" "mail.emacs")
               "mail.misc"))

   You can combine this with traditional filtering.  Here, we move all
HTML-only mails into the `mail.spam.filtered' group.  Note that since
`spam-stat-split-fancy' will never see them, the mails in
`mail.spam.filtered' should be neither in your collection of spam mails,
nor in your collection of non-spam mails, when creating the dictionary!

     (setq nnmail-split-fancy
           `(| ("Content-Type" "text/html" "mail.spam.filtered")
               (: spam-stat-split-fancy)
               ("Subject" "\\bspam-stat\\b" "mail.emacs")
               "mail.misc"))

File: gnus,  Node: Low-level interface to the spam-stat dictionary,  Prev: Splitting mail using spam-stat,  Up: Spam Statistics Package

8.20.8.3 Low-level interface to the spam-stat dictionary
........................................................

The main interface to using `spam-stat', are the following functions:

 -- Function: spam-stat-buffer-is-spam
     Called in a buffer, that buffer is considered to be a new spam
     mail.  Use this for new mail that has not been processed before.

 -- Function: spam-stat-buffer-is-no-spam
     Called in a buffer, that buffer is considered to be a new non-spam
     mail.  Use this for new mail that has not been processed before.

 -- Function: spam-stat-buffer-change-to-spam
     Called in a buffer, that buffer is no longer considered to be
     normal mail but spam.  Use this to change the status of a mail
     that has already been processed as non-spam.

 -- Function: spam-stat-buffer-change-to-non-spam
     Called in a buffer, that buffer is no longer considered to be spam
     but normal mail.  Use this to change the status of a mail that has
     already been processed as spam.

 -- Function: spam-stat-save
     Save the hash table to the file.  The filename used is stored in
     the variable `spam-stat-file'.

 -- Function: spam-stat-load
     Load the hash table from a file.  The filename used is stored in
     the variable `spam-stat-file'.

 -- Function: spam-stat-score-word
     Return the spam score for a word.

 -- Function: spam-stat-score-buffer
     Return the spam score for a buffer.

 -- Function: spam-stat-split-fancy
     Use this function for fancy mail splitting.  Add the rule `(:
     spam-stat-split-fancy)' to `nnmail-split-fancy'

   Make sure you load the dictionary before using it.  This requires the
following in your `~/.gnus.el' file:

     (require 'spam-stat)
     (spam-stat-load)

   Typical test will involve calls to the following functions:

     Reset: (setq spam-stat (make-hash-table :test 'equal))
     Learn spam: (spam-stat-process-spam-directory "~/Mail/mail/spam")
     Learn non-spam: (spam-stat-process-non-spam-directory "~/Mail/mail/misc")
     Save table: (spam-stat-save)
     File size: (nth 7 (file-attributes spam-stat-file))
     Number of words: (hash-table-count spam-stat)
     Test spam: (spam-stat-test-directory "~/Mail/mail/spam")
     Test non-spam: (spam-stat-test-directory "~/Mail/mail/misc")
     Reduce table size: (spam-stat-reduce-size)
     Save table: (spam-stat-save)
     File size: (nth 7 (file-attributes spam-stat-file))
     Number of words: (hash-table-count spam-stat)
     Test spam: (spam-stat-test-directory "~/Mail/mail/spam")
     Test non-spam: (spam-stat-test-directory "~/Mail/mail/misc")

   Here is how you would create your dictionary:

     Reset: (setq spam-stat (make-hash-table :test 'equal))
     Learn spam: (spam-stat-process-spam-directory "~/Mail/mail/spam")
     Learn non-spam: (spam-stat-process-non-spam-directory "~/Mail/mail/misc")
     Repeat for any other non-spam group you need...
     Reduce table size: (spam-stat-reduce-size)
     Save table: (spam-stat-save)

File: gnus,  Node: The Gnus Registry,  Next: Other modes,  Prev: Spam Package,  Up: Various

8.21 The Gnus Registry
======================

The Gnus registry is a package that tracks messages by their Message-ID
across all backends.  This allows Gnus users to do several cool things,
be the envy of the locals, get free haircuts, and be experts on world
issues.  Well, maybe not all of those, but the features are pretty cool.

   Although they will be explained in detail shortly, here's a quick
list of said features in case your attention span is...  never mind.

  1. Split messages to their parent

     This keeps discussions in the same group.  You can use the subject
     and the sender in addition to the Message-ID.  Several strategies
     are available.

  2. Store custom flags and keywords

     The registry can store custom flags and keywords for a message.
     For instance, you can mark a message "To-Do" this way and the flag
     will persist whether the message is in the nnimap, nnml, nnmaildir,
     etc. backends.

  3. Store arbitrary data

     Through a simple ELisp API, the registry can remember any data for
     a message.  A built-in inverse map, when activated, allows quick
     lookups of all messages matching a particular set of criteria.

* Menu:

* Setup::
* Fancy splitting to parent::
* Store custom flags and keywords::
* Store arbitrary data::

File: gnus,  Node: Setup,  Next: Fancy splitting to parent,  Up: The Gnus Registry

8.21.1 Setup
------------

Fortunately, setting up the Gnus registry is pretty easy:

     (setq gnus-registry-max-entries 2500
           gnus-registry-use-long-group-names t)

     (gnus-registry-initialize)

   This adds registry saves to Gnus newsrc saves (which happen on exit
and when you press `s' from the `*Group*' buffer.  It also adds
registry calls to article actions in Gnus (copy, move, etc.)  so it's
not easy to undo the initialization.  See `gnus-registry-initialize'
for the gory details.

   Here are other settings used by the author of the registry
(understand what they do before you copy them blindly).

     (setq
      gnus-registry-split-strategy 'majority
      gnus-registry-ignored-groups '(("nntp" t)
                                     ("nnrss" t)
                                     ("spam" t)
                                     ("train" t))
      gnus-registry-max-entries 500000
      gnus-registry-use-long-group-names t
      gnus-registry-track-extra '(sender subject))

   They say: keep a lot of messages around, use long group names, track
messages by sender and subject (not just parent Message-ID), and when
the registry splits incoming mail, use a majority rule to decide where
messages should go if there's more than one possibility.  In addition,
the registry should ignore messages in groups that match "nntp",
"nnrss", "spam", or "train."

   You are doubtless impressed by all this, but you ask: "I am a Gnus
user, I customize to live.  Give me more."  Here you go, these are the
general settings.

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-unfollowed-groups
     The groups that will not be followed by
     `gnus-registry-split-fancy-with-parent'.  They will still be
     remembered by the registry.  This is a list of regular expressions.

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-ignored-groups
     The groups that will not be remembered by the registry.  This is a
     list of regular expressions, also available through Group/Topic
     customization (so you can ignore or keep a specific group or a
     whole topic).

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-use-long-group-names
     Whether the registry will use long group names.  It's recommended
     to set this to `t', although everything works if you don't.  Future
     functionality will require it.

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-max-entries
     The number (an integer or `nil' for unlimited) of entries the
     registry will keep.

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-cache-file
     The file where the registry will be stored between Gnus sessions.

File: gnus,  Node: Fancy splitting to parent,  Next: Store custom flags and keywords,  Prev: Setup,  Up: The Gnus Registry

8.21.2 Fancy splitting to parent
--------------------------------

Simply put, this lets you put followup e-mail where it belongs.

   Every message has a Message-ID, which is unique, and the registry
remembers it.  When the message is moved or copied, the registry will
notice this and offer the new group as a choice to the splitting
strategy.

   When a followup is made, usually it mentions the original message's
Message-ID in the headers.  The registry knows this and uses that
mention to find the group where the original message lives.  You only
have to put a rule like this:

     (setq nnimap-my-split-fancy '(|

           ;; split to parent: you need this
           (: gnus-registry-split-fancy-with-parent)

           ;; other rules, as an example
           (: spam-split)
           ;; default mailbox
           "mail")

   in your fancy split setup.  In addition, you may want to customize
the following variables.

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-track-extra
     This is a list of symbols, so it's best to change it from the
     Customize interface.  By default it's `nil', but you may want to
     track `subject' and `sender' as well when splitting by parent.  It
     may work for you.  It can be annoying if your mail flow is large
     and people don't stick to the same groups.

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-split-strategy
     This is a symbol, so it's best to change it from the Customize
     interface.  By default it's `nil', but you may want to set it to
     `majority' or `first' to split by sender or subject based on the
     majority of matches or on the first found.

File: gnus,  Node: Store custom flags and keywords,  Next: Store arbitrary data,  Prev: Fancy splitting to parent,  Up: The Gnus Registry

8.21.3 Store custom flags and keywords
--------------------------------------

The registry lets you set custom flags and keywords per message.  You
can use the Gnus->Registry Marks menu or the `M M x' keyboard
shortcuts, where `x' is the first letter of the mark's name.

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-marks
     The custom marks that the registry can use.  You can modify the
     default list, if you like.  If you do, you'll have to exit Emacs
     before they take effect (you can also unload the registry and
     reload it or evaluate the specific macros you'll need, but you
     probably don't want to bother).  Use the Customize interface to
     modify the list.

     By default this list has the `Important', `Work', `Personal',
     `To-Do', and `Later' marks.  They all have keyboard shortcuts like
     `M M i' for Important, using the first letter.

 -- Function: gnus-registry-mark-article
     Call this function to mark an article with a custom registry mark.
     It will offer the available marks for completion.

File: gnus,  Node: Store arbitrary data,  Prev: Store custom flags and keywords,  Up: The Gnus Registry

8.21.4 Store arbitrary data
---------------------------

The registry has a simple API that uses a Message-ID as the key to
store arbitrary data (as long as it can be converted to a list for
storage).

 -- Function: gnus-registry-store-extra-entry (id key value)
     Store `value' in the extra data key `key' for message `id'.

 -- Function: gnus-registry-delete-extra-entry (id key)
     Delete the extra data key `key' for message `id'.

 -- Function: gnus-registry-fetch-extra (id key)
     Get the extra data key `key' for message `id'.

 -- Variable: gnus-registry-extra-entries-precious
     If any extra entries are precious, their presence will make the
     registry keep the whole entry forever, even if there are no groups
     for the Message-ID and if the size limit of the registry is
     reached.  By default this is just `(marks)' so the custom registry
     marks are precious.

File: gnus,  Node: Other modes,  Next: Various Various,  Prev: The Gnus Registry,  Up: Various

8.22 Interaction with other modes
=================================

8.22.1 Dired
------------

`gnus-dired-minor-mode' provides some useful functions for dired
buffers.  It is enabled with
     (add-hook 'dired-mode-hook 'turn-on-gnus-dired-mode)

`C-c C-m C-a'
     Send dired's marked files as an attachment (`gnus-dired-attach').
     You will be prompted for a message buffer.

`C-c C-m C-l'
     Visit a file according to the appropriate mailcap entry
     (`gnus-dired-find-file-mailcap').  With prefix, open file in a new
     buffer.

`C-c C-m C-p'
     Print file according to the mailcap entry (`gnus-dired-print').  If
     there is no print command, print in a PostScript image.

File: gnus,  Node: Various Various,  Prev: Other modes,  Up: Various

8.23 Various Various
====================

`gnus-home-directory'
     All Gnus file and directory variables will be initialized from this
     variable, which defaults to `~/'.

`gnus-directory'
     Most Gnus storage file and directory variables will be initialized
     from this variable, which defaults to the `SAVEDIR' environment
     variable, or `~/News/' if that variable isn't set.

     Note that Gnus is mostly loaded when the `~/.gnus.el' file is read.
     This means that other directory variables that are initialized
     from this variable won't be set properly if you set this variable
     in `~/.gnus.el'.  Set this variable in `.emacs' instead.

`gnus-default-directory'
     Not related to the above variable at all--this variable says what
     the default directory of all Gnus buffers should be.  If you issue
     commands like `C-x C-f', the prompt you'll get starts in the
     current buffer's default directory.  If this variable is `nil'
     (which is the default), the default directory will be the default
     directory of the buffer you were in when you started Gnus.

`gnus-verbose'
     This variable is an integer between zero and ten.  The higher the
     value, the more messages will be displayed.  If this variable is
     zero, Gnus will never flash any messages, if it is seven (which is
     the default), most important messages will be shown, and if it is
     ten, Gnus won't ever shut up, but will flash so many messages it
     will make your head swim.

`gnus-verbose-backends'
     This variable works the same way as `gnus-verbose', but it applies
     to the Gnus back ends instead of Gnus proper.

`gnus-add-timestamp-to-message'
     This variable controls whether to add timestamps to messages that
     are controlled by `gnus-verbose' and `gnus-verbose-backends' and
     are issued.  The default value is `nil' which means never to add
     timestamp.  If it is `log', add timestamps to only the messages
     that go into the `*Messages*' buffer (in XEmacs, it is the
     ` *Message-Log*' buffer).  If it is neither `nil' nor `log', add
     timestamps not only to log messages but also to the ones displayed
     in the echo area.

`nnheader-max-head-length'
     When the back ends read straight heads of articles, they all try
     to read as little as possible.  This variable (default 8192)
     specifies the absolute max length the back ends will try to read
     before giving up on finding a separator line between the head and
     the body.  If this variable is `nil', there is no upper read
     bound.  If it is `t', the back ends won't try to read the articles
     piece by piece, but read the entire articles.  This makes sense
     with some versions of `ange-ftp' or `efs'.

`nnheader-head-chop-length'
     This variable (default 2048) says how big a piece of each article
     to read when doing the operation described above.

`nnheader-file-name-translation-alist'
     This is an alist that says how to translate characters in file
     names.  For instance, if `:' is invalid as a file character in
     file names on your system (you OS/2 user you), you could say
     something like:

          (setq nnheader-file-name-translation-alist
                '((?: . ?_)))

     In fact, this is the default value for this variable on OS/2 and MS
     Windows (phooey) systems.

`gnus-hidden-properties'
     This is a list of properties to use to hide "invisible" text.  It
     is `(invisible t intangible t)' by default on most systems, which
     makes invisible text invisible and intangible.

`gnus-parse-headers-hook'
     A hook called before parsing headers.  It can be used, for
     instance, to gather statistics on the headers fetched, or perhaps
     you'd like to prune some headers.  I don't see why you'd want
     that, though.

`gnus-shell-command-separator'
     String used to separate two shell commands.  The default is `;'.

`gnus-invalid-group-regexp'
     Regexp to match "invalid" group names when querying user for a
     group name.  The default value catches some *really* invalid group
     names who could possibly mess up Gnus internally (like allowing
     `:' in a group name, which is normally used to delimit method and
     group).

     IMAP users might want to allow `/' in group names though.


File: gnus,  Node: The End,  Next: Appendices,  Prev: Various,  Up: Top

9 The End
*********

Well, that's the manual--you can get on with your life now.  Keep in
touch.  Say hello to your cats from me.

   My *ghod*--I just can't stand goodbyes.  Sniffle.

   Ol' Charles Reznikoff said it pretty well, so I leave the floor to
him:

     *Te Deum*


     Not because of victories
     I sing,
     having none,
     but for the common sunshine,
     the breeze,
     the largess of the spring.


     Not for victory
     but for the day's work done
     as well as I was able;
     not for a seat upon the dais
     but at the common table.

File: gnus,  Node: Appendices,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: The End,  Up: Top

10 Appendices
*************

* Menu:

* XEmacs::                      Requirements for installing under XEmacs.
* History::                     How Gnus got where it is today.
* On Writing Manuals::          Why this is not a beginner's guide.
* Terminology::                 We use really difficult, like, words here.
* Customization::               Tailoring Gnus to your needs.
* Troubleshooting::             What you might try if things do not work.
* Gnus Reference Guide::        Rilly, rilly technical stuff.
* Emacs for Heathens::          A short introduction to Emacsian terms.
* Frequently Asked Questions::  The Gnus FAQ

File: gnus,  Node: XEmacs,  Next: History,  Up: Appendices

10.1 XEmacs
===========

XEmacs is distributed as a collection of packages.  You should install
whatever packages the Gnus XEmacs package requires.  The current
requirements are `gnus', `mail-lib', `xemacs-base', `eterm',
`sh-script', `net-utils', `os-utils', `dired', `mh-e', `sieve',
`ps-print', `W3', `pgg', `mailcrypt', `ecrypto', and `sasl'.

File: gnus,  Node: History,  Next: On Writing Manuals,  Prev: XEmacs,  Up: Appendices

10.2 History
============

GNUS was written by Masanobu UMEDA.  When autumn crept up in '94, Lars
Magne Ingebrigtsen grew bored and decided to rewrite Gnus.

   If you want to investigate the person responsible for this outrage,
you can point your (feh!) web browser to `http://quimby.gnus.org/'.
This is also the primary distribution point for the new and spiffy
versions of Gnus, and is known as The Site That Destroys Newsrcs And
Drives People Mad.

   During the first extended alpha period of development, the new Gnus
was called "(ding) Gnus".  "(ding)" is, of course, short for "ding is
not Gnus", which is a total and utter lie, but who cares?  (Besides,
the "Gnus" in this abbreviation should probably be pronounced "news" as
UMEDA intended, which makes it a more appropriate name, don't you
think?)

   In any case, after spending all that energy on coming up with a new
and spunky name, we decided that the name was _too_ spunky, so we
renamed it back again to "Gnus".  But in mixed case.  "Gnus" vs.
"GNUS".  New vs. old.

* Menu:

* Gnus Versions::               What Gnus versions have been released.
* Other Gnus Versions::         Other Gnus versions that also have been released.
* Why?::                        What's the point of Gnus?
* Compatibility::               Just how compatible is Gnus with GNUS?
* Conformity::                  Gnus tries to conform to all standards.
* Emacsen::                     Gnus can be run on a few modern Emacsen.
* Gnus Development::            How Gnus is developed.
* Contributors::                Oodles of people.
* New Features::                Pointers to some of the new stuff in Gnus.


File: gnus,  Node: Gnus Versions,  Next: Other Gnus Versions,  Up: History

10.2.1 Gnus Versions
--------------------

The first "proper" release of Gnus 5 was done in November 1995 when it
was included in the Emacs 19.30 distribution (132 (ding) Gnus releases
plus 15 Gnus 5.0 releases).

   In May 1996 the next Gnus generation (aka. "September Gnus" (after 99
releases)) was released under the name "Gnus 5.2" (40 releases).

   On July 28th 1996 work on Red Gnus was begun, and it was released on
January 25th 1997 (after 84 releases) as "Gnus 5.4" (67 releases).

   On September 13th 1997, Quassia Gnus was started and lasted 37
releases.  It was released as "Gnus 5.6" on March 8th 1998 (46
releases).

   Gnus 5.6 begat Pterodactyl Gnus on August 29th 1998 and was released
as "Gnus 5.8" (after 99 releases and a CVS repository) on December 3rd
1999.

   On the 26th of October 2000, Oort Gnus was begun and was released as
Gnus 5.10 on May 1st 2003 (24 releases).

   On the January 4th 2004, No Gnus was begun.

   If you happen upon a version of Gnus that has a prefixed name -
"(ding) Gnus", "September Gnus", "Red Gnus", "Quassia Gnus",
"Pterodactyl Gnus", "Oort Gnus", "No Gnus" - don't panic.  Don't let it
know that you're frightened.  Back away.  Slowly.  Whatever you do,
don't run.  Walk away, calmly, until you're out of its reach.  Find a
proper released version of Gnus and snuggle up to that instead.

File: gnus,  Node: Other Gnus Versions,  Next: Why?,  Prev: Gnus Versions,  Up: History

10.2.2 Other Gnus Versions
--------------------------

In addition to the versions of Gnus which have had their releases
coordinated by Lars, one major development has been Semi-gnus from
Japan.  It's based on a library called SEMI, which provides MIME
capabilities.

   These Gnusae are based mainly on Gnus 5.6 and Pterodactyl Gnus.
Collectively, they are called "Semi-gnus", and different strains are
called T-gnus, ET-gnus, Nana-gnus and Chaos.  These provide powerful
MIME and multilingualization things, especially important for Japanese
users.

File: gnus,  Node: Why?,  Next: Compatibility,  Prev: Other Gnus Versions,  Up: History

10.2.3 Why?
-----------

What's the point of Gnus?

   I want to provide a "rad", "happening", "way cool" and "hep"
newsreader, that lets you do anything you can think of.  That was my
original motivation, but while working on Gnus, it has become clear to
me that this generation of newsreaders really belong in the stone age.
Newsreaders haven't developed much since the infancy of the net.  If the
volume continues to rise with the current rate of increase, all current
newsreaders will be pretty much useless.  How do you deal with
newsgroups that have thousands of new articles each day?  How do you
keep track of millions of people who post?

   Gnus offers no real solutions to these questions, but I would very
much like to see Gnus being used as a testing ground for new methods of
reading and fetching news.  Expanding on UMEDA-san's wise decision to
separate the newsreader from the back ends, Gnus now offers a simple
interface for anybody who wants to write new back ends for fetching mail
and news from different sources.  I have added hooks for customizations
everywhere I could imagine it being useful.  By doing so, I'm inviting
every one of you to explore and invent.

   May Gnus never be complete.  `C-u 100 M-x all-hail-emacs' and `C-u
100 M-x all-hail-xemacs'.

File: gnus,  Node: Compatibility,  Next: Conformity,  Prev: Why?,  Up: History

10.2.4 Compatibility
--------------------

Gnus was designed to be fully compatible with GNUS.  Almost all key
bindings have been kept.  More key bindings have been added, of course,
but only in one or two obscure cases have old bindings been changed.

   Our motto is:

                         In a cloud bones of steel.

   All commands have kept their names.  Some internal functions have
changed their names.

   The `gnus-uu' package has changed drastically.  *Note Decoding
Articles::.

   One major compatibility question is the presence of several summary
buffers.  All variables relevant while reading a group are buffer-local
to the summary buffer they belong in.  Although many important
variables have their values copied into their global counterparts
whenever a command is executed in the summary buffer, this change might
lead to incorrect values being used unless you are careful.

   All code that relies on knowledge of GNUS internals will probably
fail.  To take two examples: Sorting `gnus-newsrc-alist' (or changing
it in any way, as a matter of fact) is strictly verboten.  Gnus
maintains a hash table that points to the entries in this alist (which
speeds up many functions), and changing the alist directly will lead to
peculiar results.

   Old hilit19 code does not work at all.  In fact, you should probably
remove all hilit code from all Gnus hooks (`gnus-group-prepare-hook'
and `gnus-summary-prepare-hook').  Gnus provides various integrated
functions for highlighting.  These are faster and more accurate.  To
make life easier for everybody, Gnus will by default remove all hilit
calls from all hilit hooks.  Uncleanliness!  Away!

   Packages like `expire-kill' will no longer work.  As a matter of
fact, you should probably remove all old GNUS packages (and other code)
when you start using Gnus.  More likely than not, Gnus already does
what you have written code to make GNUS do.  (Snicker.)

   Even though old methods of doing things are still supported, only the
new methods are documented in this manual.  If you detect a new method
of doing something while reading this manual, that does not mean you
have to stop doing it the old way.

   Gnus understands all GNUS startup files.

   Overall, a casual user who hasn't written much code that depends on
GNUS internals should suffer no problems.  If problems occur, please
let me know by issuing that magic command `M-x gnus-bug'.

   If you are in the habit of sending bug reports _very_ often, you may
find the helpful help buffer annoying after a while.  If so, set
`gnus-bug-create-help-buffer' to `nil' to avoid having it pop up at you.

File: gnus,  Node: Conformity,  Next: Emacsen,  Prev: Compatibility,  Up: History

10.2.5 Conformity
-----------------

No rebels without a clue here, ma'am.  We conform to all standards known
to (wo)man.  Except for those standards and/or conventions we disagree
with, of course.

*RFC (2)822*
     There are no known breaches of this standard.

*RFC 1036*
     There are no known breaches of this standard, either.

*Son-of-RFC 1036*
     We do have some breaches to this one.

    _X-Newsreader_
    _User-Agent_
          These are considered to be "vanity headers", while I consider
          them to be consumer information.  After seeing so many badly
          formatted articles coming from `tin' and `Netscape' I know
          not to use either of those for posting articles.  I would not
          have known that if it wasn't for the `X-Newsreader' header.

*USEFOR*
     USEFOR is an IETF working group writing a successor to RFC 1036,
     based on Son-of-RFC 1036.  They have produced a number of drafts
     proposing various changes to the format of news articles.  The
     Gnus towers will look into implementing the changes when the draft
     is accepted as an RFC.

*MIME - RFC 2045-2049 etc*
     All the various MIME RFCs are supported.

*Disposition Notifications - RFC 2298*
     Message Mode is able to request notifications from the receiver.

*PGP - RFC 1991 and RFC 2440*
     RFC 1991 is the original PGP message specification, published as
     an informational RFC.  RFC 2440 was the follow-up, now called Open
     PGP, and put on the Standards Track.  Both document a non-MIME
     aware PGP format.  Gnus supports both encoding (signing and
     encryption) and decoding (verification and decryption).

*PGP/MIME - RFC 2015/3156*
     RFC 2015 (superseded by 3156 which references RFC 2440 instead of
     RFC 1991) describes the MIME-wrapping around the RFC 1991/2440
     format.  Gnus supports both encoding and decoding.

*S/MIME - RFC 2633*
     RFC 2633 describes the S/MIME format.

*IMAP - RFC 1730/2060, RFC 2195, RFC 2086, RFC 2359, RFC 2595, RFC 1731*
     RFC 1730 is IMAP version 4, updated somewhat by RFC 2060 (IMAP 4
     revision 1).  RFC 2195 describes CRAM-MD5 authentication for IMAP.
     RFC 2086 describes access control lists (ACLs) for IMAP.  RFC 2359
     describes a IMAP protocol enhancement.  RFC 2595 describes the
     proper TLS integration (STARTTLS) with IMAP.  RFC 1731 describes
     the GSSAPI/Kerberos4 mechanisms for IMAP.


   If you ever notice Gnus acting non-compliant with regards to the
texts mentioned above, don't hesitate to drop a note to Gnus Towers and
let us know.

File: gnus,  Node: Emacsen,  Next: Gnus Development,  Prev: Conformity,  Up: History

10.2.6 Emacsen
--------------

This version of Gnus should work on:

   * Emacs 21.1 and up.

   * XEmacs 21.4 and up.


   This Gnus version will absolutely not work on any Emacsen older than
that.  Not reliably, at least.  Older versions of Gnus may work on older
Emacs versions.  Particularly, Gnus 5.10.8 should also work on Emacs
20.7 and XEmacs 21.1.

File: gnus,  Node: Gnus Development,  Next: Contributors,  Prev: Emacsen,  Up: History

10.2.7 Gnus Development
-----------------------

Gnus is developed in a two-phased cycle.  The first phase involves much
discussion on the development mailing list `dingATgnus.org', where people
propose changes and new features, post patches and new back ends.  This
phase is called the "alpha" phase, since the Gnusae released in this
phase are "alpha releases", or (perhaps more commonly in other circles)
"snapshots".  During this phase, Gnus is assumed to be unstable and
should not be used by casual users.  Gnus alpha releases have names
like "Oort Gnus" and "No Gnus".  *Note Gnus Versions::.

   After futzing around for 10-100 alpha releases, Gnus is declared
"frozen", and only bug fixes are applied.  Gnus loses the prefix, and
is called things like "Gnus 5.10.1" instead.  Normal people are
supposed to be able to use these, and these are mostly discussed on the
`gnu.emacs.gnus' newsgroup.  This newgroup is mirrored to the mailing
list `info-gnus-englishATgnu.org' which is carried on Gmane as
`gmane.emacs.gnus.user'.  These releases are finally integrated in
Emacs.

   Some variable defaults differ between alpha Gnusae and released
Gnusae, in particular, `mail-source-delete-incoming'.  This is to
prevent lossage of mail if an alpha release hiccups while handling the
mail.  *Note Mail Source Customization::.

   The division of discussion between the ding mailing list and the Gnus
newsgroup is not purely based on publicity concerns.  It's true that
having people write about the horrible things that an alpha Gnus release
can do (sometimes) in a public forum may scare people off, but more
importantly, talking about new experimental features that have been
introduced may confuse casual users.  New features are frequently
introduced, fiddled with, and judged to be found wanting, and then
either discarded or totally rewritten.  People reading the mailing list
usually keep up with these rapid changes, while people on the newsgroup
can't be assumed to do so.

   So if you have problems with or questions about the alpha versions,
direct those to the ding mailing list `dingATgnus.org'.  This list is
also available on Gmane as `gmane.emacs.gnus.general'.

   Some variable defaults differ between alpha Gnusae and released
Gnusae, in particular, `mail-source-delete-incoming'.  This is to
prevent lossage of mail if an alpha release hiccups while handling the
mail.  *Note Mail Source Customization::.

File: gnus,  Node: Contributors,  Next: New Features,  Prev: Gnus Development,  Up: History

10.2.8 Contributors
-------------------

The new Gnus version couldn't have been done without the help of all the
people on the (ding) mailing list.  Every day for over a year I have
gotten billions of nice bug reports from them, filling me with joy,
every single one of them.  Smooches.  The people on the list have been
tried beyond endurance, what with my "oh, that's a neat idea <type
type>, yup, I'll release it right away <ship off> no wait, that doesn't
work at all <type type>, yup, I'll ship that one off right away <ship
off> no, wait, that absolutely does not work" policy for releases.
Micro$oft--bah.  Amateurs.  I'm _much_ worse.  (Or is that "worser"?
"much worser"?  "worsest"?)

   I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Academy for...
oops, wrong show.

   * Masanobu UMEDA--the writer of the original GNUS.

   * Shenghuo Zhu--uudecode.el, mm-uu.el, rfc1843.el, webmail.el,
     nnwarchive and many, many other things connected with MIME and
     other types of en/decoding, as well as general bug fixing, new
     functionality and stuff.

   * Per Abrahamsen--custom, scoring, highlighting and SOUP code (as
     well as numerous other things).

   * Luis Fernandes--design and graphics.

   * Joe Reiss--creator of the smiley faces.

   * Justin Sheehy--the FAQ maintainer.

   * Erik Naggum--help, ideas, support, code and stuff.

   * Wes Hardaker--`gnus-picon.el' and the manual section on "picons"
     (*note Picons::).

   * Kim-Minh Kaplan--further work on the picon code.

   * Brad Miller--`gnus-gl.el' and the GroupLens manual section.

   * Sudish Joseph--innumerable bug fixes.

   * Ilja Weis--`gnus-topic.el'.

   * Steven L. Baur--lots and lots and lots of bugs detections and
     fixes.

   * Vladimir Alexiev--the refcard and reference booklets.

   * Felix Lee & Jamie Zawinski--I stole some pieces from the XGnus
     distribution by Felix Lee and JWZ.

   * Scott Byer--`nnfolder.el' enhancements & rewrite.

   * Peter Mutsaers--orphan article scoring code.

   * Ken Raeburn--POP mail support.

   * Hallvard B Furuseth--various bits and pieces, especially dealing
     with .newsrc files.

   * Brian Edmonds--`gnus-bbdb.el'.

   * David Moore--rewrite of `nnvirtual.el' and many other things.

   * Kevin Davidson--came up with the name "ding", so blame him.

   * François Pinard--many, many interesting and thorough bug reports,
     as well as autoconf support.


   This manual was proof-read by Adrian Aichner, with Ricardo Nassif,
Mark Borges, and Jost Krieger proof-reading parts of the manual.

   The following people have contributed many patches and suggestions:

   Christopher Davis, Andrew Eskilsson, Kai Grossjohann, Kevin Greiner,
Jesper Harder, Paul Jarc, Simon Josefsson, David Kågedal, Richard Pieri,
Fabrice Popineau, Daniel Quinlan, Michael Shields, Reiner Steib, Jason
L. Tibbitts, III, Jack Vinson, Katsumi Yamaoka, and Teodor Zlatanov.

   Also thanks to the following for patches and stuff:

   Jari Aalto, Adrian Aichner, Vladimir Alexiev, Russ Allbery, Peter
Arius, Matt Armstrong, Marc Auslander, Miles Bader, Alexei V. Barantsev,
Frank Bennett, Robert Bihlmeyer, Chris Bone, Mark Borges, Mark Boyns,
Lance A. Brown, Rob Browning, Kees de Bruin, Martin Buchholz, Joe
Buehler, Kevin Buhr, Alastair Burt, Joao Cachopo, Zlatko Calusic,
Massimo Campostrini, Castor, David Charlap, Dan Christensen, Kevin
Christian, Jae-you Chung, James H. Cloos, Jr., Laura Conrad, Michael R.
Cook, Glenn Coombs, Andrew J. Cosgriff, Neil Crellin, Frank D. Cringle,
Geoffrey T. Dairiki, Andre Deparade, Ulrik Dickow, Dave Disser, Rui-Tao
Dong, Joev Dubach, Michael Welsh Duggan, Dave Edmondson, Paul Eggert,
Mark W. Eichin, Karl Eichwalder, Enami Tsugutomo, Michael Ernst, Luc
Van Eycken, Sam Falkner, Nelson Jose dos Santos Ferreira, Sigbjorn
Finne, Sven Fischer, Paul Fisher, Decklin Foster, Gary D. Foster, Paul
Franklin, Guy Geens, Arne Georg Gleditsch, David S. Goldberg,
Michelangelo Grigni, Dale Hagglund, D. Hall, Magnus Hammerin, Kenichi
Handa, Raja R. Harinath, Yoshiki Hayashi, P. E. Jareth Hein, Hisashige
Kenji, Scott Hofmann, Tassilo Horn, Marc Horowitz, Gunnar Horrigmo,
Richard Hoskins, Brad Howes, Miguel de Icaza, François Felix Ingrand,
Tatsuya Ichikawa, Ishikawa Ichiro, Lee Iverson, Iwamuro Motonori,
Rajappa Iyer, Andreas Jaeger, Adam P. Jenkins, Randell Jesup, Fred
Johansen, Gareth Jones, Greg Klanderman, Karl Kleinpaste, Michael
Klingbeil, Peter Skov Knudsen, Shuhei Kobayashi, Petr Konecny, Koseki
Yoshinori, Thor Kristoffersen, Jens Lautenbacher, Martin Larose,
Seokchan Lee, Joerg Lenneis, Carsten Leonhardt, James LewisMoss,
Christian Limpach, Markus Linnala, Dave Love, Mike McEwan, Tonny Madsen,
Shlomo Mahlab, Nat Makarevitch, Istvan Marko, David Martin, Jason R.
Mastaler, Gordon Matzigkeit, Timo Metzemakers, Richard Mlynarik, Lantz
Moore, Morioka Tomohiko, Erik Toubro Nielsen, Hrvoje Niksic, Andy
Norman, Fred Oberhauser, C. R. Oldham, Alexandre Oliva, Ken Olstad,
Masaharu Onishi, Hideki Ono, Ettore Perazzoli, William Perry, Stephen
Peters, Jens-Ulrik Holger Petersen, Ulrich Pfeifer, Matt Pharr, Andy
Piper, John McClary Prevost, Bill Pringlemeir, Mike Pullen, Jim Radford,
Colin Rafferty, Lasse Rasinen, Lars Balker Rasmussen, Joe Reiss, Renaud
Rioboo, Roland B. Roberts, Bart Robinson, Christian von Roques, Markus
Rost, Jason Rumney, Wolfgang Rupprecht, Jay Sachs, Dewey M. Sasser,
Conrad Sauerwald, Loren Schall, Dan Schmidt, Ralph Schleicher, Philippe
Schnoebelen, Andreas Schwab, Randal L. Schwartz, Danny Siu, Matt
Simmons, Paul D. Smith, Jeff Sparkes, Toby Speight, Michael Sperber,
Darren Stalder, Richard Stallman, Greg Stark, Sam Steingold, Paul
Stevenson, Jonas Steverud, Paul Stodghill, Kiyokazu Suto, Kurt Swanson,
Samuel Tardieu, Teddy, Chuck Thompson, Tozawa Akihiko, Philippe Troin,
James Troup, Trung Tran-Duc, Jack Twilley, Aaron M. Ucko, Aki Vehtari,
Didier Verna, Vladimir Volovich, Jan Vroonhof, Stefan Waldherr, Pete
Ware, Barry A. Warsaw, Christoph Wedler, Joe Wells, Lee Willis, and
Lloyd Zusman.

   For a full overview of what each person has done, the ChangeLogs
included in the Gnus alpha distributions should give ample reading
(550kB and counting).

   Apologies to everybody that I've forgotten, of which there are many,
I'm sure.

   Gee, that's quite a list of people.  I guess that must mean that
there actually are people who are using Gnus.  Who'd'a thunk it!

File: gnus,  Node: New Features,  Prev: Contributors,  Up: History

10.2.9 New Features
-------------------

* Menu:

* ding Gnus::                   New things in Gnus 5.0/5.1, the first new Gnus.
* September Gnus::              The Thing Formally Known As Gnus 5.2/5.3.
* Red Gnus::                    Third time best---Gnus 5.4/5.5.
* Quassia Gnus::                Two times two is four, or Gnus 5.6/5.7.
* Pterodactyl Gnus::            Pentad also starts with P, AKA Gnus 5.8/5.9.
* Oort Gnus::                   It's big.  It's far out.  Gnus 5.10/5.11.
* No Gnus::                     Very punny.

   These lists are, of course, just _short_ overviews of the _most_
important new features.  No, really.  There are tons more.  Yes, we
have feeping creaturism in full effect.

File: gnus,  Node: ding Gnus,  Next: September Gnus,  Up: New Features

10.2.9.1 (ding) Gnus
....................

New features in Gnus 5.0/5.1:

   * The look of all buffers can be changed by setting format-like
     variables (*note Group Buffer Format:: and *note Summary Buffer
     Format::).

   * Local spool and several NNTP servers can be used at once (*note
     Select Methods::).

   * You can combine groups into virtual groups (*note Virtual
     Groups::).

   * You can read a number of different mail formats (*note Getting
     Mail::).  All the mail back ends implement a convenient mail
     expiry scheme (*note Expiring Mail::).

   * Gnus can use various strategies for gathering threads that have
     lost their roots (thereby gathering loose sub-threads into one
     thread) or it can go back and retrieve enough headers to build a
     complete thread (*note Customizing Threading::).

   * Killed groups can be displayed in the group buffer, and you can
     read them as well (*note Listing Groups::).

   * Gnus can do partial group updates--you do not have to retrieve the
     entire active file just to check for new articles in a few groups
     (*note The Active File::).

   * Gnus implements a sliding scale of subscribedness to groups (*note
     Group Levels::).

   * You can score articles according to any number of criteria (*note
     Scoring::).  You can even get Gnus to find out how to score
     articles for you (*note Adaptive Scoring::).

   * Gnus maintains a dribble buffer that is auto-saved the normal Emacs
     manner, so it should be difficult to lose much data on what you
     have read if your machine should go down (*note Auto Save::).

   * Gnus now has its own startup file (`~/.gnus.el') to avoid
     cluttering up the `.emacs' file.

   * You can set the process mark on both groups and articles and
     perform operations on all the marked items (*note
     Process/Prefix::).

   * You can grep through a subset of groups and create a group from the
     results (*note Kibozed Groups::).

   * You can list subsets of groups according to, well, anything (*note
     Listing Groups::).

   * You can browse foreign servers and subscribe to groups from those
     servers (*note Browse Foreign Server::).

   * Gnus can fetch articles, asynchronously, on a second connection to
     the server (*note Asynchronous Fetching::).

   * You can cache articles locally (*note Article Caching::).

   * The uudecode functions have been expanded and generalized (*note
     Decoding Articles::).

   * You can still post uuencoded articles, which was a little-known
     feature of GNUS' past (*note Uuencoding and Posting::).

   * Fetching parents (and other articles) now actually works without
     glitches (*note Finding the Parent::).

   * Gnus can fetch FAQs and group descriptions (*note Group
     Information::).

   * Digests (and other files) can be used as the basis for groups
     (*note Document Groups::).

   * Articles can be highlighted and customized (*note Customizing
     Articles::).

   * URLs and other external references can be buttonized (*note
     Article Buttons::).

   * You can do lots of strange stuff with the Gnus window & frame
     configuration (*note Window Layout::).

   * You can click on buttons instead of using the keyboard (*note
     Buttons::).


File: gnus,  Node: September Gnus,  Next: Red Gnus,  Prev: ding Gnus,  Up: New Features

10.2.9.2 September Gnus
.......................

New features in Gnus 5.2/5.3:

   * A new message composition mode is used.  All old customization
     variables for `mail-mode', `rnews-reply-mode' and `gnus-msg' are
     now obsolete.

   * Gnus is now able to generate "sparse" threads--threads where
     missing articles are represented by empty nodes (*note Customizing
     Threading::).

          (setq gnus-build-sparse-threads 'some)

   * Outgoing articles are stored on a special archive server (*note
     Archived Messages::).

   * Partial thread regeneration now happens when articles are referred.

   * Gnus can make use of GroupLens predictions.

   * Picons (personal icons) can be displayed under XEmacs (*note
     Picons::).

   * A `trn'-like tree buffer can be displayed (*note Tree Display::).

          (setq gnus-use-trees t)

   * An `nn'-like pick-and-read minor mode is available for the summary
     buffers (*note Pick and Read::).

          (add-hook 'gnus-summary-mode-hook 'gnus-pick-mode)

   * In binary groups you can use a special binary minor mode (*note
     Binary Groups::).

   * Groups can be grouped in a folding topic hierarchy (*note Group
     Topics::).

          (add-hook 'gnus-group-mode-hook 'gnus-topic-mode)

   * Gnus can re-send and bounce mail (*note Summary Mail Commands::).

   * Groups can now have a score, and bubbling based on entry frequency
     is possible (*note Group Score::).

          (add-hook 'gnus-summary-exit-hook 'gnus-summary-bubble-group)

   * Groups can be process-marked, and commands can be performed on
     groups of groups (*note Marking Groups::).

   * Caching is possible in virtual groups.

   * `nndoc' now understands all kinds of digests, mail boxes, rnews
     news batches, ClariNet briefs collections, and just about
     everything else (*note Document Groups::).

   * Gnus has a new back end (`nnsoup') to create/read SOUP packets
     (*note SOUP::).

   * The Gnus cache is much faster.

   * Groups can be sorted according to many criteria (*note Sorting
     Groups::).

   * New group parameters have been introduced to set list-addresses and
     expiry times (*note Group Parameters::).

   * All formatting specs allow specifying faces to be used (*note
     Formatting Fonts::).

   * There are several more commands for setting/removing/acting on
     process marked articles on the `M P' submap (*note Setting Process
     Marks::).

   * The summary buffer can be limited to show parts of the available
     articles based on a wide range of criteria.  These commands have
     been bound to keys on the `/' submap (*note Limiting::).

   * Articles can be made persistent with the `*' command (*note
     Persistent Articles::).

   * All functions for hiding article elements are now toggles.

   * Article headers can be buttonized (*note Article Washing::).

   * All mail back ends support fetching articles by `Message-ID'.

   * Duplicate mail can now be treated properly (*note Duplicates::).

   * All summary mode commands are available directly from the article
     buffer (*note Article Keymap::).

   * Frames can be part of `gnus-buffer-configuration' (*note Window
     Layout::).

   * Mail can be re-scanned by a daemonic process (*note Daemons::).

   * Gnus can make use of NoCeM files to weed out spam (*note NoCeM::).

          (setq gnus-use-nocem t)

   * Groups can be made permanently visible (*note Listing Groups::).

          (setq gnus-permanently-visible-groups "^nnml:")

   * Many new hooks have been introduced to make customizing easier.

   * Gnus respects the `Mail-Copies-To' header.

   * Threads can be gathered by looking at the `References' header
     (*note Customizing Threading::).

          (setq gnus-summary-thread-gathering-function
                'gnus-gather-threads-by-references)

   * Read articles can be stored in a special backlog buffer to avoid
     refetching (*note Article Backlog::).

          (setq gnus-keep-backlog 50)

   * A clean copy of the current article is always stored in a separate
     buffer to allow easier treatment.

   * Gnus can suggest where to save articles (*note Saving Articles::).

   * Gnus doesn't have to do as much prompting when saving (*note
     Saving Articles::).

          (setq gnus-prompt-before-saving t)

   * `gnus-uu' can view decoded files asynchronously while fetching
     articles (*note Other Decode Variables::).

          (setq gnus-uu-grabbed-file-functions 'gnus-uu-grab-view)

   * Filling in the article buffer now works properly on cited text
     (*note Article Washing::).

   * Hiding cited text adds buttons to toggle hiding, and how much
     cited text to hide is now customizable (*note Article Hiding::).

          (setq gnus-cited-lines-visible 2)

   * Boring headers can be hidden (*note Article Hiding::).

   * Default scoring values can now be set from the menu bar.

   * Further syntax checking of outgoing articles have been added.


File: gnus,  Node: Red Gnus,  Next: Quassia Gnus,  Prev: September Gnus,  Up: New Features

10.2.9.3 Red Gnus
.................

New features in Gnus 5.4/5.5:

   * `nntp.el' has been totally rewritten in an asynchronous fashion.

   * Article prefetching functionality has been moved up into Gnus
     (*note Asynchronous Fetching::).

   * Scoring can now be performed with logical operators like `and',
     `or', `not', and parent redirection (*note Advanced Scoring::).

   * Article washing status can be displayed in the article mode line
     (*note Misc Article::).

   * `gnus.el' has been split into many smaller files.

   * Suppression of duplicate articles based on Message-ID can be done
     (*note Duplicate Suppression::).

          (setq gnus-suppress-duplicates t)

   * New variables for specifying what score and adapt files are to be
     considered home score and adapt files (*note Home Score File::)
     have been added.

   * `nndoc' was rewritten to be easily extendable (*note Document
     Server Internals::).

   * Groups can inherit group parameters from parent topics (*note
     Topic Parameters::).

   * Article editing has been revamped and is now actually usable.

   * Signatures can be recognized in more intelligent fashions (*note
     Article Signature::).

   * Summary pick mode has been made to look more `nn'-like.  Line
     numbers are displayed and the `.' command can be used to pick
     articles (`Pick and Read').

   * Commands for moving the `.newsrc.eld' from one server to another
     have been added (*note Changing Servers::).

   * There's a way now to specify that "uninteresting" fields be
     suppressed when generating lines in buffers (*note Advanced
     Formatting::).

   * Several commands in the group buffer can be undone with `C-M-_'
     (*note Undo::).

   * Scoring can be done on words using the new score type `w' (*note
     Score File Format::).

   * Adaptive scoring can be done on a Subject word-by-word basis
     (*note Adaptive Scoring::).

          (setq gnus-use-adaptive-scoring '(word))

   * Scores can be decayed (*note Score Decays::).

          (setq gnus-decay-scores t)

   * Scoring can be performed using a regexp on the Date header.  The
     Date is normalized to compact ISO 8601 format first (*note Score
     File Format::).

   * A new command has been added to remove all data on articles from
     the native server (*note Changing Servers::).

   * A new command for reading collections of documents (`nndoc' with
     `nnvirtual' on top) has been added--`C-M-d' (*note Really Various
     Summary Commands::).

   * Process mark sets can be pushed and popped (*note Setting Process
     Marks::).

   * A new mail-to-news back end makes it possible to post even when
     the NNTP server doesn't allow posting (*note Mail-To-News
     Gateways::).

   * A new back end for reading searches from Web search engines
     ("DejaNews", "Alta Vista", "InReference") has been added (*note
     Web Searches::).

   * Groups inside topics can now be sorted using the standard sorting
     functions, and each topic can be sorted independently (*note Topic
     Sorting::).

   * Subsets of the groups can be sorted independently (`Sorting
     Groups').

   * Cached articles can be pulled into the groups (*note Summary
     Generation Commands::).

   * Score files are now applied in a more reliable order (*note Score
     Variables::).

   * Reports on where mail messages end up can be generated (*note
     Splitting Mail::).

   * More hooks and functions have been added to remove junk from
     incoming mail before saving the mail (*note Washing Mail::).

   * Emphasized text can be properly fontisized:


File: gnus,  Node: Quassia Gnus,  Next: Pterodactyl Gnus,  Prev: Red Gnus,  Up: New Features

10.2.9.4 Quassia Gnus
.....................

New features in Gnus 5.6:

   * New functionality for using Gnus as an offline newsreader has been
     added.  A plethora of new commands and modes have been added.
     *Note Gnus Unplugged::, for the full story.

   * The `nndraft' back end has returned, but works differently than
     before.  All Message buffers are now also articles in the `nndraft'
     group, which is created automatically.

   * `gnus-alter-header-function' can now be used to alter header
     values.

   * `gnus-summary-goto-article' now accept Message-ID's.

   * A new Message command for deleting text in the body of a message
     outside the region: `C-c C-v'.

   * You can now post to component group in `nnvirtual' groups with
     `C-u C-c C-c'.

   *  `nntp-rlogin-program'--new variable to ease customization.

   * `C-u C-c C-c' in `gnus-article-edit-mode' will now inhibit
     re-highlighting of the article buffer.

   * New element in `gnus-boring-article-headers'--`long-to'.

   * `M-i' symbolic prefix command.  *Note Symbolic Prefixes::, for
     details.

   * `L' and `I' in the summary buffer now take the symbolic prefix `a'
     to add the score rule to the `all.SCORE' file.

   * `gnus-simplify-subject-functions' variable to allow greater
     control over simplification.

   * `A T'--new command for fetching the current thread.

   * `/ T'--new command for including the current thread in the limit.

   * `M-RET' is a new Message command for breaking cited text.

   * `\\1'-expressions are now valid in `nnmail-split-methods'.

   * The `custom-face-lookup' function has been removed.  If you used
     this function in your initialization files, you must rewrite them
     to use `face-spec-set' instead.

   * Canceling now uses the current select method.  Symbolic prefix `a'
     forces normal posting method.

   * New command to translate M******** sm*rtq**t*s into proper
     text--`W d'.

   * For easier debugging of `nntp', you can set `nntp-record-commands'
     to a non-`nil' value.

   * `nntp' now uses `~/.authinfo', a `.netrc'-like file, for
     controlling where and how to send AUTHINFO to NNTP servers.

   * A command for editing group parameters from the summary buffer has
     been added.

   * A history of where mails have been split is available.

   * A new article date command has been added--`article-date-iso8601'.

   * Subjects can be simplified when threading by setting
     `gnus-score-thread-simplify'.

   * A new function for citing in Message has been
     added--`message-cite-original-without-signature'.

   * `article-strip-all-blank-lines'--new article command.

   * A new Message command to kill to the end of the article has been
     added.

   * A minimum adaptive score can be specified by using the
     `gnus-adaptive-word-minimum' variable.

   * The "lapsed date" article header can be kept continually updated
     by the `gnus-start-date-timer' command.

   * Web listserv archives can be read with the `nnlistserv' back end.

   * Old dejanews archives can now be read by `nnweb'.


File: gnus,  Node: Pterodactyl Gnus,  Next: Oort Gnus,  Prev: Quassia Gnus,  Up: New Features

10.2.9.5 Pterodactyl Gnus
.........................

New features in Gnus 5.8:

   * The mail-fetching functions have changed.  See the manual for the
     many details.  In particular, all procmail fetching variables are
     gone.

     If you used procmail like in

          (setq nnmail-use-procmail t)
          (setq nnmail-spool-file 'procmail)
          (setq nnmail-procmail-directory "~/mail/incoming/")
          (setq nnmail-procmail-suffix "\\.in")

     this now has changed to

          (setq mail-sources
                '((directory :path "~/mail/incoming/"
                             :suffix ".in")))

     *Note Mail Source Specifiers::.

   * Gnus is now a MIME-capable reader.  This affects many parts of
     Gnus, and adds a slew of new commands.  See the manual for details.

   * Gnus has also been multilingualized.  This also affects too many
     parts of Gnus to summarize here, and adds many new variables.

   * `gnus-auto-select-first' can now be a function to be called to
     position point.

   * The user can now decide which extra headers should be included in
     summary buffers and NOV files.

   * `gnus-article-display-hook' has been removed.  Instead, a number
     of variables starting with `gnus-treat-' have been added.

   * The Gnus posting styles have been redone again and now works in a
     subtly different manner.

   * New web-based back ends have been added: `nnslashdot',
     `nnwarchive' and `nnultimate'.  nnweb has been revamped, again, to
     keep up with ever-changing layouts.

   * Gnus can now read IMAP mail via `nnimap'.


File: gnus,  Node: Oort Gnus,  Next: No Gnus,  Prev: Pterodactyl Gnus,  Up: New Features

10.2.9.6 Oort Gnus
..................

New features in Gnus 5.10:

   * Installation changes

        * Upgrading from previous (stable) version if you have used
          Oort.

          If you have tried Oort (the unstable Gnus branch leading to
          this release) but went back to a stable version, be careful
          when upgrading to this version.  In particular, you will
          probably want to remove all `.marks' (nnml) and `.mrk'
          (nnfolder) files, so that flags are read from your
          `.newsrc.eld' instead of from the `.marks'/`.mrk' file where
          this release store flags.  See a later entry for more
          information about marks.  Note that downgrading isn't save in
          general.

        * Lisp files are now installed in `.../site-lisp/gnus/' by
          default.  It defaulted to `.../site-lisp/' formerly.  In
          addition to this, the new installer issues a warning if other
          Gnus installations which will shadow the latest one are
          detected.  You can then remove those shadows manually or
          remove them using `make remove-installed-shadows'.

        * New `make.bat' for compiling and installing Gnus under MS
          Windows

          Use `make.bat' if you want to install Gnus under MS Windows,
          the first argument to the batch-program should be the
          directory where `xemacs.exe' respectively `emacs.exe' is
          located, if you want to install Gnus after compiling it, give
          `make.bat' `/copy' as the second parameter.

          `make.bat' has been rewritten from scratch, it now features
          automatic recognition of XEmacs and GNU Emacs, generates
          `gnus-load.el', checks if errors occur while compilation and
          generation of info files and reports them at the end of the
          build process.  It now uses `makeinfo' if it is available and
          falls back to `infohack.el' otherwise.  `make.bat' should now
          install all files which are necessary to run Gnus and be
          generally a complete replacement for the `configure; make;
          make install' cycle used under Unix systems.

          The new `make.bat' makes `make-x.bat' and `xemacs.mak'
          superfluous, so they have been removed.

        * `~/News/overview/' not used.

          As a result of the following change, the `~/News/overview/'
          directory is not used any more.  You can safely delete the
          entire hierarchy.

        * `(require 'gnus-load)'

          If you use a stand-alone Gnus distribution, you'd better add
          `(require 'gnus-load)' into your `~/.emacs' after adding the
          Gnus lisp directory into load-path.

          File `gnus-load.el' contains autoload commands, functions and
          variables, some of which may not be included in distributions
          of Emacsen.


   * New packages and libraries within Gnus

        * The revised Gnus FAQ is included in the manual, *Note
          Frequently Asked Questions::.

        * TLS wrapper shipped with Gnus

          TLS/SSL is now supported in IMAP and NNTP via `tls.el' and
          GNUTLS.  The old TLS/SSL support via (external third party)
          `ssl.el' and OpenSSL still works.

        * Improved anti-spam features.

          Gnus is now able to take out spam from your mail and news
          streams using a wide variety of programs and filter rules.
          Among the supported methods are RBL blocklists, bogofilter
          and white/blacklists.  Hooks for easy use of external
          packages such as SpamAssassin and Hashcash are also new.
          *note Thwarting Email Spam:: and *note Spam Package::.

        * Gnus supports server-side mail filtering using Sieve.

          Sieve rules can be added as Group Parameters for groups, and
          the complete Sieve script is generated using `D g' from the
          Group buffer, and then uploaded to the server using `C-c C-l'
          in the generated Sieve buffer.  *Note Sieve Commands::, and
          the new Sieve manual *note Top: (sieve)Top.


   * Changes in group mode

        * `gnus-group-read-ephemeral-group' can be called interactively,
          using `G M'.

        * Retrieval of charters and control messages

          There are new commands for fetching newsgroup charters (`H
          c') and control messages (`H C').

        * The new variable `gnus-parameters' can be used to set group
          parameters.

          Earlier this was done only via `G p' (or `G c'), which stored
          the parameters in `~/.newsrc.eld', but via this variable you
          can enjoy the powers of customize, and simplified backups
          since you set the variable in `~/.gnus.el' instead of
          `~/.newsrc.eld'.  The variable maps regular expressions
          matching group names to group parameters, a'la:
               (setq gnus-parameters
                     '(("mail\\..*"
                        (gnus-show-threads nil)
                        (gnus-use-scoring nil))
                       ("^nnimap:\\(foo.bar\\)$"
                        (to-group . "\\1"))))

        * Unread count correct in nnimap groups.

          The estimated number of unread articles in the group buffer
          should now be correct for nnimap groups.  This is achieved by
          calling `nnimap-fixup-unread-after-getting-new-news' from the
          `gnus-setup-news-hook' (called on startup) and
          `gnus-after-getting-new-news-hook'. (called after getting new
          mail).  If you have modified those variables from the
          default, you may want to add
          `nnimap-fixup-unread-after-getting-new-news' again.  If you
          were happy with the estimate and want to save some (minimal)
          time when getting new mail, remove the function.

        * Group names are treated as UTF-8 by default.

          This is supposedly what USEFOR wanted to migrate to.  See
          `gnus-group-name-charset-group-alist' and
          `gnus-group-name-charset-method-alist' for customization.

        * `gnus-group-charset-alist' and
          `gnus-group-ignored-charsets-alist'.

          The regexps in these variables are compared with full group
          names instead of real group names in 5.8.  Users who
          customize these variables should change those regexps
          accordingly.  For example:
               ("^han\\>" euc-kr) -> ("\\(^\\|:\\)han\\>" euc-kr)

        * Old intermediate incoming mail files (`Incoming*') are deleted
          after a couple of days, not immediately.  *Note Mail Source
          Customization::.  (New in Gnus 5.10.10 / Emacs 22.2)


   * Changes in summary and article mode

        * `F' (`gnus-article-followup-with-original') and `R'
          (`gnus-article-reply-with-original') only yank the text in the
          region if the region is active.

        * In draft groups, `e' is now bound to
          `gnus-draft-edit-message'.  Use `B w' for
          `gnus-summary-edit-article' instead.

        * Article Buttons

          More buttons for URLs, mail addresses, Message-IDs, Info
          links, man pages and Emacs or Gnus related references.  *Note
          Article Buttons::.  The variables `gnus-button-*-level' can
          be used to control the appearance of all article buttons.
          *Note Article Button Levels::.

        * Single-part yenc encoded attachments can be decoded.

        * Picons

          The picons code has been reimplemented to work in GNU
          Emacs--some of the previous options have been removed or
          renamed.

          Picons are small "personal icons" representing users, domain
          and newsgroups, which can be displayed in the Article buffer.
          *Note Picons::.

        * If the new option `gnus-treat-body-boundary' is non-`nil', a
          boundary line is drawn at the end of the headers.

        * Signed article headers (X-PGP-Sig) can be verified with `W p'.

        * The Summary Buffer uses an arrow in the fringe to indicate
          the current article.  Use `(setq gnus-summary-display-arrow
          nil)' to disable it.

        * Warn about email replies to news

          Do you often find yourself replying to news by email by
          mistake?  Then the new option
          `gnus-confirm-mail-reply-to-news' is just the thing for you.

        * If the new option `gnus-summary-display-while-building' is
          non-`nil', the summary buffer is shown and updated as it's
          being built.

        * The new `recent' mark `.' indicates newly arrived messages (as
          opposed to old but unread messages).

        * Gnus supports RFC 2369 mailing list headers, and adds a
          number of related commands in mailing list groups.  *Note
          Mailing List::.

        * The Date header can be displayed in a format that can be read
          aloud in English.  *Note Article Date::.

        * diffs are automatically highlighted in groups matching
          `mm-uu-diff-groups-regexp'

        * Better handling of Microsoft citation styles

          Gnus now tries to recognize the mangled header block that
          some Microsoft mailers use to indicate that the rest of the
          message is a citation, even though it is not quoted in any
          way.  The variable `gnus-cite-unsightly-citation-regexp'
          matches the start of these citations.

          The new command `W Y f'
          (`gnus-article-outlook-deuglify-article') allows deuglifying
          broken Outlook (Express) articles.

        * `gnus-article-skip-boring'

          If you set `gnus-article-skip-boring' to `t', then Gnus will
          not scroll down to show you a page that contains only boring
          text, which by default means cited text and signature.  You
          can customize what is skippable using
          `gnus-article-boring-faces'.

          This feature is especially useful if you read many articles
          that consist of a little new content at the top with a long,
          untrimmed message cited below.

        * Smileys (`:-)', `;-)' etc) are now displayed graphically in
          Emacs too.

          Put `(setq gnus-treat-display-smileys nil)' in `~/.gnus.el' to
          disable it.

        * Face headers handling.  *Note Face::.

        * In the summary buffer, the new command `/ N' inserts new
          messages and `/ o' inserts old messages.

        * Gnus decodes morse encoded messages if you press `W m'.

        * `gnus-summary-line-format'

          The default value changed to `%U%R%z%I%(%[%4L: %-23,23f%]%)
          %s\n'.  Moreover `gnus-extra-headers', `nnmail-extra-headers'
          and `gnus-ignored-from-addresses' changed their default so
          that the users name will be replaced by the recipient's name
          or the group name posting to for NNTP groups.

        * Deleting of attachments.

          The command `gnus-mime-save-part-and-strip' (bound to `C-o'
          on MIME buttons) saves a part and replaces the part with an
          external one.  `gnus-mime-delete-part' (bound to `d' on MIME
          buttons) removes a part.  It works only on back ends that
          support editing.

        * `gnus-default-charset'

          The default value is determined from the
          `current-language-environment' variable, instead of
          `iso-8859-1'.  Also the `.*' item in
          `gnus-group-charset-alist' is removed.

        * Printing capabilities are enhanced.

          Gnus supports Muttprint natively with `O P' from the Summary
          and Article buffers.  Also, each individual MIME part can be
          printed using `p' on the MIME button.

        * Extended format specs.

          Format spec `%&user-date;' is added into
          `gnus-summary-line-format-alist'.  Also, user defined extended
          format specs are supported.  The extended format specs look
          like `%u&foo;', which invokes function
          `gnus-user-format-function-FOO'.  Because `&' is used as the
          escape character, old user defined format `%u&' is no longer
          supported.

        * `/ *' (`gnus-summary-limit-include-cached') is rewritten.

          It was aliased to `Y c'
          (`gnus-summary-insert-cached-articles').  The new function
          filters out other articles.

        * Some limiting commands accept a `C-u' prefix to negate the
          match.

          If `C-u' is used on subject, author or extra headers, i.e., `/
          s', `/ a', and `/ x'
          (`gnus-summary-limit-to-{subject,author,extra}')
          respectively, the result will be to display all articles that
          do not match the expression.

        * Gnus inlines external parts (message/external).


   * Changes in Message mode and related Gnus features

        * Delayed articles

          You can delay the sending of a message with `C-c C-j' in the
          Message buffer.  The messages are delivered at specified
          time.  This is useful for sending yourself reminders.  *Note
          Delayed Articles::.

        * If the new option `nnml-use-compressed-files' is non-`nil',
          the nnml back end allows compressed message files.

        * The new option `gnus-gcc-mark-as-read' automatically marks
          Gcc articles as read.

        * Externalizing of attachments

          If `gnus-gcc-externalize-attachments' or
          `message-fcc-externalize-attachments' is non-`nil', attach
          local files as external parts.

        * The envelope sender address can be customized when using
          Sendmail.  *Note Mail Variables: (message)Mail Variables.

        * Gnus no longer generate the Sender: header automatically.

          Earlier it was generated when the user configurable email
          address was different from the Gnus guessed default user
          address.  As the guessing algorithm is rarely correct these
          days, and (more controversially) the only use of the Sender:
          header was to check if you are entitled to cancel/supersede
          news (which is now solved by Cancel Locks instead, see
          another entry), generation of the header has been disabled by
          default.  See the variables `message-required-headers',
          `message-required-news-headers', and
          `message-required-mail-headers'.

        * Features from third party `message-utils.el' added to
          `message.el'.

          Message now asks if you wish to remove `(was: <old subject>)'
          from subject lines (see
          `message-subject-trailing-was-query').  `C-c M-m' and `C-c
          M-f' inserts markers indicating included text.  `C-c C-f a'
          adds a X-No-Archive: header.  `C-c C-f x' inserts appropriate
          headers and a note in the body for cross-postings and
          followups (see the variables `message-cross-post-*').

        * References and X-Draft-From headers are no longer generated
          when you start composing messages and
          `message-generate-headers-first' is `nil'.

        * Easy inclusion of X-Faces headers.  *Note X-Face::.

        * Group Carbon Copy (GCC) quoting

          To support groups that contains SPC and other weird
          characters, groups are quoted before they are placed in the
          Gcc: header.  This means variables such as
          `gnus-message-archive-group' should no longer contain quote
          characters to make groups containing SPC work.  Also, if you
          are using the string `nnml:foo, nnml:bar' (indicating Gcc
          into two groups) you must change it to return the list
          `("nnml:foo" "nnml:bar")', otherwise the Gcc: line will be
          quoted incorrectly.  Note that returning the string
          `nnml:foo, nnml:bar' was incorrect earlier, it just didn't
          generate any problems since it was inserted directly.

        * `message-insinuate-rmail'

          Adding `(message-insinuate-rmail)' and `(setq mail-user-agent
          'gnus-user-agent)' in `.emacs' convinces Rmail to compose,
          reply and forward messages in message-mode, where you can
          enjoy the power of MML.

        * `message-minibuffer-local-map'

          The line below enables BBDB in resending a message:
               (define-key message-minibuffer-local-map [(tab)]
                 'bbdb-complete-name)

        * `gnus-posting-styles'

          Add a new format of match like
               ((header "to" "larsi.*org")
                (Organization "Somewhere, Inc."))
          The old format like the lines below is obsolete, but still
          accepted.
               (header "to" "larsi.*org"
                       (Organization "Somewhere, Inc."))

        * `message-ignored-news-headers' and
          `message-ignored-mail-headers'

          `X-Draft-From' and `X-Gnus-Agent-Meta-Information' have been
          added into these two variables.  If you customized those,
          perhaps you need add those two headers too.

        * Gnus supports the "format=flowed" (RFC 2646) parameter.  On
          composing messages, it is enabled by `use-hard-newlines'.
          Decoding format=flowed was present but not documented in
          earlier versions.

        * The option `mm-fill-flowed' can be used to disable treatment
          of "format=flowed" messages.  Also, flowed text is disabled
          when sending inline PGP signed messages.  *Note Flowed text:
          (emacs-mime)Flowed text.  (New in Gnus 5.10.7)

        * Gnus supports the generation of RFC 2298 Disposition
          Notification requests.

          This is invoked with the `C-c M-n' key binding from message
          mode.

        * Message supports the Importance: (RFC 2156) header.

          In the message buffer, `C-c C-f C-i' or `C-c C-u' cycles
          through the valid values.

        * Gnus supports Cancel Locks in News.

          This means a header `Cancel-Lock' is inserted in news
          posting.  It is used to determine if you wrote an article or
          not (for canceling and superseding).  Gnus generates a random
          password string the first time you post a message, and saves
          it in your `~/.emacs' using the Custom system.  While the
          variable is called `canlock-password', it is not security
          sensitive data.  Publishing your canlock string on the web
          will not allow anyone to be able to anything she could not
          already do.  The behavior can be changed by customizing
          `message-insert-canlock'.

        * Gnus supports PGP (RFC 1991/2440), PGP/MIME (RFC 2015/3156)
          and S/MIME (RFC 2630-2633).

          It needs an external S/MIME and OpenPGP implementation, but no
          additional Lisp libraries.  This add several menu items to the
          Attachments menu, and `C-c RET' key bindings, when composing
          messages.  This also obsoletes `gnus-article-hide-pgp-hook'.

        * MML (Mime compose) prefix changed from `M-m' to `C-c C-m'.

          This change was made to avoid conflict with the standard
          binding of `back-to-indentation', which is also useful in
          message mode.

        * The default for `message-forward-show-mml' changed to the
          symbol `best'.

          The behavior for the `best' value is to show MML (i.e.,
          convert to MIME) when appropriate.  MML will not be used when
          forwarding signed or encrypted messages, as the conversion
          invalidate the digital signature.

        * If `auto-compression-mode' is enabled, attachments are
          automatically decompressed when activated.

        * Support for non-ASCII domain names

          Message supports non-ASCII domain names in From:, To: and Cc:
          and will query you whether to perform encoding when you try to
          send a message.  The variable `message-use-idna' controls
          this.  Gnus will also decode non-ASCII domain names in From:,
          To: and Cc: when you view a message.  The variable
          `gnus-use-idna' controls this.

        * You can now drag and drop attachments to the Message buffer.
          See `mml-dnd-protocol-alist' and `mml-dnd-attach-options'.
          *Note MIME: (message)MIME.

        * `auto-fill-mode' is enabled by default in Message mode.  See
          `message-fill-column'.  *Note Message Headers:
          (message)Various Message Variables.


   * Changes in back ends

        * Gnus can display RSS newsfeeds as a newsgroup.  *Note RSS::.

        * The nndoc back end now supports mailman digests and exim
          bounces.

        * Gnus supports Maildir groups.

          Gnus includes a new back end `nnmaildir.el'.  *Note Maildir::.

        * The nnml and nnfolder back ends store marks for each groups.

          This makes it possible to take backup of nnml/nnfolder
          servers/groups separately of `~/.newsrc.eld', while
          preserving marks.  It also makes it possible to share
          articles and marks between users (without sharing the
          `~/.newsrc.eld' file) within e.g. a department.  It works by
          storing the marks stored in `~/.newsrc.eld' in a per-group
          file `.marks' (for nnml) and `GROUPNAME.mrk' (for nnfolder,
          named GROUPNAME).  If the nnml/nnfolder is moved to another
          machine, Gnus will automatically use the `.marks' or `.mrk'
          file instead of the information in `~/.newsrc.eld'.  The new
          server variables `nnml-marks-is-evil' and
          `nnfolder-marks-is-evil' can be used to disable this feature.


   * Appearance

        * The menu bar item (in Group and Summary buffer) named "Misc"
          has been renamed to "Gnus".

        * The menu bar item (in Message mode) named "MML" has been
          renamed to "Attachments".  Note that this menu also contains
          security related stuff, like signing and encryption (*note
          Security: (message)Security.).

        * The tool bars have been updated to use GNOME icons in Group,
          Summary and Message mode.  You can also customize the tool
          bars: `M-x customize-apropos RET -tool-bar$' should get you
          started.  This is a new feature in Gnus 5.10.10.  (Only for
          Emacs, not in XEmacs.)

        * The tool bar icons are now (de)activated correctly in the
          group buffer, see the variable `gnus-group-update-tool-bar'.
          Its default value depends on your Emacs version.  This is a
          new feature in Gnus 5.10.9.

   * Miscellaneous changes

        * `gnus-agent'

          The Gnus Agent has seen a major updated and is now enabled by
          default, and all nntp and nnimap servers from
          `gnus-select-method' and `gnus-secondary-select-method' are
          agentized by default.  Earlier only the server in
          `gnus-select-method' was agentized by the default, and the
          agent was disabled by default.  When the agent is enabled,
          headers are now also retrieved from the Agent cache instead
          of the back ends when possible.  Earlier this only happened
          in the unplugged state.  You can enroll or remove servers
          with `J a' and `J r' in the server buffer.  Gnus will not
          download articles into the Agent cache, unless you instruct
          it to do so, though, by using `J u' or `J s' from the Group
          buffer.  You revert to the old behavior of having the Agent
          disabled with `(setq gnus-agent nil)'.  Note that putting
          `(gnus-agentize)' in `~/.gnus.el' is not needed any more.

        * Gnus reads the NOV and articles in the Agent if plugged.

          If one reads an article while plugged, and the article
          already exists in the Agent, it won't get downloaded once
          more.  `(setq gnus-agent-cache nil)' reverts to the old
          behavior.

        * Dired integration

          `gnus-dired-minor-mode' (see *note Other modes::) installs key
          bindings in dired buffers to send a file as an attachment,
          open a file using the appropriate mailcap entry, and print a
          file using the mailcap entry.

        * The format spec `%C' for positioning point has changed to
          `%*'.

        * `gnus-slave-unplugged'

          A new command which starts Gnus offline in slave mode.



File: gnus,  Node: No Gnus,  Prev: Oort Gnus,  Up: New Features

10.2.9.7 No Gnus
................

New features in No Gnus:

   * Installation changes

        * Upgrading from previous (stable) version if you have used No
          Gnus.

          If you have tried No Gnus (the unstable Gnus branch leading
          to this release) but went back to a stable version, be
          careful when upgrading to this version.  In particular, you
          will probably want to remove the `~/News/marks' directory
          (perhaps selectively), so that flags are read from your
          `~/.newsrc.eld' instead of from the stale marks file, where
          this release will store flags for nntp.  See a later entry
          for more information about nntp marks.  Note that downgrading
          isn't safe in general.

        * Incompatibility when switching from Emacs 23 to Emacs 22 In
          Emacs 23, Gnus uses Emacs' new internal coding system
          `utf-8-emacs' for saving articles drafts and `~/.newsrc.eld'.
          These files may not be read correctly in Emacs 22 and below.
          If you want to use Gnus across different Emacs versions, you
          may set `mm-auto-save-coding-system' to `emacs-mule'.

        * Lisp files are now installed in `.../site-lisp/gnus/' by
          default.  It defaulted to `.../site-lisp/' formerly.  In
          addition to this, the new installer issues a warning if other
          Gnus installations which will shadow the latest one are
          detected.  You can then remove those shadows manually or
          remove them using `make remove-installed-shadows'.

        * The installation directory name is allowed to have spaces
          and/or tabs.

   * New packages and libraries within Gnus

        * Gnus includes the Emacs Lisp SASL library.

          This provides a clean API to SASL mechanisms from within
          Emacs.  The user visible aspects of this, compared to the
          earlier situation, include support for DIGEST-MD5 and NTLM.
          *Note Emacs SASL: (sasl)Top.

        * ManageSieve connections uses the SASL library by default.

          The primary change this brings is support for DIGEST-MD5 and
          NTLM, when the server supports it.

        * Gnus includes a password cache mechanism in password.el.

          It is enabled by default (see `password-cache'), with a short
          timeout of 16 seconds (see `password-cache-expiry').  If PGG
          is used as the PGP back end, the PGP passphrase is managed by
          this mechanism.  Passwords for ManageSieve connections are
          managed by this mechanism, after querying the user about
          whether to do so.

        * Using EasyPG with Gnus When EasyPG, is available, Gnus will
          use it instead of PGG.  EasyPG is an Emacs user interface to
          GNU Privacy Guard.  *Note EasyPG Assistant user's manual:
          (epa)Top.  EasyPG is included in Emacs 23 and available
          separately as well.

   * Changes in group mode

        * Old intermediate incoming mail files (`Incoming*') are deleted
          after a couple of days, not immediately.  *Note Mail Source
          Customization::.  (New in Gnus 5.10.10 / No Gnus 0.8)


   * Changes in summary and article mode

        * Gnus now supports sticky article buffers.  Those are article
          buffers that are not reused when you select another article.
          *Note Sticky Articles::.

        * Gnus can selectively display `text/html' articles with a WWW
          browser with `K H'.  *Note MIME Commands::.

        * International host names (IDNA) can now be decoded inside
          article bodies using `W i' (`gnus-summary-idna-message').
          This requires that GNU Libidn
          (`http://www.gnu.org/software/libidn/') has been installed.

        * The non-ASCII group names handling has been much improved.
          The back ends that fully support non-ASCII group names are
          now `nntp', `nnml', and `nnrss'.  Also the agent, the cache,
          and the marks features work with those back ends.  *Note
          Non-ASCII Group Names::.

        * Gnus now displays DNS master files sent as text/dns using
          dns-mode.

        * Gnus supports new limiting commands in the Summary buffer: `/
          r' (`gnus-summary-limit-to-replied') and `/ R'
          (`gnus-summary-limit-to-recipient').  *Note Limiting::.

        * You can now fetch all ticked articles from the server using
          `Y t' (`gnus-summary-insert-ticked-articles').  *Note Summary
          Generation Commands::.

        * Gnus supports a new sort command in the Summary buffer: `C-c
          C-s C-t' (`gnus-summary-sort-by-recipient').  *Note Summary
          Sorting::.

        * S/MIME now features LDAP user certificate searches.  You need
          to configure the server in `smime-ldap-host-list'.

        * URLs inside OpenPGP headers are retrieved and imported to
          your PGP key ring when you click on them.

        * Picons can be displayed right from the textual address, see
          `gnus-picon-style'.  *Note Picons::.

        * ANSI SGR control sequences can be transformed using `W A'.

          ANSI sequences are used in some Chinese hierarchies for
          highlighting articles (`gnus-article-treat-ansi-sequences').

        * Gnus now MIME decodes articles even when they lack
          "MIME-Version" header.  This changes the default of
          `gnus-article-loose-mime'.

        * `gnus-decay-scores' can be a regexp matching score files.
          For example, set it to `\\.ADAPT\\'' and only adaptive score
          files will be decayed.  *Note Score Decays::.

        * Strings prefixing to the `To' and `Newsgroup' headers in
          summary lines when using `gnus-ignored-from-addresses' can be
          customized with `gnus-summary-to-prefix' and
          `gnus-summary-newsgroup-prefix'.  *Note To From Newsgroups::.

        * You can replace MIME parts with external bodies.  See
          `gnus-mime-replace-part' and `gnus-article-replace-part'.
          *Note MIME Commands::, *note Using MIME::.

        * The option `mm-fill-flowed' can be used to disable treatment
          of format=flowed messages.  Also, flowed text is disabled
          when sending inline PGP signed messages.  *Note Flowed text:
          (emacs-mime)Flowed text.  (New in Gnus 5.10.7)

        * Now the new command `S W'
          (`gnus-article-wide-reply-with-original') for a wide reply in
          the article buffer yanks a text that is in the active region,
          if it is set, as well as the `R'
          (`gnus-article-reply-with-original') command.  Note that the
          `R' command in the article buffer no longer accepts a prefix
          argument, which was used to make it do a wide reply.  *Note
          Article Keymap::.

        * The new command `C-h b' (`gnus-article-describe-bindings')
          used in the article buffer now shows not only the article
          commands but also the real summary commands that are
          accessible from the article buffer.


   * Changes in Message mode

        * Gnus now supports the "hashcash" client puzzle anti-spam
          mechanism.  Use `(setq message-generate-hashcash t)' to
          enable.  *Note Hashcash::.

        * You can now drag and drop attachments to the Message buffer.
          See `mml-dnd-protocol-alist' and `mml-dnd-attach-options'.
          *Note MIME: (message)MIME.

        * The option `message-yank-empty-prefix' now controls how empty
          lines are prefixed in cited text.  *Note Insertion Variables:
          (message)Insertion Variables.

        * Gnus uses narrowing to hide headers in Message buffers.  The
          `References' header is hidden by default.  To make all
          headers visible, use `(setq message-hidden-headers nil)'.
          *Note Message Headers: (message)Message Headers.

        * You can highlight different levels of citations like in the
          article buffer.  See `gnus-message-highlight-citation'.

        * `auto-fill-mode' is enabled by default in Message mode.  See
          `message-fill-column'.  *Note Message Headers:
          (message)Various Message Variables.

        * You can now store signature files in a special directory
          named `message-signature-directory'.

        * The option `message-citation-line-format' controls the format
          of the "Whomever writes:" line.  You need to set
          `message-citation-line-function' to
          `message-insert-formatted-citation-line' as well.

   * Changes in back ends

        * The nntp back end stores article marks in `~/News/marks'.

          The directory can be changed using the (customizable) variable
          `nntp-marks-directory', and marks can be disabled using the
          (back end) variable `nntp-marks-is-evil'.  The advantage of
          this is that you can copy `~/News/marks' (using rsync, scp or
          whatever) to another Gnus installation, and it will realize
          what articles you have read and marked.  The data in
          `~/News/marks' has priority over the same data in
          `~/.newsrc.eld'.

        * You can import and export your RSS subscriptions from OPML
          files.  *Note RSS::.

        * IMAP identity (RFC 2971) is supported.

          By default, Gnus does not send any information about itself,
          but you can customize it using the variable `nnimap-id'.

        * The `nnrss' back end now supports multilingual text.
          Non-ASCII group names for the `nnrss' groups are also
          supported.  *Note RSS::.

        * Retrieving mail with POP3 is supported over SSL/TLS and with
          StartTLS.

        * The nnml back end allows other compression programs beside
          `gzip' for compressed message files.  *Note Mail Spool::.

        * The nnml back end supports group compaction.

          This feature, accessible via the functions
          `gnus-group-compact-group' (`G z' in the group buffer) and
          `gnus-server-compact-server' (`z' in the server buffer)
          renumbers all articles in a group, starting from 1 and
          removing gaps.  As a consequence, you get a correct total
          article count (until messages are deleted again).


   * Appearance

        * The tool bar has been updated to use GNOME icons.  You can
          also customize the tool bars: `M-x customize-apropos RET
          -tool-bar$' should get you started.  (Only for Emacs, not in
          XEmacs.)

        * The tool bar icons are now (de)activated correctly in the
          group buffer, see the variable `gnus-group-update-tool-bar'.
          Its default value depends on your Emacs version.

        * You can change the location of XEmacs' toolbars in Gnus
          buffers.  See `gnus-use-toolbar' and `message-use-toolbar'.


   * Miscellaneous changes

        * Having edited the select-method for the foreign server in the
          server buffer is immediately reflected to the subscription of
          the groups which use the server in question.  For instance,
          if you change `nntp-via-address' into `bar.example.com' from
          `foo.example.com', Gnus will connect to the news host by way
          of the intermediate host `bar.example.com' from next time.

        * The `all.SCORE' file can be edited from the group buffer
          using `W e'.



File: gnus,  Node: On Writing Manuals,  Next: Terminology,  Prev: History,  Up: Appendices

10.3 On Writing Manuals
=======================

I guess most manuals are written after-the-fact; documenting a program
that's already there.  This is not how this manual is written.  When
implementing something, I write the manual entry for that something
straight away.  I then see that it's difficult to explain the
functionality, so I write how it's supposed to be, and then I change the
implementation.  Writing the documentation and writing the code go hand
in hand.

   This, of course, means that this manual has no, or little, flow.  It
documents absolutely everything in Gnus, but often not where you're
looking for it.  It is a reference manual, and not a guide to how to get
started with Gnus.

   That would be a totally different book, that should be written using
the reference manual as source material.  It would look quite different.

File: gnus,  Node: Terminology,  Next: Customization,  Prev: On Writing Manuals,  Up: Appendices

10.4 Terminology
================

"news"
     This is what you are supposed to use this thing for--reading news.
     News is generally fetched from a nearby NNTP server, and is
     generally publicly available to everybody.  If you post news, the
     entire world is likely to read just what you have written, and
     they'll all snigger mischievously.  Behind your back.

"mail"
     Everything that's delivered to you personally is mail.  Some
     news/mail readers (like Gnus) blur the distinction between mail
     and news, but there is a difference.  Mail is private.  News is
     public.  Mailing is not posting, and replying is not following up.

"reply"
     Send a mail to the person who has written what you are reading.

"follow up"
     Post an article to the current newsgroup responding to the article
     you are reading.

"back end"
     Gnus considers mail and news to be mostly the same, really.  The
     only difference is how to access the actual articles.  News
     articles are commonly fetched via the protocol NNTP, whereas mail
     messages could be read from a file on the local disk.  The internal
     architecture of Gnus thus comprises a "front end" and a number of
     "back ends".  Internally, when you enter a group (by hitting
     <RET>, say), you thereby invoke a function in the front end in
     Gnus.  The front end then "talks" to a back end and says things
     like "Give me the list of articles in the foo group" or "Show me
     article number 4711".

     So a back end mainly defines either a protocol (the `nntp' back
     end accesses news via NNTP, the `nnimap' back end accesses mail
     via IMAP) or a file format and directory layout (the `nnspool'
     back end accesses news via the common "spool directory" format,
     the `nnml' back end access mail via a file format and directory
     layout that's quite similar).

     Gnus does not handle the underlying media, so to speak--this is all
     done by the back ends.  A back end is a collection of functions to
     access the articles.

     However, sometimes the term "back end" is also used where "server"
     would have been more appropriate.  And then there is the term
     "select method" which can mean either.  The Gnus terminology can
     be quite confusing.

"native"
     Gnus will always use one method (and back end) as the "native", or
     default, way of getting news.

"foreign"
     You can also have any number of foreign groups active at the same
     time.  These are groups that use non-native non-secondary back
     ends for getting news.

"secondary"
     Secondary back ends are somewhere half-way between being native
     and being foreign, but they mostly act like they are native.

"article"
     A message that has been posted as news.

"mail message"
     A message that has been mailed.

"message"
     A mail message or news article

"head"
     The top part of a message, where administrative information (etc.)
     is put.

"body"
     The rest of an article.  Everything not in the head is in the body.

"header"
     A line from the head of an article.

"headers"
     A collection of such lines, or a collection of heads.  Or even a
     collection of NOV lines.

"NOV"
     NOV stands for News OverView, which is a type of news server
     header which provide datas containing the condensed header
     information of articles.  They are produced by the server itself;
     in the `nntp' back end Gnus uses the ones that the NNTP server
     makes, but Gnus makes them by itself for some backends (in
     particular, `nnml').

     When Gnus enters a group, it asks the back end for the headers of
     all unread articles in the group.  Most servers support the News
     OverView format, which is more compact and much faster to read and
     parse than the normal HEAD format.

     The NOV data consist of one or more text lines (*note Motion by
     Text Lines: (elisp)Text Lines.)  where each line has the header
     information of one article.  The header information is a
     tab-separated series of the header's contents including an article
     number, a subject, an author, a date, a message-id, references,
     etc.

     Those data enable Gnus to generate summary lines quickly.
     However, if the server does not support NOV or you disable it
     purposely or for some reason, Gnus will try to generate the header
     information by parsing each article's headers one by one.  It will
     take time.  Therefore, it is not usually a good idea to set
     nn*-nov-is-evil (*note Slow/Expensive Connection::) to a non-`nil'
     value unless you know that the server makes wrong NOV data.

"level"
     Each group is subscribed at some "level" or other (1-9).  The ones
     that have a lower level are "more" subscribed than the groups with
     a higher level.  In fact, groups on levels 1-5 are considered
     "subscribed"; 6-7 are "unsubscribed"; 8 are "zombies"; and 9 are
     "killed".  Commands for listing groups and scanning for new
     articles will all use the numeric prefix as "working level".

"killed groups"
     No information on killed groups is stored or updated, which makes
     killed groups much easier to handle than subscribed groups.

"zombie groups"
     Just like killed groups, only slightly less dead.

"active file"
     The news server has to keep track of what articles it carries, and
     what groups exist.  All this information in stored in the active
     file, which is rather large, as you might surmise.

"bogus groups"
     A group that exists in the `.newsrc' file, but isn't known to the
     server (i.e.,  it isn't in the active file), is a _bogus group_.
     This means that the group probably doesn't exist (any more).

"activating"
     The act of asking the server for info on a group and computing the
     number of unread articles is called "activating the group".
     Un-activated groups are listed with `*' in the group buffer.

"spool"
     News servers store their articles locally in one fashion or other.
     One old-fashioned storage method is to have just one file per
     article.  That's called a "traditional spool".

"server"
     A machine one can connect to and get news (or mail) from.

"select method"
     A structure that specifies the back end, the server and the virtual
     server settings.

"virtual server"
     A named select method.  Since a select method defines all there is
     to know about connecting to a (physical) server, taking the thing
     as a whole is a virtual server.

"washing"
     Taking a buffer and running it through a filter of some sort.  The
     result will (more often than not) be cleaner and more pleasing
     than the original.

"ephemeral groups"
     Most groups store data on what articles you have read.  "Ephemeral"
     groups are groups that will have no data stored--when you exit the
     group, it'll disappear into the aether.

"solid groups"
     This is the opposite of ephemeral groups.  All groups listed in the
     group buffer are solid groups.

"sparse articles"
     These are article placeholders shown in the summary buffer when
     `gnus-build-sparse-threads' has been switched on.

"threading"
     To put responses to articles directly after the articles they
     respond to--in a hierarchical fashion.

"root"
     The first article in a thread is the root.  It is the ancestor of
     all articles in the thread.

"parent"
     An article that has responses.

"child"
     An article that responds to a different article--its parent.

"digest"
     A collection of messages in one file.  The most common digest
     format is specified by RFC 1153.

"splitting"
     The action of sorting your emails according to certain rules.
     Sometimes incorrectly called mail filtering.


File: gnus,  Node: Customization,  Next: Troubleshooting,  Prev: Terminology,  Up: Appendices

10.5 Customization
==================

All variables are properly documented elsewhere in this manual.  This
section is designed to give general pointers on how to customize Gnus
for some quite common situations.

* Menu:

* Slow/Expensive Connection::   You run a local Emacs and get the news elsewhere.
* Slow Terminal Connection::    You run a remote Emacs.
* Little Disk Space::           You feel that having large setup files is icky.
* Slow Machine::                You feel like buying a faster machine.

File: gnus,  Node: Slow/Expensive Connection,  Next: Slow Terminal Connection,  Up: Customization

10.5.1 Slow/Expensive Connection
--------------------------------

If you run Emacs on a machine locally, and get your news from a machine
over some very thin strings, you want to cut down on the amount of data
Gnus has to get from the server.

`gnus-read-active-file'
     Set this to `nil', which will inhibit Gnus from requesting the
     entire active file from the server.  This file is often very
     large.  You also have to set `gnus-check-new-newsgroups' and
     `gnus-check-bogus-newsgroups' to `nil' to make sure that Gnus
     doesn't suddenly decide to fetch the active file anyway.

`gnus-nov-is-evil'
     Usually this one must _always_ be `nil' (which is the default).
     If, for example, you wish to not use NOV (*note Terminology::)
     with the `nntp' back end (*note Crosspost Handling::), set
     `nntp-nov-is-evil' to a non-`nil' value instead of setting this.
     But you normally do not need to set `nntp-nov-is-evil' since Gnus
     by itself will detect whether the NNTP server supports NOV.
     Anyway, grabbing article headers from the NNTP server will not be
     very fast if you tell Gnus not to use NOV.

     As the variables for the other back ends, there are
     `nndiary-nov-is-evil', `nndir-nov-is-evil',
     `nnfolder-nov-is-evil', `nnimap-nov-is-evil', `nnml-nov-is-evil',
     `nnspool-nov-is-evil', and `nnwarchive-nov-is-evil'.  Note that a
     non-`nil' value for `gnus-nov-is-evil' overrides all those
     variables.(1)

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Although the back ends `nnkiboze', `nnslashdot', `nnultimate',
and `nnwfm' don't have their own nn*-nov-is-evil.

File: gnus,  Node: Slow Terminal Connection,  Next: Little Disk Space,  Prev: Slow/Expensive Connection,  Up: Customization

10.5.2 Slow Terminal Connection
-------------------------------

Let's say you use your home computer for dialing up the system that runs
Emacs and Gnus.  If your modem is slow, you want to reduce (as much as
possible) the amount of data sent over the wires.

`gnus-auto-center-summary'
     Set this to `nil' to inhibit Gnus from re-centering the summary
     buffer all the time.  If it is `vertical', do only vertical
     re-centering.  If it is neither `nil' nor `vertical', do both
     horizontal and vertical recentering.

`gnus-visible-headers'
     Cut down on the headers included in the articles to the minimum.
     You can, in fact, make do without them altogether--most of the
     useful data is in the summary buffer, anyway.  Set this variable to
     `^NEVVVVER' or `From:', or whatever you feel you need.

     Use the following to enable all the available hiding features:
          (setq gnus-treat-hide-headers 'head
                gnus-treat-hide-signature t
                gnus-treat-hide-citation t)

`gnus-use-full-window'
     By setting this to `nil', you can make all the windows smaller.
     While this doesn't really cut down much generally, it means that
     you have to see smaller portions of articles before deciding that
     you didn't want to read them anyway.

`gnus-thread-hide-subtree'
     If this is non-`nil', all threads in the summary buffer will be
     hidden initially.

`gnus-updated-mode-lines'
     If this is `nil', Gnus will not put information in the buffer mode
     lines, which might save some time.

File: gnus,  Node: Little Disk Space,  Next: Slow Machine,  Prev: Slow Terminal Connection,  Up: Customization

10.5.3 Little Disk Space
------------------------

The startup files can get rather large, so you may want to cut their
sizes a bit if you are running out of space.

`gnus-save-newsrc-file'
     If this is `nil', Gnus will never save `.newsrc'--it will only
     save `.newsrc.eld'.  This means that you will not be able to use
     any other newsreaders than Gnus.  This variable is `t' by default.

`gnus-read-newsrc-file'
     If this is `nil', Gnus will never read `.newsrc'--it will only
     read `.newsrc.eld'.  This means that you will not be able to use
     any other newsreaders than Gnus.  This variable is `t' by default.

`gnus-save-killed-list'
     If this is `nil', Gnus will not save the list of dead groups.  You
     should also set `gnus-check-new-newsgroups' to `ask-server' and
     `gnus-check-bogus-newsgroups' to `nil' if you set this variable to
     `nil'.  This variable is `t' by default.


File: gnus,  Node: Slow Machine,  Prev: Little Disk Space,  Up: Customization

10.5.4 Slow Machine
-------------------

If you have a slow machine, or are just really impatient, there are a
few things you can do to make Gnus run faster.

   Set `gnus-check-new-newsgroups' and `gnus-check-bogus-newsgroups' to
`nil' to make startup faster.

   Set `gnus-show-threads', `gnus-use-cross-reference' and
`gnus-nov-is-evil' to `nil' to make entering and exiting the summary
buffer faster.  Also *note Slow/Expensive Connection::.

File: gnus,  Node: Troubleshooting,  Next: Gnus Reference Guide,  Prev: Customization,  Up: Appendices

10.6 Troubleshooting
====================

Gnus works _so_ well straight out of the box--I can't imagine any
problems, really.

   Ahem.

  1. Make sure your computer is switched on.

  2. Make sure that you really load the current Gnus version.  If you
     have been running GNUS, you need to exit Emacs and start it up
     again before Gnus will work.

  3. Try doing an `M-x gnus-version'.  If you get something that looks
     like `Gnus v5.13' you have the right files loaded.  Otherwise you
     have some old `.el' files lying around.  Delete these.

  4. Read the help group (`G h' in the group buffer) for a FAQ and a
     how-to.

  5. Gnus works on many recursive structures, and in some extreme (and
     very rare) cases Gnus may recurse down "too deeply" and Emacs will
     beep at you.  If this happens to you, set `max-lisp-eval-depth' to
     500 or something like that.

   If all else fails, report the problem as a bug.

   If you find a bug in Gnus, you can report it with the `M-x gnus-bug'
command.  `M-x set-variable RET debug-on-error RET t RET', and send me
the backtrace.  I will fix bugs, but I can only fix them if you send me
a precise description as to how to reproduce the bug.

   You really can never be too detailed in a bug report.  Always use the
`M-x gnus-bug' command when you make bug reports, even if it creates a
10Kb mail each time you use it, and even if you have sent me your
environment 500 times before.  I don't care.  I want the full info each
time.

   It is also important to remember that I have no memory whatsoever.
If you send a bug report, and I send you a reply, and then you just send
back "No, it's not! Moron!", I will have no idea what you are insulting
me about.  Always over-explain everything.  It's much easier for all of
us--if I don't have all the information I need, I will just mail you
and ask for more info, and everything takes more time.

   If the problem you're seeing is very visual, and you can't quite
explain it, copy the Emacs window to a file (with `xwd', for instance),
put it somewhere it can be reached, and include the URL of the picture
in the bug report.

   If you would like to contribute a patch to fix bugs or make
improvements, please produce the patch using `diff -u'.

   If you want to debug your problem further before reporting, possibly
in order to solve the problem yourself and send a patch, you can use
edebug.  Debugging Lisp code is documented in the Elisp manual (*note
Debugging Lisp Programs: (elisp)Debugging.).  To get you started with
edebug, consider if you discover some weird behavior when pressing `c',
the first step is to do `C-h k c' and click on the hyperlink (Emacs
only) in the documentation buffer that leads you to the function
definition, then press `M-x edebug-defun RET' with point inside that
function, return to Gnus and press `c' to invoke the code.  You will be
placed in the lisp buffer and can single step using `SPC' and evaluate
expressions using `M-:' or inspect variables using `C-h v', abort
execution with `q', and resume execution with `c' or `g'.

   Sometimes, a problem do not directly generate an elisp error but
manifests itself by causing Gnus to be very slow.  In these cases, you
can use `M-x toggle-debug-on-quit' and press `C-g' when things are
slow, and then try to analyze the backtrace (repeating the procedure
helps isolating the real problem areas).

   A fancier approach is to use the elisp profiler, ELP.  The profiler
is (or should be) fully documented elsewhere, but to get you started
there are a few steps that need to be followed.  First, instrument the
part of Gnus you are interested in for profiling, e.g. `M-x
elp-instrument-package RET gnus' or `M-x elp-instrument-package RET
message'.  Then perform the operation that is slow and press `M-x
elp-results'.  You will then see which operations that takes time, and
can debug them further.  If the entire operation takes much longer than
the time spent in the slowest function in the profiler output, you
probably profiled the wrong part of Gnus.  To reset profiling
statistics, use `M-x elp-reset-all'.  `M-x elp-restore-all' is supposed
to remove profiling, but given the complexities and dynamic code
generation in Gnus, it might not always work perfectly.

   If you just need help, you are better off asking on
`gnu.emacs.gnus'.  I'm not very helpful.  You can also ask on the ding
mailing list <dingATgnus.org>.  Write to <ding-requestATgnus.org> to
subscribe.

File: gnus,  Node: Gnus Reference Guide,  Next: Emacs for Heathens,  Prev: Troubleshooting,  Up: Appendices

10.7 Gnus Reference Guide
=========================

It is my hope that other people will figure out smart stuff that Gnus
can do, and that other people will write those smart things as well.  To
facilitate that I thought it would be a good idea to describe the inner
workings of Gnus.  And some of the not-so-inner workings, while I'm at
it.

   You can never expect the internals of a program not to change, but I
will be defining (in some details) the interface between Gnus and its
back ends (this is written in stone), the format of the score files
(ditto), data structures (some are less likely to change than others)
and general methods of operation.

* Menu:

* Gnus Utility Functions::      Common functions and variable to use.
* Back End Interface::          How Gnus communicates with the servers.
* Score File Syntax::           A BNF definition of the score file standard.
* Headers::                     How Gnus stores headers internally.
* Ranges::                      A handy format for storing mucho numbers.
* Group Info::                  The group info format.
* Extended Interactive::        Symbolic prefixes and stuff.
* Emacs/XEmacs Code::           Gnus can be run under all modern Emacsen.
* Various File Formats::        Formats of files that Gnus use.

File: gnus,  Node: Gnus Utility Functions,  Next: Back End Interface,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.1 Gnus Utility Functions
-----------------------------

When writing small functions to be run from hooks (and stuff), it's
vital to have access to the Gnus internal functions and variables.
Below is a list of the most common ones.

`gnus-newsgroup-name'
     This variable holds the name of the current newsgroup.

`gnus-find-method-for-group'
     A function that returns the select method for GROUP.

`gnus-group-real-name'
     Takes a full (prefixed) Gnus group name, and returns the unprefixed
     name.

`gnus-group-prefixed-name'
     Takes an unprefixed group name and a select method, and returns
     the full (prefixed) Gnus group name.

`gnus-get-info'
     Returns the group info list for GROUP.

`gnus-group-unread'
     The number of unread articles in GROUP, or `t' if that is unknown.

`gnus-active'
     The active entry for GROUP.

`gnus-set-active'
     Set the active entry for GROUP.

`gnus-add-current-to-buffer-list'
     Adds the current buffer to the list of buffers to be killed on Gnus
     exit.

`gnus-continuum-version'
     Takes a Gnus version string as a parameter and returns a floating
     point number.  Earlier versions will always get a lower number
     than later versions.

`gnus-group-read-only-p'
     Says whether GROUP is read-only or not.

`gnus-news-group-p'
     Says whether GROUP came from a news back end.

`gnus-ephemeral-group-p'
     Says whether GROUP is ephemeral or not.

`gnus-server-to-method'
     Returns the select method corresponding to SERVER.

`gnus-server-equal'
     Says whether two virtual servers are equal.

`gnus-group-native-p'
     Says whether GROUP is native or not.

`gnus-group-secondary-p'
     Says whether GROUP is secondary or not.

`gnus-group-foreign-p'
     Says whether GROUP is foreign or not.

`gnus-group-find-parameter'
     Returns the parameter list of GROUP.  If given a second parameter,
     returns the value of that parameter for GROUP.

`gnus-group-set-parameter'
     Takes three parameters; GROUP, PARAMETER and VALUE.

`gnus-narrow-to-body'
     Narrows the current buffer to the body of the article.

`gnus-check-backend-function'
     Takes two parameters, FUNCTION and GROUP.  If the back end GROUP
     comes from supports FUNCTION, return non-`nil'.

          (gnus-check-backend-function "request-scan" "nnml:misc")
          => t

`gnus-read-method'
     Prompts the user for a select method.


File: gnus,  Node: Back End Interface,  Next: Score File Syntax,  Prev: Gnus Utility Functions,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.2 Back End Interface
-------------------------

Gnus doesn't know anything about NNTP, spools, mail or virtual groups.
It only knows how to talk to "virtual servers".  A virtual server is a
"back end" and some "back end variables".  As examples of the first, we
have `nntp', `nnspool' and `nnmbox'.  As examples of the latter we have
`nntp-port-number' and `nnmbox-directory'.

   When Gnus asks for information from a back end--say `nntp'--on
something, it will normally include a virtual server name in the
function parameters.  (If not, the back end should use the "current"
virtual server.)  For instance, `nntp-request-list' takes a virtual
server as its only (optional) parameter.  If this virtual server hasn't
been opened, the function should fail.

   Note that a virtual server name has no relation to some physical
server name.  Take this example:

     (nntp "odd-one"
           (nntp-address "ifi.uio.no")
           (nntp-port-number 4324))

   Here the virtual server name is `odd-one' while the name of the
physical server is `ifi.uio.no'.

   The back ends should be able to switch between several virtual
servers.  The standard back ends implement this by keeping an alist of
virtual server environments that they pull down/push up when needed.

   There are two groups of interface functions: "required functions",
which must be present, and "optional functions", which Gnus will always
check for presence before attempting to call 'em.

   All these functions are expected to return data in the buffer
`nntp-server-buffer' (` *nntpd*'), which is somewhat unfortunately
named, but we'll have to live with it.  When I talk about "resulting
data", I always refer to the data in that buffer.  When I talk about
"return value", I talk about the function value returned by the
function call.  Functions that fail should return `nil' as the return
value.

   Some back ends could be said to be "server-forming" back ends, and
some might be said not to be.  The latter are back ends that generally
only operate on one group at a time, and have no concept of "server"
--they have a group, and they deliver info on that group and nothing
more.

   Gnus identifies each message by way of group name and article
number.  A few remarks about these article numbers might be useful.
First of all, the numbers are positive integers.  Secondly, it is
normally not possible for later articles to "re-use" older article
numbers without confusing Gnus.  That is, if a group has ever contained
a message numbered 42, then no other message may get that number, or
Gnus will get mightily confused.(1) Third, article numbers must be
assigned in order of arrival in the group; this is not necessarily the
same as the date of the message.

   The previous paragraph already mentions all the "hard" restrictions
that article numbers must fulfill.  But it seems that it might be
useful to assign _consecutive_ article numbers, for Gnus gets quite
confused if there are holes in the article numbering sequence.
However, due to the "no-reuse" restriction, holes cannot be avoided
altogether.  It's also useful for the article numbers to start at 1 to
avoid running out of numbers as long as possible.

   Note that by convention, back ends are named `nnsomething', but Gnus
also comes with some `nnnotbackends', such as `nnheader.el',
`nnmail.el' and `nnoo.el'.

   In the examples and definitions I will refer to the imaginary back
end `nnchoke'.

* Menu:

* Required Back End Functions::  Functions that must be implemented.
* Optional Back End Functions::  Functions that need not be implemented.
* Error Messaging::             How to get messages and report errors.
* Writing New Back Ends::       Extending old back ends.
* Hooking New Back Ends Into Gnus::  What has to be done on the Gnus end.
* Mail-like Back Ends::         Some tips on mail back ends.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) See the function `nnchoke-request-update-info', *note Optional
Back End Functions::.

File: gnus,  Node: Required Back End Functions,  Next: Optional Back End Functions,  Up: Back End Interface

10.7.2.1 Required Back End Functions
....................................

`(nnchoke-retrieve-headers ARTICLES &optional GROUP SERVER FETCH-OLD)'
     ARTICLES is either a range of article numbers or a list of
     `Message-ID's.  Current back ends do not fully support either--only
     sequences (lists) of article numbers, and most back ends do not
     support retrieval of `Message-ID's.  But they should try for both.

     The result data should either be HEADs or NOV lines, and the result
     value should either be `headers' or `nov' to reflect this.  This
     might later be expanded to `various', which will be a mixture of
     HEADs and NOV lines, but this is currently not supported by Gnus.

     If FETCH-OLD is non-`nil' it says to try fetching "extra headers",
     in some meaning of the word.  This is generally done by fetching
     (at most) FETCH-OLD extra headers less than the smallest article
     number in `articles', and filling the gaps as well.  The presence
     of this parameter can be ignored if the back end finds it
     cumbersome to follow the request.  If this is non-`nil' and not a
     number, do maximum fetches.

     Here's an example HEAD:

          221 1056 Article retrieved.
          Path: ifi.uio.no!sturles
          From: sturlesATifi.no (Sturle Sunde)
          Newsgroups: ifi.discussion
          Subject: Re: Something very droll
          Date: 27 Oct 1994 14:02:57 +0100
          Organization: Dept. of Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway
          Lines: 26
          Message-ID: <38o8e1$a0oATholmenkollen.no>
          References: <38jdmq$4quATvisbur.no>
          NNTP-Posting-Host: holmenkollen.ifi.uio.no
          .

     So a `headers' return value would imply that there's a number of
     these in the data buffer.

     Here's a BNF definition of such a buffer:

          headers        = *head
          head           = error / valid-head
          error-message  = [ "4" / "5" ] 2number " " <error message> eol
          valid-head     = valid-message *header "." eol
          valid-message  = "221 " <number> " Article retrieved." eol
          header         = <text> eol

     (The version of BNF used here is the one used in RFC822.)

     If the return value is `nov', the data buffer should contain
     "network overview database" lines.  These are basically fields
     separated by tabs.

          nov-buffer = *nov-line
          nov-line   = field 7*8[ <TAB> field ] eol
          field      = <text except TAB>

     For a closer look at what should be in those fields, *note
     Headers::.

`(nnchoke-open-server SERVER &optional DEFINITIONS)'
     SERVER is here the virtual server name.  DEFINITIONS is a list of
     `(VARIABLE VALUE)' pairs that define this virtual server.

     If the server can't be opened, no error should be signaled.  The
     back end may then choose to refuse further attempts at connecting
     to this server.  In fact, it should do so.

     If the server is opened already, this function should return a
     non-`nil' value.  There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-close-server &optional SERVER)'
     Close connection to SERVER and free all resources connected to it.
     Return `nil' if the server couldn't be closed for some reason.

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-request-close)'
     Close connection to all servers and free all resources that the
     back end have reserved.  All buffers that have been created by
     that back end should be killed.  (Not the `nntp-server-buffer',
     though.)  This function is generally only called when Gnus is
     shutting down.

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-server-opened &optional SERVER)'
     If SERVER is the current virtual server, and the connection to the
     physical server is alive, then this function should return a
     non-`nil' value.  This function should under no circumstances
     attempt to reconnect to a server we have lost connection to.

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-status-message &optional SERVER)'
     This function should return the last error message from SERVER.

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-request-article ARTICLE &optional GROUP SERVER TO-BUFFER)'
     The result data from this function should be the article specified
     by ARTICLE.  This might either be a `Message-ID' or a number.  It
     is optional whether to implement retrieval by `Message-ID', but it
     would be nice if that were possible.

     If TO-BUFFER is non-`nil', the result data should be returned in
     this buffer instead of the normal data buffer.  This is to make it
     possible to avoid copying large amounts of data from one buffer to
     another, while Gnus mainly requests articles to be inserted
     directly into its article buffer.

     If it is at all possible, this function should return a cons cell
     where the `car' is the group name the article was fetched from,
     and the `cdr' is the article number.  This will enable Gnus to
     find out what the real group and article numbers are when fetching
     articles by `Message-ID'.  If this isn't possible, `t' should be
     returned on successful article retrieval.

`(nnchoke-request-group GROUP &optional SERVER FAST)'
     Get data on GROUP.  This function also has the side effect of
     making GROUP the current group.

     If FAST, don't bother to return useful data, just make GROUP the
     current group.

     Here's an example of some result data and a definition of the same:

          211 56 1000 1059 ifi.discussion

     The first number is the status, which should be 211.  Next is the
     total number of articles in the group, the lowest article number,
     the highest article number, and finally the group name.  Note that
     the total number of articles may be less than one might think
     while just considering the highest and lowest article numbers, but
     some articles may have been canceled.  Gnus just discards the
     total-number, so whether one should take the bother to generate it
     properly (if that is a problem) is left as an exercise to the
     reader.  If the group contains no articles, the lowest article
     number should be reported as 1 and the highest as 0.

          group-status = [ error / info ] eol
          error        = [ "4" / "5" ] 2<number> " " <Error message>
          info         = "211 " 3* [ <number> " " ] <string>

`(nnchoke-close-group GROUP &optional SERVER)'
     Close GROUP and free any resources connected to it.  This will be
     a no-op on most back ends.

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-request-list &optional SERVER)'
     Return a list of all groups available on SERVER.  And that means
     _all_.

     Here's an example from a server that only carries two groups:

          ifi.test 0000002200 0000002000 y
          ifi.discussion 3324 3300 n

     On each line we have a group name, then the highest article number
     in that group, the lowest article number, and finally a flag.  If
     the group contains no articles, the lowest article number should
     be reported as 1 and the highest as 0.

          active-file = *active-line
          active-line = name " " <number> " " <number> " " flags eol
          name        = <string>
          flags       = "n" / "y" / "m" / "x" / "j" / "=" name

     The flag says whether the group is read-only (`n'), is moderated
     (`m'), is dead (`x'), is aliased to some other group
     (`=other-group') or none of the above (`y').

`(nnchoke-request-post &optional SERVER)'
     This function should post the current buffer.  It might return
     whether the posting was successful or not, but that's not
     required.  If, for instance, the posting is done asynchronously,
     it has generally not been completed by the time this function
     concludes.  In that case, this function should set up some kind of
     sentinel to beep the user loud and clear if the posting could not
     be completed.

     There should be no result data from this function.


File: gnus,  Node: Optional Back End Functions,  Next: Error Messaging,  Prev: Required Back End Functions,  Up: Back End Interface

10.7.2.2 Optional Back End Functions
....................................

`(nnchoke-retrieve-groups GROUPS &optional SERVER)'
     GROUPS is a list of groups, and this function should request data
     on all those groups.  How it does it is of no concern to Gnus, but
     it should attempt to do this in a speedy fashion.

     The return value of this function can be either `active' or
     `group', which says what the format of the result data is.  The
     former is in the same format as the data from
     `nnchoke-request-list', while the latter is a buffer full of lines
     in the same format as `nnchoke-request-group' gives.

          group-buffer = *active-line / *group-status

`(nnchoke-request-update-info GROUP INFO &optional SERVER)'
     A Gnus group info (*note Group Info::) is handed to the back end
     for alterations.  This comes in handy if the back end really
     carries all the information (as is the case with virtual and imap
     groups).  This function should destructively alter the info to
     suit its needs, and should return a non-`nil' value (exceptionally,
     `nntp-request-update-info' always returns `nil' not to waste the
     network resources).

     There should be no result data from this function.

`(nnchoke-request-type GROUP &optional ARTICLE)'
     When the user issues commands for "sending news" (`F' in the
     summary buffer, for instance), Gnus has to know whether the
     article the user is following up on is news or mail.  This
     function should return `news' if ARTICLE in GROUP is news, `mail'
     if it is mail and `unknown' if the type can't be decided.  (The
     ARTICLE parameter is necessary in `nnvirtual' groups which might
     very well combine mail groups and news groups.)  Both GROUP and
     ARTICLE may be `nil'.

     There should be no result data from this function.

`(nnchoke-request-set-mark GROUP ACTION &optional SERVER)'
     Set/remove/add marks on articles.  Normally Gnus handles the
     article marks (such as read, ticked, expired etc) internally, and
     store them in `~/.newsrc.eld'.  Some back ends (such as IMAP)
     however carry all information about the articles on the server, so
     Gnus need to propagate the mark information to the server.

     ACTION is a list of mark setting requests, having this format:

          (RANGE ACTION MARK)

     RANGE is a range of articles you wish to update marks on.  ACTION
     is `add' or `del', used to add marks or remove marks (preserving
     all marks not mentioned).  MARK is a list of marks; where each
     mark is a symbol.  Currently used marks are `read', `tick',
     `reply', `expire', `killed', `dormant', `save', `download',
     `unsend', `forward' and `recent', but your back end should, if
     possible, not limit itself to these.

     Given contradictory actions, the last action in the list should be
     the effective one.  That is, if your action contains a request to
     add the `tick' mark on article 1 and, later in the list, a request
     to remove the mark on the same article, the mark should in fact be
     removed.

     An example action list:

          (((5 12 30) 'del '(tick))
           ((10 . 90) 'add '(read expire))
           ((92 94) 'del '(read)))

     The function should return a range of articles it wasn't able to
     set the mark on (currently not used for anything).

     There should be no result data from this function.

`(nnchoke-request-update-mark GROUP ARTICLE MARK)'
     If the user tries to set a mark that the back end doesn't like,
     this function may change the mark.  Gnus will use whatever this
     function returns as the mark for ARTICLE instead of the original
     MARK.  If the back end doesn't care, it must return the original
     MARK, and not `nil' or any other type of garbage.

     The only use for this I can see is what `nnvirtual' does with
     it--if a component group is auto-expirable, marking an article as
     read in the virtual group should result in the article being
     marked as expirable.

     There should be no result data from this function.

`(nnchoke-request-scan &optional GROUP SERVER)'
     This function may be called at any time (by Gnus or anything else)
     to request that the back end check for incoming articles, in one
     way or another.  A mail back end will typically read the spool
     file or query the POP server when this function is invoked.  The
     GROUP doesn't have to be heeded--if the back end decides that it
     is too much work just scanning for a single group, it may do a
     total scan of all groups.  It would be nice, however, to keep
     things local if that's practical.

     There should be no result data from this function.

`(nnchoke-request-group-description GROUP &optional SERVER)'
     The result data from this function should be a description of
     GROUP.

          description-line = name <TAB> description eol
          name             = <string>
          description      = <text>

`(nnchoke-request-list-newsgroups &optional SERVER)'
     The result data from this function should be the description of all
     groups available on the server.

          description-buffer = *description-line

`(nnchoke-request-newgroups DATE &optional SERVER)'
     The result data from this function should be all groups that were
     created after `date', which is in normal human-readable date format
     (i.e., the date format used in mail and news headers, and returned
     by the function `message-make-date' by default).  The data should
     be in the active buffer format.

     It is okay for this function to return "too many" groups; some
     back ends might find it cheaper to return the full list of groups,
     rather than just the new groups.  But don't do this for back ends
     with many groups.  Normally, if the user creates the groups
     herself, there won't be too many groups, so `nnml' and the like
     are probably safe.  But for back ends like `nntp', where the
     groups have been created by the server, it is quite likely that
     there can be many groups.

`(nnchoke-request-create-group GROUP &optional SERVER)'
     This function should create an empty group with name GROUP.

     There should be no return data.

`(nnchoke-request-expire-articles ARTICLES &optional GROUP SERVER FORCE)'
     This function should run the expiry process on all articles in the
     ARTICLES range (which is currently a simple list of article
     numbers.)  It is left up to the back end to decide how old articles
     should be before they are removed by this function.  If FORCE is
     non-`nil', all ARTICLES should be deleted, no matter how new they
     are.

     This function should return a list of articles that it did not/was
     not able to delete.

     There should be no result data returned.

`(nnchoke-request-move-article ARTICLE GROUP SERVER ACCEPT-FORM &optional LAST)'
     This function should move ARTICLE (which is a number) from GROUP
     by calling ACCEPT-FORM.

     This function should ready the article in question for moving by
     removing any header lines it has added to the article, and
     generally should "tidy up" the article.  Then it should `eval'
     ACCEPT-FORM in the buffer where the "tidy" article is.  This will
     do the actual copying.  If this `eval' returns a non-`nil' value,
     the article should be removed.

     If LAST is `nil', that means that there is a high likelihood that
     there will be more requests issued shortly, so that allows some
     optimizations.

     The function should return a cons where the `car' is the group
     name and the `cdr' is the article number that the article was
     entered as.

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-request-accept-article GROUP &optional SERVER LAST)'
     This function takes the current buffer and inserts it into GROUP.
     If LAST in `nil', that means that there will be more calls to this
     function in short order.

     The function should return a cons where the `car' is the group
     name and the `cdr' is the article number that the article was
     entered as.

     The group should exist before the back end is asked to accept the
     article for that group.

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-request-replace-article ARTICLE GROUP BUFFER)'
     This function should remove ARTICLE (which is a number) from GROUP
     and insert BUFFER there instead.

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-request-delete-group GROUP FORCE &optional SERVER)'
     This function should delete GROUP.  If FORCE, it should really
     delete all the articles in the group, and then delete the group
     itself.  (If there is such a thing as "the group itself".)

     There should be no data returned.

`(nnchoke-request-rename-group GROUP NEW-NAME &optional SERVER)'
     This function should rename GROUP into NEW-NAME.  All articles in
     GROUP should move to NEW-NAME.

     There should be no data returned.


File: gnus,  Node: Error Messaging,  Next: Writing New Back Ends,  Prev: Optional Back End Functions,  Up: Back End Interface

10.7.2.3 Error Messaging
........................

The back ends should use the function `nnheader-report' to report error
conditions--they should not raise errors when they aren't able to
perform a request.  The first argument to this function is the back end
symbol, and the rest are interpreted as arguments to `format' if there
are multiple of them, or just a string if there is one of them.  This
function must always returns `nil'.

     (nnheader-report 'nnchoke "You did something totally bogus")

     (nnheader-report 'nnchoke "Could not request group %s" group)

   Gnus, in turn, will call `nnheader-get-report' when it gets a `nil'
back from a server, and this function returns the most recently
reported message for the back end in question.  This function takes one
argument--the server symbol.

   Internally, these functions access BACK-END`-status-string', so the
`nnchoke' back end will have its error message stored in
`nnchoke-status-string'.

File: gnus,  Node: Writing New Back Ends,  Next: Hooking New Back Ends Into Gnus,  Prev: Error Messaging,  Up: Back End Interface

10.7.2.4 Writing New Back Ends
..............................

Many back ends are quite similar.  `nnml' is just like `nnspool', but
it allows you to edit the articles on the server.  `nnmh' is just like
`nnml', but it doesn't use an active file, and it doesn't maintain
overview databases.  `nndir' is just like `nnml', but it has no concept
of "groups", and it doesn't allow editing articles.

   It would make sense if it were possible to "inherit" functions from
back ends when writing new back ends.  And, indeed, you can do that if
you want to.  (You don't have to if you don't want to, of course.)

   All the back ends declare their public variables and functions by
using a package called `nnoo'.

   To inherit functions from other back ends (and allow other back ends
to inherit functions from the current back end), you should use the
following macros:

`nnoo-declare'
     This macro declares the first parameter to be a child of the
     subsequent parameters.  For instance:

          (nnoo-declare nndir
            nnml nnmh)

     `nndir' has declared here that it intends to inherit functions from
     both `nnml' and `nnmh'.

`defvoo'
     This macro is equivalent to `defvar', but registers the variable as
     a public server variable.  Most state-oriented variables should be
     declared with `defvoo' instead of `defvar'.

     In addition to the normal `defvar' parameters, it takes a list of
     variables in the parent back ends to map the variable to when
     executing a function in those back ends.

          (defvoo nndir-directory nil
            "Where nndir will look for groups."
            nnml-current-directory nnmh-current-directory)

     This means that `nnml-current-directory' will be set to
     `nndir-directory' when an `nnml' function is called on behalf of
     `nndir'.  (The same with `nnmh'.)

`nnoo-define-basics'
     This macro defines some common functions that almost all back ends
     should have.

          (nnoo-define-basics nndir)

`deffoo'
     This macro is just like `defun' and takes the same parameters.  In
     addition to doing the normal `defun' things, it registers the
     function as being public so that other back ends can inherit it.

`nnoo-map-functions'
     This macro allows mapping of functions from the current back end to
     functions from the parent back ends.

          (nnoo-map-functions nndir
            (nnml-retrieve-headers 0 nndir-current-group 0 0)
            (nnmh-request-article 0 nndir-current-group 0 0))

     This means that when `nndir-retrieve-headers' is called, the first,
     third, and fourth parameters will be passed on to
     `nnml-retrieve-headers', while the second parameter is set to the
     value of `nndir-current-group'.

`nnoo-import'
     This macro allows importing functions from back ends.  It should
     be the last thing in the source file, since it will only define
     functions that haven't already been defined.

          (nnoo-import nndir
            (nnmh
             nnmh-request-list
             nnmh-request-newgroups)
            (nnml))

     This means that calls to `nndir-request-list' should just be passed
     on to `nnmh-request-list', while all public functions from `nnml'
     that haven't been defined in `nndir' yet should be defined now.


   Below is a slightly shortened version of the `nndir' back end.

     ;;; nndir.el -- single directory newsgroup access for Gnus
     ;; Copyright (C) 1995,1996 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     ;;; Code:

     (require 'nnheader)
     (require 'nnmh)
     (require 'nnml)
     (require 'nnoo)
     (eval-when-compile (require 'cl))

     (nnoo-declare nndir
       nnml nnmh)

     (defvoo nndir-directory nil
       "Where nndir will look for groups."
       nnml-current-directory nnmh-current-directory)

     (defvoo nndir-nov-is-evil nil
       "*Non-nil means that nndir will never retrieve NOV headers."
       nnml-nov-is-evil)

     (defvoo nndir-current-group ""
       nil
       nnml-current-group nnmh-current-group)
     (defvoo nndir-top-directory nil nil nnml-directory nnmh-directory)
     (defvoo nndir-get-new-mail nil nil nnml-get-new-mail nnmh-get-new-mail)

     (defvoo nndir-status-string "" nil nnmh-status-string)
     (defconst nndir-version "nndir 1.0")

     ;;; Interface functions.

     (nnoo-define-basics nndir)

     (deffoo nndir-open-server (server &optional defs)
       (setq nndir-directory
             (or (cadr (assq 'nndir-directory defs))
                 server))
       (unless (assq 'nndir-directory defs)
         (push `(nndir-directory ,server) defs))
       (push `(nndir-current-group
               ,(file-name-nondirectory
                 (directory-file-name nndir-directory)))
             defs)
       (push `(nndir-top-directory
               ,(file-name-directory (directory-file-name nndir-directory)))
             defs)
       (nnoo-change-server 'nndir server defs))

     (nnoo-map-functions nndir
       (nnml-retrieve-headers 0 nndir-current-group 0 0)
       (nnmh-request-article 0 nndir-current-group 0 0)
       (nnmh-request-group nndir-current-group 0 0)
       (nnmh-close-group nndir-current-group 0))

     (nnoo-import nndir
       (nnmh
        nnmh-status-message
        nnmh-request-list
        nnmh-request-newgroups))

     (provide 'nndir)

File: gnus,  Node: Hooking New Back Ends Into Gnus,  Next: Mail-like Back Ends,  Prev: Writing New Back Ends,  Up: Back End Interface

10.7.2.5 Hooking New Back Ends Into Gnus
........................................

Having Gnus start using your new back end is rather easy--you just
declare it with the `gnus-declare-backend' functions.  This will enter
the back end into the `gnus-valid-select-methods' variable.

   `gnus-declare-backend' takes two parameters--the back end name and
an arbitrary number of "abilities".

   Here's an example:

     (gnus-declare-backend "nnchoke" 'mail 'respool 'address)

   The above line would then go in the `nnchoke.el' file.

   The abilities can be:

`mail'
     This is a mailish back end--followups should (probably) go via
     mail.

`post'
     This is a newsish back end--followups should (probably) go via
     news.

`post-mail'
     This back end supports both mail and news.

`none'
     This is neither a post nor mail back end--it's something completely
     different.

`respool'
     It supports respooling--or rather, it is able to modify its source
     articles and groups.

`address'
     The name of the server should be in the virtual server name.  This
     is true for almost all back ends.

`prompt-address'
     The user should be prompted for an address when doing commands like
     `B' in the group buffer.  This is true for back ends like `nntp',
     but not `nnmbox', for instance.

File: gnus,  Node: Mail-like Back Ends,  Prev: Hooking New Back Ends Into Gnus,  Up: Back End Interface

10.7.2.6 Mail-like Back Ends
............................

One of the things that separate the mail back ends from the rest of the
back ends is the heavy dependence by most of the mail back ends on
common functions in `nnmail.el'.  For instance, here's the definition
of `nnml-request-scan':

     (deffoo nnml-request-scan (&optional group server)
       (setq nnml-article-file-alist nil)
       (nnmail-get-new-mail 'nnml 'nnml-save-nov nnml-directory group))

   It simply calls `nnmail-get-new-mail' with a few parameters, and
`nnmail' takes care of all the moving and splitting of the mail.

   This function takes four parameters.

METHOD
     This should be a symbol to designate which back end is responsible
     for the call.

EXIT-FUNCTION
     This function should be called after the splitting has been
     performed.

TEMP-DIRECTORY
     Where the temporary files should be stored.

GROUP
     This optional argument should be a group name if the splitting is
     to be performed for one group only.

   `nnmail-get-new-mail' will call BACK-END`-save-mail' to save each
article.  BACK-END`-active-number' will be called to find the article
number assigned to this article.

   The function also uses the following variables:
BACK-END`-get-new-mail' (to see whether to get new mail for this back
end); and BACK-END`-group-alist' and BACK-END`-active-file' to generate
the new active file.  BACK-END`-group-alist' should be a group-active
alist, like this:

     (("a-group" (1 . 10))
      ("some-group" (34 . 39)))

File: gnus,  Node: Score File Syntax,  Next: Headers,  Prev: Back End Interface,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.3 Score File Syntax
------------------------

Score files are meant to be easily parseable, but yet extremely
mallable.  It was decided that something that had the same read syntax
as an Emacs Lisp list would fit that spec.

   Here's a typical score file:

     (("summary"
       ("win95" -10000 nil s)
       ("Gnus"))
      ("from"
       ("Lars" -1000))
      (mark -100))

   BNF definition of a score file:

     score-file      = "" / "(" *element ")"
     element         = rule / atom
     rule            = string-rule / number-rule / date-rule
     string-rule     = "(" quote string-header quote space *string-match ")"
     number-rule     = "(" quote number-header quote space *number-match ")"
     date-rule       = "(" quote date-header quote space *date-match ")"
     quote           = <ascii 34>
     string-header   = "subject" / "from" / "references" / "message-id" /
                       "xref" / "body" / "head" / "all" / "followup"
     number-header   = "lines" / "chars"
     date-header     = "date"
     string-match    = "(" quote <string> quote [ "" / [ space score [ "" /
                       space date [ "" / [ space string-match-t ] ] ] ] ] ")"
     score           = "nil" / <integer>
     date            = "nil" / <natural number>
     string-match-t  = "nil" / "s" / "substring" / "S" / "Substring" /
                       "r" / "regex" / "R" / "Regex" /
                       "e" / "exact" / "E" / "Exact" /
                       "f" / "fuzzy" / "F" / "Fuzzy"
     number-match    = "(" <integer> [ "" / [ space score [ "" /
                       space date [ "" / [ space number-match-t ] ] ] ] ] ")"
     number-match-t  = "nil" / "=" / "<" / ">" / ">=" / "<="
     date-match      = "(" quote <string> quote [ "" / [ space score [ "" /
                       space date [ "" / [ space date-match-t ] ] ] ] ")"
     date-match-t    = "nil" / "at" / "before" / "after"
     atom            = "(" [ required-atom / optional-atom ] ")"
     required-atom   = mark / expunge / mark-and-expunge / files /
                       exclude-files / read-only / touched
     optional-atom   = adapt / local / eval
     mark            = "mark" space nil-or-number
     nil-or-number   = "nil" / <integer>
     expunge         = "expunge" space nil-or-number
     mark-and-expunge = "mark-and-expunge" space nil-or-number
     files           = "files" *[ space <string> ]
     exclude-files   = "exclude-files" *[ space <string> ]
     read-only       = "read-only" [ space "nil" / space "t" ]
     adapt        = "adapt" [ space "ignore" / space "t" / space adapt-rule ]
     adapt-rule      = "(" *[ <string> *[ "(" <string> <integer> ")" ] ")"
     local           = "local" *[ space "(" <string> space <form> ")" ]
     eval            = "eval" space <form>
     space           = *[ " " / <TAB> / <NEWLINE> ]

   Any unrecognized elements in a score file should be ignored, but not
discarded.

   As you can see, white space is needed, but the type and amount of
white space is irrelevant.  This means that formatting of the score
file is left up to the programmer--if it's simpler to just spew it all
out on one looong line, then that's ok.

   The meaning of the various atoms are explained elsewhere in this
manual (*note Score File Format::).

File: gnus,  Node: Headers,  Next: Ranges,  Prev: Score File Syntax,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.4 Headers
--------------

Internally Gnus uses a format for storing article headers that
corresponds to the NOV format in a mysterious fashion.  One could
almost suspect that the author looked at the NOV specification and just
shamelessly _stole_ the entire thing, and one would be right.

   "Header" is a severely overloaded term.  "Header" is used in RFC
1036 to talk about lines in the head of an article (e.g., `From').  It
is used by many people as a synonym for "head"--"the header and the
body".  (That should be avoided, in my opinion.)  And Gnus uses a
format internally that it calls "header", which is what I'm talking
about here.  This is a 9-element vector, basically, with each header
(ouch) having one slot.

   These slots are, in order: `number', `subject', `from', `date',
`id', `references', `chars', `lines', `xref', and `extra'.  There are
macros for accessing and setting these slots--they all have predictable
names beginning with `mail-header-' and `mail-header-set-',
respectively.

   All these slots contain strings, except the `extra' slot, which
contains an alist of header/value pairs (*note To From Newsgroups::).

File: gnus,  Node: Ranges,  Next: Group Info,  Prev: Headers,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.5 Ranges
-------------

GNUS introduced a concept that I found so useful that I've started
using it a lot and have elaborated on it greatly.

   The question is simple: If you have a large amount of objects that
are identified by numbers (say, articles, to take a _wild_ example)
that you want to qualify as being "included", a normal sequence isn't
very useful.  (A 200,000 length sequence is a bit long-winded.)

   The solution is as simple as the question: You just collapse the
sequence.

     (1 2 3 4 5 6 10 11 12)

   is transformed into

     ((1 . 6) (10 . 12))

   To avoid having those nasty `(13 . 13)' elements to denote a
lonesome object, a `13' is a valid element:

     ((1 . 6) 7 (10 . 12))

   This means that comparing two ranges to find out whether they are
equal is slightly tricky:

     ((1 . 5) 7 8 (10 . 12))

   and

     ((1 . 5) (7 . 8) (10 . 12))

   are equal.  In fact, any non-descending list is a range:

     (1 2 3 4 5)

   is a perfectly valid range, although a pretty long-winded one.  This
is also valid:

     (1 . 5)

   and is equal to the previous range.

   Here's a BNF definition of ranges.  Of course, one must remember the
semantic requirement that the numbers are non-descending.  (Any number
of repetition of the same number is allowed, but apt to disappear in
range handling.)

     range           = simple-range / normal-range
     simple-range    = "(" number " . " number ")"
     normal-range    = "(" start-contents ")"
     contents        = "" / simple-range *[ " " contents ] /
                       number *[ " " contents ]

   Gnus currently uses ranges to keep track of read articles and article
marks.  I plan on implementing a number of range operators in C if The
Powers That Be are willing to let me.  (I haven't asked yet, because I
need to do some more thinking on what operators I need to make life
totally range-based without ever having to convert back to normal
sequences.)

File: gnus,  Node: Group Info,  Next: Extended Interactive,  Prev: Ranges,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.6 Group Info
-----------------

Gnus stores all permanent info on groups in a "group info" list.  This
list is from three to six elements (or more) long and exhaustively
describes the group.

   Here are two example group infos; one is a very simple group while
the second is a more complex one:

     ("no.group" 5 ((1 . 54324)))

     ("nnml:my.mail" 3 ((1 . 5) 9 (20 . 55))
                     ((tick (15 . 19)) (replied 3 6 (19 . 3)))
                     (nnml "")
                     ((auto-expire . t) (to-address . "dingATgnus.org")))

   The first element is the "group name"--as Gnus knows the group,
anyway.  The second element is the "subscription level", which normally
is a small integer.  (It can also be the "rank", which is a cons cell
where the `car' is the level and the `cdr' is the score.)  The third
element is a list of ranges of read articles.  The fourth element is a
list of lists of article marks of various kinds.  The fifth element is
the select method (or virtual server, if you like).  The sixth element
is a list of "group parameters", which is what this section is about.

   Any of the last three elements may be missing if they are not
required.  In fact, the vast majority of groups will normally only have
the first three elements, which saves quite a lot of cons cells.

   Here's a BNF definition of the group info format:

     info          = "(" group space ralevel space read
                     [ "" / [ space marks-list [ "" / [ space method [ "" /
                     space parameters ] ] ] ] ] ")"
     group         = quote <string> quote
     ralevel       = rank / level
     level         = <integer in the range of 1 to inf>
     rank          = "(" level "." score ")"
     score         = <integer in the range of 1 to inf>
     read          = range
     marks-lists   = nil / "(" *marks ")"
     marks         = "(" <string> range ")"
     method        = "(" <string> *elisp-forms ")"
     parameters    = "(" *elisp-forms ")"

   Actually that `marks' rule is a fib.  A `marks' is a `<string>'
consed on to a `range', but that's a bitch to say in pseudo-BNF.

   If you have a Gnus info and want to access the elements, Gnus offers
a series of macros for getting/setting these elements.

`gnus-info-group'
`gnus-info-set-group'
     Get/set the group name.

`gnus-info-rank'
`gnus-info-set-rank'
     Get/set the group rank (*note Group Score::).

`gnus-info-level'
`gnus-info-set-level'
     Get/set the group level.

`gnus-info-score'
`gnus-info-set-score'
     Get/set the group score (*note Group Score::).

`gnus-info-read'
`gnus-info-set-read'
     Get/set the ranges of read articles.

`gnus-info-marks'
`gnus-info-set-marks'
     Get/set the lists of ranges of marked articles.

`gnus-info-method'
`gnus-info-set-method'
     Get/set the group select method.

`gnus-info-params'
`gnus-info-set-params'
     Get/set the group parameters.

   All the getter functions take one parameter--the info list.  The
setter functions take two parameters--the info list and the new value.

   The last three elements in the group info aren't mandatory, so it
may be necessary to extend the group info before setting the element.
If this is necessary, you can just pass on a non-`nil' third parameter
to the three final setter functions to have this happen automatically.

File: gnus,  Node: Extended Interactive,  Next: Emacs/XEmacs Code,  Prev: Group Info,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.7 Extended Interactive
---------------------------

Gnus extends the standard Emacs `interactive' specification slightly to
allow easy use of the symbolic prefix (*note Symbolic Prefixes::).
Here's an example of how this is used:

     (defun gnus-summary-increase-score (&optional score symp)
       (interactive (gnus-interactive "P\ny"))
       ...
       )

   The best thing to do would have been to implement `gnus-interactive'
as a macro which would have returned an `interactive' form, but this
isn't possible since Emacs checks whether a function is interactive or
not by simply doing an `assq' on the lambda form.  So, instead we have
`gnus-interactive' function that takes a string and returns values that
are usable to `interactive'.

   This function accepts (almost) all normal `interactive' specs, but
adds a few more.

`y'
     The current symbolic prefix--the `gnus-current-prefix-symbol'
     variable.

`Y'
     A list of the current symbolic prefixes--the
     `gnus-current-prefix-symbol' variable.

`A'
     The current article number--the `gnus-summary-article-number'
     function.

`H'
     The current article header--the `gnus-summary-article-header'
     function.

`g'
     The current group name--the `gnus-group-group-name' function.


File: gnus,  Node: Emacs/XEmacs Code,  Next: Various File Formats,  Prev: Extended Interactive,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.8 Emacs/XEmacs Code
------------------------

While Gnus runs under Emacs, XEmacs and Mule, I decided that one of the
platforms must be the primary one.  I chose Emacs.  Not because I don't
like XEmacs or Mule, but because it comes first alphabetically.

   This means that Gnus will byte-compile under Emacs with nary a
warning, while XEmacs will pump out gigabytes of warnings while
byte-compiling.  As I use byte-compilation warnings to help me root out
trivial errors in Gnus, that's very useful.

   I've also consistently used Emacs function interfaces, but have used
Gnusey aliases for the functions.  To take an example:  Emacs defines a
`run-at-time' function while XEmacs defines a `start-itimer' function.
I then define a function called `gnus-run-at-time' that takes the same
parameters as the Emacs `run-at-time'.  When running Gnus under Emacs,
the former function is just an alias for the latter.  However, when
running under XEmacs, the former is an alias for the following function:

     (defun gnus-xmas-run-at-time (time repeat function &rest args)
       (start-itimer
        "gnus-run-at-time"
        `(lambda ()
           (,function ,@args))
        time repeat))

   This sort of thing has been done for bunches of functions.  Gnus does
not redefine any native Emacs functions while running under XEmacs--it
does this `defalias' thing with Gnus equivalents instead.  Cleaner all
over.

   In the cases where the XEmacs function interface was obviously
cleaner, I used it instead.  For example `gnus-region-active-p' is an
alias for `region-active-p' in XEmacs, whereas in Emacs it is a
function.

   Of course, I could have chosen XEmacs as my native platform and done
mapping functions the other way around.  But I didn't.  The performance
hit these indirections impose on Gnus under XEmacs should be slight.

File: gnus,  Node: Various File Formats,  Prev: Emacs/XEmacs Code,  Up: Gnus Reference Guide

10.7.9 Various File Formats
---------------------------

* Menu:

* Active File Format::          Information on articles and groups available.
* Newsgroups File Format::      Group descriptions.

File: gnus,  Node: Active File Format,  Next: Newsgroups File Format,  Up: Various File Formats

10.7.9.1 Active File Format
...........................

The active file lists all groups available on the server in question.
It also lists the highest and lowest current article numbers in each
group.

   Here's an excerpt from a typical active file:

     soc.motss 296030 293865 y
     alt.binaries.pictures.fractals 3922 3913 n
     comp.sources.unix 1605 1593 m
     comp.binaries.ibm.pc 5097 5089 y
     no.general 1000 900 y

   Here's a pseudo-BNF definition of this file:

     active      = *group-line
     group-line  = group spc high-number spc low-number spc flag <NEWLINE>
     group       = <non-white-space string>
     spc         = " "
     high-number = <non-negative integer>
     low-number  = <positive integer>
     flag        = "y" / "n" / "m" / "j" / "x" / "=" group

   For a full description of this file, see the manual pages for
`innd', in particular `active(5)'.

File: gnus,  Node: Newsgroups File Format,  Prev: Active File Format,  Up: Various File Formats

10.7.9.2 Newsgroups File Format
...............................

The newsgroups file lists groups along with their descriptions.  Not all
groups on the server have to be listed,  and not all groups in the file
have to exist on the server.  The file is meant purely as information to
the user.

   The format is quite simple; a group name, a tab, and the description.
Here's the definition:

     newsgroups    = *line
     line          = group tab description <NEWLINE>
     group         = <non-white-space string>
     tab           = <TAB>
     description   = <string>

File: gnus,  Node: Emacs for Heathens,  Next: Frequently Asked Questions,  Prev: Gnus Reference Guide,  Up: Appendices

10.8 Emacs for Heathens
=======================

Believe it or not, but some people who use Gnus haven't really used
Emacs much before they embarked on their journe