Man Pages

g77 - phpMan g77 - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  


File: g77.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Copying,  Up: (DIR)

Introduction
************

This manual documents how to run, install and port `g77', as well as
its new features and incompatibilities, and how to report bugs.  It
corresponds to the GCC-3.4.6 version of `g77'.

* Menu:

* Copying::         GNU General Public License says
                    how you can copy and share GNU Fortran.
* GNU Free Documentation License::
		    How you can copy and share this manual.
* Contributors::    People who have contributed to GNU Fortran.
* Funding::         How to help assure continued work for free software.
* Funding GNU Fortran::  How to help assure continued work on GNU Fortran.

* Getting Started:: Finding your way around this manual.
* What is GNU Fortran?::  How `g77' fits into the universe.
* G77 and GCC::     You can compile Fortran, C, or other programs.
* Invoking G77::    Command options supported by `g77'.
* News::            News about recent releases of `g77'.
* Changes::         User-visible changes to recent releases of `g77'.
* Language::        The GNU Fortran language.
* Compiler::        The GNU Fortran compiler.
* Other Dialects::  Dialects of Fortran supported by `g77'.
* Other Compilers:: Fortran compilers other than `g77'.
* Other Languages:: Languages other than Fortran.
* Debugging and Interfacing::  How `g77' generates code.
* Collected Fortran Wisdom::  How to avoid Trouble.
* Trouble::         If you have trouble with GNU Fortran.
* Open Questions::  Things we'd like to know.
* Bugs::            How, why, and where to report bugs.
* Service::         How to find suppliers of support for GNU Fortran.

* Adding Options::  Guidance on teaching `g77' about new options.
* Projects::        Projects for `g77' internals hackers.
* Front End::       Design and implementation of the `g77' front end.

* M: Diagnostics.   Diagnostics produced by `g77'.

* Keyword Index::   Index of concepts and symbol names.

File: g77.info,  Node: Copying,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
**************************

                         Version 2, June 1991

     Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble
========

The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom
to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public License is
intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

   When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in
new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

   To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

   For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.

   We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software,
and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.

   Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.

   Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

   The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

    TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
  0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a
     notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
     under the terms of this General Public License.  The "Program",
     below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on
     the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under
     copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a
     portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or
     translated into another language.  (Hereinafter, translation is
     included without limitation in the term "modification".)  Each
     licensee is addressed as "you".

     Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are
     not covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act
     of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the
     Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on
     the Program (independent of having been made by running the
     Program).  Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

  1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
     source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
     conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
     copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
     notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any
     warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of
     this License along with the Program.

     You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy,
     and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange
     for a fee.

  2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
     of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
     distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
     above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

       a. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
          stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

       b. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that
          in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program
          or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge
          to all third parties under the terms of this License.

       c. If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
          when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
          interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display
          an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and
          a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you
          provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the
          program under these conditions, and telling the user how to
          view a copy of this License.  (Exception: if the Program
          itself is interactive but does not normally print such an
          announcement, your work based on the Program is not required
          to print an announcement.)

     These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
     identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the
     Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate
     works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not
     apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate
     works.  But when you distribute the same sections as part of a
     whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of
     the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions
     for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each
     and every part regardless of who wrote it.

     Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or
     contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the
     intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of
     derivative or collective works based on the Program.

     In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the
     Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on
     a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the
     other work under the scope of this License.

  3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
     under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms
     of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the
     following:

       a. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
          source code, which must be distributed under the terms of
          Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for
          software interchange; or,

       b. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
          years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
          cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
          machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
          distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a
          medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

       c. Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
          to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
          allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
          received the program in object code or executable form with
          such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)

     The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
     making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete
     source code means all the source code for all modules it contains,
     plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts
     used to control compilation and installation of the executable.
     However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need
     not include anything that is normally distributed (in either
     source or binary form) with the major components (compiler,
     kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable
     runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.

     If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
     access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
     access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
     distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
     compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

  4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

  5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
     signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify
     or distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions
     are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.
     Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work
     based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this
     License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying,
     distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.

  6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
     Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
     original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program
     subject to these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any
     further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights
     granted herein.  You are not responsible for enforcing compliance
     by third parties to this License.

  7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
     infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent
     issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order,
     agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this
     License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this
     License.  If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously
     your obligations under this License and any other pertinent
     obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the
     Program at all.  For example, if a patent license would not permit
     royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who
     receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only
     way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain
     entirely from distribution of the Program.

     If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable
     under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is
     intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply
     in other circumstances.

     It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
     patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of
     any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting
     the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
     implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
     generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
     through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
     system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is
     willing to distribute software through any other system and a
     licensee cannot impose that choice.

     This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed
     to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

  8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
     certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces,
     the original copyright holder who places the Program under this
     License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation
     excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only
     in or among countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this
     License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of
     this License.

  9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
     versions of the General Public License from time to time.  Such
     new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but
     may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

     Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
     Program specifies a version number of this License which applies
     to it and "any later version", you have the option of following
     the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later
     version published by the Free Software Foundation.  If the Program
     does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
     any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
     programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the
     author to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted
     by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software
     Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this.  Our decision
     will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of
     all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing
     and reuse of software generally.

                                NO WARRANTY
 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
     WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE
     LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
     HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT
     WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT
     NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
     FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE
     QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
     PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY
     SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
     WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY
     MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE
     LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL,
     INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR
     INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
     DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU
     OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY
     OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN
     ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

                      END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
=============================================

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.

   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM'S NAME AND A BRIEF IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
     Copyright (C) YEAR  NAME OF AUTHOR

     This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
     (at your option) any later version.

     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
     but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
     GNU General Public License for more details.

     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
     along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
     Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.

   Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper
mail.

   If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like
this when it starts in an interactive mode:

     Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR
     Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
     type `show w'.
     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
     under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

   The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show
c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your
program.

   You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program,
if necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

     Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
     `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

     SIGNATURE OF TY COON, 1 April 1989
     Ty Coon, President of Vice

   This General Public License does not permit incorporating your
program into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the
GNU Library General Public License instead of this License.

File: g77.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Contributors,  Prev: Copying,  Up: Top

GNU Free Documentation License
******************************

                      Version 1.2, November 2002

     Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warrany Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
       A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: g77.info,  Node: Contributors,  Next: Funding,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Contributors to GNU Fortran
***************************

In addition to James Craig Burley, who wrote the front end, many people
have helped create and improve GNU Fortran.

   * The packaging and compiler portions of GNU Fortran are based
     largely on the GCC compiler.  *Note Contributors to GCC:
     (gcc)Contributors, for more information.

   * The run-time library used by GNU Fortran is a repackaged version
     of the `libf2c' library (combined from the `libF77' and `libI77'
     libraries) provided as part of `f2c', available for free from
     `netlib' sites on the Internet.

   * Cygnus Support and The Free Software Foundation contributed
     significant money and/or equipment to Craig's efforts.

   * The following individuals served as alpha testers prior to `g77''s
     public release.  This work consisted of testing, researching,
     sometimes debugging, and occasionally providing small amounts of
     code and fixes for `g77', plus offering plenty of helpful advice
     to Craig:

          Jonathan Corbet

          Dr. Mark Fernyhough

          Takafumi Hayashi (The University of
          Aizu)--<takafumiATu-aizu.jp>

          Kate Hedstrom

          Michel Kern (INRIA and Rice
          University)--<Michel.KernATinria.fr>

          Dr. A. O. V. Le Blanc

          Dave Love

          Rick Lutowski

          Toon Moene

          Rick Niles

          Derk Reefman

          Wayne K. Schroll

          Bill Thorson

          Pedro A. M. Vazquez

          Ian Watson

   * Dave Love (<d.loveATdl.uk>) wrote the libU77 part of the
     run-time library.

   * Scott Snyder (<snyderATd0sgif.gov>) provided the patch to add
     rudimentary support for `INTEGER*1', `INTEGER*2', and `LOGICAL*1'.
     This inspired Craig to add further support, even though the
     resulting support would still be incomplete.  This support is
     believed to be completed at version 3.4 of `gcc' by Roger Sayle
     (<rogerATeyesopen.com>).

   * David Ronis (<ronisATonsager.ca>) inspired and
     encouraged Craig to rewrite the documentation in texinfo format by
     contributing a first pass at a translation of the old
     `g77-0.5.16/f/DOC' file.

   * Toon Moene (<toonATmoene.nl>) performed some analysis
     of generated code as part of an overall project to improve `g77'
     code generation to at least be as good as `f2c' used in
     conjunction with `gcc'.  So far, this has resulted in the three,
     somewhat experimental, options added by `g77' to the `gcc'
     compiler and its back end.

     (These, in turn, had made their way into the `egcs' version of the
     compiler, and do not exist in `gcc' version 2.8 or versions of
     `g77' based on that version of `gcc'.)

   * John Carr (<jfcATmit.edu>) wrote the alias analysis improvements.

   * Thanks to Mary Cortani and the staff at Craftwork Solutions
     (<supportATcraftwork.com>) for all of their support.

   * Many other individuals have helped debug, test, and improve `g77'
     over the past several years, and undoubtedly more people will be
     doing so in the future.  If you have done so, and would like to
     see your name listed in the above list, please ask!  The default
     is that people wish to remain anonymous.

File: g77.info,  Node: Funding,  Next: Funding GNU Fortran,  Prev: Contributors,  Up: Top

Funding Free Software
*********************

If you want to have more free software a few years from now, it makes
sense for you to help encourage people to contribute funds for its
development.  The most effective approach known is to encourage
commercial redistributors to donate.

   Users of free software systems can boost the pace of development by
encouraging for-a-fee distributors to donate part of their selling price
to free software developers--the Free Software Foundation, and others.

   The way to convince distributors to do this is to demand it and
expect it from them.  So when you compare distributors, judge them
partly by how much they give to free software development.  Show
distributors they must compete to be the one who gives the most.

   To make this approach work, you must insist on numbers that you can
compare, such as, "We will donate ten dollars to the Frobnitz project
for each disk sold."  Don't be satisfied with a vague promise, such as
"A portion of the profits are donated," since it doesn't give a basis
for comparison.

   Even a precise fraction "of the profits from this disk" is not very
meaningful, since creative accounting and unrelated business decisions
can greatly alter what fraction of the sales price counts as profit.
If the price you pay is $50, ten percent of the profit is probably less
than a dollar; it might be a few cents, or nothing at all.

   Some redistributors do development work themselves.  This is useful
too; but to keep everyone honest, you need to inquire how much they do,
and what kind.  Some kinds of development make much more long-term
difference than others.  For example, maintaining a separate version of
a program contributes very little; maintaining the standard version of a
program for the whole community contributes much.  Easy new ports
contribute little, since someone else would surely do them; difficult
ports such as adding a new CPU to the GNU Compiler Collection
contribute more; major new features or packages contribute the most.

   By establishing the idea that supporting further development is "the
proper thing to do" when distributing free software for a fee, we can
assure a steady flow of resources into making more free software.

     Copyright (C) 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     Verbatim copying and redistribution of this section is permitted
     without royalty; alteration is not permitted.

File: g77.info,  Node: Funding GNU Fortran,  Next: Getting Started,  Prev: Funding,  Up: Top

1 Funding GNU Fortran
*********************

James Craig Burley (<craigATjcb-sc.com>), the original author of `g77',
stopped working on it in September 1999 (He has a web page at
`http://world.std.com/%7Eburley/'.)

   GNU Fortran is currently maintained by Toon Moene
(<toonATmoene.nl>), with the help of countless other
volunteers.

   As with other GNU software, funding is important because it can pay
for needed equipment, personnel, and so on.

   The FSF provides information on the best way to fund ongoing
development of GNU software (such as GNU Fortran) in documents such as
the "GNUS Bulletin".  Email <gnuATgnu.org> for information on funding
the FSF.

   Another important way to support work on GNU Fortran is to volunteer
to help out.

   Email <gccATgcc.org> to volunteer for this work.

   However, we strongly expect that there will never be a version 0.6
of `g77'.  Work on this compiler has stopped as of the release of GCC
3.1, except for bug fixing.  `g77' will be succeeded by `g95' - see
`http://g95.sourceforge.net'.

   *Note Funding Free Software: Funding, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: What is GNU Fortran?,  Prev: Funding GNU Fortran,  Up: Top

2 Getting Started
*****************

If you don't need help getting started reading the portions of this
manual that are most important to you, you should skip this portion of
the manual.

   If you are new to compilers, especially Fortran compilers, or new to
how compilers are structured under UNIX and UNIX-like systems, you'll
want to see *note What is GNU Fortran?::.

   If you are new to GNU compilers, or have used only one GNU compiler
in the past and not had to delve into how it lets you manage various
versions and configurations of `gcc', you should see *note G77 and
GCC::.

   Everyone except experienced `g77' users should see *note Invoking
G77::.

   If you're acquainted with previous versions of `g77', you should see
*note News About GNU Fortran: News.  Further, if you've actually used
previous versions of `g77', especially if you've written or modified
Fortran code to be compiled by previous versions of `g77', you should
see *note Changes::.

   If you intend to write or otherwise compile code that is not already
strictly conforming ANSI FORTRAN 77--and this is probably everyone--you
should see *note Language::.

   If you run into trouble getting Fortran code to compile, link, run,
or work properly, you might find answers if you see *note Debugging and
Interfacing::, see *note Collected Fortran Wisdom::, and see *note
Trouble::.  You might also find that the problems you are encountering
are bugs in `g77'--see *note Bugs::, for information on reporting them,
after reading the other material.

   If you need further help with `g77', or with freely redistributable
software in general, see *note Service::.

   If you would like to help the `g77' project, see *note Funding GNU
Fortran::, for information on helping financially, and see *note
Projects::, for information on helping in other ways.

   If you're generally curious about the future of `g77', see *note
Projects::.  If you're curious about its past, see *note Contributors::,
and see *note Funding GNU Fortran::.

   To see a few of the questions maintainers of `g77' have, and that
you might be able to answer, see *note Open Questions::.

File: g77.info,  Node: What is GNU Fortran?,  Next: G77 and GCC,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Top

3 What is GNU Fortran?
**********************

GNU Fortran, or `g77', is designed initially as a free replacement for,
or alternative to, the UNIX `f77' command.  (Similarly, `gcc' is
designed as a replacement for the UNIX `cc' command.)

   `g77' also is designed to fit in well with the other fine GNU
compilers and tools.

   Sometimes these design goals conflict--in such cases, resolution
often is made in favor of fitting in well with Project GNU.  These
cases are usually identified in the appropriate sections of this manual.

   As compilers, `g77', `gcc', and `f77' share the following
characteristics:

   * They read a user's program, stored in a file and containing
     instructions written in the appropriate language (Fortran, C, and
     so on).  This file contains "source code".

   * They translate the user's program into instructions a computer can
     carry out more quickly than it takes to translate the instructions
     in the first place.  These instructions are called "machine
     code"--code designed to be efficiently translated and processed by
     a machine such as a computer.  Humans usually aren't as good
     writing machine code as they are at writing Fortran or C, because
     it is easy to make tiny mistakes writing machine code.  When
     writing Fortran or C, it is easy to make big mistakes.

   * They provide information in the generated machine code that can
     make it easier to find bugs in the program (using a debugging
     tool, called a "debugger", such as `gdb').

   * They locate and gather machine code already generated to perform
     actions requested by statements in the user's program.  This
     machine code is organized into "libraries" and is located and
     gathered during the "link" phase of the compilation process.
     (Linking often is thought of as a separate step, because it can be
     directly invoked via the `ld' command.  However, the `g77' and
     `gcc' commands, as with most compiler commands, automatically
     perform the linking step by calling on `ld' directly, unless asked
     to not do so by the user.)

   * They attempt to diagnose cases where the user's program contains
     incorrect usages of the language.  The "diagnostics" produced by
     the compiler indicate the problem and the location in the user's
     source file where the problem was first noticed.  The user can use
     this information to locate and fix the problem.  (Sometimes an
     incorrect usage of the language leads to a situation where the
     compiler can no longer make any sense of what follows--while a
     human might be able to--and thus ends up complaining about many
     "problems" it encounters that, in fact, stem from just one
     problem, usually the first one reported.)

   * They attempt to diagnose cases where the user's program contains a
     correct usage of the language, but instructs the computer to do
     something questionable.  These diagnostics often are in the form
     of "warnings", instead of the "errors" that indicate incorrect
     usage of the language.

   How these actions are performed is generally under the control of
the user.  Using command-line options, the user can specify how
persnickety the compiler is to be regarding the program (whether to
diagnose questionable usage of the language), how much time to spend
making the generated machine code run faster, and so on.

   `g77' consists of several components:

   * A modified version of the `gcc' command, which also might be
     installed as the system's `cc' command.  (In many cases, `cc'
     refers to the system's "native" C compiler, which might be a
     non-GNU compiler, or an older version of `gcc' considered more
     stable or that is used to build the operating system kernel.)

   * The `g77' command itself, which also might be installed as the
     system's `f77' command.

   * The `libg2c' run-time library.  This library contains the machine
     code needed to support capabilities of the Fortran language that
     are not directly provided by the machine code generated by the
     `g77' compilation phase.

     `libg2c' is just the unique name `g77' gives to its version of
     `libf2c' to distinguish it from any copy of `libf2c' installed
     from `f2c' (or versions of `g77' that built `libf2c' under that
     same name) on the system.

     The maintainer of `libf2c' currently is <dmgATbell-labs.com>.

   * The compiler itself, internally named `f771'.

     Note that `f771' does not generate machine code directly--it
     generates "assembly code" that is a more readable form of machine
     code, leaving the conversion to actual machine code to an
     "assembler", usually named `as'.

   `gcc' is often thought of as "the C compiler" only, but it does more
than that.  Based on command-line options and the names given for files
on the command line, `gcc' determines which actions to perform,
including preprocessing, compiling (in a variety of possible
languages), assembling, and linking.

   For example, the command `gcc foo.c' "drives" the file `foo.c'
through the preprocessor `cpp', then the C compiler (internally named
`cc1'), then the assembler (usually `as'), then the linker (`ld'),
producing an executable program named `a.out' (on UNIX systems).

   As another example, the command `gcc foo.cc' would do much the same
as `gcc foo.c', but instead of using the C compiler named `cc1', `gcc'
would use the C++ compiler (named `cc1plus').

   In a GNU Fortran installation, `gcc' recognizes Fortran source files
by name just like it does C and C++ source files.  It knows to use the
Fortran compiler named `f771', instead of `cc1' or `cc1plus', to
compile Fortran files.

   Non-Fortran-related operation of `gcc' is generally unaffected by
installing the GNU Fortran version of `gcc'.  However, without the
installed version of `gcc' being the GNU Fortran version, `gcc' will
not be able to compile and link Fortran programs--and since `g77' uses
`gcc' to do most of the actual work, neither will `g77'!

   The `g77' command is essentially just a front-end for the `gcc'
command.  Fortran users will normally use `g77' instead of `gcc',
because `g77' knows how to specify the libraries needed to link with
Fortran programs (`libg2c' and `lm').  `g77' can still compile and link
programs and source files written in other languages, just like `gcc'.

   The command `g77 -v' is a quick way to display lots of version
information for the various programs used to compile a typical
preprocessed Fortran source file--this produces much more output than
`gcc -v' currently does.  (If it produces an error message near the end
of the output--diagnostics from the linker, usually `ld'--you might
have an out-of-date `libf2c' that improperly handles complex
arithmetic.)  In the output of this command, the line beginning `GNU
Fortran Front End' identifies the version number of GNU Fortran;
immediately preceding that line is a line identifying the version of
`gcc' with which that version of `g77' was built.

   The `libf2c' library is distributed with GNU Fortran for the
convenience of its users, but is not part of GNU Fortran.  It contains
the procedures needed by Fortran programs while they are running.

   For example, while code generated by `g77' is likely to do
additions, subtractions, and multiplications "in line"--in the actual
compiled code--it is not likely to do trigonometric functions this way.

   Instead, operations like trigonometric functions are compiled by the
`f771' compiler (invoked by `g77' when compiling Fortran code) into
machine code that, when run, calls on functions in `libg2c', so
`libg2c' must be linked with almost every useful program having any
component compiled by GNU Fortran.  (As mentioned above, the `g77'
command takes care of all this for you.)

   The `f771' program represents most of what is unique to GNU Fortran.
While much of the `libg2c' component comes from the `libf2c' component
of `f2c', a free Fortran-to-C converter distributed by Bellcore (AT&T),
plus `libU77', provided by Dave Love, and the `g77' command is just a
small front-end to `gcc', `f771' is a combination of two rather large
chunks of code.

   One chunk is the so-called "GNU Back End", or GBE, which knows how
to generate fast code for a wide variety of processors.  The same GBE
is used by the C, C++, and Fortran compiler programs `cc1', `cc1plus',
and `f771', plus others.  Often the GBE is referred to as the "gcc back
end" or even just "gcc"--in this manual, the term GBE is used whenever
the distinction is important.

   The other chunk of `f771' is the majority of what is unique about
GNU Fortran--the code that knows how to interpret Fortran programs to
determine what they are intending to do, and then communicate that
knowledge to the GBE for actual compilation of those programs.  This
chunk is called the "Fortran Front End" (FFE).  The `cc1' and `cc1plus'
programs have their own front ends, for the C and C++ languages,
respectively.  These fronts ends are responsible for diagnosing
incorrect usage of their respective languages by the programs the
process, and are responsible for most of the warnings about
questionable constructs as well.  (The GBE handles producing some
warnings, like those concerning possible references to undefined
variables.)

   Because so much is shared among the compilers for various languages,
much of the behavior and many of the user-selectable options for these
compilers are similar.  For example, diagnostics (error messages and
warnings) are similar in appearance; command-line options like `-Wall'
have generally similar effects; and the quality of generated code (in
terms of speed and size) is roughly similar (since that work is done by
the shared GBE).

File: g77.info,  Node: G77 and GCC,  Next: Invoking G77,  Prev: What is GNU Fortran?,  Up: Top

4 Compile Fortran, C, or Other Programs
***************************************

A GNU Fortran installation includes a modified version of the `gcc'
command.

   In a non-Fortran installation, `gcc' recognizes C, C++, and
Objective-C source files.

   In a GNU Fortran installation, `gcc' also recognizes Fortran source
files and accepts Fortran-specific command-line options, plus some
command-line options that are designed to cater to Fortran users but
apply to other languages as well.

   *Note Programming Languages Supported by GCC: (gcc)G++ and GCC, for
information on the way different languages are handled by the GCC
compiler (`gcc').

   Also provided as part of GNU Fortran is the `g77' command.  The
`g77' command is designed to make compiling and linking Fortran
programs somewhat easier than when using the `gcc' command for these
tasks.  It does this by analyzing the command line somewhat and
changing it appropriately before submitting it to the `gcc' command.

   Use the `-v' option with `g77' to see what is going on--the first
line of output is the invocation of the `gcc' command.

File: g77.info,  Node: Invoking G77,  Next: News,  Prev: G77 and GCC,  Up: Top

5 GNU Fortran Command Options
*****************************

The `g77' command supports all the options supported by the `gcc'
command.  *Note GCC Command Options: (gcc)Invoking GCC, for information
on the non-Fortran-specific aspects of the `gcc' command (and,
therefore, the `g77' command).

   All `gcc' and `g77' options are accepted both by `g77' and by `gcc'
(as well as any other drivers built at the same time, such as `g++'),
since adding `g77' to the `gcc' distribution enables acceptance of
`g77' options by all of the relevant drivers.

   In some cases, options have positive and negative forms; the
negative form of `-ffoo' would be `-fno-foo'.  This manual documents
only one of these two forms, whichever one is not the default.

* Menu:

* Option Summary::      Brief list of all `g77' options,
                        without explanations.
* Overall Options::     Controlling the kind of output:
                        an executable, object files, assembler files,
                        or preprocessed source.
* Shorthand Options::   Options that are shorthand for other options.
* Fortran Dialect Options::  Controlling the variant of Fortran language
                             compiled.
* Warning Options::     How picky should the compiler be?
* Debugging Options::   Symbol tables, measurements, and debugging dumps.
* Optimize Options::    How much optimization?
* Preprocessor Options:: Controlling header files and macro definitions.
                         Also, getting dependency information for Make.
* Directory Options::   Where to find header files and libraries.
                        Where to find the compiler executable files.
* Code Gen Options::    Specifying conventions for function calls, data layout
                        and register usage.
* Environment Variables:: Env vars that affect GNU Fortran.

File: g77.info,  Node: Option Summary,  Next: Overall Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.1 Option Summary
==================

Here is a summary of all the options specific to GNU Fortran, grouped
by type.  Explanations are in the following sections.

_Overall Options_
     *Note Options Controlling the Kind of Output: Overall Options.
          -fversion  -fset-g77-defaults  -fno-silent

_Shorthand Options_
     *Note Shorthand Options::.
          -ff66  -fno-f66  -ff77  -fno-f77  -fno-ugly

_Fortran Language Options_
     *Note Options Controlling Fortran Dialect: Fortran Dialect Options.
          -ffree-form  -fno-fixed-form  -ff90
          -fvxt  -fdollar-ok  -fno-backslash
          -fno-ugly-args  -fno-ugly-assign  -fno-ugly-assumed
          -fugly-comma  -fugly-complex  -fugly-init  -fugly-logint
          -fonetrip  -ftypeless-boz
          -fintrin-case-initcap  -fintrin-case-upper
          -fintrin-case-lower  -fintrin-case-any
          -fmatch-case-initcap  -fmatch-case-upper
          -fmatch-case-lower  -fmatch-case-any
          -fsource-case-upper  -fsource-case-lower
          -fsource-case-preserve
          -fsymbol-case-initcap  -fsymbol-case-upper
          -fsymbol-case-lower  -fsymbol-case-any
          -fcase-strict-upper  -fcase-strict-lower
          -fcase-initcap  -fcase-upper  -fcase-lower  -fcase-preserve
          -ff2c-intrinsics-delete  -ff2c-intrinsics-hide
          -ff2c-intrinsics-disable  -ff2c-intrinsics-enable
          -fbadu77-intrinsics-delete  -fbadu77-intrinsics-hide
          -fbadu77-intrinsics-disable  -fbadu77-intrinsics-enable
          -ff90-intrinsics-delete  -ff90-intrinsics-hide
          -ff90-intrinsics-disable  -ff90-intrinsics-enable
          -fgnu-intrinsics-delete  -fgnu-intrinsics-hide
          -fgnu-intrinsics-disable  -fgnu-intrinsics-enable
          -fmil-intrinsics-delete  -fmil-intrinsics-hide
          -fmil-intrinsics-disable  -fmil-intrinsics-enable
          -funix-intrinsics-delete  -funix-intrinsics-hide
          -funix-intrinsics-disable  -funix-intrinsics-enable
          -fvxt-intrinsics-delete  -fvxt-intrinsics-hide
          -fvxt-intrinsics-disable  -fvxt-intrinsics-enable
          -ffixed-line-length-N  -ffixed-line-length-none

_Warning Options_
     *Note Options to Request or Suppress Warnings: Warning Options.
          -fsyntax-only  -pedantic  -pedantic-errors  -fpedantic
          -w  -Wno-globals  -Wimplicit  -Wunused  -Wuninitialized
          -Wall  -Wsurprising
          -Werror  -W

_Debugging Options_
     *Note Options for Debugging Your Program or GCC: Debugging Options.
          -g

_Optimization Options_
     *Note Options that Control Optimization: Optimize Options.
          -malign-double
          -ffloat-store  -fforce-mem  -fforce-addr  -fno-inline
          -ffast-math  -fstrength-reduce  -frerun-cse-after-loop
          -funsafe-math-optimizations -ffinite-math-only -fno-trapping-math
          -fexpensive-optimizations  -fdelayed-branch
          -fschedule-insns  -fschedule-insn2  -fcaller-saves
          -funroll-loops  -funroll-all-loops
          -fno-move-all-movables  -fno-reduce-all-givs
          -fno-rerun-loop-opt

_Directory Options_
     *Note Options for Directory Search: Directory Options.
          -IDIR  -I-

_Code Generation Options_
     *Note Options for Code Generation Conventions: Code Gen Options.
          -fno-automatic  -finit-local-zero  -fno-f2c
          -ff2c-library  -fno-underscoring  -fno-ident
          -fpcc-struct-return  -freg-struct-return
          -fshort-double  -fno-common  -fpack-struct
          -fzeros  -fno-second-underscore
          -femulate-complex
          -falias-check  -fargument-alias
          -fargument-noalias  -fno-argument-noalias-global
          -fno-globals  -fflatten-arrays
          -fbounds-check  -ffortran-bounds-check


* Menu:

* Overall Options::     Controlling the kind of output:
                        an executable, object files, assembler files,
                        or preprocessed source.
* Shorthand Options::   Options that are shorthand for other options.
* Fortran Dialect Options::  Controlling the variant of Fortran language
                             compiled.
* Warning Options::     How picky should the compiler be?
* Debugging Options::   Symbol tables, measurements, and debugging dumps.
* Optimize Options::    How much optimization?
* Preprocessor Options:: Controlling header files and macro definitions.
                         Also, getting dependency information for Make.
* Directory Options::   Where to find header files and libraries.
                        Where to find the compiler executable files.
* Code Gen Options::    Specifying conventions for function calls, data layout
                        and register usage.

File: g77.info,  Node: Overall Options,  Next: Shorthand Options,  Prev: Option Summary,  Up: Invoking G77

5.2 Options Controlling the Kind of Output
==========================================

Compilation can involve as many as four stages: preprocessing, code
generation (often what is really meant by the term "compilation"),
assembly, and linking, always in that order.  The first three stages
apply to an individual source file, and end by producing an object
file; linking combines all the object files (those newly compiled, and
those specified as input) into an executable file.

   For any given input file, the file name suffix determines what kind
of program is contained in the file--that is, the language in which the
program is written is generally indicated by the suffix.  Suffixes
specific to GNU Fortran are listed below.  *Note Options Controlling
the Kind of Output: (gcc)Overall Options, for information on suffixes
recognized by GCC.

`FILE.f'

`FILE.for'

`FILE.FOR'
     Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.

     Such source code cannot contain any preprocessor directives, such
     as `#include', `#define', `#if', and so on.

     You can force `.f' files to be preprocessed by `cpp' by using `-x
     f77-cpp-input'.  *Note LEX::.

`FILE.F'

`FILE.fpp'

`FILE.FPP'
     Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (by the C
     preprocessor `cpp', which is part of GCC).

     Note that preprocessing is not extended to the contents of files
     included by the `INCLUDE' directive--the `#include' preprocessor
     directive must be used instead.

`FILE.r'
     Ratfor source code, which must be preprocessed by the `ratfor'
     command, which is available separately (as it is not yet part of
     the GNU Fortran distribution).  A public domain version in C is at
     `http://sepwww.stanford.edu/sep/prof/ratfor.shar.2'.

   UNIX users typically use the `FILE.f' and `FILE.F' nomenclature.
Users of other operating systems, especially those that cannot
distinguish upper-case letters from lower-case letters in their file
names, typically use the `FILE.for' and `FILE.fpp' nomenclature.

   Use of the preprocessor `cpp' allows use of C-like constructs such
as `#define' and `#include', but can lead to unexpected, even mistaken,
results due to Fortran's source file format.  It is recommended that
use of the C preprocessor be limited to `#include' and, in conjunction
with `#define', only `#if' and related directives, thus avoiding
in-line macro expansion entirely.  This recommendation applies
especially when using the traditional fixed source form.  With free
source form, fewer unexpected transformations are likely to happen, but
use of constructs such as Hollerith and character constants can
nevertheless present problems, especially when these are continued
across multiple source lines.  These problems result, primarily, from
differences between the way such constants are interpreted by the C
preprocessor and by a Fortran compiler.

   Another example of a problem that results from using the C
preprocessor is that a Fortran comment line that happens to contain any
characters "interesting" to the C preprocessor, such as a backslash at
the end of the line, is not recognized by the preprocessor as a comment
line, so instead of being passed through "raw", the line is edited
according to the rules for the preprocessor.  For example, the
backslash at the end of the line is removed, along with the subsequent
newline, resulting in the next line being effectively commented
out--unfortunate if that line is a non-comment line of important code!

   _Note:_ The `-traditional' and `-undef' flags are supplied to `cpp'
by default, to help avoid unpleasant surprises.  *Note Options
Controlling the Preprocessor: (gcc)Preprocessor Options.  This means
that ANSI C preprocessor features (such as the `#' operator) aren't
available, and only variables in the C reserved namespace (generally,
names with a leading underscore) are liable to substitution by C
predefines.  Thus, if you want to do system-specific tests, use, for
example, `#ifdef __linux__' rather than `#ifdef linux'.  Use the `-v'
option to see exactly how the preprocessor is invoked.

   Unfortunately, the `-traditional' flag will not avoid an error from
anything that `cpp' sees as an unterminated C comment, such as:
     C Some Fortran compilers accept /* as starting
     C an inline comment.
   *Note Trailing Comment::.

   The following options that affect overall processing are recognized
by the `g77' and `gcc' commands in a GNU Fortran installation:

`-fversion'
     Ensure that the `g77' version of the compiler phase is reported,
     if run, and, starting in `egcs' version 1.1, that internal
     consistency checks in the `f771' program are run.

     This option is supplied automatically when `-v' or `--verbose' is
     specified as a command-line option for `g77' or `gcc' and when the
     resulting commands compile Fortran source files.

     In GCC 3.1, this is changed back to the behavior `gcc' displays
     for `.c' files.

`-fset-g77-defaults'
     _Version info:_ This option was obsolete as of `egcs' version 1.1.
     The effect is instead achieved by the `lang_init_options' routine
     in `gcc/gcc/f/com.c'.

     Set up whatever `gcc' options are to apply to Fortran
     compilations, and avoid running internal consistency checks that
     might take some time.

     This option is supplied automatically when compiling Fortran code
     via the `g77' or `gcc' command.  The description of this option is
     provided so that users seeing it in the output of, say, `g77 -v'
     understand why it is there.

     Also, developers who run `f771' directly might want to specify it
     by hand to get the same defaults as they would running `f771' via
     `g77' or `gcc' However, such developers should, after linking a
     new `f771' executable, invoke it without this option once, e.g.
     via `./f771 -quiet < /dev/null', to ensure that they have not
     introduced any internal inconsistencies (such as in the table of
     intrinsics) before proceeding--`g77' will crash with a diagnostic
     if it detects an inconsistency.

`-fno-silent'
     Print (to `stderr') the names of the program units as they are
     compiled, in a form similar to that used by popular UNIX `f77'
     implementations and `f2c'

   *Note Options Controlling the Kind of Output: (gcc)Overall Options,
for information on more options that control the overall operation of
the `gcc' command (and, by extension, the `g77' command).

File: g77.info,  Node: Shorthand Options,  Next: Fortran Dialect Options,  Prev: Overall Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.3 Shorthand Options
=====================

The following options serve as "shorthand" for other options accepted
by the compiler:

`-fugly'
     _Note:_ This option is no longer supported.  The information,
     below, is provided to aid in the conversion of old scripts.

     Specify that certain "ugly" constructs are to be quietly accepted.
     Same as:

          -fugly-args -fugly-assign -fugly-assumed
          -fugly-comma -fugly-complex -fugly-init
          -fugly-logint

     These constructs are considered inappropriate to use in new or
     well-maintained portable Fortran code, but widely used in old code.
     *Note Distensions::, for more information.

`-fno-ugly'
     Specify that all "ugly" constructs are to be noisily rejected.
     Same as:

          -fno-ugly-args -fno-ugly-assign -fno-ugly-assumed
          -fno-ugly-comma -fno-ugly-complex -fno-ugly-init
          -fno-ugly-logint

     *Note Distensions::, for more information.

`-ff66'
     Specify that the program is written in idiomatic FORTRAN 66.  Same
     as `-fonetrip -fugly-assumed'.

     The `-fno-f66' option is the inverse of `-ff66'.  As such, it is
     the same as `-fno-onetrip -fno-ugly-assumed'.

     The meaning of this option is likely to be refined as future
     versions of `g77' provide more compatibility with other existing
     and obsolete Fortran implementations.

`-ff77'
     Specify that the program is written in idiomatic UNIX FORTRAN 77
     and/or the dialect accepted by the `f2c' product.  Same as
     `-fbackslash -fno-typeless-boz'.

     The meaning of this option is likely to be refined as future
     versions of `g77' provide more compatibility with other existing
     and obsolete Fortran implementations.

`-fno-f77'
     The `-fno-f77' option is _not_ the inverse of `-ff77'.  It
     specifies that the program is not written in idiomatic UNIX
     FORTRAN 77 or `f2c' but in a more widely portable dialect.
     `-fno-f77' is the same as `-fno-backslash'.

     The meaning of this option is likely to be refined as future
     versions of `g77' provide more compatibility with other existing
     and obsolete Fortran implementations.

File: g77.info,  Node: Fortran Dialect Options,  Next: Warning Options,  Prev: Shorthand Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.4 Options Controlling Fortran Dialect
=======================================

The following options control the dialect of Fortran that the compiler
accepts:

`-ffree-form'

`-fno-fixed-form'
     Specify that the source file is written in free form (introduced
     in Fortran 90) instead of the more-traditional fixed form.

`-ff90'
     Allow certain Fortran-90 constructs.

     This option controls whether certain Fortran 90 constructs are
     recognized.  (Other Fortran 90 constructs might or might not be
     recognized depending on other options such as `-fvxt',
     `-ff90-intrinsics-enable', and the current level of support for
     Fortran 90.)

     *Note Fortran 90::, for more information.

`-fvxt'
     Specify the treatment of certain constructs that have different
     meanings depending on whether the code is written in GNU Fortran
     (based on FORTRAN 77 and akin to Fortran 90) or VXT Fortran (more
     like VAX FORTRAN).

     The default is `-fno-vxt'.  `-fvxt' specifies that the VXT Fortran
     interpretations for those constructs are to be chosen.

     *Note VXT Fortran::, for more information.

`-fdollar-ok'
     Allow `$' as a valid character in a symbol name.

`-fno-backslash'
     Specify that `\' is not to be specially interpreted in character
     and Hollerith constants a la C and many UNIX Fortran compilers.

     For example, with `-fbackslash' in effect, `A\nB' specifies three
     characters, with the second one being newline.  With
     `-fno-backslash', it specifies four characters, `A', `\', `n', and
     `B'.

     Note that `g77' implements a fairly general form of backslash
     processing that is incompatible with the narrower forms supported
     by some other compilers.  For example, `'A\003B'' is a
     three-character string in `g77' whereas other compilers that
     support backslash might not support the three-octal-digit form,
     and thus treat that string as longer than three characters.

     *Note Backslash in Constants::, for information on why
     `-fbackslash' is the default instead of `-fno-backslash'.

`-fno-ugly-args'
     Disallow passing Hollerith and typeless constants as actual
     arguments (for example, `CALL FOO(4HABCD)').

     *Note Ugly Implicit Argument Conversion::, for more information.

`-fugly-assign'
     Use the same storage for a given variable regardless of whether it
     is used to hold an assigned-statement label (as in `ASSIGN 10 TO
     I') or used to hold numeric data (as in `I = 3').

     *Note Ugly Assigned Labels::, for more information.

`-fugly-assumed'
     Assume any dummy array with a final dimension specified as `1' is
     really an assumed-size array, as if `*' had been specified for the
     final dimension instead of `1'.

     For example, `DIMENSION X(1)' is treated as if it had read
     `DIMENSION X(*)'.

     *Note Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays::, for more information.

`-fugly-comma'
     In an external-procedure invocation, treat a trailing comma in the
     argument list as specification of a trailing null argument, and
     treat an empty argument list as specification of a single null
     argument.

     For example, `CALL FOO(,)' is treated as `CALL FOO(%VAL(0),
     %VAL(0))'.  That is, _two_ null arguments are specified by the
     procedure call when `-fugly-comma' is in force.  And `F = FUNC()'
     is treated as `F = FUNC(%VAL(0))'.

     The default behavior, `-fno-ugly-comma', is to ignore a single
     trailing comma in an argument list.  So, by default, `CALL
     FOO(X,)' is treated exactly the same as `CALL FOO(X)'.

     *Note Ugly Null Arguments::, for more information.

`-fugly-complex'
     Do not complain about `REAL(EXPR)' or `AIMAG(EXPR)' when EXPR is a
     `COMPLEX' type other than `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'--usually this is used
     to permit `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' (`DOUBLE COMPLEX') operands.

     The `-ff90' option controls the interpretation of this construct.

     *Note Ugly Complex Part Extraction::, for more information.

`-fno-ugly-init'
     Disallow use of Hollerith and typeless constants as initial values
     (in `PARAMETER' and `DATA' statements), and use of character
     constants to initialize numeric types and vice versa.

     For example, `DATA I/'F'/, CHRVAR/65/, J/4HABCD/' is disallowed by
     `-fno-ugly-init'.

     *Note Ugly Conversion of Initializers::, for more information.

`-fugly-logint'
     Treat `INTEGER' and `LOGICAL' variables and expressions as
     potential stand-ins for each other.

     For example, automatic conversion between `INTEGER' and `LOGICAL'
     is enabled, for many contexts, via this option.

     *Note Ugly Integer Conversions::, for more information.

`-fonetrip'
     Executable iterative `DO' loops are to be executed at least once
     each time they are reached.

     ANSI FORTRAN 77 and more recent versions of the Fortran standard
     specify that the body of an iterative `DO' loop is not executed if
     the number of iterations calculated from the parameters of the
     loop is less than 1.  (For example, `DO 10 I = 1, 0'.)  Such a
     loop is called a "zero-trip loop".

     Prior to ANSI FORTRAN 77, many compilers implemented `DO' loops
     such that the body of a loop would be executed at least once, even
     if the iteration count was zero.  Fortran code written assuming
     this behavior is said to require "one-trip loops".  For example,
     some code written to the FORTRAN 66 standard expects this behavior
     from its `DO' loops, although that standard did not specify this
     behavior.

     The `-fonetrip' option specifies that the source file(s) being
     compiled require one-trip loops.

     This option affects only those loops specified by the (iterative)
     `DO' statement and by implied-`DO' lists in I/O statements.  Loops
     specified by implied-`DO' lists in `DATA' and specification
     (non-executable) statements are not affected.

`-ftypeless-boz'
     Specifies that prefix-radix non-decimal constants, such as
     `Z'ABCD'', are typeless instead of `INTEGER(KIND=1)'.

     You can test for yourself whether a particular compiler treats the
     prefix form as `INTEGER(KIND=1)' or typeless by running the
     following program:

          EQUIVALENCE (I, R)
          R = Z'ABCD1234'
          J = Z'ABCD1234'
          IF (J .EQ. I) PRINT *, 'Prefix form is TYPELESS'
          IF (J .NE. I) PRINT *, 'Prefix form is INTEGER'
          END

     Reports indicate that many compilers process this form as
     `INTEGER(KIND=1)', though a few as typeless, and at least one
     based on a command-line option specifying some kind of
     compatibility.

`-fintrin-case-initcap'

`-fintrin-case-upper'

`-fintrin-case-lower'

`-fintrin-case-any'
     Specify expected case for intrinsic names.  `-fintrin-case-lower'
     is the default.

`-fmatch-case-initcap'

`-fmatch-case-upper'

`-fmatch-case-lower'

`-fmatch-case-any'
     Specify expected case for keywords.  `-fmatch-case-lower' is the
     default.

`-fsource-case-upper'

`-fsource-case-lower'

`-fsource-case-preserve'
     Specify whether source text other than character and Hollerith
     constants is to be translated to uppercase, to lowercase, or
     preserved as is.  `-fsource-case-lower' is the default.

`-fsymbol-case-initcap'

`-fsymbol-case-upper'

`-fsymbol-case-lower'

`-fsymbol-case-any'
     Specify valid cases for user-defined symbol names.
     `-fsymbol-case-any' is the default.

`-fcase-strict-upper'
     Same as `-fintrin-case-upper -fmatch-case-upper
     -fsource-case-preserve -fsymbol-case-upper'.  (Requires all
     pertinent source to be in uppercase.)

`-fcase-strict-lower'
     Same as `-fintrin-case-lower -fmatch-case-lower
     -fsource-case-preserve -fsymbol-case-lower'.  (Requires all
     pertinent source to be in lowercase.)

`-fcase-initcap'
     Same as `-fintrin-case-initcap -fmatch-case-initcap
     -fsource-case-preserve -fsymbol-case-initcap'.  (Requires all
     pertinent source to be in initial capitals, as in `Print
     *,SqRt(Value)'.)

`-fcase-upper'
     Same as `-fintrin-case-any -fmatch-case-any -fsource-case-upper
     -fsymbol-case-any'.  (Maps all pertinent source to uppercase.)

`-fcase-lower'
     Same as `-fintrin-case-any -fmatch-case-any -fsource-case-lower
     -fsymbol-case-any'.  (Maps all pertinent source to lowercase.)

`-fcase-preserve'
     Same as `-fintrin-case-any -fmatch-case-any -fsource-case-preserve
     -fsymbol-case-any'.  (Preserves all case in user-defined symbols,
     while allowing any-case matching of intrinsics and keywords.  For
     example, `call Foo(i,I)' would pass two _different_ variables
     named `i' and `I' to a procedure named `Foo'.)

`-fbadu77-intrinsics-delete'

`-fbadu77-intrinsics-hide'

`-fbadu77-intrinsics-disable'

`-fbadu77-intrinsics-enable'
     Specify status of UNIX intrinsics having inappropriate forms.
     `-fbadu77-intrinsics-enable' is the default.  *Note Intrinsic
     Groups::.

`-ff2c-intrinsics-delete'

`-ff2c-intrinsics-hide'

`-ff2c-intrinsics-disable'

`-ff2c-intrinsics-enable'
     Specify status of f2c-specific intrinsics.
     `-ff2c-intrinsics-enable' is the default.  *Note Intrinsic
     Groups::.

`-ff90-intrinsics-delete'

`-ff90-intrinsics-hide'

`-ff90-intrinsics-disable'

`-ff90-intrinsics-enable'
     Specify status of F90-specific intrinsics.
     `-ff90-intrinsics-enable' is the default.  *Note Intrinsic
     Groups::.

`-fgnu-intrinsics-delete'

`-fgnu-intrinsics-hide'

`-fgnu-intrinsics-disable'

`-fgnu-intrinsics-enable'
     Specify status of Digital's COMPLEX-related intrinsics.
     `-fgnu-intrinsics-enable' is the default.  *Note Intrinsic
     Groups::.

`-fmil-intrinsics-delete'

`-fmil-intrinsics-hide'

`-fmil-intrinsics-disable'

`-fmil-intrinsics-enable'
     Specify status of MIL-STD-1753-specific intrinsics.
     `-fmil-intrinsics-enable' is the default.  *Note Intrinsic
     Groups::.

`-funix-intrinsics-delete'

`-funix-intrinsics-hide'

`-funix-intrinsics-disable'

`-funix-intrinsics-enable'
     Specify status of UNIX intrinsics.  `-funix-intrinsics-enable' is
     the default.  *Note Intrinsic Groups::.

`-fvxt-intrinsics-delete'

`-fvxt-intrinsics-hide'

`-fvxt-intrinsics-disable'

`-fvxt-intrinsics-enable'
     Specify status of VXT intrinsics.  `-fvxt-intrinsics-enable' is
     the default.  *Note Intrinsic Groups::.

`-ffixed-line-length-N'
     Set column after which characters are ignored in typical fixed-form
     lines in the source file, and through which spaces are assumed (as
     if padded to that length) after the ends of short fixed-form lines.

     Popular values for N include 72 (the standard and the default), 80
     (card image), and 132 (corresponds to "extended-source" options in
     some popular compilers).  N may be `none', meaning that the entire
     line is meaningful and that continued character constants never
     have implicit spaces appended to them to fill out the line.
     `-ffixed-line-length-0' means the same thing as
     `-ffixed-line-length-none'.

     *Note Source Form::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: Warning Options,  Next: Debugging Options,  Prev: Fortran Dialect Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.5 Options to Request or Suppress Warnings
===========================================

Warnings are diagnostic messages that report constructions which are
not inherently erroneous but which are risky or suggest there might
have been an error.

   You can request many specific warnings with options beginning `-W',
for example `-Wimplicit' to request warnings on implicit declarations.
Each of these specific warning options also has a negative form
beginning `-Wno-' to turn off warnings; for example, `-Wno-implicit'.
This manual lists only one of the two forms, whichever is not the
default.

   These options control the amount and kinds of warnings produced by
GNU Fortran:

`-fsyntax-only'
     Check the code for syntax errors, but don't do anything beyond
     that.

`-pedantic'
     Issue warnings for uses of extensions to ANSI FORTRAN 77.
     `-pedantic' also applies to C-language constructs where they occur
     in GNU Fortran source files, such as use of `\e' in a character
     constant within a directive like `#include'.

     Valid ANSI FORTRAN 77 programs should compile properly with or
     without this option.  However, without this option, certain GNU
     extensions and traditional Fortran features are supported as well.
     With this option, many of them are rejected.

     Some users try to use `-pedantic' to check programs for strict ANSI
     conformance.  They soon find that it does not do quite what they
     want--it finds some non-ANSI practices, but not all.  However,
     improvements to `g77' in this area are welcome.

`-pedantic-errors'
     Like `-pedantic', except that errors are produced rather than
     warnings.

`-fpedantic'
     Like `-pedantic', but applies only to Fortran constructs.

`-w'
     Inhibit all warning messages.

`-Wno-globals'
     Inhibit warnings about use of a name as both a global name (a
     subroutine, function, or block data program unit, or a common
     block) and implicitly as the name of an intrinsic in a source file.

     Also inhibit warnings about inconsistent invocations and/or
     definitions of global procedures (function and subroutines).  Such
     inconsistencies include different numbers of arguments and
     different types of arguments.

`-Wimplicit'
     Warn whenever a variable, array, or function is implicitly
     declared.  Has an effect similar to using the `IMPLICIT NONE'
     statement in every program unit.  (Some Fortran compilers provide
     this feature by an option named `-u' or `/WARNINGS=DECLARATIONS'.)

`-Wunused'
     Warn whenever a variable is unused aside from its declaration.

`-Wuninitialized'
     Warn whenever an automatic variable is used without first being
     initialized.

     These warnings are possible only in optimizing compilation,
     because they require data-flow information that is computed only
     when optimizing.  If you don't specify `-O', you simply won't get
     these warnings.

     These warnings occur only for variables that are candidates for
     register allocation.  Therefore, they do not occur for a variable
     whose address is taken, or whose size is other than 1, 2, 4 or 8
     bytes.  Also, they do not occur for arrays, even when they are in
     registers.

     Note that there might be no warning about a variable that is used
     only to compute a value that itself is never used, because such
     computations may be deleted by data-flow analysis before the
     warnings are printed.

     These warnings are made optional because GNU Fortran is not smart
     enough to see all the reasons why the code might be correct
     despite appearing to have an error.  Here is one example of how
     this can happen:

          SUBROUTINE DISPAT(J)
          IF (J.EQ.1) I=1
          IF (J.EQ.2) I=4
          IF (J.EQ.3) I=5
          CALL FOO(I)
          END

     If the value of `J' is always 1, 2 or 3, then `I' is always
     initialized, but GNU Fortran doesn't know this.  Here is another
     common case:

          SUBROUTINE MAYBE(FLAG)
          LOGICAL FLAG
          IF (FLAG) VALUE = 9.4
          ...
          IF (FLAG) PRINT *, VALUE
          END

     This has no bug because `VALUE' is used only if it is set.

`-Wall'
     The `-Wunused' and `-Wuninitialized' options combined.  These are
     all the options which pertain to usage that we recommend avoiding
     and that we believe is easy to avoid.  (As more warnings are added
     to `g77' some might be added to the list enabled by `-Wall'.)

   The remaining `-W...' options are not implied by `-Wall' because
they warn about constructions that we consider reasonable to use, on
occasion, in clean programs.

`-Wsurprising'
     Warn about "suspicious" constructs that are interpreted by the
     compiler in a way that might well be surprising to someone reading
     the code.  These differences can result in subtle,
     compiler-dependent (even machine-dependent) behavioral differences.
     The constructs warned about include:

        * Expressions having two arithmetic operators in a row, such as
          `X*-Y'.  Such a construct is nonstandard, and can produce
          unexpected results in more complicated situations such as
          `X**-Y*Z'.  `g77' along with many other compilers, interprets
          this example differently than many programmers, and a few
          other compilers.  Specifically, `g77' interprets `X**-Y*Z' as
          `(X**(-Y))*Z', while others might think it should be
          interpreted as `X**(-(Y*Z))'.

          A revealing example is the constant expression `2**-2*1.',
          which `g77' evaluates to .25, while others might evaluate it
          to 0., the difference resulting from the way precedence
          affects type promotion.

          (The `-fpedantic' option also warns about expressions having
          two arithmetic operators in a row.)

        * Expressions with a unary minus followed by an operand and then
          a binary operator other than plus or minus.  For example,
          `-2**2' produces a warning, because the precedence is
          `-(2**2)', yielding -4, not `(-2)**2', which yields 4, and
          which might represent what a programmer expects.

          An example of an expression producing different results in a
          surprising way is `-I*S', where I holds the value
          `-2147483648' and S holds `0.5'.  On many systems, negating I
          results in the same value, not a positive number, because it
          is already the lower bound of what an `INTEGER(KIND=1)'
          variable can hold.  So, the expression evaluates to a
          positive number, while the "expected" interpretation,
          `(-I)*S', would evaluate to a negative number.

          Even cases such as `-I*J' produce warnings, even though, in
          most configurations and situations, there is no computational
          difference between the results of the two
          interpretations--the purpose of this warning is to warn about
          differing interpretations and encourage a better style of
          coding, not to identify only those places where bugs might
          exist in the user's code.

        * `DO' loops with `DO' variables that are not of integral
          type--that is, using `REAL' variables as loop control
          variables.  Although such loops can be written to work in the
          "obvious" way, the way `g77' is required by the Fortran
          standard to interpret such code is likely to be quite
          different from the way many programmers expect.  (This is
          true of all `DO' loops, but the differences are pronounced
          for non-integral loop control variables.)

          *Note Loops::, for more information.

`-Werror'
     Make all warnings into errors.

`-W'
     Turns on "extra warnings" and, if optimization is specified via
     `-O', the `-Wuninitialized' option.  (This might change in future
     versions of `g77'

     "Extra warnings" are issued for:

        * Unused parameters to a procedure (when `-Wunused' also is
          specified).

        * Overflows involving floating-point constants (not available
          for certain configurations).

   *Note Options to Request or Suppress Warnings: (gcc)Warning Options,
for information on more options offered by the GBE shared by `g77'
`gcc' and other GNU compilers.

   Some of these have no effect when compiling programs written in
Fortran:

`-Wcomment'

`-Wformat'

`-Wparentheses'

`-Wswitch'

`-Wswitch-default'

`-Wswitch-enum'

`-Wtraditional'

`-Wshadow'

`-Wid-clash-LEN'

`-Wlarger-than-LEN'

`-Wconversion'

`-Waggregate-return'

`-Wredundant-decls'
     These options all could have some relevant meaning for GNU Fortran
     programs, but are not yet supported.

File: g77.info,  Node: Debugging Options,  Next: Optimize Options,  Prev: Warning Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.6 Options for Debugging Your Program or GNU Fortran
=====================================================

GNU Fortran has various special options that are used for debugging
either your program or `g77'

`-g'
     Produce debugging information in the operating system's native
     format (stabs, COFF, XCOFF, or DWARF).  GDB can work with this
     debugging information.

     A sample debugging session looks like this (note the use of the
     breakpoint):
          $ cat gdb.f
                PROGRAM PROG
                DIMENSION A(10)
                DATA A /1.,2.,3.,4.,5.,6.,7.,8.,9.,10./
                A(5) = 4.
                PRINT*,A
                END
          $ g77 -g -O gdb.f
          $ gdb a.out
          ...
          (gdb) break MAIN__
          Breakpoint 1 at 0x8048e96: file gdb.f, line 4.
          (gdb) run
          Starting program: /home/toon/g77-bugs/./a.out
          Breakpoint 1, MAIN__ () at gdb.f:4
          4             A(5) = 4.
          Current language:  auto; currently fortran
          (gdb) print a(5)
          $1 = 5
          (gdb) step
          5             PRINT*,A
          (gdb) print a(5)
          $2 = 4
          ...
     One could also add the setting of the breakpoint and the first run
     command to the file `.gdbinit' in the current directory, to
     simplify the debugging session.

   *Note Options for Debugging Your Program or GCC: (gcc)Debugging
Options, for more information on debugging options.

File: g77.info,  Node: Optimize Options,  Next: Preprocessor Options,  Prev: Debugging Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.7 Options That Control Optimization
=====================================

Most Fortran users will want to use no optimization when developing and
testing programs, and use `-O' or `-O2' when compiling programs for
late-cycle testing and for production use.  However, note that certain
diagnostics--such as for uninitialized variables--depend on the flow
analysis done by `-O', i.e. you must use `-O' or `-O2' to get such
diagnostics.

   The following flags have particular applicability when compiling
Fortran programs:

`-malign-double'
     (Intel x86 architecture only.)

     Noticeably improves performance of `g77' programs making heavy use
     of `REAL(KIND=2)' (`DOUBLE PRECISION') data on some systems.  In
     particular, systems using Pentium, Pentium Pro, 586, and 686
     implementations of the i386 architecture execute programs faster
     when `REAL(KIND=2)' (`DOUBLE PRECISION') data are aligned on
     64-bit boundaries in memory.

     This option can, at least, make benchmark results more consistent
     across various system configurations, versions of the program, and
     data sets.

     _Note:_ The warning in the `gcc' documentation about this option
     does not apply, generally speaking, to Fortran code compiled by
     `g77'

     *Note Aligned Data::, for more information on alignment issues.

     _Also also note:_ The negative form of `-malign-double' is
     `-mno-align-double', not `-benign-double'.

`-ffloat-store'
     Might help a Fortran program that depends on exact IEEE
     conformance on some machines, but might slow down a program that
     doesn't.

     This option is effective when the floating-point unit is set to
     work in IEEE 854 `extended precision'--as it typically is on x86
     and m68k GNU systems--rather than IEEE 754 double precision.
     `-ffloat-store' tries to remove the extra precision by spilling
     data from floating-point registers into memory and this typically
     involves a big performance hit.  However, it doesn't affect
     intermediate results, so that it is only partially effective.
     `Excess precision' is avoided in code like:
          a = b + c
          d = a * e
     but not in code like:
                d = (b + c) * e

     For another, potentially better, way of controlling the precision,
     see *note Floating-point precision::.

`-fforce-mem'

`-fforce-addr'
     Might improve optimization of loops.

`-fno-inline'
     Don't compile statement functions inline.  Might reduce the size
     of a program unit--which might be at expense of some speed (though
     it should compile faster).  Note that if you are not optimizing,
     no functions can be expanded inline.

`-ffast-math'
     Might allow some programs designed to not be too dependent on IEEE
     behavior for floating-point to run faster, or die trying.  Sets
     `-funsafe-math-optimizations', `-ffinite-math-only', and
     `-fno-trapping-math'.

`-funsafe-math-optimizations'
     Allow optimizations that may be give incorrect results for certain
     IEEE inputs.

`-ffinite-math-only'
     Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that assume that
     arguments and results are not NaNs or +-Infs.

     This option should never be turned on by any `-O' option since it
     can result in incorrect output for programs which depend on an
     exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications.

     The default is `-fno-finite-math-only'.

`-fno-trapping-math'
     Allow the compiler to assume that floating-point arithmetic will
     not generate traps on any inputs.  This is useful, for example,
     when running a program using IEEE "non-stop" floating-point
     arithmetic.

`-fstrength-reduce'
     Might make some loops run faster.

`-frerun-cse-after-loop'

`-fexpensive-optimizations'

`-fdelayed-branch'

`-fschedule-insns'

`-fschedule-insns2'

`-fcaller-saves'
     Might improve performance on some code.

`-funroll-loops'
     Typically improves performance on code using iterative `DO' loops
     by unrolling them and is probably generally appropriate for
     Fortran, though it is not turned on at any optimization level.
     Note that outer loop unrolling isn't done specifically; decisions
     about whether to unroll a loop are made on the basis of its
     instruction count.

     Also, no `loop discovery'(1) is done, so only loops written with
     `DO' benefit from loop optimizations, including--but not limited
     to--unrolling.  Loops written with `IF' and `GOTO' are not
     currently recognized as such.  This option unrolls only iterative
     `DO' loops, not `DO WHILE' loops.

`-funroll-all-loops'
     Probably improves performance on code using `DO WHILE' loops by
     unrolling them in addition to iterative `DO' loops.  In the absence
     of `DO WHILE', this option is equivalent to `-funroll-loops' but
     possibly slower.

`-fno-move-all-movables'

`-fno-reduce-all-givs'

`-fno-rerun-loop-opt'
     In general, the optimizations enabled with these options will lead
     to faster code being generated by GNU Fortran; hence they are
     enabled by default when issuing the `g77' command.

     `-fmove-all-movables' and `-freduce-all-givs' will enable loop
     optimization to move all loop-invariant index computations in
     nested loops over multi-rank array dummy arguments out of these
     loops.

     `-frerun-loop-opt' will move offset calculations resulting from
     the fact that Fortran arrays by default have a lower bound of 1
     out of the loops.

     These three options are intended to be removed someday, once loop
     optimization is sufficiently advanced to perform all those
     transformations without help from these options.

   *Note Options That Control Optimization: (gcc)Optimize Options, for
more information on options to optimize the generated machine code.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) "loop discovery" refers to the process by which a compiler, or
indeed any reader of a program, determines which portions of the
program are more likely to be executed repeatedly as it is being run.
Such discovery typically is done early when compiling using
optimization techniques, so the "discovered" loops get more
attention--and more run-time resources, such as registers--from the
compiler.  It is easy to "discover" loops that are constructed out of
looping constructs in the language (such as Fortran's `DO').  For some
programs, "discovering" loops constructed out of lower-level constructs
(such as `IF' and `GOTO') can lead to generation of more optimal code
than otherwise.

File: g77.info,  Node: Preprocessor Options,  Next: Directory Options,  Prev: Optimize Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.8 Options Controlling the Preprocessor
========================================

These options control the C preprocessor, which is run on each C source
file before actual compilation.

   *Note Options Controlling the Preprocessor: (gcc)Preprocessor
Options, for information on C preprocessor options.

   Some of these options also affect how `g77' processes the `INCLUDE'
directive.  Since this directive is processed even when preprocessing
is not requested, it is not described in this section.  *Note Options
for Directory Search: Directory Options, for information on how `g77'
processes the `INCLUDE' directive.

   However, the `INCLUDE' directive does not apply preprocessing to the
contents of the included file itself.

   Therefore, any file that contains preprocessor directives (such as
`#include', `#define', and `#if') must be included via the `#include'
directive, not via the `INCLUDE' directive.  Therefore, any file
containing preprocessor directives, if included, is necessarily
included by a file that itself contains preprocessor directives.

File: g77.info,  Node: Directory Options,  Next: Code Gen Options,  Prev: Preprocessor Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.9 Options for Directory Search
================================

These options affect how the `cpp' preprocessor searches for files
specified via the `#include' directive.  Therefore, when compiling
Fortran programs, they are meaningful when the preprocessor is used.

   Some of these options also affect how `g77' searches for files
specified via the `INCLUDE' directive, although files included by that
directive are not, themselves, preprocessed.  These options are:

`-I-'

`-IDIR'
     These affect interpretation of the `INCLUDE' directive (as well as
     of the `#include' directive of the `cpp' preprocessor).

     Note that `-IDIR' must be specified _without_ any spaces between
     `-I' and the directory name--that is, `-Ifoo/bar' is valid, but
     `-I foo/bar' is rejected by the `g77' compiler (though the
     preprocessor supports the latter form).  Also note that the
     general behavior of `-I' and `INCLUDE' is pretty much the same as
     of `-I' with `#include' in the `cpp' preprocessor, with regard to
     looking for `header.gcc' files and other such things.

     *Note Options for Directory Search: (gcc)Directory Options, for
     information on the `-I' option.

File: g77.info,  Node: Code Gen Options,  Next: Environment Variables,  Prev: Directory Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.10 Options for Code Generation Conventions
============================================

These machine-independent options control the interface conventions
used in code generation.

   Most of them have both positive and negative forms; the negative form
of `-ffoo' would be `-fno-foo'.  In the table below, only one of the
forms is listed--the one which is not the default.  You can figure out
the other form by either removing `no-' or adding it.

`-fno-automatic'
     Treat each program unit as if the `SAVE' statement was specified
     for every local variable and array referenced in it.  Does not
     affect common blocks.  (Some Fortran compilers provide this option
     under the name `-static'.)

`-finit-local-zero'
     Specify that variables and arrays that are local to a program unit
     (not in a common block and not passed as an argument) are to be
     initialized to binary zeros.

     Since there is a run-time penalty for initialization of variables
     that are not given the `SAVE' attribute, it might be a good idea
     to also use `-fno-automatic' with `-finit-local-zero'.

`-fno-f2c'
     Do not generate code designed to be compatible with code generated
     by `f2c' use the GNU calling conventions instead.

     The `f2c' calling conventions require functions that return type
     `REAL(KIND=1)' to actually return the C type `double', and
     functions that return type `COMPLEX' to return the values via an
     extra argument in the calling sequence that points to where to
     store the return value.  Under the GNU calling conventions, such
     functions simply return their results as they would in GNU
     C--`REAL(KIND=1)' functions return the C type `float', and
     `COMPLEX' functions return the GNU C type `complex' (or its
     `struct' equivalent).

     This does not affect the generation of code that interfaces with
     the `libg2c' library.

     However, because the `libg2c' library uses `f2c' calling
     conventions, `g77' rejects attempts to pass intrinsics implemented
     by routines in this library as actual arguments when `-fno-f2c' is
     used, to avoid bugs when they are actually called by code
     expecting the GNU calling conventions to work.

     For example, `INTRINSIC ABS;CALL FOO(ABS)' is rejected when
     `-fno-f2c' is in force.  (Future versions of the `g77' run-time
     library might offer routines that provide GNU-callable versions of
     the routines that implement the `f2c' intrinsics that may be
     passed as actual arguments, so that valid programs need not be
     rejected when `-fno-f2c' is used.)

     *Caution:* If `-fno-f2c' is used when compiling any source file
     used in a program, it must be used when compiling _all_ Fortran
     source files used in that program.

`-ff2c-library'
     Specify that use of `libg2c' (or the original `libf2c') is
     required.  This is the default for the current version of `g77'

     Currently it is not valid to specify `-fno-f2c-library'.  This
     option is provided so users can specify it in shell scripts that
     build programs and libraries that require the `libf2c' library,
     even when being compiled by future versions of `g77' that might
     otherwise default to generating code for an incompatible library.

`-fno-underscoring'
     Do not transform names of entities specified in the Fortran source
     file by appending underscores to them.

     With `-funderscoring' in effect, `g77' appends two underscores to
     names with underscores and one underscore to external names with
     no underscores.  (`g77' also appends two underscores to internal
     names with underscores to avoid naming collisions with external
     names.  The `-fno-second-underscore' option disables appending of
     the second underscore in all cases.)

     This is done to ensure compatibility with code produced by many
     UNIX Fortran compilers, including `f2c' which perform the same
     transformations.

     Use of `-fno-underscoring' is not recommended unless you are
     experimenting with issues such as integration of (GNU) Fortran into
     existing system environments (vis-a-vis existing libraries, tools,
     and so on).

     For example, with `-funderscoring', and assuming other defaults
     like `-fcase-lower' and that `j()' and `max_count()' are external
     functions while `my_var' and `lvar' are local variables, a
     statement like

          I = J() + MAX_COUNT (MY_VAR, LVAR)

     is implemented as something akin to:

          i = j_() + max_count__(&my_var__, &lvar);

     With `-fno-underscoring', the same statement is implemented as:

          i = j() + max_count(&my_var, &lvar);

     Use of `-fno-underscoring' allows direct specification of
     user-defined names while debugging and when interfacing `g77' code
     with other languages.

     Note that just because the names match does _not_ mean that the
     interface implemented by `g77' for an external name matches the
     interface implemented by some other language for that same name.
     That is, getting code produced by `g77' to link to code produced
     by some other compiler using this or any other method can be only a
     small part of the overall solution--getting the code generated by
     both compilers to agree on issues other than naming can require
     significant effort, and, unlike naming disagreements, linkers
     normally cannot detect disagreements in these other areas.

     Also, note that with `-fno-underscoring', the lack of appended
     underscores introduces the very real possibility that a
     user-defined external name will conflict with a name in a system
     library, which could make finding unresolved-reference bugs quite
     difficult in some cases--they might occur at program run time, and
     show up only as buggy behavior at run time.

     In future versions of `g77' we hope to improve naming and linking
     issues so that debugging always involves using the names as they
     appear in the source, even if the names as seen by the linker are
     mangled to prevent accidental linking between procedures with
     incompatible interfaces.

`-fno-second-underscore'
     Do not append a second underscore to names of entities specified
     in the Fortran source file.

     This option has no effect if `-fno-underscoring' is in effect.

     Otherwise, with this option, an external name such as `MAX_COUNT'
     is implemented as a reference to the link-time external symbol
     `max_count_', instead of `max_count__'.

`-fno-ident'
     Ignore the `#ident' directive.

`-fzeros'
     Treat initial values of zero as if they were any other value.

     As of version 0.5.18, `g77' normally treats `DATA' and other
     statements that are used to specify initial values of zero for
     variables and arrays as if no values were actually specified, in
     the sense that no diagnostics regarding multiple initializations
     are produced.

     This is done to speed up compiling of programs that initialize
     large arrays to zeros.

     Use `-fzeros' to revert to the simpler, slower behavior that can
     catch multiple initializations by keeping track of all
     initializations, zero or otherwise.

     _Caution:_ Future versions of `g77' might disregard this option
     (and its negative form, the default) or interpret it somewhat
     differently.  The interpretation changes will affect only
     non-standard programs; standard-conforming programs should not be
     affected.

`-femulate-complex'
     Implement `COMPLEX' arithmetic via emulation, instead of using the
     facilities of the `gcc' back end that provide direct support of
     `complex' arithmetic.

     (`gcc' had some bugs in its back-end support for `complex'
     arithmetic, due primarily to the support not being completed as of
     version 2.8.1 and `egcs' 1.1.2.)

     Use `-femulate-complex' if you suspect code-generation bugs, or
     experience compiler crashes, that might result from `g77' using
     the `COMPLEX' support in the `gcc' back end.  If using that option
     fixes the bugs or crashes you are seeing, that indicates a likely
     `g77' bugs (though, all compiler crashes are considered bugs), so,
     please report it.  (Note that the known bugs, now believed fixed,
     produced compiler crashes rather than causing the generation of
     incorrect code.)

     Use of this option should not affect how Fortran code compiled by
     `g77' works in terms of its interfaces to other code, e.g. that
     compiled by `f2c'

     As of GCC version 3.0, this option is not necessary anymore.

     _Caution:_ Future versions of `g77' might ignore both forms of
     this option.

`-falias-check'

`-fargument-alias'

`-fargument-noalias'

`-fno-argument-noalias-global'
     _Version info:_ These options are not supported by versions of
     `g77' based on `gcc' version 2.8.

     These options specify to what degree aliasing (overlap) is
     permitted between arguments (passed as pointers) and `COMMON'
     (external, or public) storage.

     The default for Fortran code, as mandated by the FORTRAN 77 and
     Fortran 90 standards, is `-fargument-noalias-global'.  The default
     for code written in the C language family is `-fargument-alias'.

     Note that, on some systems, compiling with `-fforce-addr' in
     effect can produce more optimal code when the default aliasing
     options are in effect (and when optimization is enabled).

     *Note Aliasing Assumed To Work::, for detailed information on the
     implications of compiling Fortran code that depends on the ability
     to alias dummy arguments.

`-fno-globals'
     Disable diagnostics about inter-procedural analysis problems, such
     as disagreements about the type of a function or a procedure's
     argument, that might cause a compiler crash when attempting to
     inline a reference to a procedure within a program unit.  (The
     diagnostics themselves are still produced, but as warnings, unless
     `-Wno-globals' is specified, in which case no relevant diagnostics
     are produced.)

     Further, this option disables such inlining, to avoid compiler
     crashes resulting from incorrect code that would otherwise be
     diagnosed.

     As such, this option might be quite useful when compiling
     existing, "working" code that happens to have a few bugs that do
     not generally show themselves, but which `g77' diagnoses.

     Use of this option therefore has the effect of instructing `g77'
     to behave more like it did up through version 0.5.19.1, when it
     paid little or no attention to disagreements between program units
     about a procedure's type and argument information, and when it
     performed no inlining of procedures (except statement functions).

     Without this option, `g77' defaults to performing the potentially
     inlining procedures as it started doing in version 0.5.20, but as
     of version 0.5.21, it also diagnoses disagreements that might
     cause such inlining to crash the compiler as (fatal) errors, and
     warns about similar disagreements that are currently believed to
     not likely to result in the compiler later crashing or producing
     incorrect code.

`-fflatten-arrays'
     Use back end's C-like constructs (pointer plus offset) instead of
     its `ARRAY_REF' construct to handle all array references.

     _Note:_ This option is not supported.  It is intended for use only
     by `g77' developers, to evaluate code-generation issues.  It might
     be removed at any time.

`-fbounds-check'
`-ffortran-bounds-check'
     Enable generation of run-time checks for array subscripts and
     substring start and end points against the (locally) declared
     minimum and maximum values.

     The current implementation uses the `libf2c' library routine
     `s_rnge' to print the diagnostic.

     However, whereas `f2c' generates a single check per reference for
     a multi-dimensional array, of the computed offset against the
     valid offset range (0 through the size of the array), `g77'
     generates a single check per _subscript_ expression.  This catches
     some cases of potential bugs that `f2c' does not, such as
     references to below the beginning of an assumed-size array.

     `g77' also generates checks for `CHARACTER' substring references,
     something `f2c' currently does not do.

     Use the new `-ffortran-bounds-check' option to specify
     bounds-checking for only the Fortran code you are compiling, not
     necessarily for code written in other languages.

     _Note:_ To provide more detailed information on the offending
     subscript, `g77' provides the `libg2c' run-time library routine
     `s_rnge' with somewhat differently-formatted information.  Here's
     a sample diagnostic:

          Subscript out of range on file line 4, procedure rnge.f/bf.
          Attempt to access the -6-th element of variable b[subscript-2-of-2].
          Aborted

     The above message indicates that the offending source line is line
     4 of the file `rnge.f', within the program unit (or statement
     function) named `bf'.  The offended array is named `b'.  The
     offended array dimension is the second for a two-dimensional array,
     and the offending, computed subscript expression was `-6'.

     For a `CHARACTER' substring reference, the second line has this
     appearance:

          Attempt to access the 11-th element of variable a[start-substring].

     This indicates that the offended `CHARACTER' variable or array is
     named `a', the offended substring position is the starting
     (leftmost) position, and the offending substring expression is
     `11'.

     (Though the verbage of `s_rnge' is not ideal for the purpose of
     the `g77' compiler, the above information should provide adequate
     diagnostic abilities to it users.)

   *Note Options for Code Generation Conventions: (gcc)Code Gen
Options, for information on more options offered by the GBE shared by
`g77' `gcc' and other GNU compilers.

   Some of these do _not_ work when compiling programs written in
Fortran:

`-fpcc-struct-return'

`-freg-struct-return'
     You should not use these except strictly the same way as you used
     them to build the version of `libg2c' with which you will be
     linking all code compiled by `g77' with the same option.

`-fshort-double'
     This probably either has no effect on Fortran programs, or makes
     them act loopy.

`-fno-common'
     Do not use this when compiling Fortran programs, or there will be
     Trouble.

`-fpack-struct'
     This probably will break any calls to the `libg2c' library, at the
     very least, even if it is built with the same option.

File: g77.info,  Node: Environment Variables,  Prev: Code Gen Options,  Up: Invoking G77

5.11 Environment Variables Affecting GNU Fortran
================================================

GNU Fortran currently does not make use of any environment variables to
control its operation above and beyond those that affect the operation
of `gcc'.

   *Note Environment Variables Affecting GCC: (gcc)Environment
Variables, for information on environment variables.

File: g77.info,  Node: News,  Next: Changes,  Prev: Invoking G77,  Up: Top

6 News About GNU Fortran
************************

   _`GCC' 3.4.x is the last edition of `GCC' to contain `g77' - from
`GCC' 4.0 onwards, use `gfortran'_

   Changes made to recent versions of GNU Fortran are listed below,
with the most recent version first.

   The changes are generally listed in order:

  1. Code-generation and run-time-library bug-fixes

  2. Compiler and run-time-library crashes involving valid code that
     have been fixed

  3. New features

  4. Fixes and enhancements to existing features

  5. New diagnostics

  6. Internal improvements

  7. Miscellany

   This order is not strict--for example, some items involve a
combination of these elements.

   Note that two variants of `g77' are tracked below.  The `egcs'
variant is described vis-a-vis previous versions of `egcs' and/or an
official FSF version, as appropriate.  Note that all such variants are
obsolete _as of July 1999_ - the information is retained here only for
its historical value.

   Therefore, `egcs' versions sometimes have multiple listings to help
clarify how they differ from other versions, though this can make
getting a complete picture of what a particular `egcs' version contains
somewhat more difficult.

   For information on bugs in the GCC-3.4.6 version of `g77', see *note
Known Bugs In GNU Fortran: Known Bugs.

   The following information was last updated on 2004-12-29:

In `GCC' 3.4 versus `GCC' 3.3:
==============================

   * Problem Reports fixed (in chronological order of submission):
    `8485'
          g77 doesn't accept INTEGER*8 constant in PARAMETER
          multiplication.

    `11918'
          (libf2c) isatty does not call f_init.

    `12317'
          Incorrect documentation for Fortran debugging features.

   * Roger Sayle (<rogerATeyesopen.com>) fixed the remaining problems
     with regard to the support of INTEGER*8, INTEGER*2 and INTEGER*1
     as a fallout of fixing PR 8485.

In `GCC' 3.3 versus `GCC' 3.2:
==============================

   * Problem Reports fixed (in chronological order of submission):
    `1832'
          -list directed i/o overflow hangs, -fbounds-check doesn't
          detect

    `3924'
          g77 generates code which is rejected by GAS if COFF debugging
          info is requested

    `6286'
          Broken links on web pages

    `6367'
          (libf2c) multiple repeat counts confuse namelist read into
          array

    `6491'
          Logical operations error on logicals when using -fugly-logint

    `6742'
          Generation of C++ Prototype for FORTRAN and extern "C"

    `7113'
          Failure of g77.f-torture/execute/f90-intrinsic-bit.f -Os on
          irix6.5

    `7236'
          (libf2c) OPEN(...,RECL=nnn,...) without ACCESS='DIRECT'
          should assume a direct access file

    `7278'
          g77 "bug"; the executable misbehave (use of options -O2
          -fno-automatic gave wrong results)

    `7384'
          (libf2c) DATE_AND_TIME milliseconds field inactive on Windows

    `7388'
          Incorrect output with 0-based array of characters

    `8587'
          Double complex zero ** double precision number -> NaN instead
          of zero

    `9038'
          -ffixed-line-length-none -x f77-cpp-input gives: Warning:
          unknown register name line-length-none

    `9263'
          ICE caused by invalid PARAMETER in implied DO loop

    `10197'
          Direct access files not unformatted by default

    `10726'
          Documentation for function IDATE Intrinsic (UNIX) is wrong
          [fixed in 3.3.1].

   * Richard Henderson (<rthATredhat.com>) analyzed and improved the
     handling of (no-)aliasing information for dummy arguments and
     improved the optimization of induction variables in unrolled loops.

In `GCC' 3.2 versus `GCC' 3.1:
==============================

   * Problem Reports fixed (in chronological order of submission):
    `7681'
          ICE in compensate_edge, at reg-stack.c:2591

    `8308'
          gcc-3.x does not compile files with suffix .r (RATFOR) [Fixed
          in 3.2.1]

    `9258'
          [3.2/3.3/3.4 regression] ICE in compensate_edge, at
          reg-stack.c:2589

In `GCC' 3.1 (formerly known as g77-0.5.27) versus `GCC' 3.0:
=============================================================

   * Problem Reports fixed (in chronological order of submission):
    `947'
          Data statement initialization with subscript of kind INTEGER*2

    `3743'
          Reference to intrinsic `ISHFT' invalid

    `3807'
          Function BESJN(integer,double) problems

    `3957'
          g77 -pipe -xf77-cpp-input sends output to stdout

    `4279'
          g77 -h" gives bogus output

    `4730'
          ICE on valid input using CALL EXIT(%VAL(...))

    `4752'
          g77 -v -c -xf77-version /dev/null -xnone causes ice

    `4885'
          BACKSPACE example that doesn't work as of gcc/g77-3.0.x

    `5122'
          g77 rejects accepted use of INTEGER*2 as type of DATA
          statement loop index

    `5397'
          ICE on compiling source with 540 000 000 REAL array

    `5473'
          ICE on BESJN(integer*8,real)

    `5837'
          bug in loop unrolling

    `6106'
          sparc-sun-solaris2.7 gcc-3.1 extra g77 testsuite failures
          w/-m64

    `6138'
          Incorrect acces of integer*1 variables on PA

    `6304'
          Failure of LAPACK test dtest on irix6.5 with -mabi=64 -O2

   * `g77' now has its man page generated from the texinfo
     documentation, to guarantee that it remains up to date.

   * `g77' used to reject the following program on 32-bit targets:
          PROGRAM PROG
          DIMENSION A(140 000 000)
          END
     with the message:
          prog.f: In program `prog':
          prog.f:2:
                   DIMENSION A(140 000 000)
                             ^
          Array `a' at (^) is too large to handle
     because 140 000 000 REALs is larger than the largest bit-extent
     that can be expressed in 32 bits.  However, bit-sizes never play a
     role after offsets have been converted to byte addresses.
     Therefore this check has been removed, and the limit is now 2
     Gbyte of memory (around 530 000 000 REALs).  Note: On GNU/Linux
     systems one has to compile and link programs that occupy more than
     1 Gbyte statically, i.e. `g77 -static ...'.

   * Based on work done by Juergen Pfeifer (<juergen.pfeiferATgmx.net>)
     libf2c is now a shared library.  One can still link in all objects
     with the program by specifying the `-static' option.

   * Robert Anderson (<rwaATalumni.edu>) thought up a two line
     change that enables g77 to compile such code as:
          SUBROUTINE SUB(A, N)
          DIMENSION N(2)
          DIMENSION A(N(1),N(2))
          A(1,1) = 1.
          END
     Note the use of array elements in the bounds of the adjustable
     array A.

   * George Helffrich (<georgeATgeo.jp>) implemented a change
     in substring index checking (when specifying `-fbounds-check')
     that permits the use of zero length substrings of the form
     `string(1:0)'.

   * Based on code developed by Pedro Vazquez
     (<vazquezATpenelope.br>), the `libf2c' library is now
     able to read and write files larger than 2 Gbyte on 32-bit target
     machines, if the operating system supports this.

In 0.5.26, `GCC' 3.0 versus `GCC' 2.95:
=======================================

   * When a REWIND was issued after a WRITE statement on an unformatted
     file, the implicit truncation was performed by copying the
     truncated file to /tmp and copying the result back.  This has been
     fixed by using the `ftruncate' OS function.  Thanks go to the
     GAMESS developers for bringing this to our attention.

   * Using options `-g', `-ggdb' or `-gdwarf[-2]' (where appropriate
     for your target) now also enables debugging information for COMMON
     BLOCK and EQUIVALENCE items to be emitted.  Thanks go to Andrew
     Vaught (<andyATxena.edu>) and George Helffrich
     (<georgeATgeology.uk>) for fixing this longstanding
     problem.

   * It is not necessary anymore to use the option `-femulate-complex'
     to compile Fortran code using COMPLEX arithmetic, even on 64-bit
     machines (like the Alpha).  This will improve code generation.

   * INTRINSIC arithmetic functions are now treated as routines that do
     not depend on anything but their argument(s).  This enables
     further instruction scheduling, because it is known that they
     cannot read or modify arbitrary locations.

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 2000-12-05.

     This fixes a bug where a namelist containing initialization of
     LOGICAL items and a variable starting with T or F would be read
     incorrectly.

   * The `TtyNam' intrinsics now set NAME to all spaces (at run time)
     if the system has no `ttyname' implementation available.

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1999-06-28.

     This fixes a bug whereby input to a `NAMELIST' read involving a
     repeat count, such as `K(5)=10*3', was not properly handled by
     `libf2c'.  The first item was written to `K(5)', but the remaining
     nine were written elsewhere (still within the array), not
     necessarily starting at `K(6)'.

In 0.5.25, `GCC' 2.95 (`EGCS' 1.2) versus `EGCS' 1.1.2:
=======================================================

   * `g77' no longer generates bad code for assignments, or other
     conversions, of `REAL' or `COMPLEX' constant expressions to type
     `INTEGER(KIND=2)' (often referred to as `INTEGER*8').

     For example, `INTEGER*8 J; J = 4E10' now works as documented.

   * `g77' no longer truncates `INTEGER(KIND=2)' (usually `INTEGER*8')
     subscript expressions when evaluating array references on systems
     with pointers widers than `INTEGER(KIND=1)' (such as Alphas).

   * `g77' no longer generates bad code for an assignment to a
     `COMPLEX' variable or array that partially overlaps one or more of
     the sources of the same assignment (a very rare construction).  It
     now assigns through a temporary, in cases where such partial
     overlap is deemed possible.

   * `libg2c' (`libf2c') no longer loses track of the file being worked
     on during a `BACKSPACE' operation.

   * `libg2c' (`libf2c') fixes a bug whereby input to a `NAMELIST' read
     involving a repeat count, such as `K(5)=10*3', was not properly
     handled by `libf2c'.  The first item was written to `K(5)', but
     the remaining nine were written elsewhere (still within the array),
     not necessarily starting at `K(6)'.

   * Automatic arrays now seem to be working on HP-UX systems.

   * The `Date' intrinsic now returns the correct result on big-endian
     systems.

   * Fix `g77' so it no longer crashes when compiling I/O statements
     using keywords that define `INTEGER' values, such as `IOSTAT=J',
     where J is other than default `INTEGER' (such as `INTEGER*2').
     Instead, it issues a diagnostic.

   * Fix `g77' so it properly handles `DATA A/RPT*VAL/', where RPT is
     not default `INTEGER', such as `INTEGER*2', instead of producing a
     spurious diagnostic.  Also fix `DATA (A(I),I=1,N)', where `N' is
     not default `INTEGER' to work instead of crashing `g77'.

   * The `-ax' option is now obeyed when compiling Fortran programs.
     (It is passed to the `f771' driver.)

   * The new `-fbounds-check' option causes `g77' to compile run-time
     bounds checks of array subscripts, as well as of substring start
     and end points.

   * `libg2c' now supports building as multilibbed library, which
     provides better support for systems that require options such as
     `-mieee' to work properly.

   * Source file names with the suffixes `.FOR' and `.FPP' now are
     recognized by `g77' as if they ended in `.for' and `.fpp',
     respectively.

   * The order of arguments to the _subroutine_ forms of the `CTime',
     `DTime', `ETime', and `TtyNam' intrinsics has been swapped.  The
     argument serving as the returned value for the corresponding
     function forms now is the _second_ argument, making these
     consistent with the other subroutine forms of `libU77' intrinsics.

   * `g77' now warns about a reference to an intrinsic that has an
     interface that is not Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant.  Also, `libg2c'
     has been changed to increase the likelihood of catching references
     to the implementations of these intrinsics using the `EXTERNAL'
     mechanism (which would avoid the new warnings).

     *Note Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems::, for more information.

   * `g77' now warns about a reference to a function when the
     corresponding _subsequent_ function program unit disagrees with
     the reference concerning the type of the function.

   * `-fno-emulate-complex' is now the default option.  This should
     result in improved performance of code that uses the `COMPLEX'
     data type.

   * The `-malign-double' option now reliably aligns _all_
     double-precision variables and arrays on Intel x86 targets.

   * Even without the `-malign-double' option, `g77' reliably aligns
     local double-precision variables that are not in `EQUIVALENCE'
     areas and not `SAVE''d.

   * `g77' now open-codes ("inlines") division of `COMPLEX' operands
     instead of generating a run-time call to the `libf2c' routines
     `c_div' or `z_div', unless the `-Os' option is specified.

   * `g77' no longer generates code to maintain `errno', a C-language
     concept, when performing operations such as the `SqRt' intrinsic.

   * `g77' developers can temporarily use the `-fflatten-arrays' option
     to compare how the compiler handles code generation using C-like
     constructs as compared to the Fortran-like method constructs
     normally used.

   * A substantial portion of the `g77' front end's code-generation
     component was rewritten.  It now generates code using facilities
     more robustly supported by the `gcc' back end.  One effect of this
     rewrite is that some codes no longer produce a spurious "label LAB
     used before containing binding contour" message.

   * Support for the `-fugly' option has been removed.

   * Improve documentation and indexing, including information on Year
     2000 (Y2K) compliance, and providing more information on internals
     of the front end.

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1999-05-10.

In 0.5.24 versus 0.5.23:
========================

There is no `g77' version 0.5.24 at this time, or planned.  0.5.24 is
the version number designated for bug fixes and, perhaps, some new
features added, to 0.5.23.  Version 0.5.23 requires `gcc' 2.8.1, as
0.5.24 was planned to require.

   Due to `EGCS' becoming `GCC' (which is now an acronym for "GNU
Compiler Collection"), and `EGCS' 1.2 becoming officially designated
`GCC' 2.95, there seems to be no need for an actual 0.5.24 release.

   To reduce the confusion already resulting from use of 0.5.24 to
designate `g77' versions within `EGCS' versions 1.0 and 1.1, as well as
in versions of `g77' documentation and notices during that period,
"mainline" `g77' version numbering resumes at 0.5.25 with `GCC' 2.95
(`EGCS' 1.2), skipping over 0.5.24 as a placeholder version number.

   To repeat, there is no `g77' 0.5.24, but there is now a 0.5.25.
Please remain calm and return to your keypunch units.

In `EGCS' 1.1.2 versus `EGCS' 1.1.1:
====================================

   * Fix the `IDate' intrinsic (VXT) (in `libg2c') so the returned year
     is in the documented, non-Y2K-compliant range of 0-99, instead of
     being returned as 100 in the year 2000.

     *Note IDate Intrinsic (VXT)::, for more information.

   * Fix the `Date_and_Time' intrinsic (in `libg2c') to return the
     milliseconds value properly in VALUES(8).

   * Fix the `LStat' intrinsic (in `libg2c') to return device-ID
     information properly in SARRAY(7).

   * Improve documentation.

In `EGCS' 1.1.1 versus `EGCS' 1.1:
==================================

   * Fix `libg2c' so it performs an implicit `ENDFILE' operation (as
     appropriate) whenever a `REWIND' is done.

     (This bug was introduced in 0.5.23 and `egcs' 1.1 in `g77''s
     version of `libf2c'.)

   * Fix `libg2c' so it no longer crashes with a spurious diagnostic
     upon doing any I/O following a direct formatted write.

     (This bug was introduced in 0.5.23 and `egcs' 1.1 in `g77''s
     version of `libf2c'.)

   * Fix `g77' so it no longer crashes compiling references to the
     `Rand' intrinsic on some systems.

   * Fix `g77' portion of installation process so it works better on
     some systems (those with shells requiring `else true' clauses on
     `if' constructs for the completion code to be set properly).

In `EGCS' 1.1 versus `EGCS' 1.0.3:
==================================

   * Fix bugs in the `libU77' intrinsic `HostNm' that wrote one byte
     beyond the end of its `CHARACTER' argument, and in the `libU77'
     intrinsics `GMTime' and `LTime' that overwrote their arguments.

   * Assumed arrays with negative bounds (such as `REAL A(-1:*)') no
     longer elicit spurious diagnostics from `g77', even on systems
     with pointers having different sizes than integers.

     This bug is not known to have existed in any recent version of
     `gcc'.  It was introduced in an early release of `egcs'.

   * Valid combinations of `EXTERNAL', passing that external as a dummy
     argument without explicitly giving it a type, and, in a subsequent
     program unit, referencing that external as an external function
     with a different type no longer crash `g77'.

   * `CASE DEFAULT' no longer crashes `g77'.

   * The `-Wunused' option no longer issues a spurious warning about
     the "master" procedure generated by `g77' for procedures
     containing `ENTRY' statements.

   * Support `FORMAT(I<EXPR>)' when EXPR is a compile-time constant
     `INTEGER' expression.

   * Fix `g77' `-g' option so procedures that use `ENTRY' can be
     stepped through, line by line, in `gdb'.

   * Allow any `REAL' argument to intrinsics `Second' and `CPU_Time'.

   * Use `tempnam', if available, to open scratch files (as in
     `OPEN(STATUS='SCRATCH')') so that the `TMPDIR' environment
     variable, if present, is used.

   * `g77''s version of `libf2c' separates out the setting of global
     state (such as command-line arguments and signal handling) from
     `main.o' into distinct, new library archive members.

     This should make it easier to write portable applications that
     have their own (non-Fortran) `main()' routine properly set up the
     `libf2c' environment, even when `libf2c' (now `libg2c') is a
     shared library.

   * `g77' no longer installs the `f77' command and `f77.1' man page in
     the `/usr' or `/usr/local' hierarchy, even if the `f77-install-ok'
     file exists in the source or build directory.  See the
     installation documentation for more information.

   * `g77' no longer installs the `libf2c.a' library and `f2c.h'
     include file in the `/usr' or `/usr/local' hierarchy, even if the
     `f2c-install-ok' or `f2c-exists-ok' files exist in the source or
     build directory.  See the installation documentation for more
     information.

   * The `libf2c.a' library produced by `g77' has been renamed to
     `libg2c.a'.  It is installed only in the `gcc' "private" directory
     hierarchy, `gcc-lib'.  This allows system administrators and users
     to choose which version of the `libf2c' library from `netlib' they
     wish to use on a case-by-case basis.  See the installation
     documentation for more information.

   * The `f2c.h' include (header) file produced by `g77' has been
     renamed to `g2c.h'.  It is installed only in the `gcc' "private"
     directory hierarchy, `gcc-lib'.  This allows system administrators
     and users to choose which version of the include file from
     `netlib' they wish to use on a case-by-case basis.  See the
     installation documentation for more information.

   * The `g77' command now expects the run-time library to be named
     `libg2c.a' instead of `libf2c.a', to ensure that a version other
     than the one built and installed as part of the same `g77' version
     is picked up.

   * During the configuration and build process, `g77' creates
     subdirectories it needs only as it needs them.  Other cleaning up
     of the configuration and build process has been performed as well.

   * `install-info' now used to update the directory of Info
     documentation to contain an entry for `g77' (during installation).

   * Some diagnostics have been changed from warnings to errors, to
     prevent inadvertent use of the resulting, probably buggy, programs.
     These mostly include diagnostics about use of unsupported features
     in the `OPEN', `INQUIRE', `READ', and `WRITE' statements, and
     about truncations of various sorts of constants.

   * Improve compilation of `FORMAT' expressions so that a null byte is
     appended to the last operand if it is a constant.  This provides a
     cleaner run-time diagnostic as provided by `libf2c' for statements
     like `PRINT '(I1', 42'.

   * Improve documentation and indexing.

   * The upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1998-06-18 should fix a variety of
     problems, including those involving some uses of the `T' format
     specifier, and perhaps some build (porting) problems as well.

In `EGCS' 1.1 versus `g77' 0.5.23:
==================================

   * Fix a code-generation bug that afflicted Intel x86 targets when
     `-O2' was specified compiling, for example, an old version of the
     `DNRM2' routine.

     The x87 coprocessor stack was being mismanaged in cases involving
     assigned `GOTO' and `ASSIGN'.

   * `g77' no longer produces incorrect code and initial values for
     `EQUIVALENCE' and `COMMON' aggregates that, due to "unnatural"
     ordering of members vis-a-vis their types, require initial padding.

   * Fix `g77' crash compiling code containing the construct
     `CMPLX(0.)' or similar.

   * `g77' no longer crashes when compiling code containing
     specification statements such as `INTEGER(KIND=7) PTR'.

   * `g77' no longer crashes when compiling code such as `J = SIGNAL(1,
     2)'.

   * `g77' now treats `%LOC(EXPR)' and `LOC(EXPR)' as "ordinary"
     expressions when they are used as arguments in procedure calls.
     This change applies only to global (filewide) analysis, making it
     consistent with how `g77' actually generates code for these cases.

     Previously, `g77' treated these expressions as denoting special
     "pointer" arguments for the purposes of filewide analysis.

   * Fix `g77' crash (or apparently infinite run-time) when compiling
     certain complicated expressions involving `COMPLEX' arithmetic
     (especially multiplication).

   * Align static double-precision variables and arrays on Intel x86
     targets regardless of whether `-malign-double' is specified.

     Generally, this affects only local variables and arrays having the
     `SAVE' attribute or given initial values via `DATA'.

   * The `g77' driver now ensures that `-lg2c' is specified in the link
     phase prior to any occurrence of `-lm'.  This prevents
     accidentally linking to a routine in the SunOS4 `-lm' library when
     the generated code wants to link to the one in `libf2c' (`libg2c').

   * `g77' emits more debugging information when `-g' is used.

     This new information allows, for example, `which __g77_length_a'
     to be used in `gdb' to determine the type of the phantom length
     argument supplied with `CHARACTER' variables.

     This information pertains to internally-generated type, variable,
     and other information, not to the longstanding deficiencies
     vis-a-vis `COMMON' and `EQUIVALENCE'.

   * The F90 `Date_and_Time' intrinsic now is supported.

   * The F90 `System_Clock' intrinsic allows the optional arguments
     (except for the `Count' argument) to be omitted.

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1998-06-18.

   * Improve documentation and indexing.

In 0.5.23 versus 0.5.22:
========================

   * This release contains several regressions against version 0.5.22
     of `g77', due to using the "vanilla" `gcc' back end instead of
     patching it to fix a few bugs and improve performance in a few
     cases.

     Features that have been dropped from this version of `g77' due to
     their being implemented via `g77'-specific patches to the `gcc'
     back end in previous releases include:

        - Support for `__restrict__' keyword, the options
          `-fargument-alias', `-fargument-noalias', and
          `-fargument-noalias-global', and the corresponding
          alias-analysis code.

          (`egcs' has the alias-analysis code, but not the
          `__restrict__' keyword.  `egcs' `g77' users benefit from the
          alias-analysis code despite the lack of the `__restrict__'
          keyword, which is a C-language construct.)

        - Support for the GNU compiler options `-fmove-all-movables',
          `-freduce-all-givs', and `-frerun-loop-opt'.

          (`egcs' supports these options.  `g77' users of `egcs'
          benefit from them even if they are not explicitly specified,
          because the defaults are optimized for `g77' users.)

        - Support for the `-W' option warning about integer division by
          zero.

        - The Intel x86-specific option `-malign-double' applying to
          stack-allocated data as well as statically-allocate data.

     Note that the `gcc/f/gbe/' subdirectory has been removed from this
     distribution as a result of `g77' no longer including patches for
     the `gcc' back end.

   * Fix bugs in the `libU77' intrinsic `HostNm' that wrote one byte
     beyond the end of its `CHARACTER' argument, and in the `libU77'
     intrinsics `GMTime' and `LTime' that overwrote their arguments.

   * Support `gcc' version 2.8, and remove support for prior versions
     of `gcc'.

   * Remove support for the `--driver' option, as `g77' now does all
     the driving, just like `gcc'.

   * `CASE DEFAULT' no longer crashes `g77'.

   * Valid combinations of `EXTERNAL', passing that external as a dummy
     argument without explicitly giving it a type, and, in a subsequent
     program unit, referencing that external as an external function
     with a different type no longer crash `g77'.

   * `g77' no longer installs the `f77' command and `f77.1' man page in
     the `/usr' or `/usr/local' hierarchy, even if the `f77-install-ok'
     file exists in the source or build directory.  See the
     installation documentation for more information.

   * `g77' no longer installs the `libf2c.a' library and `f2c.h'
     include file in the `/usr' or `/usr/local' hierarchy, even if the
     `f2c-install-ok' or `f2c-exists-ok' files exist in the source or
     build directory.  See the installation documentation for more
     information.

   * The `libf2c.a' library produced by `g77' has been renamed to
     `libg2c.a'.  It is installed only in the `gcc' "private" directory
     hierarchy, `gcc-lib'.  This allows system administrators and users
     to choose which version of the `libf2c' library from `netlib' they
     wish to use on a case-by-case basis.  See the installation
     documentation for more information.

   * The `f2c.h' include (header) file produced by `g77' has been
     renamed to `g2c.h'.  It is installed only in the `gcc' "private"
     directory hierarchy, `gcc-lib'.  This allows system administrators
     and users to choose which version of the include file from
     `netlib' they wish to use on a case-by-case basis.  See the
     installation documentation for more information.

   * The `g77' command now expects the run-time library to be named
     `libg2c.a' instead of `libf2c.a', to ensure that a version other
     than the one built and installed as part of the same `g77' version
     is picked up.

   * The `-Wunused' option no longer issues a spurious warning about
     the "master" procedure generated by `g77' for procedures
     containing `ENTRY' statements.

   * `g77''s version of `libf2c' separates out the setting of global
     state (such as command-line arguments and signal handling) from
     `main.o' into distinct, new library archive members.

     This should make it easier to write portable applications that
     have their own (non-Fortran) `main()' routine properly set up the
     `libf2c' environment, even when `libf2c' (now `libg2c') is a
     shared library.

   * During the configuration and build process, `g77' creates
     subdirectories it needs only as it needs them, thus avoiding
     unnecessary creation of, for example, `stage1/f/runtime' when
     doing a non-bootstrap build.  Other cleaning up of the
     configuration and build process has been performed as well.

   * `install-info' now used to update the directory of Info
     documentation to contain an entry for `g77' (during installation).

   * Some diagnostics have been changed from warnings to errors, to
     prevent inadvertent use of the resulting, probably buggy, programs.
     These mostly include diagnostics about use of unsupported features
     in the `OPEN', `INQUIRE', `READ', and `WRITE' statements, and
     about truncations of various sorts of constants.

   * Improve documentation and indexing.

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1998-04-20.

     This should fix a variety of problems, including those involving
     some uses of the `T' format specifier, and perhaps some build
     (porting) problems as well.

In 0.5.22 versus 0.5.21:
========================

   * Fix code generation for iterative `DO' loops that have one or more
     references to the iteration variable, or to aliases of it, in
     their control expressions.  For example, `DO 10 J=2,J' now is
     compiled correctly.

   * Fix a code-generation bug that afflicted Intel x86 targets when
     `-O2' was specified compiling, for example, an old version of the
     `DNRM2' routine.

     The x87 coprocessor stack was being mismanaged in cases involving
     assigned `GOTO' and `ASSIGN'.

   * Fix `DTime' intrinsic so as not to truncate results to integer
     values (on some systems).

   * Fix `Signal' intrinsic so it offers portable support for 64-bit
     systems (such as Digital Alphas running GNU/Linux).

   * Fix run-time crash involving `NAMELIST' on 64-bit machines such as
     Alphas.

   * Fix `g77' version of `libf2c' so it no longer produces a spurious
     `I/O recursion' diagnostic at run time when an I/O operation (such
     as `READ *,I') is interrupted in a manner that causes the program
     to be terminated via the `f_exit' routine (such as via `C-c').

   * Fix `g77' crash triggered by `CASE' statement with an omitted
     lower or upper bound.

   * Fix `g77' crash compiling references to `CPU_Time' intrinsic.

   * Fix `g77' crash (or apparently infinite run-time) when compiling
     certain complicated expressions involving `COMPLEX' arithmetic
     (especially multiplication).

   * Fix `g77' crash on statements such as `PRINT *,
     (REAL(Z(I)),I=1,2)', where `Z' is `DOUBLE COMPLEX'.

   * Fix a `g++' crash.

   * Support `FORMAT(I<EXPR>)' when EXPR is a compile-time constant
     `INTEGER' expression.

   * Fix `g77' `-g' option so procedures that use `ENTRY' can be
     stepped through, line by line, in `gdb'.

   * Fix a profiling-related bug in `gcc' back end for Intel x86
     architecture.

   * Allow any `REAL' argument to intrinsics `Second' and `CPU_Time'.

   * Allow any numeric argument to intrinsics `Int2' and `Int8'.

   * Use `tempnam', if available, to open scratch files (as in
     `OPEN(STATUS='SCRATCH')') so that the `TMPDIR' environment
     variable, if present, is used.

   * Rename the `gcc' keyword `restrict' to `__restrict__', to avoid
     rejecting valid, existing, C programs.  Support for `restrict' is
     now more like support for `complex'.

   * Fix `-fpedantic' to not reject procedure invocations such as
     `I=J()' and `CALL FOO()'.

   * Fix `-fugly-comma' to affect invocations of only external
     procedures.  Restore rejection of gratuitous trailing omitted
     arguments to intrinsics, as in `I=MAX(3,4,,)'.

   * Fix compiler so it accepts `-fgnu-intrinsics-*' and
     `-fbadu77-intrinsics-*' options.

   * Improve diagnostic messages from `libf2c' so it is more likely
     that the printing of the active format string is limited to the
     string, with no trailing garbage being printed.

     (Unlike `f2c', `g77' did not append a null byte to its compiled
     form of every format string specified via a `FORMAT' statement.
     However, `f2c' would exhibit the problem anyway for a statement
     like `PRINT '(I)garbage', 1' by printing `(I)garbage' as the
     format string.)

   * Improve compilation of `FORMAT' expressions so that a null byte is
     appended to the last operand if it is a constant.  This provides a
     cleaner run-time diagnostic as provided by `libf2c' for statements
     like `PRINT '(I1', 42'.

   * Fix various crashes involving code with diagnosed errors.

   * Fix cross-compilation bug when configuring `libf2c'.

   * Improve diagnostics.

   * Improve documentation and indexing.

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1997-09-23.  This fixes a formatted-I/O
     bug that afflicted 64-bit systems with 32-bit integers (such as
     Digital Alpha running GNU/Linux).

In `EGCS' 1.0.2 versus `EGCS' 1.0.1:
====================================

   * Fix `g77' crash triggered by `CASE' statement with an omitted
     lower or upper bound.

   * Fix `g77' crash on statements such as `PRINT *,
     (REAL(Z(I)),I=1,2)', where `Z' is `DOUBLE COMPLEX'.

   * Fix `-fPIC' (such as compiling for ELF targets) on the Intel x86
     architecture target so invalid assembler code is no longer
     produced.

   * Fix `-fpedantic' to not reject procedure invocations such as
     `I=J()' and `CALL FOO()'.

   * Fix `-fugly-comma' to affect invocations of only external
     procedures.  Restore rejection of gratuitous trailing omitted
     arguments to intrinsics, as in `I=MAX(3,4,,)'.

   * Fix compiler so it accepts `-fgnu-intrinsics-*' and
     `-fbadu77-intrinsics-*' options.

In `EGCS' 1.0.1 versus `EGCS' 1.0:
==================================

   * Fix run-time crash involving `NAMELIST' on 64-bit machines such as
     Alphas.

In `EGCS' 1.0 versus `g77' 0.5.21:
==================================

   * Version 1.0 of `egcs' contains several regressions against version
     0.5.21 of `g77', due to using the "vanilla" `gcc' back end instead
     of patching it to fix a few bugs and improve performance in a few
     cases.

     Features that have been dropped from this version of `g77' due to
     their being implemented via `g77'-specific patches to the `gcc'
     back end in previous releases include:

        - Support for the C-language `restrict' keyword.

        - Support for the `-W' option warning about integer division by
          zero.

        - The Intel x86-specific option `-malign-double' applying to
          stack-allocated data as well as statically-allocate data.

     Note that the `gcc/f/gbe/' subdirectory has been removed from this
     distribution as a result of `g77' being fully integrated with the
     `egcs' variant of the `gcc' back end.

   * Fix code generation for iterative `DO' loops that have one or more
     references to the iteration variable, or to aliases of it, in
     their control expressions.  For example, `DO 10 J=2,J' now is
     compiled correctly.

   * Fix `DTime' intrinsic so as not to truncate results to integer
     values (on some systems).

   * Some Fortran code, miscompiled by `g77' built on `gcc' version
     2.8.1 on m68k-next-nextstep3 configurations when using the `-O2'
     option, is now compiled correctly.  It is believed that a C
     function known to miscompile on that configuration when using the
     `-O2 -funroll-loops' options also is now compiled correctly.

   * Remove support for non-`egcs' versions of `gcc'.

   * Remove support for the `--driver' option, as `g77' now does all
     the driving, just like `gcc'.

   * Allow any numeric argument to intrinsics `Int2' and `Int8'.

   * Improve diagnostic messages from `libf2c' so it is more likely
     that the printing of the active format string is limited to the
     string, with no trailing garbage being printed.

     (Unlike `f2c', `g77' did not append a null byte to its compiled
     form of every format string specified via a `FORMAT' statement.
     However, `f2c' would exhibit the problem anyway for a statement
     like `PRINT '(I)garbage', 1' by printing `(I)garbage' as the
     format string.)

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1997-09-23.  This fixes a formatted-I/O
     bug that afflicted 64-bit systems with 32-bit integers (such as
     Digital Alpha running GNU/Linux).

In 0.5.21:
==========

   * Fix a code-generation bug introduced by 0.5.20 caused by loop
     unrolling (by specifying `-funroll-loops' or similar).  This bug
     afflicted all code compiled by version 2.7.2.2.f.2 of `gcc' (C,
     C++, Fortran, and so on).

   * Fix a code-generation bug manifested when combining local
     `EQUIVALENCE' with a `DATA' statement that follows the first
     executable statement (or is treated as an executable-context
     statement as a result of using the `-fpedantic' option).

   * Fix a compiler crash that occurred when an integer division by a
     constant zero is detected.  Instead, when the `-W' option is
     specified, the `gcc' back end issues a warning about such a case.
     This bug afflicted all code compiled by version 2.7.2.2.f.2 of
     `gcc' (C, C++, Fortran, and so on).

   * Fix a compiler crash that occurred in some cases of procedure
     inlining.  (Such cases became more frequent in 0.5.20.)

   * Fix a compiler crash resulting from using `DATA' or similar to
     initialize a `COMPLEX' variable or array to zero.

   * Fix compiler crashes involving use of `AND', `OR', or `XOR'
     intrinsics.

   * Fix compiler bug triggered when using a `COMMON' or `EQUIVALENCE'
     variable as the target of an `ASSIGN' or assigned-`GOTO' statement.

   * Fix compiler crashes due to using the name of a some non-standard
     intrinsics (such as `FTell' or `FPutC') as such and as the name of
     a procedure or common block.  Such dual use of a name in a program
     is allowed by the standard.

   * Place automatic arrays on the stack, even if `SAVE' or the
     `-fno-automatic' option is in effect.  This avoids a compiler
     crash in some cases.

   * The `-malign-double' option now reliably aligns `DOUBLE PRECISION'
     optimally on Pentium and Pentium Pro architectures (586 and 686 in
     `gcc').

   * New option `-Wno-globals' disables warnings about "suspicious" use
     of a name both as a global name and as the implicit name of an
     intrinsic, and warnings about disagreements over the number or
     natures of arguments passed to global procedures, or the natures
     of the procedures themselves.

     The default is to issue such warnings, which are new as of this
     version of `g77'.

   * New option `-fno-globals' disables diagnostics about potentially
     fatal disagreements analysis problems, such as disagreements over
     the number or natures of arguments passed to global procedures, or
     the natures of those procedures themselves.

     The default is to issue such diagnostics and flag the compilation
     as unsuccessful.  With this option, the diagnostics are issued as
     warnings, or, if `-Wno-globals' is specified, are not issued at
     all.

     This option also disables inlining of global procedures, to avoid
     compiler crashes resulting from coding errors that these
     diagnostics normally would identify.

   * Diagnose cases where a reference to a procedure disagrees with the
     type of that procedure, or where disagreements about the number or
     nature of arguments exist.  This avoids a compiler crash.

   * Fix parsing bug whereby `g77' rejected a second initialization
     specification immediately following the first's closing `/' without
     an intervening comma in a `DATA' statement, and the second
     specification was an implied-DO list.

   * Improve performance of the `gcc' back end so certain complicated
     expressions involving `COMPLEX' arithmetic (especially
     multiplication) don't appear to take forever to compile.

   * Fix a couple of profiling-related bugs in `gcc' back end.

   * Integrate GNU Ada's (GNAT's) changes to the back end, which
     consist almost entirely of bug fixes.  These fixes are circa
     version 3.10p of GNAT.

   * Include some other `gcc' fixes that seem useful in `g77''s version
     of `gcc'.  (See `gcc/ChangeLog' for details--compare it to that
     file in the vanilla `gcc-2.7.2.3.tar.gz' distribution.)

   * Fix `libU77' routines that accept file and other names to strip
     trailing blanks from them, for consistency with other
     implementations.  Blanks may be forcibly appended to such names by
     appending a single null character (`CHAR(0)') to the significant
     trailing blanks.

   * Fix `CHMOD' intrinsic to work with file names that have embedded
     blanks, commas, and so on.

   * Fix `SIGNAL' intrinsic so it accepts an optional third `Status'
     argument.

   * Fix `IDATE()' intrinsic subroutine (VXT form) so it accepts
     arguments in the correct order.  Documentation fixed accordingly,
     and for `GMTIME()' and `LTIME()' as well.

   * Make many changes to `libU77' intrinsics to support existing code
     more directly.

     Such changes include allowing both subroutine and function forms
     of many routines, changing `MCLOCK()' and `TIME()' to return
     `INTEGER(KIND=1)' values, introducing `MCLOCK8()' and `TIME8()' to
     return `INTEGER(KIND=2)' values, and placing functions that are
     intended to perform side effects in a new intrinsic group,
     `badu77'.

   * Improve `libU77' so it is more portable.

   * Add options `-fbadu77-intrinsics-delete',
     `-fbadu77-intrinsics-hide', and so on.

   * Fix crashes involving diagnosed or invalid code.

   * `g77' and `gcc' now do a somewhat better job detecting and
     diagnosing arrays that are too large to handle before these cause
     diagnostics during the assembler or linker phase, a compiler
     crash, or generation of incorrect code.

   * Make some fixes to alias analysis code.

   * Add support for `restrict' keyword in `gcc' front end.

   * Support `gcc' version 2.7.2.3 (modified by `g77' into version
     2.7.2.3.f.1), and remove support for prior versions of `gcc'.

   * Incorporate GNAT's patches to the `gcc' back end into `g77''s, so
     GNAT users do not need to apply GNAT's patches to build both GNAT
     and `g77' from the same source tree.

   * Modify `make' rules and related code so that generation of Info
     documentation doesn't require compilation using `gcc'.  Now, any
     ANSI C compiler should be adequate to produce the `g77'
     documentation (in particular, the tables of intrinsics) from
     scratch.

   * Add `INT2' and `INT8' intrinsics.

   * Add `CPU_TIME' intrinsic.

   * Add `ALARM' intrinsic.

   * `CTIME' intrinsic now accepts any `INTEGER' argument, not just
     `INTEGER(KIND=2)'.

   * Warn when explicit type declaration disagrees with the type of an
     intrinsic invocation.

   * Support `*f771' entry in `gcc' `specs' file.

   * Fix typo in `make' rule `g77-cross', used only for cross-compiling.

   * Fix `libf2c' build procedure to re-archive library if previous
     attempt to archive was interrupted.

   * Change `gcc' to unroll loops only during the last invocation (of
     as many as two invocations) of loop optimization.

   * Improve handling of `-fno-f2c' so that code that attempts to pass
     an intrinsic as an actual argument, such as `CALL FOO(ABS)', is
     rejected due to the fact that the run-time-library routine is,
     effectively, compiled with `-ff2c' in effect.

   * Fix `g77' driver to recognize `-fsyntax-only' as an option that
     inhibits linking, just like `-c' or `-S', and to recognize and
     properly handle the `-nostdlib', `-M', `-MM', `-nodefaultlibs',
     and `-Xlinker' options.

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1997-08-16.

   * Modify `libf2c' to consistently and clearly diagnose recursive I/O
     (at run time).

   * `g77' driver now prints version information (such as produced by
     `g77 -v') to `stderr' instead of `stdout'.

   * The `.r' suffix now designates a Ratfor source file, to be
     preprocessed via the `ratfor' command, available separately.

   * Fix some aspects of how `gcc' determines what kind of system is
     being configured and what kinds are supported.  For example, GNU
     Linux/Alpha ELF systems now are directly supported.

   * Improve diagnostics.

   * Improve documentation and indexing.

   * Include all pertinent files for `libf2c' that come from
     `netlib.bell-labs.com'; give any such files that aren't quite
     accurate in `g77''s version of `libf2c' the suffix `.netlib'.

   * Reserve `INTEGER(KIND=0)' for future use.

In 0.5.20:
==========

   * The `-fno-typeless-boz' option is now the default.

     This option specifies that non-decimal-radix constants using the
     prefixed-radix form (such as `Z'1234'') are to be interpreted as
     `INTEGER(KIND=1)' constants.  Specify `-ftypeless-boz' to cause
     such constants to be interpreted as typeless.

     (Version 0.5.19 introduced `-fno-typeless-boz' and its inverse.)

     *Note Options Controlling Fortran Dialect: Fortran Dialect Options,
     for information on the `-ftypeless-boz' option.

   * Options `-ff90-intrinsics-enable' and `-fvxt-intrinsics-enable'
     now are the defaults.

     Some programs might use names that clash with intrinsic names
     defined (and now enabled) by these options or by the new `libU77'
     intrinsics.  Users of such programs might need to compile them
     differently (using, for example, `-ff90-intrinsics-disable') or,
     better yet, insert appropriate `EXTERNAL' statements specifying
     that these names are not intended to be names of intrinsics.

   * The `ALWAYS_FLUSH' macro is no longer defined when building
     `libf2c', which should result in improved I/O performance,
     especially over NFS.

     _Note:_ If you have code that depends on the behavior of `libf2c'
     when built with `ALWAYS_FLUSH' defined, you will have to modify
     `libf2c' accordingly before building it from this and future
     versions of `g77'.

     *Note Output Assumed To Flush::, for more information.

   * Dave Love's implementation of `libU77' has been added to the
     version of `libf2c' distributed with and built as part of `g77'.
     `g77' now knows about the routines in this library as intrinsics.

   * New option `-fvxt' specifies that the source file is written in
     VXT Fortran, instead of GNU Fortran.

     *Note VXT Fortran::, for more information on the constructs
     recognized when the `-fvxt' option is specified.

   * The `-fvxt-not-f90' option has been deleted, along with its
     inverse, `-ff90-not-vxt'.

     If you used one of these deleted options, you should re-read the
     pertinent documentation to determine which options, if any, are
     appropriate for compiling your code with this version of `g77'.

     *Note Other Dialects::, for more information.

   * The `-fugly' option now issues a warning, as it likely will be
     removed in a future version.

     (Enabling all the `-fugly-*' options is unlikely to be feasible,
     or sensible, in the future, so users should learn to specify only
     those `-fugly-*' options they really need for a particular source
     file.)

   * The `-fugly-assumed' option, introduced in version 0.5.19, has
     been changed to better accommodate old and new code.

     *Note Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays::, for more information.

   * Make a number of fixes to the `g77' front end and the `gcc' back
     end to better support Alpha (AXP) machines.  This includes
     providing at least one bug-fix to the `gcc' back end for Alphas.

   * Related to supporting Alpha (AXP) machines, the `LOC()' intrinsic
     and `%LOC()' construct now return values of `INTEGER(KIND=0)' type,
     as defined by the GNU Fortran language.

     This type is wide enough (holds the same number of bits) as the
     character-pointer type on the machine.

     On most machines, this won't make a difference, whereas, on Alphas
     and other systems with 64-bit pointers, the `INTEGER(KIND=0)' type
     is equivalent to `INTEGER(KIND=2)' (often referred to as
     `INTEGER*8') instead of the more common `INTEGER(KIND=1)' (often
     referred to as `INTEGER*4').

   * Emulate `COMPLEX' arithmetic in the `g77' front end, to avoid bugs
     in `complex' support in the `gcc' back end.  New option
     `-fno-emulate-complex' causes `g77' to revert the 0.5.19 behavior.

   * Fix bug whereby `REAL A(1)', for example, caused a compiler crash
     if `-fugly-assumed' was in effect and A was a local (automatic)
     array.  That case is no longer affected by the new handling of
     `-fugly-assumed'.

   * Fix `g77' command driver so that `g77 -o foo.f' no longer deletes
     `foo.f' before issuing other diagnostics, and so the `-x' option
     is properly handled.

   * Enable inlining of subroutines and functions by the `gcc' back end.
     This works as it does for `gcc' itself--program units may be
     inlined for invocations that follow them in the same program unit,
     as long as the appropriate compile-time options are specified.

   * Dummy arguments are no longer assumed to potentially alias
     (overlap) other dummy arguments or `COMMON' areas when any of
     these are defined (assigned to) by Fortran code.

     This can result in faster and/or smaller programs when compiling
     with optimization enabled, though on some systems this effect is
     observed only when `-fforce-addr' also is specified.

     New options `-falias-check', `-fargument-alias',
     `-fargument-noalias', and `-fno-argument-noalias-global' control
     the way `g77' handles potential aliasing.

     *Note Aliasing Assumed To Work::, for detailed information on why
     the new defaults might result in some programs no longer working
     the way they did when compiled by previous versions of `g77'.

   * The `CONJG()' and `DCONJG()' intrinsics now are compiled in-line.

   * The bug-fix for 0.5.19.1 has been re-done.  The `g77' compiler has
     been changed back to assume `libf2c' has no aliasing problems in
     its implementations of the `COMPLEX' (and `DOUBLE COMPLEX')
     intrinsics.  The `libf2c' has been changed to have no such
     problems.

     As a result, 0.5.20 is expected to offer improved performance over
     0.5.19.1, perhaps as good as 0.5.19 in most or all cases, due to
     this change alone.

     _Note:_ This change requires version 0.5.20 of `libf2c', at least,
     when linking code produced by any versions of `g77' other than
     0.5.19.1.  Use `g77 -v' to determine the version numbers of the
     `libF77', `libI77', and `libU77' components of the `libf2c'
     library.  (If these version numbers are not printed--in
     particular, if the linker complains about unresolved references to
     names like `g77__fvers__'--that strongly suggests your
     installation has an obsolete version of `libf2c'.)

   * New option `-fugly-assign' specifies that the same memory
     locations are to be used to hold the values assigned by both
     statements `I = 3' and `ASSIGN 10 TO I', for example.  (Normally,
     `g77' uses a separate memory location to hold assigned statement
     labels.)

     *Note Ugly Assigned Labels::, for more information.

   * `FORMAT' and `ENTRY' statements now are allowed to precede
     `IMPLICIT NONE' statements.

   * Produce diagnostic for unsupported `SELECT CASE' on `CHARACTER'
     type, instead of crashing, at compile time.

   * Fix crashes involving diagnosed or invalid code.

   * Change approach to building `libf2c' archive (`libf2c.a') so that
     members are added to it only when truly necessary, so the user
     that installs an already-built `g77' doesn't need to have write
     access to the build tree (whereas the user doing the build might
     not have access to install new software on the system).

   * Support `gcc' version 2.7.2.2 (modified by `g77' into version
     2.7.2.2.f.2), and remove support for prior versions of `gcc'.

   * Upgrade to `libf2c' as of 1997-02-08, and fix up some of the build
     procedures.

   * Improve general build procedures for `g77', fixing minor bugs
     (such as deletion of any file named `f771' in the parent directory
     of `gcc/').

   * Enable full support of `INTEGER(KIND=2)' (often referred to as
     `INTEGER*8') available in `libf2c' and `f2c.h' so that `f2c' users
     may make full use of its features via the `g77' version of `f2c.h'
     and the `INTEGER(KIND=2)' support routines in the `g77' version of
     `libf2c'.

   * Improve `g77' driver and `libf2c' so that `g77 -v' yields version
     information on the library.

   * The `SNGL' and `FLOAT' intrinsics now are specific intrinsics,
     instead of synonyms for the generic intrinsic `REAL'.

   * New intrinsics have been added.  These are `REALPART', `IMAGPART',
     `COMPLEX', `LONG', and `SHORT'.

   * A new group of intrinsics, `gnu', has been added to contain the
     new `REALPART', `IMAGPART', and `COMPLEX' intrinsics.  An old
     group, `dcp', has been removed.

   * Complain about industry-wide ambiguous references `REAL(EXPR)' and
     `AIMAG(EXPR)', where EXPR is `DOUBLE COMPLEX' (or any complex type
     other than `COMPLEX'), unless `-ff90' option specifies Fortran 90
     interpretation or new `-fugly-complex' option, in conjunction with
     `-fnot-f90', specifies `f2c' interpretation.

   * Make improvements to diagnostics.

   * Speed up compiler a bit.

   * Improvements to documentation and indexing, including a new
     chapter containing information on one, later more, diagnostics
     that users are directed to pull up automatically via a message in
     the diagnostic itself.

     (Hence the menu item `M' for the node `Diagnostics' in the
     top-level menu of the Info documentation.)

In previous versions:
=====================

Information on previous versions is archived in `gcc/gcc/f/news.texi'
following the test of the `DOC-OLDNEWS' macro.

File: g77.info,  Node: Changes,  Next: Language,  Prev: News,  Up: Top

7 User-visible Changes
**********************

This chapter describes changes to `g77' that are visible to the
programmers who actually write and maintain Fortran code they compile
with `g77'.  Information on changes to installation procedures, changes
to the documentation, and bug fixes is not provided here, unless it is
likely to affect how users use `g77'.  *Note News About GNU Fortran:
News, for information on such changes to `g77'.

   Note that two variants of `g77' are tracked below.  The `egcs'
variant is described vis-a-vis previous versions of `egcs' and/or an
official FSF version, as appropriate.  Note that all such variants are
obsolete _as of July 1999_ - the information is retained here only for
its historical value.

   Therefore, `egcs' versions sometimes have multiple listings to help
clarify how they differ from other versions, though this can make
getting a complete picture of what a particular `egcs' version contains
somewhat more difficult.

   For information on bugs in the GCC-3.4.6 version of `g77', see *note
Known Bugs In GNU Fortran: Known Bugs.

   The following information was last updated on 2004-12-29:

In `GCC' 3.4 versus `GCC' 3.3:
==============================

   * Problem Reports fixed (in chronological order of submission):
    `8485'
          g77 doesn't accept INTEGER*8 constant in PARAMETER
          multiplication.

    `11918'
          (libf2c) isatty does not call f_init.

    `12317'
          Incorrect documentation for Fortran debugging features.

   * Roger Sayle (<rogerATeyesopen.com>) fixed the remaining problems
     with regard to the support of INTEGER*8, INTEGER*2 and INTEGER*1
     as a fallout of fixing PR 8485.

In `GCC' 3.3 versus `GCC' 3.2:
==============================

   * Problem Reports fixed (in chronological order of submission):
    `1832'
          -list directed i/o overflow hangs, -fbounds-check doesn't
          detect

    `3924'
          g77 generates code which is rejected by GAS if COFF debugging
          info is requested

    `6286'
          Broken links on web pages

    `6367'
          (libf2c) multiple repeat counts confuse namelist read into
          array

    `6491'
          Logical operations error on logicals when using -fugly-logint

    `6742'
          Generation of C++ Prototype for FORTRAN and extern "C"

    `7113'
          Failure of g77.f-torture/execute/f90-intrinsic-bit.f -Os on
          irix6.5

    `7236'
          (libf2c) OPEN(...,RECL=nnn,...) without ACCESS='DIRECT'
          should assume a direct access file

    `7278'
          g77 "bug"; the executable misbehave (use of options -O2
          -fno-automatic gave wrong results)

    `7384'
          (libf2c) DATE_AND_TIME milliseconds field inactive on Windows

    `7388'
          Incorrect output with 0-based array of characters

    `8587'
          Double complex zero ** double precision number -> NaN instead
          of zero

    `9038'
          -ffixed-line-length-none -x f77-cpp-input gives: Warning:
          unknown register name line-length-none

    `9263'
          ICE caused by invalid PARAMETER in implied DO loop

    `10197'
          Direct access files not unformatted by default

    `10726'
          Documentation for function IDATE Intrinsic (UNIX) is wrong
          [fixed in 3.3.1].

   * Richard Henderson (<rthATredhat.com>) analyzed and improved the
     handling of (no-)aliasing information for dummy arguments and
     improved the optimization of induction variables in unrolled loops.

In `GCC' 3.2 versus `GCC' 3.1:
==============================

   * Problem Reports fixed (in chronological order of submission):
    `7681'
          ICE in compensate_edge, at reg-stack.c:2591

    `8308'
          gcc-3.x does not compile files with suffix .r (RATFOR) [Fixed
          in 3.2.1]

    `9258'
          [3.2/3.3/3.4 regression] ICE in compensate_edge, at
          reg-stack.c:2589

In `GCC' 3.1 (formerly known as g77-0.5.27) versus `GCC' 3.0:
=============================================================

   * Problem Reports fixed (in chronological order of submission):
    `947'
          Data statement initialization with subscript of kind INTEGER*2

    `3743'
          Reference to intrinsic `ISHFT' invalid

    `3807'
          Function BESJN(integer,double) problems

    `3957'
          g77 -pipe -xf77-cpp-input sends output to stdout

    `4279'
          g77 -h" gives bogus output

    `4730'
          ICE on valid input using CALL EXIT(%VAL(...))

    `4752'
          g77 -v -c -xf77-version /dev/null -xnone causes ice

    `4885'
          BACKSPACE example that doesn't work as of gcc/g77-3.0.x

    `5122'
          g77 rejects accepted use of INTEGER*2 as type of DATA
          statement loop index

    `5397'
          ICE on compiling source with 540 000 000 REAL array

    `5473'
          ICE on BESJN(integer*8,real)

    `5837'
          bug in loop unrolling

    `6106'
          sparc-sun-solaris2.7 gcc-3.1 extra g77 testsuite failures
          w/-m64

    `6138'
          Incorrect acces of integer*1 variables on PA

    `6304'
          Failure of LAPACK test dtest on irix6.5 with -mabi=64 -O2

   * `g77' now has its man page generated from the texinfo
     documentation, to guarantee that it remains up to date.

   * `g77' used to reject the following program on 32-bit targets:
          PROGRAM PROG
          DIMENSION A(140 000 000)
          END
     with the message:
          prog.f: In program `prog':
          prog.f:2:
                   DIMENSION A(140 000 000)
                             ^
          Array `a' at (^) is too large to handle
     because 140 000 000 REALs is larger than the largest bit-extent
     that can be expressed in 32 bits.  However, bit-sizes never play a
     role after offsets have been converted to byte addresses.
     Therefore this check has been removed, and the limit is now 2
     Gbyte of memory (around 530 000 000 REALs).  Note: On GNU/Linux
     systems one has to compile and link programs that occupy more than
     1 Gbyte statically, i.e. `g77 -static ...'.

   * Based on work done by Juergen Pfeifer (<juergen.pfeiferATgmx.net>)
     libf2c is now a shared library.  One can still link in all objects
     with the program by specifying the `-static' option.

   * Robert Anderson (<rwaATalumni.edu>) thought up a two line
     change that enables g77 to compile such code as:
          SUBROUTINE SUB(A, N)
          DIMENSION N(2)
          DIMENSION A(N(1),N(2))
          A(1,1) = 1.
          END
     Note the use of array elements in the bounds of the adjustable
     array A.

   * George Helffrich (<georgeATgeo.jp>) implemented a change
     in substring index checking (when specifying `-fbounds-check')
     that permits the use of zero length substrings of the form
     `string(1:0)'.

   * Based on code developed by Pedro Vazquez
     (<vazquezATpenelope.br>), the `libf2c' library is now
     able to read and write files larger than 2 Gbyte on 32-bit target
     machines, if the operating system supports this.

In 0.5.26, `GCC' 3.0 versus `GCC' 2.95:
=======================================

   * When a REWIND was issued after a WRITE statement on an unformatted
     file, the implicit truncation was performed by copying the
     truncated file to /tmp and copying the result back.  This has been
     fixed by using the `ftruncate' OS function.  Thanks go to the
     GAMESS developers for bringing this to our attention.

   * Using options `-g', `-ggdb' or `-gdwarf[-2]' (where appropriate
     for your target) now also enables debugging information for COMMON
     BLOCK and EQUIVALENCE items to be emitted.  Thanks go to Andrew
     Vaught (<andyATxena.edu>) and George Helffrich
     (<georgeATgeology.uk>) for fixing this longstanding
     problem.

   * It is not necessary anymore to use the option `-femulate-complex'
     to compile Fortran code using COMPLEX arithmetic, even on 64-bit
     machines (like the Alpha).  This will improve code generation.

   * INTRINSIC arithmetic functions are now treated as routines that do
     not depend on anything but their argument(s).  This enables
     further instruction scheduling, because it is known that they
     cannot read or modify arbitrary locations.


In 0.5.25, `GCC' 2.95 (`EGCS' 1.2) versus `EGCS' 1.1.2:
=======================================================

   * The new `-fbounds-check' option causes `g77' to compile run-time
     bounds checks of array subscripts, as well as of substring start
     and end points.

   * `libg2c' now supports building as multilibbed library, which
     provides better support for systems that require options such as
     `-mieee' to work properly.

   * Source file names with the suffixes `.FOR' and `.FPP' now are
     recognized by `g77' as if they ended in `.for' and `.fpp',
     respectively.

   * The order of arguments to the _subroutine_ forms of the `CTime',
     `DTime', `ETime', and `TtyNam' intrinsics has been swapped.  The
     argument serving as the returned value for the corresponding
     function forms now is the _second_ argument, making these
     consistent with the other subroutine forms of `libU77' intrinsics.

   * `g77' now warns about a reference to an intrinsic that has an
     interface that is not Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant.  Also, `libg2c'
     has been changed to increase the likelihood of catching references
     to the implementations of these intrinsics using the `EXTERNAL'
     mechanism (which would avoid the new warnings).

     *Note Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems::, for more information.

   * `-fno-emulate-complex' is now the default option.  This should
     result in improved performance of code that uses the `COMPLEX'
     data type.

   * The `-malign-double' option now reliably aligns _all_
     double-precision variables and arrays on Intel x86 targets.

   * `g77' no longer generates code to maintain `errno', a C-language
     concept, when performing operations such as the `SqRt' intrinsic.

   * Support for the `-fugly' option has been removed.


In 0.5.24 versus 0.5.23:
========================

There is no `g77' version 0.5.24 at this time, or planned.  0.5.24 is
the version number designated for bug fixes and, perhaps, some new
features added, to 0.5.23.  Version 0.5.23 requires `gcc' 2.8.1, as
0.5.24 was planned to require.

   Due to `EGCS' becoming `GCC' (which is now an acronym for "GNU
Compiler Collection"), and `EGCS' 1.2 becoming officially designated
`GCC' 2.95, there seems to be no need for an actual 0.5.24 release.

   To reduce the confusion already resulting from use of 0.5.24 to
designate `g77' versions within `EGCS' versions 1.0 and 1.1, as well as
in versions of `g77' documentation and notices during that period,
"mainline" `g77' version numbering resumes at 0.5.25 with `GCC' 2.95
(`EGCS' 1.2), skipping over 0.5.24 as a placeholder version number.

   To repeat, there is no `g77' 0.5.24, but there is now a 0.5.25.
Please remain calm and return to your keypunch units.

In `EGCS' 1.1.2 versus `EGCS' 1.1.1:
====================================

In `EGCS' 1.1.1 versus `EGCS' 1.1:
==================================

In `EGCS' 1.1 versus `EGCS' 1.0.3:
==================================

   * Support `FORMAT(I<EXPR>)' when EXPR is a compile-time constant
     `INTEGER' expression.

   * Fix `g77' `-g' option so procedures that use `ENTRY' can be
     stepped through, line by line, in `gdb'.

   * Allow any `REAL' argument to intrinsics `Second' and `CPU_Time'.

   * Use `tempnam', if available, to open scratch files (as in
     `OPEN(STATUS='SCRATCH')') so that the `TMPDIR' environment
     variable, if present, is used.

   * `g77''s version of `libf2c' separates out the setting of global
     state (such as command-line arguments and signal handling) from
     `main.o' into distinct, new library archive members.

     This should make it easier to write portable applications that
     have their own (non-Fortran) `main()' routine properly set up the
     `libf2c' environment, even when `libf2c' (now `libg2c') is a
     shared library.

   * The `g77' command now expects the run-time library to be named
     `libg2c.a' instead of `libf2c.a', to ensure that a version other
     than the one built and installed as part of the same `g77' version
     is picked up.

   * Some diagnostics have been changed from warnings to errors, to
     prevent inadvertent use of the resulting, probably buggy, programs.
     These mostly include diagnostics about use of unsupported features
     in the `OPEN', `INQUIRE', `READ', and `WRITE' statements, and
     about truncations of various sorts of constants.


In `EGCS' 1.1 versus `g77' 0.5.23:
==================================

   * `g77' now treats `%LOC(EXPR)' and `LOC(EXPR)' as "ordinary"
     expressions when they are used as arguments in procedure calls.
     This change applies only to global (filewide) analysis, making it
     consistent with how `g77' actually generates code for these cases.

     Previously, `g77' treated these expressions as denoting special
     "pointer" arguments for the purposes of filewide analysis.

   * Align static double-precision variables and arrays on Intel x86
     targets regardless of whether `-malign-double' is specified.

     Generally, this affects only local variables and arrays having the
     `SAVE' attribute or given initial values via `DATA'.

   * The `g77' driver now ensures that `-lg2c' is specified in the link
     phase prior to any occurrence of `-lm'.  This prevents
     accidentally linking to a routine in the SunOS4 `-lm' library when
     the generated code wants to link to the one in `libf2c' (`libg2c').

   * `g77' emits more debugging information when `-g' is used.

     This new information allows, for example, `which __g77_length_a'
     to be used in `gdb' to determine the type of the phantom length
     argument supplied with `CHARACTER' variables.

     This information pertains to internally-generated type, variable,
     and other information, not to the longstanding deficiencies
     vis-a-vis `COMMON' and `EQUIVALENCE'.

   * The F90 `Date_and_Time' intrinsic now is supported.

   * The F90 `System_Clock' intrinsic allows the optional arguments
     (except for the `Count' argument) to be omitted.


In 0.5.23 versus 0.5.22:
========================

   * This release contains several regressions against version 0.5.22
     of `g77', due to using the "vanilla" `gcc' back end instead of
     patching it to fix a few bugs and improve performance in a few
     cases.

     Features that have been dropped from this version of `g77' due to
     their being implemented via `g77'-specific patches to the `gcc'
     back end in previous releases include:

        - Support for `__restrict__' keyword, the options
          `-fargument-alias', `-fargument-noalias', and
          `-fargument-noalias-global', and the corresponding
          alias-analysis code.

          (`egcs' has the alias-analysis code, but not the
          `__restrict__' keyword.  `egcs' `g77' users benefit from the
          alias-analysis code despite the lack of the `__restrict__'
          keyword, which is a C-language construct.)

        - Support for the GNU compiler options `-fmove-all-movables',
          `-freduce-all-givs', and `-frerun-loop-opt'.

          (`egcs' supports these options.  `g77' users of `egcs'
          benefit from them even if they are not explicitly specified,
          because the defaults are optimized for `g77' users.)

        - Support for the `-W' option warning about integer division by
          zero.

        - The Intel x86-specific option `-malign-double' applying to
          stack-allocated data as well as statically-allocate data.

   * Support `gcc' version 2.8, and remove support for prior versions
     of `gcc'.

   * Remove support for the `--driver' option, as `g77' now does all
     the driving, just like `gcc'.

   * The `g77' command now expects the run-time library to be named
     `libg2c.a' instead of `libf2c.a', to ensure that a version other
     than the one built and installed as part of the same `g77' version
     is picked up.

   * `g77''s version of `libf2c' separates out the setting of global
     state (such as command-line arguments and signal handling) from
     `main.o' into distinct, new library archive members.

     This should make it easier to write portable applications that
     have their own (non-Fortran) `main()' routine properly set up the
     `libf2c' environment, even when `libf2c' (now `libg2c') is a
     shared library.

   * Some diagnostics have been changed from warnings to errors, to
     prevent inadvertent use of the resulting, probably buggy, programs.
     These mostly include diagnostics about use of unsupported features
     in the `OPEN', `INQUIRE', `READ', and `WRITE' statements, and
     about truncations of various sorts of constants.


In 0.5.22 versus 0.5.21:
========================

   * Fix `Signal' intrinsic so it offers portable support for 64-bit
     systems (such as Digital Alphas running GNU/Linux).

   * Support `FORMAT(I<EXPR>)' when EXPR is a compile-time constant
     `INTEGER' expression.

   * Fix `g77' `-g' option so procedures that use `ENTRY' can be
     stepped through, line by line, in `gdb'.

   * Allow any `REAL' argument to intrinsics `Second' and `CPU_Time'.

   * Allow any numeric argument to intrinsics `Int2' and `Int8'.

   * Use `tempnam', if available, to open scratch files (as in
     `OPEN(STATUS='SCRATCH')') so that the `TMPDIR' environment
     variable, if present, is used.

   * Rename the `gcc' keyword `restrict' to `__restrict__', to avoid
     rejecting valid, existing, C programs.  Support for `restrict' is
     now more like support for `complex'.

   * Fix `-fugly-comma' to affect invocations of only external
     procedures.  Restore rejection of gratuitous trailing omitted
     arguments to intrinsics, as in `I=MAX(3,4,,)'.

   * Fix compiler so it accepts `-fgnu-intrinsics-*' and
     `-fbadu77-intrinsics-*' options.


In `EGCS' 1.0.2 versus `EGCS' 1.0.1:
====================================

   * Fix compiler so it accepts `-fgnu-intrinsics-*' and
     `-fbadu77-intrinsics-*' options.

In `EGCS' 1.0.1 versus `EGCS' 1.0:
==================================

In `EGCS' 1.0 versus `g77' 0.5.21:
==================================

   * Version 1.0 of `egcs' contains several regressions against version
     0.5.21 of `g77', due to using the "vanilla" `gcc' back end instead
     of patching it to fix a few bugs and improve performance in a few
     cases.

     Features that have been dropped from this version of `g77' due to
     their being implemented via `g77'-specific patches to the `gcc'
     back end in previous releases include:

        - Support for the C-language `restrict' keyword.

        - Support for the `-W' option warning about integer division by
          zero.

        - The Intel x86-specific option `-malign-double' applying to
          stack-allocated data as well as statically-allocate data.

   * Remove support for the `--driver' option, as `g77' now does all
     the driving, just like `gcc'.

   * Allow any numeric argument to intrinsics `Int2' and `Int8'.


In 0.5.21:
==========

   * When the `-W' option is specified, `gcc', `g77', and other GNU
     compilers that incorporate the `gcc' back end as modified by
     `g77', issue a warning about integer division by constant zero.

   * New option `-Wno-globals' disables warnings about "suspicious" use
     of a name both as a global name and as the implicit name of an
     intrinsic, and warnings about disagreements over the number or
     natures of arguments passed to global procedures, or the natures
     of the procedures themselves.

     The default is to issue such warnings, which are new as of this
     version of `g77'.

   * New option `-fno-globals' disables diagnostics about potentially
     fatal disagreements analysis problems, such as disagreements over
     the number or natures of arguments passed to global procedures, or
     the natures of those procedures themselves.

     The default is to issue such diagnostics and flag the compilation
     as unsuccessful.  With this option, the diagnostics are issued as
     warnings, or, if `-Wno-globals' is specified, are not issued at
     all.

     This option also disables inlining of global procedures, to avoid
     compiler crashes resulting from coding errors that these
     diagnostics normally would identify.

   * Fix `libU77' routines that accept file and other names to strip
     trailing blanks from them, for consistency with other
     implementations.  Blanks may be forcibly appended to such names by
     appending a single null character (`CHAR(0)') to the significant
     trailing blanks.

   * Fix `CHMOD' intrinsic to work with file names that have embedded
     blanks, commas, and so on.

   * Fix `SIGNAL' intrinsic so it accepts an optional third `Status'
     argument.

   * Make many changes to `libU77' intrinsics to support existing code
     more directly.

     Such changes include allowing both subroutine and function forms
     of many routines, changing `MCLOCK()' and `TIME()' to return
     `INTEGER(KIND=1)' values, introducing `MCLOCK8()' and `TIME8()' to
     return `INTEGER(KIND=2)' values, and placing functions that are
     intended to perform side effects in a new intrinsic group,
     `badu77'.

   * Add options `-fbadu77-intrinsics-delete',
     `-fbadu77-intrinsics-hide', and so on.

   * Add `INT2' and `INT8' intrinsics.

   * Add `CPU_TIME' intrinsic.

   * Add `ALARM' intrinsic.

   * `CTIME' intrinsic now accepts any `INTEGER' argument, not just
     `INTEGER(KIND=2)'.

   * `g77' driver now prints version information (such as produced by
     `g77 -v') to `stderr' instead of `stdout'.

   * The `.r' suffix now designates a Ratfor source file, to be
     preprocessed via the `ratfor' command, available separately.


In 0.5.20:
==========

   * The `-fno-typeless-boz' option is now the default.

     This option specifies that non-decimal-radix constants using the
     prefixed-radix form (such as `Z'1234'') are to be interpreted as
     `INTEGER(KIND=1)' constants.  Specify `-ftypeless-boz' to cause
     such constants to be interpreted as typeless.

     (Version 0.5.19 introduced `-fno-typeless-boz' and its inverse.)

     *Note Options Controlling Fortran Dialect: Fortran Dialect Options,
     for information on the `-ftypeless-boz' option.

   * Options `-ff90-intrinsics-enable' and `-fvxt-intrinsics-enable'
     now are the defaults.

     Some programs might use names that clash with intrinsic names
     defined (and now enabled) by these options or by the new `libU77'
     intrinsics.  Users of such programs might need to compile them
     differently (using, for example, `-ff90-intrinsics-disable') or,
     better yet, insert appropriate `EXTERNAL' statements specifying
     that these names are not intended to be names of intrinsics.

   * The `ALWAYS_FLUSH' macro is no longer defined when building
     `libf2c', which should result in improved I/O performance,
     especially over NFS.

     _Note:_ If you have code that depends on the behavior of `libf2c'
     when built with `ALWAYS_FLUSH' defined, you will have to modify
     `libf2c' accordingly before building it from this and future
     versions of `g77'.

     *Note Output Assumed To Flush::, for more information.

   * Dave Love's implementation of `libU77' has been added to the
     version of `libf2c' distributed with and built as part of `g77'.
     `g77' now knows about the routines in this library as intrinsics.

   * New option `-fvxt' specifies that the source file is written in
     VXT Fortran, instead of GNU Fortran.

     *Note VXT Fortran::, for more information on the constructs
     recognized when the `-fvxt' option is specified.

   * The `-fvxt-not-f90' option has been deleted, along with its
     inverse, `-ff90-not-vxt'.

     If you used one of these deleted options, you should re-read the
     pertinent documentation to determine which options, if any, are
     appropriate for compiling your code with this version of `g77'.

     *Note Other Dialects::, for more information.

   * The `-fugly' option now issues a warning, as it likely will be
     removed in a future version.

     (Enabling all the `-fugly-*' options is unlikely to be feasible,
     or sensible, in the future, so users should learn to specify only
     those `-fugly-*' options they really need for a particular source
     file.)

   * The `-fugly-assumed' option, introduced in version 0.5.19, has
     been changed to better accommodate old and new code.

     *Note Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays::, for more information.

   * Related to supporting Alpha (AXP) machines, the `LOC()' intrinsic
     and `%LOC()' construct now return values of `INTEGER(KIND=0)' type,
     as defined by the GNU Fortran language.

     This type is wide enough (holds the same number of bits) as the
     character-pointer type on the machine.

     On most machines, this won't make a difference, whereas, on Alphas
     and other systems with 64-bit pointers, the `INTEGER(KIND=0)' type
     is equivalent to `INTEGER(KIND=2)' (often referred to as
     `INTEGER*8') instead of the more common `INTEGER(KIND=1)' (often
     referred to as `INTEGER*4').

   * Emulate `COMPLEX' arithmetic in the `g77' front end, to avoid bugs
     in `complex' support in the `gcc' back end.  New option
     `-fno-emulate-complex' causes `g77' to revert the 0.5.19 behavior.

   * Dummy arguments are no longer assumed to potentially alias
     (overlap) other dummy arguments or `COMMON' areas when any of
     these are defined (assigned to) by Fortran code.

     This can result in faster and/or smaller programs when compiling
     with optimization enabled, though on some systems this effect is
     observed only when `-fforce-addr' also is specified.

     New options `-falias-check', `-fargument-alias',
     `-fargument-noalias', and `-fno-argument-noalias-global' control
     the way `g77' handles potential aliasing.

     *Note Aliasing Assumed To Work::, for detailed information on why
     the new defaults might result in some programs no longer working
     the way they did when compiled by previous versions of `g77'.

   * New option `-fugly-assign' specifies that the same memory
     locations are to be used to hold the values assigned by both
     statements `I = 3' and `ASSIGN 10 TO I', for example.  (Normally,
     `g77' uses a separate memory location to hold assigned statement
     labels.)

     *Note Ugly Assigned Labels::, for more information.

   * `FORMAT' and `ENTRY' statements now are allowed to precede
     `IMPLICIT NONE' statements.

   * Enable full support of `INTEGER(KIND=2)' (often referred to as
     `INTEGER*8') available in `libf2c' and `f2c.h' so that `f2c' users
     may make full use of its features via the `g77' version of `f2c.h'
     and the `INTEGER(KIND=2)' support routines in the `g77' version of
     `libf2c'.

   * Improve `g77' driver and `libf2c' so that `g77 -v' yields version
     information on the library.

   * The `SNGL' and `FLOAT' intrinsics now are specific intrinsics,
     instead of synonyms for the generic intrinsic `REAL'.

   * New intrinsics have been added.  These are `REALPART', `IMAGPART',
     `COMPLEX', `LONG', and `SHORT'.

   * A new group of intrinsics, `gnu', has been added to contain the
     new `REALPART', `IMAGPART', and `COMPLEX' intrinsics.  An old
     group, `dcp', has been removed.

   * Complain about industry-wide ambiguous references `REAL(EXPR)' and
     `AIMAG(EXPR)', where EXPR is `DOUBLE COMPLEX' (or any complex type
     other than `COMPLEX'), unless `-ff90' option specifies Fortran 90
     interpretation or new `-fugly-complex' option, in conjunction with
     `-fnot-f90', specifies `f2c' interpretation.


In previous versions:
=====================

Information on previous versions is archived in `gcc/gcc/f/news.texi'
following the test of the `DOC-OLDNEWS' macro.

File: g77.info,  Node: Language,  Next: Compiler,  Prev: Changes,  Up: Top

8 The GNU Fortran Language
**************************

GNU Fortran supports a variety of extensions to, and dialects of, the
Fortran language.  Its primary base is the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard,
currently available on the network at
`http://www.fortran.com/fortran/F77_std/rjcnf0001.html' or as
monolithic text at
`http://www.fortran.com/fortran/F77_std/f77_std.html'.  It offers some
extensions that are popular among users of UNIX `f77' and `f2c'
compilers, some that are popular among users of other compilers (such
as Digital products), some that are popular among users of the newer
Fortran 90 standard, and some that are introduced by GNU Fortran.

   (If you need a text on Fortran, a few freely available electronic
references have pointers from `http://www.fortran.com/F/books.html'.
There is a `cooperative net project', `User Notes on Fortran
Programming' at `ftp://vms.huji.ac.il/fortran/' and mirrors elsewhere;
some of this material might not apply specifically to `g77'.)

   Part of what defines a particular implementation of a Fortran
system, such as `g77', is the particular characteristics of how it
supports types, constants, and so on.  Much of this is left up to the
implementation by the various Fortran standards and accepted practice
in the industry.

   The GNU Fortran _language_ is described below.  Much of the material
is organized along the same lines as the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard
itself.

   *Note Other Dialects::, for information on features `g77' supports
that are not part of the GNU Fortran language.

   _Note_: This portion of the documentation definitely needs a lot of
work!

* Menu:

Relationship to the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard:
* Direction of Language Development::  Where GNU Fortran is headed.
* Standard Support::  Degree of support for the standard.

Extensions to the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard:
* Conformance::
* Notation Used::
* Terms and Concepts::
* Characters Lines Sequence::
* Data Types and Constants::
* Expressions::
* Specification Statements::
* Control Statements::
* Functions and Subroutines::
* Scope and Classes of Names::
* I/O::
* Fortran 90 Features::

File: g77.info,  Node: Direction of Language Development,  Next: Standard Support,  Up: Language

8.1 Direction of Language Development
=====================================

The purpose of the following description of the GNU Fortran language is
to promote wide portability of GNU Fortran programs.

   GNU Fortran is an evolving language, due to the fact that `g77'
itself is in beta test.  Some current features of the language might
later be redefined as dialects of Fortran supported by `g77' when
better ways to express these features are added to `g77', for example.
Such features would still be supported by `g77', but would be available
only when one or more command-line options were used.

   The GNU Fortran _language_ is distinct from the GNU Fortran
_compilation system_ (`g77').

   For example, `g77' supports various dialects of Fortran--in a sense,
these are languages other than GNU Fortran--though its primary purpose
is to support the GNU Fortran language, which also is described in its
documentation and by its implementation.

   On the other hand, non-GNU compilers might offer support for the GNU
Fortran language, and are encouraged to do so.

   Currently, the GNU Fortran language is a fairly fuzzy object.  It
represents something of a cross between what `g77' accepts when
compiling using the prevailing defaults and what this document
describes as being part of the language.

   Future versions of `g77' are expected to clarify the definition of
the language in the documentation.  Often, this will mean adding new
features to the language, in the form of both new documentation and new
support in `g77'.  However, it might occasionally mean removing a
feature from the language itself to "dialect" status.  In such a case,
the documentation would be adjusted to reflect the change, and `g77'
itself would likely be changed to require one or more command-line
options to continue supporting the feature.

   The development of the GNU Fortran language is intended to strike a
balance between:

   * Serving as a mostly-upwards-compatible language from the de facto
     UNIX Fortran dialect as supported by `f77'.

   * Offering new, well-designed language features.  Attributes of such
     features include not making existing code any harder to read (for
     those who might be unaware that the new features are not in use)
     and not making state-of-the-art compilers take longer to issue
     diagnostics, among others.

   * Supporting existing, well-written code without gratuitously
     rejecting non-standard constructs, regardless of the origin of the
     code (its dialect).

   * Offering default behavior and command-line options to reduce and,
     where reasonable, eliminate the need for programmers to make any
     modifications to code that already works in existing production
     environments.

   * Diagnosing constructs that have different meanings in different
     systems, languages, and dialects, while offering clear, less
     ambiguous ways to express each of the different meanings so
     programmers can change their code appropriately.

   One of the biggest practical challenges for the developers of the
GNU Fortran language is meeting the sometimes contradictory demands of
the above items.

   For example, a feature might be widely used in one popular
environment, but the exact same code that utilizes that feature might
not work as expected--perhaps it might mean something entirely
different--in another popular environment.

   Traditionally, Fortran compilers--even portable ones--have solved
this problem by simply offering the appropriate feature to users of the
respective systems.  This approach treats users of various Fortran
systems and dialects as remote "islands", or camps, of programmers, and
assume that these camps rarely come into contact with each other (or,
especially, with each other's code).

   Project GNU takes a radically different approach to software and
language design, in that it assumes that users of GNU software do not
necessarily care what kind of underlying system they are using,
regardless of whether they are using software (at the user-interface
level) or writing it (for example, writing Fortran or C code).

   As such, GNU users rarely need consider just what kind of underlying
hardware (or, in many cases, operating system) they are using at any
particular time.  They can use and write software designed for a
general-purpose, widely portable, heterogeneous environment--the GNU
environment.

   In line with this philosophy, GNU Fortran must evolve into a product
that is widely ported and portable not only in the sense that it can be
successfully built, installed, and run by users, but in the larger
sense that its users can use it in the same way, and expect largely the
same behaviors from it, regardless of the kind of system they are using
at any particular time.

   This approach constrains the solutions `g77' can use to resolve
conflicts between various camps of Fortran users.  If these two camps
disagree about what a particular construct should mean, `g77' cannot
simply be changed to treat that particular construct as having one
meaning without comment (such as a warning), lest the users expecting
it to have the other meaning are unpleasantly surprised that their code
misbehaves when executed.

   The use of the ASCII backslash character in character constants is
an excellent (and still somewhat unresolved) example of this kind of
controversy.  *Note Backslash in Constants::.  Other examples are
likely to arise in the future, as `g77' developers strive to improve
its ability to accept an ever-wider variety of existing Fortran code
without requiring significant modifications to said code.

   Development of GNU Fortran is further constrained by the desire to
avoid requiring programmers to change their code.  This is important
because it allows programmers, administrators, and others to more
faithfully evaluate and validate `g77' (as an overall product and as
new versions are distributed) without having to support multiple
versions of their programs so that they continue to work the same way
on their existing systems (non-GNU perhaps, but possibly also earlier
versions of `g77').

File: g77.info,  Node: Standard Support,  Next: Conformance,  Prev: Direction of Language Development,  Up: Language

8.2 ANSI FORTRAN 77 Standard Support
====================================

GNU Fortran supports ANSI FORTRAN 77 with the following caveats.  In
summary, the only ANSI FORTRAN 77 features `g77' doesn't support are
those that are probably rarely used in actual code, some of which are
explicitly disallowed by the Fortran 90 standard.

* Menu:

* No Passing External Assumed-length::  CHAR*(*) CFUNC restriction.
* No Passing Dummy Assumed-length::     CHAR*(*) CFUNC restriction.
* No Pathological Implied-DO::          No `((..., I=...), I=...)'.
* No Useless Implied-DO::               No `(A, I=1, 1)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: No Passing External Assumed-length,  Next: No Passing Dummy Assumed-length,  Up: Standard Support

8.2.1 No Passing External Assumed-length
----------------------------------------

`g77' disallows passing of an external procedure as an actual argument
if the procedure's type is declared `CHARACTER*(*)'.  For example:

     CHARACTER*(*) CFUNC
     EXTERNAL CFUNC
     CALL FOO(CFUNC)
     END

It isn't clear whether the standard considers this conforming.

File: g77.info,  Node: No Passing Dummy Assumed-length,  Next: No Pathological Implied-DO,  Prev: No Passing External Assumed-length,  Up: Standard Support

8.2.2 No Passing Dummy Assumed-length
-------------------------------------

`g77' disallows passing of a dummy procedure as an actual argument if
the procedure's type is declared `CHARACTER*(*)'.

     SUBROUTINE BAR(CFUNC)
     CHARACTER*(*) CFUNC
     EXTERNAL CFUNC
     CALL FOO(CFUNC)
     END

It isn't clear whether the standard considers this conforming.

File: g77.info,  Node: No Pathological Implied-DO,  Next: No Useless Implied-DO,  Prev: No Passing Dummy Assumed-length,  Up: Standard Support

8.2.3 No Pathological Implied-DO
--------------------------------

The `DO' variable for an implied-`DO' construct in a `DATA' statement
may not be used as the `DO' variable for an outer implied-`DO'
construct.  For example, this fragment is disallowed by `g77':

     DATA ((A(I, I), I= 1, 10), I= 1, 10) /.../

This also is disallowed by Fortran 90, as it offers no additional
capabilities and would have a variety of possible meanings.

   Note that it is _very_ unlikely that any production Fortran code
tries to use this unsupported construct.

File: g77.info,  Node: No Useless Implied-DO,  Prev: No Pathological Implied-DO,  Up: Standard Support

8.2.4 No Useless Implied-DO
---------------------------

An array element initializer in an implied-`DO' construct in a `DATA'
statement must contain at least one reference to the `DO' variables of
each outer implied-`DO' construct.  For example, this fragment is
disallowed by `g77':

     DATA (A, I= 1, 1) /1./

This also is disallowed by Fortran 90, as FORTRAN 77's more permissive
requirements offer no additional capabilities.  However, `g77' doesn't
necessarily diagnose all cases where this requirement is not met.

   Note that it is _very_ unlikely that any production Fortran code
tries to use this unsupported construct.

File: g77.info,  Node: Conformance,  Next: Notation Used,  Prev: Standard Support,  Up: Language

8.3 Conformance
===============

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Section 1.4 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 1 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for
the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

   The definition of the GNU Fortran language is akin to that of the
ANSI FORTRAN 77 language in that it does not generally require
conforming implementations to diagnose cases where programs do not
conform to the language.

   However, `g77' as a compiler is being developed in a way that is
intended to enable it to diagnose such cases in an easy-to-understand
manner.

   A program that conforms to the GNU Fortran language should, when
compiled, linked, and executed using a properly installed `g77' system,
perform as described by the GNU Fortran language definition.  Reasons
for different behavior include, among others:

   * Use of resources (memory--heap, stack, and so on; disk space; CPU
     time; etc.) exceeds those of the system.

   * Range and/or precision of calculations required by the program
     exceeds that of the system.

   * Excessive reliance on behaviors that are system-dependent
     (non-portable Fortran code).

   * Bugs in the program.

   * Bug in `g77'.

   * Bugs in the system.

   Despite these "loopholes", the availability of a clear specification
of the language of programs submitted to `g77', as this document is
intended to provide, is considered an important aspect of providing a
robust, clean, predictable Fortran implementation.

   The definition of the GNU Fortran language, while having no special
legal status, can therefore be viewed as a sort of contract, or
agreement.  This agreement says, in essence, "if you write a program in
this language, and run it in an environment (such as a `g77' system)
that supports this language, the program should behave in a largely
predictable way".

File: g77.info,  Node: Notation Used,  Next: Terms and Concepts,  Prev: Conformance,  Up: Language

8.4 Notation Used in This Chapter
=================================

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Section 1.5 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 1 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for
the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

   In this chapter, "must" denotes a requirement, "may" denotes
permission, and "must not" and "may not" denote prohibition.  Terms
such as "might", "should", and "can" generally add little or nothing in
the way of weight to the GNU Fortran language itself, but are used to
explain or illustrate the language.

   For example:

     "The `FROBNITZ' statement must precede all executable
     statements in a program unit, and may not specify any dummy
     arguments.  It may specify local or common variables and arrays.
     Its use should be limited to portions of the program designed to
     be non-portable and system-specific, because it might cause the
     containing program unit to behave quite differently on different
     systems."

   Insofar as the GNU Fortran language is specified, the requirements
and permissions denoted by the above sample statement are limited to
the placement of the statement and the kinds of things it may specify.
The rest of the statement--the content regarding non-portable portions
of the program and the differing behavior of program units containing
the `FROBNITZ' statement--does not pertain the GNU Fortran language
itself.  That content offers advice and warnings about the `FROBNITZ'
statement.

   _Remember:_ The GNU Fortran language definition specifies both what
constitutes a valid GNU Fortran program and how, given such a program,
a valid GNU Fortran implementation is to interpret that program.

   It is _not_ incumbent upon a valid GNU Fortran implementation to
behave in any particular way, any consistent way, or any predictable
way when it is asked to interpret input that is _not_ a valid GNU
Fortran program.

   Such input is said to have "undefined" behavior when interpreted by
a valid GNU Fortran implementation, though an implementation may choose
to specify behaviors for some cases of inputs that are not valid GNU
Fortran programs.

   Other notation used herein is that of the GNU texinfo format, which
is used to generate printed hardcopy, on-line hypertext (Info), and
on-line HTML versions, all from a single source document.  This
notation is used as follows:

   * Keywords defined by the GNU Fortran language are shown in
     uppercase, as in: `COMMON', `INTEGER', and `BLOCK DATA'.

     Note that, in practice, many Fortran programs are written in
     lowercase--uppercase is used in this manual as a means to readily
     distinguish keywords and sample Fortran-related text from the
     prose in this document.

   * Portions of actual sample program, input, or output text look like
     this: `Actual program text'.

     Generally, uppercase is used for all Fortran-specific and
     Fortran-related text, though this does not always include literal
     text within Fortran code.

     For example: `PRINT *, 'My name is Bob''.

   * A metasyntactic variable--that is, a name used in this document to
     serve as a placeholder for whatever text is used by the user or
     programmer--appears as shown in the following example:

     "The `INTEGER IVAR' statement specifies that IVAR is a variable or
     array of type `INTEGER'."

     In the above example, any valid text may be substituted for the
     metasyntactic variable IVAR to make the statement apply to a
     specific instance, as long as the same text is substituted for
     _both_ occurrences of IVAR.

   * Ellipses ("...") are used to indicate further text that is either
     unimportant or expanded upon further, elsewhere.

   * Names of data types are in the style of Fortran 90, in most cases.

     *Note Kind Notation::, for information on the relationship between
     Fortran 90 nomenclature (such as `INTEGER(KIND=1)') and the more
     traditional, less portably concise nomenclature (such as
     `INTEGER*4').

File: g77.info,  Node: Terms and Concepts,  Next: Characters Lines Sequence,  Prev: Notation Used,  Up: Language

8.5 Fortran Terms and Concepts
==============================

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Chapter 2 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 2 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for
the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

* Menu:

* Syntactic Items::
* Statements Comments Lines::
* Scope of Names and Labels::

File: g77.info,  Node: Syntactic Items,  Next: Statements Comments Lines,  Up: Terms and Concepts

8.5.1 Syntactic Items
---------------------

(Corresponds to Section 2.2 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   In GNU Fortran, a symbolic name is at least one character long, and
has no arbitrary upper limit on length.  However, names of entities
requiring external linkage (such as external functions, external
subroutines, and `COMMON' areas) might be restricted to some arbitrary
length by the system.  Such a restriction is no more constrained than
that of one through six characters.

   Underscores (`_') are accepted in symbol names after the first
character (which must be a letter).

File: g77.info,  Node: Statements Comments Lines,  Next: Scope of Names and Labels,  Prev: Syntactic Items,  Up: Terms and Concepts

8.5.2 Statements, Comments, and Lines
-------------------------------------

(Corresponds to Section 2.3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   Use of an exclamation point (`!') to begin a trailing comment (a
comment that extends to the end of the same source line) is permitted
under the following conditions:

   * The exclamation point does not appear in column 6.  Otherwise, it
     is treated as an indicator of a continuation line.

   * The exclamation point appears outside a character or Hollerith
     constant.  Otherwise, the exclamation point is considered part of
     the constant.

   * The exclamation point appears to the left of any other possible
     trailing comment.  That is, a trailing comment may contain
     exclamation points in their commentary text.

   Use of a semicolon (`;') as a statement separator is permitted under
the following conditions:

   * The semicolon appears outside a character or Hollerith constant.
     Otherwise, the semicolon is considered part of the constant.

   * The semicolon appears to the left of a trailing comment.
     Otherwise, the semicolon is considered part of that comment.

   * Neither a logical `IF' statement nor a non-construct `WHERE'
     statement (a Fortran 90 feature) may be followed (in the same,
     possibly continued, line) by a semicolon used as a statement
     separator.

     This restriction avoids the confusion that can result when reading
     a line such as:

          IF (VALIDP) CALL FOO; CALL BAR

     Some readers might think the `CALL BAR' is executed only if
     `VALIDP' is `.TRUE.', while others might assume its execution is
     unconditional.

     (At present, `g77' does not diagnose code that violates this
     restriction.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Scope of Names and Labels,  Prev: Statements Comments Lines,  Up: Terms and Concepts

8.5.3 Scope of Symbolic Names and Statement Labels
--------------------------------------------------

(Corresponds to Section 2.9 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   Included in the list of entities that have a scope of a program unit
are construct names (a Fortran 90 feature).  *Note Construct Names::,
for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: Characters Lines Sequence,  Next: Data Types and Constants,  Prev: Terms and Concepts,  Up: Language

8.6 Characters, Lines, and Execution Sequence
=============================================

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Chapter 3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 3 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for
the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

* Menu:

* Character Set::
* Lines::
* Continuation Line::
* Statements::
* Statement Labels::
* Order::
* INCLUDE::
* Cpp-style directives::

File: g77.info,  Node: Character Set,  Next: Lines,  Up: Characters Lines Sequence

8.6.1 GNU Fortran Character Set
-------------------------------

(Corresponds to Section 3.1 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   Letters include uppercase letters (the twenty-six characters of the
English alphabet) and lowercase letters (their lowercase equivalent).
Generally, lowercase letters may be used in place of uppercase letters,
though in character and Hollerith constants, they are distinct.

   Special characters include:

   * Semicolon (`;')

   * Exclamation point (`!')

   * Double quote (`"')

   * Backslash (`\')

   * Question mark (`?')

   * Hash mark (`#')

   * Ampersand (`&')

   * Percent sign (`%')

   * Underscore (`_')

   * Open angle (`<')

   * Close angle (`>')

   * The FORTRAN 77 special characters (<SPC>, `=', `+', `-', `*', `/',
     `(', `)', `,', `.', `$', `'', and `:')

   Note that this document refers to <SPC> as "space", while X3.9-1978
FORTRAN 77 refers to it as "blank".

File: g77.info,  Node: Lines,  Next: Continuation Line,  Prev: Character Set,  Up: Characters Lines Sequence

8.6.2 Lines
-----------

(Corresponds to Section 3.2 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   The way a Fortran compiler views source files depends entirely on the
implementation choices made for the compiler, since those choices are
explicitly left to the implementation by the published Fortran
standards.

   The GNU Fortran language mandates a view applicable to UNIX-like
text files--files that are made up of an arbitrary number of lines,
each with an arbitrary number of characters (sometimes called
stream-based files).

   This view does not apply to types of files that are specified as
having a particular number of characters on every single line (sometimes
referred to as record-based files).

   Because a "line in a program unit is a sequence of 72 characters",
to quote X3.9-1978, the GNU Fortran language specifies that a
stream-based text file is translated to GNU Fortran lines as follows:

   * A newline in the file is the character that represents the end of
     a line of text to the underlying system.  For example, on
     ASCII-based systems, a newline is the <NL> character, which has
     ASCII value 10 (decimal).

   * Each newline in the file serves to end the line of text that
     precedes it (and that does not contain a newline).

   * The end-of-file marker (`EOF') also serves to end the line of text
     that precedes it (and that does not contain a newline).

   * Any line of text that is shorter than 72 characters is padded to
     that length with spaces (called "blanks" in the standard).

   * Any line of text that is longer than 72 characters is truncated to
     that length, but the truncated remainder must consist entirely of
     spaces.

   * Characters other than newline and the GNU Fortran character set
     are invalid.

   For the purposes of the remainder of this description of the GNU
Fortran language, the translation described above has already taken
place, unless otherwise specified.

   The result of the above translation is that the source file appears,
in terms of the remainder of this description of the GNU Fortran
language, as if it had an arbitrary number of 72-character lines, each
character being among the GNU Fortran character set.

   For example, if the source file itself has two newlines in a row,
the second newline becomes, after the above translation, a single line
containing 72 spaces.

File: g77.info,  Node: Continuation Line,  Next: Statements,  Prev: Lines,  Up: Characters Lines Sequence

8.6.3 Continuation Line
-----------------------

(Corresponds to Section 3.2.3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   A continuation line is any line that both

   * Contains a continuation character, and

   * Contains only spaces in columns 1 through 5

   A continuation character is any character of the GNU Fortran
character set other than space (<SPC>) or zero (`0') in column 6, or a
digit (`0' through `9') in column 7 through 72 of a line that has only
spaces to the left of that digit.

   The continuation character is ignored as far as the content of the
statement is concerned.

   The GNU Fortran language places no limit on the number of
continuation lines in a statement.  In practice, the limit depends on a
variety of factors, such as available memory, statement content, and so
on, but no GNU Fortran system may impose an arbitrary limit.

File: g77.info,  Node: Statements,  Next: Statement Labels,  Prev: Continuation Line,  Up: Characters Lines Sequence

8.6.4 Statements
----------------

(Corresponds to Section 3.3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   Statements may be written using an arbitrary number of continuation
lines.

   Statements may be separated using the semicolon (`;'), except that
the logical `IF' and non-construct `WHERE' statements may not be
separated from subsequent statements using only a semicolon as
statement separator.

   The `END PROGRAM', `END SUBROUTINE', `END FUNCTION', and `END BLOCK
DATA' statements are alternatives to the `END' statement.  These
alternatives may be written as normal statements--they are not subject
to the restrictions of the `END' statement.

   However, no statement other than `END' may have an initial line that
appears to be an `END' statement--even `END PROGRAM', for example, must
not be written as:

           END
          &PROGRAM

File: g77.info,  Node: Statement Labels,  Next: Order,  Prev: Statements,  Up: Characters Lines Sequence

8.6.5 Statement Labels
----------------------

(Corresponds to Section 3.4 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   A statement separated from its predecessor via a semicolon may be
labeled as follows:

   * The semicolon is followed by the label for the statement, which in
     turn follows the label.

   * The label must be no more than five digits in length.

   * The first digit of the label for the statement is not the first
     non-space character on a line.  Otherwise, that character is
     treated as a continuation character.

   A statement may have only one label defined for it.

File: g77.info,  Node: Order,  Next: INCLUDE,  Prev: Statement Labels,  Up: Characters Lines Sequence

8.6.6 Order of Statements and Lines
-----------------------------------

(Corresponds to Section 3.5 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   Generally, `DATA' statements may precede executable statements.
However, specification statements pertaining to any entities
initialized by a `DATA' statement must precede that `DATA' statement.
For example, after `DATA I/1/', `INTEGER I' is not permitted, but
`INTEGER J' is permitted.

   The last line of a program unit may be an `END' statement, or may be:

   * An `END PROGRAM' statement, if the program unit is a main program.

   * An `END SUBROUTINE' statement, if the program unit is a subroutine.

   * An `END FUNCTION' statement, if the program unit is a function.

   * An `END BLOCK DATA' statement, if the program unit is a block data.

File: g77.info,  Node: INCLUDE,  Next: Cpp-style directives,  Prev: Order,  Up: Characters Lines Sequence

8.6.7 Including Source Text
---------------------------

Additional source text may be included in the processing of the source
file via the `INCLUDE' directive:

     INCLUDE FILENAME

The source text to be included is identified by FILENAME, which is a
literal GNU Fortran character constant.  The meaning and interpretation
of FILENAME depends on the implementation, but typically is a filename.

   (`g77' treats it as a filename that it searches for in the current
directory and/or directories specified via the `-I' command-line
option.)

   The effect of the `INCLUDE' directive is as if the included text
directly replaced the directive in the source file prior to
interpretation of the program.  Included text may itself use `INCLUDE'.
The depth of nested `INCLUDE' references depends on the implementation,
but typically is a positive integer.

   This virtual replacement treats the statements and `INCLUDE'
directives in the included text as syntactically distinct from those in
the including text.

   Therefore, the first non-comment line of the included text must not
be a continuation line.  The included text must therefore have, after
the non-comment lines, either an initial line (statement), an `INCLUDE'
directive, or nothing (the end of the included text).

   Similarly, the including text may end the `INCLUDE' directive with a
semicolon or the end of the line, but it cannot follow an `INCLUDE'
directive at the end of its line with a continuation line.  Thus, the
last statement in an included text may not be continued.

   Any statements between two `INCLUDE' directives on the same line are
treated as if they appeared in between the respective included texts.
For example:

     INCLUDE 'A'; PRINT *, 'B'; INCLUDE 'C'; END PROGRAM

If the text included by `INCLUDE 'A'' constitutes a `PRINT *, 'A''
statement and the text included by `INCLUDE 'C'' constitutes a `PRINT
*, 'C'' statement, then the output of the above sample program would be

     A
     B
     C

(with suitable allowances for how an implementation defines its
handling of output).

   Included text must not include itself directly or indirectly,
regardless of whether the FILENAME used to reference the text is the
same.

   Note that `INCLUDE' is _not_ a statement.  As such, it is neither a
non-executable or executable statement.  However, if the text it
includes constitutes one or more executable statements, then the
placement of `INCLUDE' is subject to effectively the same restrictions
as those on executable statements.

   An `INCLUDE' directive may be continued across multiple lines as if
it were a statement.  This permits long names to be used for FILENAME.

File: g77.info,  Node: Cpp-style directives,  Prev: INCLUDE,  Up: Characters Lines Sequence

8.6.8 Cpp-style directives
--------------------------

`cpp' output-style `#' directives (*note C Preprocessor Output: (cpp)C
Preprocessor Output.)  are recognized by the compiler even when the
preprocessor isn't run on the input (as it is when compiling `.F'
files).  (Note the distinction between these `cpp' `#' _output_
directives and `#line' _input_ directives.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Data Types and Constants,  Next: Expressions,  Prev: Characters Lines Sequence,  Up: Language

8.7 Data Types and Constants
============================

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Chapter 4 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 4 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for
the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

   To more concisely express the appropriate types for entities, this
document uses the more concise Fortran 90 nomenclature such as
`INTEGER(KIND=1)' instead of the more traditional, but less portably
concise, byte-size-based nomenclature such as `INTEGER*4', wherever
reasonable.

   When referring to generic types--in contexts where the specific
precision and range of a type are not important--this document uses the
generic type names `INTEGER', `LOGICAL', `REAL', `COMPLEX', and
`CHARACTER'.

   In some cases, the context requires specification of a particular
type.  This document uses the `KIND=' notation to accomplish this
throughout, sometimes supplying the more traditional notation for
clarification, though the traditional notation might not work the same
way on all GNU Fortran implementations.

   Use of `KIND=' makes this document more concise because `g77' is
able to define values for `KIND=' that have the same meanings on all
systems, due to the way the Fortran 90 standard specifies these values
are to be used.

   (In particular, that standard permits an implementation to
arbitrarily assign nonnegative values.  There are four distinct sets of
assignments: one to the `CHARACTER' type; one to the `INTEGER' type;
one to the `LOGICAL' type; and the fourth to both the `REAL' and
`COMPLEX' types.  Implementations are free to assign these values in
any order, leave gaps in the ordering of assignments, and assign more
than one value to a representation.)

   This makes `KIND=' values superior to the values used in
non-standard statements such as `INTEGER*4', because the meanings of
the values in those statements vary from machine to machine, compiler
to compiler, even operating system to operating system.

   However, use of `KIND=' is _not_ generally recommended when writing
portable code (unless, for example, the code is going to be compiled
only via `g77', which is a widely ported compiler).  GNU Fortran does
not yet have adequate language constructs to permit use of `KIND=' in a
fashion that would make the code portable to Fortran 90
implementations; and, this construct is known to _not_ be accepted by
many popular FORTRAN 77 implementations, so it cannot be used in code
that is to be ported to those.

   The distinction here is that this document is able to use specific
values for `KIND=' to concisely document the types of various
operations and operands.

   A Fortran program should use the FORTRAN 77 designations for the
appropriate GNU Fortran types--such as `INTEGER' for `INTEGER(KIND=1)',
`REAL' for `REAL(KIND=1)', and `DOUBLE COMPLEX' for
`COMPLEX(KIND=2)'--and, where no such designations exist, make use of
appropriate techniques (preprocessor macros, parameters, and so on) to
specify the types in a fashion that may be easily adjusted to suit each
particular implementation to which the program is ported.  (These types
generally won't need to be adjusted for ports of `g77'.)

   Further details regarding GNU Fortran data types and constants are
provided below.

* Menu:

* Types::
* Constants::
* Integer Type::
* Character Type::

File: g77.info,  Node: Types,  Next: Constants,  Up: Data Types and Constants

8.7.1 Data Types
----------------

(Corresponds to Section 4.1 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   GNU Fortran supports these types:

  1. Integer (generic type `INTEGER')

  2. Real (generic type `REAL')

  3. Double precision

  4. Complex (generic type `COMPLEX')

  5. Logical (generic type `LOGICAL')

  6. Character (generic type `CHARACTER')

  7. Double Complex

   (The types numbered 1 through 6 above are standard FORTRAN 77 types.)

   The generic types shown above are referred to in this document using
only their generic type names.  Such references usually indicate that
any specific type (kind) of that generic type is valid.

   For example, a context described in this document as accepting the
`COMPLEX' type also is likely to accept the `DOUBLE COMPLEX' type.

   The GNU Fortran language supports three ways to specify a specific
kind of a generic type.

* Menu:

* Double Notation::  As in `DOUBLE COMPLEX'.
* Star Notation::    As in `INTEGER*4'.
* Kind Notation::    As in `INTEGER(KIND=1)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Double Notation,  Next: Star Notation,  Up: Types

8.7.1.1 Double Notation
.......................

The GNU Fortran language supports two uses of the keyword `DOUBLE' to
specify a specific kind of type:

   * `DOUBLE PRECISION', equivalent to `REAL(KIND=2)'

   * `DOUBLE COMPLEX', equivalent to `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'

   Use one of the above forms where a type name is valid.

   While use of this notation is popular, it doesn't scale well in a
language or dialect rich in intrinsic types, as is the case for the GNU
Fortran language (especially planned future versions of it).

   After all, one rarely sees type names such as `DOUBLE INTEGER',
`QUADRUPLE REAL', or `QUARTER INTEGER'.  Instead, `INTEGER*8',
`REAL*16', and `INTEGER*1' often are substituted for these,
respectively, even though they do not always have the same meanings on
all systems.  (And, the fact that `DOUBLE REAL' does not exist as such
is an inconsistency.)

   Therefore, this document uses "double notation" only on occasion for
the benefit of those readers who are accustomed to it.

File: g77.info,  Node: Star Notation,  Next: Kind Notation,  Prev: Double Notation,  Up: Types

8.7.1.2 Star Notation
.....................

The following notation specifies the storage size for a type:

     GENERIC-TYPE*N

GENERIC-TYPE must be a generic type--one of `INTEGER', `REAL',
`COMPLEX', `LOGICAL', or `CHARACTER'.  N must be one or more digits
comprising a decimal integer number greater than zero.

   Use the above form where a type name is valid.

   The `*N' notation specifies that the amount of storage occupied by
variables and array elements of that type is N times the storage
occupied by a `CHARACTER*1' variable.

   This notation might indicate a different degree of precision and/or
range for such variables and array elements, and the functions that
return values of types using this notation.  It does not limit the
precision or range of values of that type in any particular way--use
explicit code to do that.

   Further, the GNU Fortran language requires no particular values for
N to be supported by an implementation via the `*N' notation.  `g77'
supports `INTEGER*1' (as `INTEGER(KIND=3)') on all systems, for example,
but not all implementations are required to do so, and `g77' is known
to not support `REAL*1' on most (or all) systems.

   As a result, except for GENERIC-TYPE of `CHARACTER', uses of this
notation should be limited to isolated portions of a program that are
intended to handle system-specific tasks and are expected to be
non-portable.

   (Standard FORTRAN 77 supports the `*N' notation for only
`CHARACTER', where it signifies not only the amount of storage
occupied, but the number of characters in entities of that type.
However, almost all Fortran compilers have supported this notation for
generic types, though with a variety of meanings for N.)

   Specifications of types using the `*N' notation always are
interpreted as specifications of the appropriate types described in
this document using the `KIND=N' notation, described below.

   While use of this notation is popular, it doesn't serve well in the
context of a widely portable dialect of Fortran, such as the GNU
Fortran language.

   For example, even on one particular machine, two or more popular
Fortran compilers might well disagree on the size of a type declared
`INTEGER*2' or `REAL*16'.  Certainly there is known to be disagreement
over such things among Fortran compilers on _different_ systems.

   Further, this notation offers no elegant way to specify sizes that
are not even multiples of the "byte size" typically designated by
`INTEGER*1'.  Use of "absurd" values (such as `INTEGER*1000') would
certainly be possible, but would perhaps be stretching the original
intent of this notation beyond the breaking point in terms of
widespread readability of documentation and code making use of it.

   Therefore, this document uses "star notation" only on occasion for
the benefit of those readers who are accustomed to it.

File: g77.info,  Node: Kind Notation,  Prev: Star Notation,  Up: Types

8.7.1.3 Kind Notation
.....................

The following notation specifies the kind-type selector of a type:

     GENERIC-TYPE(KIND=N)

Use the above form where a type name is valid.

   GENERIC-TYPE must be a generic type--one of `INTEGER', `REAL',
`COMPLEX', `LOGICAL', or `CHARACTER'.  N must be an integer
initialization expression that is a positive, nonzero value.

   Programmers are discouraged from writing these values directly into
their code.  Future versions of the GNU Fortran language will offer
facilities that will make the writing of code portable to `g77' _and_
Fortran 90 implementations simpler.

   However, writing code that ports to existing FORTRAN 77
implementations depends on avoiding the `KIND=' construct.

   The `KIND=' construct is thus useful in the context of GNU Fortran
for two reasons:

   * It provides a means to specify a type in a fashion that is
     portable across all GNU Fortran implementations (though not other
     FORTRAN 77 and Fortran 90 implementations).

   * It provides a sort of Rosetta stone for this document to use to
     concisely describe the types of various operations and operands.

   The values of N in the GNU Fortran language are assigned using a
scheme that:

   * Attempts to maximize the ability of readers of this document to
     quickly familiarize themselves with assignments for popular types

   * Provides a unique value for each specific desired meaning

   * Provides a means to automatically assign new values so they have a
     "natural" relationship to existing values, if appropriate, or, if
     no such relationship exists, will not interfere with future values
     assigned on the basis of such relationships

   * Avoids using values that are similar to values used in the
     existing, popular `*N' notation, to prevent readers from expecting
     that these implied correspondences work on all GNU Fortran
     implementations

   The assignment system accomplishes this by assigning to each
"fundamental meaning" of a specific type a unique prime number.
Combinations of fundamental meanings--for example, a type that is two
times the size of some other type--are assigned values of N that are
the products of the values for those fundamental meanings.

   A prime value of N is never given more than one fundamental meaning,
to avoid situations where some code or system cannot reasonably provide
those meanings in the form of a single type.

   The values of N assigned so far are:

`KIND=0'
     This value is reserved for future use.

     The planned future use is for this value to designate, explicitly,
     context-sensitive kind-type selection.  For example, the
     expression `1D0 * 0.1_0' would be equivalent to `1D0 * 0.1D0'.

`KIND=1'
     This corresponds to the default types for `REAL', `INTEGER',
     `LOGICAL', `COMPLEX', and `CHARACTER', as appropriate.

     These are the "default" types described in the Fortran 90 standard,
     though that standard does not assign any particular `KIND=' value
     to these types.

     (Typically, these are `REAL*4', `INTEGER*4', `LOGICAL*4', and
     `COMPLEX*8'.)

`KIND=2'
     This corresponds to types that occupy twice as much storage as the
     default types.  `REAL(KIND=2)' is `DOUBLE PRECISION' (typically
     `REAL*8'), `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' is `DOUBLE COMPLEX' (typically
     `COMPLEX*16'),

     These are the "double precision" types described in the Fortran 90
     standard, though that standard does not assign any particular
     `KIND=' value to these types.

     N of 4 thus corresponds to types that occupy four times as much
     storage as the default types, N of 8 to types that occupy eight
     times as much storage, and so on.

     The `INTEGER(KIND=2)' and `LOGICAL(KIND=2)' types are not
     necessarily supported by every GNU Fortran implementation.

`KIND=3'
     This corresponds to types that occupy as much storage as the
     default `CHARACTER' type, which is the same effective type as
     `CHARACTER(KIND=1)' (making that type effectively the same as
     `CHARACTER(KIND=3)').

     (Typically, these are `INTEGER*1' and `LOGICAL*1'.)

     N of 6 thus corresponds to types that occupy twice as much storage
     as the N=3 types, N of 12 to types that occupy four times as much
     storage, and so on.

     These are not necessarily supported by every GNU Fortran
     implementation.

`KIND=5'
     This corresponds to types that occupy half the storage as the
     default (N=1) types.

     (Typically, these are `INTEGER*2' and `LOGICAL*2'.)

     N of 25 thus corresponds to types that occupy one-quarter as much
     storage as the default types.

     These are not necessarily supported by every GNU Fortran
     implementation.

`KIND=7'
     This is valid only as `INTEGER(KIND=7)' and denotes the `INTEGER'
     type that has the smallest storage size that holds a pointer on
     the system.

     A pointer representable by this type is capable of uniquely
     addressing a `CHARACTER*1' variable, array, array element, or
     substring.

     (Typically this is equivalent to `INTEGER*4' or, on 64-bit
     systems, `INTEGER*8'.  In a compatible C implementation, it
     typically would be the same size and semantics of the C type `void
     *'.)

   Note that these are _proposed_ correspondences and might change in
future versions of `g77'--avoid writing code depending on them while
`g77', and therefore the GNU Fortran language it defines, is in beta
testing.

   Values not specified in the above list are reserved to future
versions of the GNU Fortran language.

   Implementation-dependent meanings will be assigned new, unique prime
numbers so as to not interfere with other implementation-dependent
meanings, and offer the possibility of increasing the portability of
code depending on such types by offering support for them in other GNU
Fortran implementations.

   Other meanings that might be given unique values are:

   * Types that make use of only half their storage size for
     representing precision and range.

     For example, some compilers offer options that cause `INTEGER'
     types to occupy the amount of storage that would be needed for
     `INTEGER(KIND=2)' types, but the range remains that of
     `INTEGER(KIND=1)'.

   * The IEEE single floating-point type.

   * Types with a specific bit pattern (endianness), such as the
     little-endian form of `INTEGER(KIND=1)'.  These could permit,
     conceptually, use of portable code and implementations on data
     files written by existing systems.

   Future _prime_ numbers should be given meanings in as incremental a
fashion as possible, to allow for flexibility and expressiveness in
combining types.

   For example, instead of defining a prime number for little-endian
IEEE doubles, one prime number might be assigned the meaning
"little-endian", another the meaning "IEEE double", and the value of N
for a little-endian IEEE double would thus naturally be the product of
those two respective assigned values.  (It could even be reasonable to
have IEEE values result from the products of prime values denoting
exponent and fraction sizes and meanings, hidden bit usage,
availability and representations of special values such as subnormals,
infinities, and Not-A-Numbers (NaNs), and so on.)

   This assignment mechanism, while not inherently required for future
versions of the GNU Fortran language, is worth using because it could
ease management of the "space" of supported types much easier in the
long run.

   The above approach suggests a mechanism for specifying inheritance
of intrinsic (built-in) types for an entire, widely portable product
line.  It is certainly reasonable that, unlike programmers of other
languages offering inheritance mechanisms that employ verbose names for
classes and subclasses, along with graphical browsers to elucidate the
relationships, Fortran programmers would employ a mechanism that works
by multiplying prime numbers together and finding the prime factors of
such products.

   Most of the advantages for the above scheme have been explained
above.  One disadvantage is that it could lead to the defining, by the
GNU Fortran language, of some fairly large prime numbers.  This could
lead to the GNU Fortran language being declared "munitions" by the
United States Department of Defense.

File: g77.info,  Node: Constants,  Next: Integer Type,  Prev: Types,  Up: Data Types and Constants

8.7.2 Constants
---------------

(Corresponds to Section 4.2 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   A "typeless constant" has one of the following forms:

     'BINARY-DIGITS'B
     'OCTAL-DIGITS'O
     'HEXADECIMAL-DIGITS'Z
     'HEXADECIMAL-DIGITS'X

BINARY-DIGITS, OCTAL-DIGITS, and HEXADECIMAL-DIGITS are nonempty
strings of characters in the set `01', `01234567', and
`0123456789ABCDEFabcdef', respectively.  (The value for `A' (and `a')
is 10, for `B' and `b' is 11, and so on.)

   A prefix-radix constant, such as `Z'ABCD'', can optionally be
treated as typeless.  *Note Options Controlling Fortran Dialect:
Fortran Dialect Options, for information on the `-ftypeless-boz' option.

   Typeless constants have values that depend on the context in which
they are used.

   All other constants, called "typed constants", are
interpreted--converted to internal form--according to their inherent
type.  Thus, context is _never_ a determining factor for the type, and
hence the interpretation, of a typed constant.  (All constants in the
ANSI FORTRAN 77 language are typed constants.)

   For example, `1' is always type `INTEGER(KIND=1)' in GNU Fortran
(called default INTEGER in Fortran 90), `9.435784839284958' is always
type `REAL(KIND=1)' (even if the additional precision specified is
lost, and even when used in a `REAL(KIND=2)' context), `1E0' is always
type `REAL(KIND=2)', and `1D0' is always type `REAL(KIND=2)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Integer Type,  Next: Character Type,  Prev: Constants,  Up: Data Types and Constants

8.7.3 Integer Type
------------------

(Corresponds to Section 4.3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   An integer constant also may have one of the following forms:

     B'BINARY-DIGITS'
     O'OCTAL-DIGITS'
     Z'HEXADECIMAL-DIGITS'
     X'HEXADECIMAL-DIGITS'

BINARY-DIGITS, OCTAL-DIGITS, and HEXADECIMAL-DIGITS are nonempty
strings of characters in the set `01', `01234567', and
`0123456789ABCDEFabcdef', respectively.  (The value for `A' (and `a')
is 10, for `B' and `b' is 11, and so on.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Character Type,  Prev: Integer Type,  Up: Data Types and Constants

8.7.4 Character Type
--------------------

(Corresponds to Section 4.8 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   A character constant may be delimited by a pair of double quotes
(`"') instead of apostrophes.  In this case, an apostrophe within the
constant represents a single apostrophe, while a double quote is
represented in the source text of the constant by two consecutive double
quotes with no intervening spaces.

   A character constant may be empty (have a length of zero).

   A character constant may include a substring specification, The
value of such a constant is the value of the substring--for example,
the value of `'hello'(3:5)' is the same as the value of `'llo''.

File: g77.info,  Node: Expressions,  Next: Specification Statements,  Prev: Data Types and Constants,  Up: Language

8.8 Expressions
===============

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Chapter 6 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 6 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for
the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

* Menu:

* %LOC()::

File: g77.info,  Node: %LOC(),  Up: Expressions

8.8.1 The `%LOC()' Construct
----------------------------

     %LOC(ARG)

   The `%LOC()' construct is an expression that yields the value of the
location of its argument, ARG, in memory.  The size of the type of the
expression depends on the system--typically, it is equivalent to either
`INTEGER(KIND=1)' or `INTEGER(KIND=2)', though it is actually type
`INTEGER(KIND=7)'.

   The argument to `%LOC()' must be suitable as the left-hand side of
an assignment statement.  That is, it may not be a general expression
involving operators such as addition, subtraction, and so on, nor may
it be a constant.

   Use of `%LOC()' is recommended only for code that is accessing
facilities outside of GNU Fortran, such as operating system or
windowing facilities.  It is best to constrain such uses to isolated
portions of a program--portions that deal specifically and exclusively
with low-level, system-dependent facilities.  Such portions might well
provide a portable interface for use by the program as a whole, but are
themselves not portable, and should be thoroughly tested each time they
are rebuilt using a new compiler or version of a compiler.

   Do not depend on `%LOC()' returning a pointer that can be safely
used to _define_ (change) the argument.  While this might work in some
circumstances, it is hard to predict whether it will continue to work
when a program (that works using this unsafe behavior) is recompiled
using different command-line options or a different version of `g77'.

   Generally, `%LOC()' is safe when used as an argument to a procedure
that makes use of the value of the corresponding dummy argument only
during its activation, and only when such use is restricted to
referencing (reading) the value of the argument to `%LOC()'.

   _Implementation Note:_ Currently, `g77' passes arguments (those not
passed using a construct such as `%VAL()') by reference or descriptor,
depending on the type of the actual argument.  Thus, given `INTEGER I',
`CALL FOO(I)' would seem to mean the same thing as `CALL
FOO(%VAL(%LOC(I)))', and in fact might compile to identical code.

   However, `CALL FOO(%VAL(%LOC(I)))' emphatically means "pass, by
value, the address of `I' in memory".  While `CALL FOO(I)' might use
that same approach in a particular version of `g77', another version or
compiler might choose a different implementation, such as
copy-in/copy-out, to effect the desired behavior--and which will
therefore not necessarily compile to the same code as would `CALL
FOO(%VAL(%LOC(I)))' using the same version or compiler.

   *Note Debugging and Interfacing::, for detailed information on how
this particular version of `g77' implements various constructs.

File: g77.info,  Node: Specification Statements,  Next: Control Statements,  Prev: Expressions,  Up: Language

8.9 Specification Statements
============================

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Chapter 8 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 8 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for
the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

* Menu:

* NAMELIST::
* DOUBLE COMPLEX::

File: g77.info,  Node: NAMELIST,  Next: DOUBLE COMPLEX,  Up: Specification Statements

8.9.1 `NAMELIST' Statement
--------------------------

The `NAMELIST' statement, and related I/O constructs, are supported by
the GNU Fortran language in essentially the same way as they are by
`f2c'.

   This follows Fortran 90 with the restriction that on `NAMELIST'
input, subscripts must have the form
     SUBSCRIPT [ `:' SUBSCRIPT [ `:' STRIDE]]
   i.e.
     &xx x(1:3,8:10:2)=1,2,3,4,5,6/
   is allowed, but not, say,
     &xx x(:3,8::2)=1,2,3,4,5,6/

   As an extension of the Fortran 90 form, `$' and `$END' may be used
in place of `&' and `/' in `NAMELIST' input, so that
     $&xx x(1:3,8:10:2)=1,2,3,4,5,6 $end
   could be used instead of the example above.

File: g77.info,  Node: DOUBLE COMPLEX,  Prev: NAMELIST,  Up: Specification Statements

8.9.2 `DOUBLE COMPLEX' Statement
--------------------------------

`DOUBLE COMPLEX' is a type-statement (and type) that specifies the type
`COMPLEX(KIND=2)' in GNU Fortran.

File: g77.info,  Node: Control Statements,  Next: Functions and Subroutines,  Prev: Specification Statements,  Up: Language

8.10 Control Statements
=======================

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Chapter 11 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 11 of that document otherwise serves as the basis
for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

* Menu:

* DO WHILE::
* END DO::
* Construct Names::
* CYCLE and EXIT::

File: g77.info,  Node: DO WHILE,  Next: END DO,  Up: Control Statements

8.10.1 DO WHILE
---------------

The `DO WHILE' statement, a feature of both the MIL-STD 1753 and
Fortran 90 standards, is provided by the GNU Fortran language.  The
Fortran 90 "do forever" statement comprising just `DO' is also
supported.

File: g77.info,  Node: END DO,  Next: Construct Names,  Prev: DO WHILE,  Up: Control Statements

8.10.2 END DO
-------------

The `END DO' statement is provided by the GNU Fortran language.

   This statement is used in one of two ways:

   * The Fortran 90 meaning, in which it specifies the termination
     point of a single `DO' loop started with a `DO' statement that
     specifies no termination label.

   * The MIL-STD 1753 meaning, in which it specifies the termination
     point of one or more `DO' loops, all of which start with a `DO'
     statement that specify the label defined for the `END DO'
     statement.

     This kind of `END DO' statement is merely a synonym for
     `CONTINUE', except it is permitted only when the statement is
     labeled and a target of one or more labeled `DO' loops.

     It is expected that this use of `END DO' will be removed from the
     GNU Fortran language in the future, though it is likely that it
     will long be supported by `g77' as a dialect form.

File: g77.info,  Node: Construct Names,  Next: CYCLE and EXIT,  Prev: END DO,  Up: Control Statements

8.10.3 Construct Names
----------------------

The GNU Fortran language supports construct names as defined by the
Fortran 90 standard.  These names are local to the program unit and are
defined as follows:

     CONSTRUCT-NAME: BLOCK-STATEMENT

Here, CONSTRUCT-NAME is the construct name itself; its definition is
connoted by the single colon (`:'); and BLOCK-STATEMENT is an `IF',
`DO', or `SELECT CASE' statement that begins a block.

   A block that is given a construct name must also specify the same
construct name in its termination statement:

     END BLOCK CONSTRUCT-NAME

Here, BLOCK must be `IF', `DO', or `SELECT', as appropriate.

File: g77.info,  Node: CYCLE and EXIT,  Prev: Construct Names,  Up: Control Statements

8.10.4 The `CYCLE' and `EXIT' Statements
----------------------------------------

The `CYCLE' and `EXIT' statements specify that the remaining statements
in the current iteration of a particular active (enclosing) `DO' loop
are to be skipped.

   `CYCLE' specifies that these statements are skipped, but the `END
DO' statement that marks the end of the `DO' loop be executed--that is,
the next iteration, if any, is to be started.  If the statement marking
the end of the `DO' loop is not `END DO'--in other words, if the loop
is not a block `DO'--the `CYCLE' statement does not execute that
statement, but does start the next iteration (if any).

   `EXIT' specifies that the loop specified by the `DO' construct is
terminated.

   The `DO' loop affected by `CYCLE' and `EXIT' is the innermost
enclosing `DO' loop when the following forms are used:

     CYCLE
     EXIT

   Otherwise, the following forms specify the construct name of the
pertinent `DO' loop:

     CYCLE CONSTRUCT-NAME
     EXIT CONSTRUCT-NAME

   `CYCLE' and `EXIT' can be viewed as glorified `GO TO' statements.
However, they cannot be easily thought of as `GO TO' statements in
obscure cases involving FORTRAN 77 loops.  For example:

           DO 10 I = 1, 5
           DO 10 J = 1, 5
              IF (J .EQ. 5) EXIT
           DO 10 K = 1, 5
              IF (K .EQ. 3) CYCLE
     10    PRINT *, 'I=', I, ' J=', J, ' K=', K
     20    CONTINUE

In particular, neither the `EXIT' nor `CYCLE' statements above are
equivalent to a `GO TO' statement to either label `10' or `20'.

   To understand the effect of `CYCLE' and `EXIT' in the above
fragment, it is helpful to first translate it to its equivalent using
only block `DO' loops:

           DO I = 1, 5
              DO J = 1, 5
                 IF (J .EQ. 5) EXIT
                 DO K = 1, 5
                    IF (K .EQ. 3) CYCLE
     10             PRINT *, 'I=', I, ' J=', J, ' K=', K
                 END DO
              END DO
           END DO
     20    CONTINUE

   Adding new labels allows translation of `CYCLE' and `EXIT' to `GO
TO' so they may be more easily understood by programmers accustomed to
FORTRAN coding:

           DO I = 1, 5
              DO J = 1, 5
                 IF (J .EQ. 5) GOTO 18
                 DO K = 1, 5
                    IF (K .EQ. 3) GO TO 12
     10             PRINT *, 'I=', I, ' J=', J, ' K=', K
     12          END DO
              END DO
     18    END DO
     20    CONTINUE

Thus, the `CYCLE' statement in the innermost loop skips over the
`PRINT' statement as it begins the next iteration of the loop, while
the `EXIT' statement in the middle loop ends that loop but _not_ the
outermost loop.

File: g77.info,  Node: Functions and Subroutines,  Next: Scope and Classes of Names,  Prev: Control Statements,  Up: Language

8.11 Functions and Subroutines
==============================

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Chapter 15 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 15 of that document otherwise serves as the basis
for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

* Menu:

* %VAL()::
* %REF()::
* %DESCR()::
* Generics and Specifics::
* REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex::
* CMPLX() of DOUBLE PRECISION::
* MIL-STD 1753::
* f77/f2c Intrinsics::
* Table of Intrinsic Functions::

File: g77.info,  Node: %VAL(),  Next: %REF(),  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.1 The `%VAL()' Construct
-----------------------------

     %VAL(ARG)

   The `%VAL()' construct specifies that an argument, ARG, is to be
passed by value, instead of by reference or descriptor.

   `%VAL()' is restricted to actual arguments in invocations of
external procedures.

   Use of `%VAL()' is recommended only for code that is accessing
facilities outside of GNU Fortran, such as operating system or
windowing facilities.  It is best to constrain such uses to isolated
portions of a program--portions the deal specifically and exclusively
with low-level, system-dependent facilities.  Such portions might well
provide a portable interface for use by the program as a whole, but are
themselves not portable, and should be thoroughly tested each time they
are rebuilt using a new compiler or version of a compiler.

   _Implementation Note:_ Currently, `g77' passes all arguments either
by reference or by descriptor.

   Thus, use of `%VAL()' tends to be restricted to cases where the
called procedure is written in a language other than Fortran that
supports call-by-value semantics.  (C is an example of such a language.)

   *Note Procedures (SUBROUTINE and FUNCTION): Procedures, for detailed
information on how this particular version of `g77' passes arguments to
procedures.

File: g77.info,  Node: %REF(),  Next: %DESCR(),  Prev: %VAL(),  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.2 The `%REF()' Construct
-----------------------------

     %REF(ARG)

   The `%REF()' construct specifies that an argument, ARG, is to be
passed by reference, instead of by value or descriptor.

   `%REF()' is restricted to actual arguments in invocations of
external procedures.

   Use of `%REF()' is recommended only for code that is accessing
facilities outside of GNU Fortran, such as operating system or
windowing facilities.  It is best to constrain such uses to isolated
portions of a program--portions the deal specifically and exclusively
with low-level, system-dependent facilities.  Such portions might well
provide a portable interface for use by the program as a whole, but are
themselves not portable, and should be thoroughly tested each time they
are rebuilt using a new compiler or version of a compiler.

   Do not depend on `%REF()' supplying a pointer to the procedure being
invoked.  While that is a likely implementation choice, other
implementation choices are available that preserve Fortran
pass-by-reference semantics without passing a pointer to the argument,
ARG.  (For example, a copy-in/copy-out implementation.)

   _Implementation Note:_ Currently, `g77' passes all arguments (other
than variables and arrays of type `CHARACTER') by reference.  Future
versions of, or dialects supported by, `g77' might not pass `CHARACTER'
functions by reference.

   Thus, use of `%REF()' tends to be restricted to cases where ARG is
type `CHARACTER' but the called procedure accesses it via a means other
than the method used for Fortran `CHARACTER' arguments.

   *Note Procedures (SUBROUTINE and FUNCTION): Procedures, for detailed
information on how this particular version of `g77' passes arguments to
procedures.

File: g77.info,  Node: %DESCR(),  Next: Generics and Specifics,  Prev: %REF(),  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.3 The `%DESCR()' Construct
-------------------------------

     %DESCR(ARG)

   The `%DESCR()' construct specifies that an argument, ARG, is to be
passed by descriptor, instead of by value or reference.

   `%DESCR()' is restricted to actual arguments in invocations of
external procedures.

   Use of `%DESCR()' is recommended only for code that is accessing
facilities outside of GNU Fortran, such as operating system or
windowing facilities.  It is best to constrain such uses to isolated
portions of a program--portions the deal specifically and exclusively
with low-level, system-dependent facilities.  Such portions might well
provide a portable interface for use by the program as a whole, but are
themselves not portable, and should be thoroughly tested each time they
are rebuilt using a new compiler or version of a compiler.

   Do not depend on `%DESCR()' supplying a pointer and/or a length
passed by value to the procedure being invoked.  While that is a likely
implementation choice, other implementation choices are available that
preserve the pass-by-reference semantics without passing a pointer to
the argument, ARG.  (For example, a copy-in/copy-out implementation.)
And, future versions of `g77' might change the way descriptors are
implemented, such as passing a single argument pointing to a record
containing the pointer/length information instead of passing that same
information via two arguments as it currently does.

   _Implementation Note:_ Currently, `g77' passes all variables and
arrays of type `CHARACTER' by descriptor.  Future versions of, or
dialects supported by, `g77' might pass `CHARACTER' functions by
descriptor as well.

   Thus, use of `%DESCR()' tends to be restricted to cases where ARG is
not type `CHARACTER' but the called procedure accesses it via a means
similar to the method used for Fortran `CHARACTER' arguments.

   *Note Procedures (SUBROUTINE and FUNCTION): Procedures, for detailed
information on how this particular version of `g77' passes arguments to
procedures.

File: g77.info,  Node: Generics and Specifics,  Next: REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex,  Prev: %DESCR(),  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.4 Generics and Specifics
-----------------------------

The ANSI FORTRAN 77 language defines generic and specific intrinsics.
In short, the distinctions are:

   * _Specific_ intrinsics have specific types for their arguments and
     a specific return type.

   * _Generic_ intrinsics are treated, on a case-by-case basis in the
     program's source code, as one of several possible specific
     intrinsics.

     Typically, a generic intrinsic has a return type that is
     determined by the type of one or more of its arguments.

   The GNU Fortran language generalizes these concepts somewhat,
especially by providing intrinsic subroutines and generic intrinsics
that are treated as either a specific intrinsic subroutine or a
specific intrinsic function (e.g. `SECOND').

   However, GNU Fortran avoids generalizing this concept to the point
where existing code would be accepted as meaning something possibly
different than what was intended.

   For example, `ABS' is a generic intrinsic, so all working code
written using `ABS' of an `INTEGER' argument expects an `INTEGER'
return value.  Similarly, all such code expects that `ABS' of an
`INTEGER*2' argument returns an `INTEGER*2' return value.

   Yet, `IABS' is a _specific_ intrinsic that accepts only an
`INTEGER(KIND=1)' argument.  Code that passes something other than an
`INTEGER(KIND=1)' argument to `IABS' is not valid GNU Fortran code,
because it is not clear what the author intended.

   For example, if `J' is `INTEGER(KIND=6)', `IABS(J)' is not defined
by the GNU Fortran language, because the programmer might have used
that construct to mean any of the following, subtly different, things:

   * Convert `J' to `INTEGER(KIND=1)' first (as if `IABS(INT(J))' had
     been written).

   * Convert the result of the intrinsic to `INTEGER(KIND=1)' (as if
     `INT(ABS(J))' had been written).

   * No conversion (as if `ABS(J)' had been written).

   The distinctions matter especially when types and values wider than
`INTEGER(KIND=1)' (such as `INTEGER(KIND=2)'), or when operations
performing more "arithmetic" than absolute-value, are involved.

   The following sample program is not a valid GNU Fortran program, but
might be accepted by other compilers.  If so, the output is likely to
be revealing in terms of how a given compiler treats intrinsics (that
normally are specific) when they are given arguments that do not
conform to their stated requirements:

           PROGRAM JCB002
     C Version 1:
     C Modified 1999-02-15 (Burley) to delete my email address.
     C Modified 1997-05-21 (Burley) to accommodate compilers that implement
     C INT(I1-I2) as INT(I1)-INT(I2) given INTEGER*2 I1,I2.
     C
     C Version 0:
     C Written by James Craig Burley 1997-02-20.
     C
     C Purpose:
     C Determine how compilers handle non-standard IDIM
     C on INTEGER*2 operands, which presumably can be
     C extrapolated into understanding how the compiler
     C generally treats specific intrinsics that are passed
     C arguments not of the correct types.
     C
     C If your compiler implements INTEGER*2 and INTEGER
     C as the same type, change all INTEGER*2 below to
     C INTEGER*1.
     C
           INTEGER*2 I0, I4
           INTEGER I1, I2, I3
           INTEGER*2 ISMALL, ILARGE
           INTEGER*2 ITOOLG, ITWO
           INTEGER*2 ITMP
           LOGICAL L2, L3, L4
     C
     C Find smallest INTEGER*2 number.
     C
           ISMALL=0
      10   I0 = ISMALL-1
           IF ((I0 .GE. ISMALL) .OR. (I0+1 .NE. ISMALL)) GOTO 20
           ISMALL = I0
           GOTO 10
      20   CONTINUE
     C
     C Find largest INTEGER*2 number.
     C
           ILARGE=0
      30   I0 = ILARGE+1
           IF ((I0 .LE. ILARGE) .OR. (I0-1 .NE. ILARGE)) GOTO 40
           ILARGE = I0
           GOTO 30
      40   CONTINUE
     C
     C Multiplying by two adds stress to the situation.
     C
           ITWO = 2
     C
     C Need a number that, added to -2, is too wide to fit in I*2.
     C
           ITOOLG = ISMALL
     C
     C Use IDIM the straightforward way.
     C
           I1 = IDIM (ILARGE, ISMALL) * ITWO + ITOOLG
     C
     C Calculate result for first interpretation.
     C
           I2 = (INT (ILARGE) - INT (ISMALL)) * ITWO + ITOOLG
     C
     C Calculate result for second interpretation.
     C
           ITMP = ILARGE - ISMALL
           I3 = (INT (ITMP)) * ITWO + ITOOLG
     C
     C Calculate result for third interpretation.
     C
           I4 = (ILARGE - ISMALL) * ITWO + ITOOLG
     C
     C Print results.
     C
           PRINT *, 'ILARGE=', ILARGE
           PRINT *, 'ITWO=', ITWO
           PRINT *, 'ITOOLG=', ITOOLG
           PRINT *, 'ISMALL=', ISMALL
           PRINT *, 'I1=', I1
           PRINT *, 'I2=', I2
           PRINT *, 'I3=', I3
           PRINT *, 'I4=', I4
           PRINT *
           L2 = (I1 .EQ. I2)
           L3 = (I1 .EQ. I3)
           L4 = (I1 .EQ. I4)
           IF (L2 .AND. .NOT.L3 .AND. .NOT.L4) THEN
              PRINT *, 'Interp 1: IDIM(I*2,I*2) => IDIM(INT(I*2),INT(I*2))'
              STOP
           END IF
           IF (L3 .AND. .NOT.L2 .AND. .NOT.L4) THEN
              PRINT *, 'Interp 2: IDIM(I*2,I*2) => INT(DIM(I*2,I*2))'
              STOP
           END IF
           IF (L4 .AND. .NOT.L2 .AND. .NOT.L3) THEN
              PRINT *, 'Interp 3: IDIM(I*2,I*2) => DIM(I*2,I*2)'
              STOP
           END IF
           PRINT *, 'Results need careful analysis.'
           END

   No future version of the GNU Fortran language will likely permit
specific intrinsic invocations with wrong-typed arguments (such as
`IDIM' in the above example), since it has been determined that
disagreements exist among many production compilers on the
interpretation of such invocations.  These disagreements strongly
suggest that Fortran programmers, and certainly existing Fortran
programs, disagree about the meaning of such invocations.

   The first version of `JCB002' didn't accommodate some compilers'
treatment of `INT(I1-I2)' where `I1' and `I2' are `INTEGER*2'.  In such
a case, these compilers apparently convert both operands to `INTEGER*4'
and then do an `INTEGER*4' subtraction, instead of doing an `INTEGER*2'
subtraction on the original values in `I1' and `I2'.

   However, the results of the careful analyses done on the outputs of
programs compiled by these various compilers show that they all
implement either `Interp 1' or `Interp 2' above.

   Specifically, it is believed that the new version of `JCB002' above
will confirm that:

   * Digital Semiconductor ("DEC") Alpha OSF/1, HP-UX 10.0.1, AIX 3.2.5
     `f77' compilers all implement `Interp 1'.

   * IRIX 5.3 `f77' compiler implements `Interp 2'.

   * Solaris 2.5, SunOS 4.1.3, DECstation ULTRIX 4.3, and IRIX 6.1
     `f77' compilers all implement `Interp 3'.

   If you get different results than the above for the stated
compilers, or have results for other compilers that might be worth
adding to the above list, please let us know the details (compiler
product, version, machine, results, and so on).

File: g77.info,  Node: REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex,  Next: CMPLX() of DOUBLE PRECISION,  Prev: Generics and Specifics,  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.5 `REAL()' and `AIMAG()' of Complex
----------------------------------------

The GNU Fortran language disallows `REAL(EXPR)' and `AIMAG(EXPR)',
where EXPR is any `COMPLEX' type other than `COMPLEX(KIND=1)', except
when they are used in the following way:

     REAL(REAL(EXPR))
     REAL(AIMAG(EXPR))

The above forms explicitly specify that the desired effect is to
convert the real or imaginary part of EXPR, which might be some `REAL'
type other than `REAL(KIND=1)', to type `REAL(KIND=1)', and have that
serve as the value of the expression.

   The GNU Fortran language offers clearly named intrinsics to extract
the real and imaginary parts of a complex entity without any conversion:

     REALPART(EXPR)
     IMAGPART(EXPR)

   To express the above using typical extended FORTRAN 77, use the
following constructs (when EXPR is `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'):

     DBLE(EXPR)
     DIMAG(EXPR)

   The FORTRAN 77 language offers no way to explicitly specify the real
and imaginary parts of a complex expression of arbitrary type,
apparently as a result of requiring support for only one `COMPLEX' type
(`COMPLEX(KIND=1)').  The concepts of converting an expression to type
`REAL(KIND=1)' and of extracting the real part of a complex expression
were thus "smooshed" by FORTRAN 77 into a single intrinsic, since they
happened to have the exact same effect in that language (due to having
only one `COMPLEX' type).

   _Note:_ When `-ff90' is in effect, `g77' treats `REAL(EXPR)', where
EXPR is of type `COMPLEX', as `REALPART(EXPR)', whereas with
`-fugly-complex -fno-f90' in effect, it is treated as
`REAL(REALPART(EXPR))'.

   *Note Ugly Complex Part Extraction::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: CMPLX() of DOUBLE PRECISION,  Next: MIL-STD 1753,  Prev: REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex,  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.6 `CMPLX()' of `DOUBLE PRECISION'
--------------------------------------

In accordance with Fortran 90 and at least some (perhaps all) other
compilers, the GNU Fortran language defines `CMPLX()' as always
returning a result that is type `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'.

   This means `CMPLX(D1,D2)', where `D1' and `D2' are `REAL(KIND=2)'
(`DOUBLE PRECISION'), is treated as:

     CMPLX(SNGL(D1), SNGL(D2))

   (It was necessary for Fortran 90 to specify this behavior for
`DOUBLE PRECISION' arguments, since that is the behavior mandated by
FORTRAN 77.)

   The GNU Fortran language also provides the `DCMPLX()' intrinsic,
which is provided by some FORTRAN 77 compilers to construct a `DOUBLE
COMPLEX' entity from of `DOUBLE PRECISION' operands.  However, this
solution does not scale well when more `COMPLEX' types (having various
precisions and ranges) are offered by Fortran implementations.

   Fortran 90 extends the `CMPLX()' intrinsic by adding an extra
argument used to specify the desired kind of complex result.  However,
this solution is somewhat awkward to use, and `g77' currently does not
support it.

   The GNU Fortran language provides a simple way to build a complex
value out of two numbers, with the precise type of the value determined
by the types of the two numbers (via the usual type-promotion
mechanism):

     COMPLEX(REAL, IMAG)

   When REAL and IMAG are the same `REAL' types, `COMPLEX()' performs
no conversion other than to put them together to form a complex result
of the same (complex version of real) type.

   *Note Complex Intrinsic::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: MIL-STD 1753,  Next: f77/f2c Intrinsics,  Prev: CMPLX() of DOUBLE PRECISION,  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.7 MIL-STD 1753 Support
---------------------------

The GNU Fortran language includes the MIL-STD 1753 intrinsics `BTEST',
`IAND', `IBCLR', `IBITS', `IBSET', `IEOR', `IOR', `ISHFT', `ISHFTC',
`MVBITS', and `NOT'.

File: g77.info,  Node: f77/f2c Intrinsics,  Next: Table of Intrinsic Functions,  Prev: MIL-STD 1753,  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.8 `f77'/`f2c' Intrinsics
-----------------------------

The bit-manipulation intrinsics supported by traditional `f77' and by
`f2c' are available in the GNU Fortran language.  These include `AND',
`LSHIFT', `OR', `RSHIFT', and `XOR'.

   Also supported are the intrinsics `CDABS', `CDCOS', `CDEXP',
`CDLOG', `CDSIN', `CDSQRT', `DCMPLX', `DCONJG', `DFLOAT', `DIMAG',
`DREAL', and `IMAG', `ZABS', `ZCOS', `ZEXP', `ZLOG', `ZSIN', and
`ZSQRT'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Table of Intrinsic Functions,  Prev: f77/f2c Intrinsics,  Up: Functions and Subroutines

8.11.9 Table of Intrinsic Functions
-----------------------------------

(Corresponds to Section 15.10 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)

   The GNU Fortran language adds various functions, subroutines, types,
and arguments to the set of intrinsic functions in ANSI FORTRAN 77.
The complete set of intrinsics supported by the GNU Fortran language is
described below.

   Note that a name is not treated as that of an intrinsic if it is
specified in an `EXTERNAL' statement in the same program unit; if a
command-line option is used to disable the groups to which the
intrinsic belongs; or if the intrinsic is not named in an `INTRINSIC'
statement and a command-line option is used to hide the groups to which
the intrinsic belongs.

   So, it is recommended that any reference in a program unit to an
intrinsic procedure that is not a standard FORTRAN 77 intrinsic be
accompanied by an appropriate `INTRINSIC' statement in that program
unit.  This sort of defensive programming makes it more likely that an
implementation will issue a diagnostic rather than generate incorrect
code for such a reference.

   The terminology used below is based on that of the Fortran 90
standard, so that the text may be more concise and accurate:

   * `OPTIONAL' means the argument may be omitted.

   * `A-1, A-2, ..., A-n' means more than one argument (generally named
     `A') may be specified.

   * `scalar' means the argument must not be an array (must be a
     variable or array element, or perhaps a constant if expressions
     are permitted).

   * `DIMENSION(4)' means the argument must be an array having 4
     elements.

   * `INTENT(IN)' means the argument must be an expression (such as a
     constant or a variable that is defined upon invocation of the
     intrinsic).

   * `INTENT(OUT)' means the argument must be definable by the
     invocation of the intrinsic (that is, must not be a constant nor
     an expression involving operators other than array reference and
     substring reference).

   * `INTENT(INOUT)' means the argument must be defined prior to, and
     definable by, invocation of the intrinsic (a combination of the
     requirements of `INTENT(IN)' and `INTENT(OUT)'.

   * *Note Kind Notation::, for an explanation of `KIND'.

   (Note that the empty lines appearing in the menu below are not
intentional--they result from a bug in the GNU `makeinfo' program...a
program that, if it did not exist, would leave this document in far
worse shape!)

* Menu:


* Abort Intrinsic::     Abort the program.

* Abs Intrinsic::       Absolute value.

* Access Intrinsic::    Check file accessibility.

* AChar Intrinsic::     ASCII character from code.

* ACos Intrinsic::      Arc cosine.

* AdjustL Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* AdjustR Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)

* AImag Intrinsic::     Convert/extract imaginary part of complex.

* AInt Intrinsic::      Truncate to whole number.

* Alarm Intrinsic::     Execute a routine after a given delay.

* All Intrinsic::       (Reserved for future use.)
* Allocated Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)

* ALog Intrinsic::      Natural logarithm (archaic).
* ALog10 Intrinsic::    Common logarithm (archaic).
* AMax0 Intrinsic::     Maximum value (archaic).
* AMax1 Intrinsic::     Maximum value (archaic).
* AMin0 Intrinsic::     Minimum value (archaic).
* AMin1 Intrinsic::     Minimum value (archaic).
* AMod Intrinsic::      Remainder (archaic).

* And Intrinsic::       Boolean AND.

* ANInt Intrinsic::     Round to nearest whole number.

* Any Intrinsic::       (Reserved for future use.)

* ASin Intrinsic::      Arc sine.

* Associated Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)

* ATan Intrinsic::      Arc tangent.
* ATan2 Intrinsic::     Arc tangent.

* BesJ0 Intrinsic::     Bessel function.
* BesJ1 Intrinsic::     Bessel function.
* BesJN Intrinsic::     Bessel function.
* BesY0 Intrinsic::     Bessel function.
* BesY1 Intrinsic::     Bessel function.
* BesYN Intrinsic::     Bessel function.

* Bit_Size Intrinsic::  Number of bits in argument's type.

* BTest Intrinsic::     Test bit.

* CAbs Intrinsic::      Absolute value (archaic).
* CCos Intrinsic::      Cosine (archaic).

* Ceiling Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)

* CExp Intrinsic::      Exponential (archaic).
* Char Intrinsic::      Character from code.

* ChDir Intrinsic (subroutine):: Change directory.

* ChMod Intrinsic (subroutine):: Change file modes.

* CLog Intrinsic::      Natural logarithm (archaic).
* Cmplx Intrinsic::     Construct `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' value.

* Complex Intrinsic::   Build complex value from real and
                         imaginary parts.

* Conjg Intrinsic::     Complex conjugate.
* Cos Intrinsic::       Cosine.

* CosH Intrinsic::      Hyperbolic cosine.

* Count Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* CPU_Time Intrinsic::  Get current CPU time.
* CShift Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* CSin Intrinsic::      Sine (archaic).
* CSqRt Intrinsic::     Square root (archaic).

* CTime Intrinsic (subroutine):: Convert time to Day Mon dd hh:mm:ss yyyy.
* CTime Intrinsic (function):: Convert time to Day Mon dd hh:mm:ss yyyy.

* DAbs Intrinsic::      Absolute value (archaic).
* DACos Intrinsic::     Arc cosine (archaic).

* DASin Intrinsic::     Arc sine (archaic).

* DATan Intrinsic::     Arc tangent (archaic).
* DATan2 Intrinsic::    Arc tangent (archaic).

* Date_and_Time Intrinsic:: Get the current date and time.

* DbesJ0 Intrinsic::    Bessel function (archaic).
* DbesJ1 Intrinsic::    Bessel function (archaic).
* DbesJN Intrinsic::    Bessel function (archaic).
* DbesY0 Intrinsic::    Bessel function (archaic).
* DbesY1 Intrinsic::    Bessel function (archaic).
* DbesYN Intrinsic::    Bessel function (archaic).

* Dble Intrinsic::      Convert to double precision.

* DCos Intrinsic::      Cosine (archaic).

* DCosH Intrinsic::     Hyperbolic cosine (archaic).
* DDiM Intrinsic::      Difference magnitude (archaic).

* DErF Intrinsic::      Error function (archaic).
* DErFC Intrinsic::     Complementary error function (archaic).

* DExp Intrinsic::      Exponential (archaic).

* Digits Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* DiM Intrinsic::       Difference magnitude (non-negative subtract).

* DInt Intrinsic::      Truncate to whole number (archaic).
* DLog Intrinsic::      Natural logarithm (archaic).
* DLog10 Intrinsic::    Common logarithm (archaic).
* DMax1 Intrinsic::     Maximum value (archaic).
* DMin1 Intrinsic::     Minimum value (archaic).
* DMod Intrinsic::      Remainder (archaic).
* DNInt Intrinsic::     Round to nearest whole number (archaic).

* Dot_Product Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)

* DProd Intrinsic::     Double-precision product.

* DSign Intrinsic::     Apply sign to magnitude (archaic).
* DSin Intrinsic::      Sine (archaic).

* DSinH Intrinsic::     Hyperbolic sine (archaic).
* DSqRt Intrinsic::     Square root (archaic).
* DTan Intrinsic::      Tangent (archaic).

* DTanH Intrinsic::     Hyperbolic tangent (archaic).

* DTime Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get elapsed time since last time.

* EOShift Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* Epsilon Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)

* ErF Intrinsic::       Error function.
* ErFC Intrinsic::      Complementary error function.
* ETime Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get elapsed time for process.
* ETime Intrinsic (function):: Get elapsed time for process.
* Exit Intrinsic::      Terminate the program.

* Exp Intrinsic::       Exponential.

* Exponent Intrinsic::  (Reserved for future use.)

* FDate Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get current time as Day Mon dd hh:mm:ss yyyy.
* FDate Intrinsic (function):: Get current time as Day Mon dd hh:mm:ss yyyy.
* FGet Intrinsic (subroutine):: Read a character from unit 5 stream-wise.

* FGetC Intrinsic (subroutine):: Read a character stream-wise.

* Float Intrinsic::     Conversion (archaic).

* Floor Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* Flush Intrinsic::     Flush buffered output.
* FNum Intrinsic::      Get file descriptor from Fortran unit number.
* FPut Intrinsic (subroutine):: Write a character to unit 6 stream-wise.

* FPutC Intrinsic (subroutine):: Write a character stream-wise.

* Fraction Intrinsic::  (Reserved for future use.)

* FSeek Intrinsic::     Position file (low-level).
* FStat Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get file information.
* FStat Intrinsic (function):: Get file information.
* FTell Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get file position (low-level).
* FTell Intrinsic (function):: Get file position (low-level).
* GError Intrinsic::    Get error message for last error.
* GetArg Intrinsic::    Obtain command-line argument.
* GetCWD Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get current working directory.
* GetCWD Intrinsic (function):: Get current working directory.
* GetEnv Intrinsic::    Get environment variable.
* GetGId Intrinsic::    Get process group id.
* GetLog Intrinsic::    Get login name.
* GetPId Intrinsic::    Get process id.
* GetUId Intrinsic::    Get process user id.
* GMTime Intrinsic::    Convert time to GMT time info.
* HostNm Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get host name.
* HostNm Intrinsic (function):: Get host name.

* Huge Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* IAbs Intrinsic::      Absolute value (archaic).

* IAChar Intrinsic::    ASCII code for character.

* IAnd Intrinsic::      Boolean AND.

* IArgC Intrinsic::     Obtain count of command-line arguments.

* IBClr Intrinsic::     Clear a bit.
* IBits Intrinsic::     Extract a bit subfield of a variable.
* IBSet Intrinsic::     Set a bit.

* IChar Intrinsic::     Code for character.

* IDate Intrinsic (UNIX):: Get local time info.

* IDiM Intrinsic::      Difference magnitude (archaic).
* IDInt Intrinsic::     Convert to `INTEGER' value truncated
                         to whole number (archaic).
* IDNInt Intrinsic::    Convert to `INTEGER' value rounded
                         to nearest whole number (archaic).

* IEOr Intrinsic::      Boolean XOR.

* IErrNo Intrinsic::    Get error number for last error.

* IFix Intrinsic::      Conversion (archaic).

* Imag Intrinsic::      Extract imaginary part of complex.

* ImagPart Intrinsic::  Extract imaginary part of complex.

* Index Intrinsic::     Locate a CHARACTER substring.

* Int Intrinsic::       Convert to `INTEGER' value truncated
                         to whole number.

* Int2 Intrinsic::      Convert to `INTEGER(KIND=6)' value
                         truncated to whole number.
* Int8 Intrinsic::      Convert to `INTEGER(KIND=2)' value
                         truncated to whole number.

* IOr Intrinsic::       Boolean OR.

* IRand Intrinsic::     Random number.
* IsaTty Intrinsic::    Is unit connected to a terminal?

* IShft Intrinsic::     Logical bit shift.
* IShftC Intrinsic::    Circular bit shift.

* ISign Intrinsic::     Apply sign to magnitude (archaic).

* ITime Intrinsic::     Get local time of day.

* Kill Intrinsic (subroutine):: Signal a process.

* Kind Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* LBound Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* Len Intrinsic::       Length of character entity.

* Len_Trim Intrinsic::  Get last non-blank character in string.

* LGe Intrinsic::       Lexically greater than or equal.
* LGt Intrinsic::       Lexically greater than.

* Link Intrinsic (subroutine):: Make hard link in file system.

* LLe Intrinsic::       Lexically less than or equal.
* LLt Intrinsic::       Lexically less than.

* LnBlnk Intrinsic::    Get last non-blank character in string.
* Loc Intrinsic::       Address of entity in core.

* Log Intrinsic::       Natural logarithm.
* Log10 Intrinsic::     Common logarithm.

* Logical Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)

* Long Intrinsic::      Conversion to `INTEGER(KIND=1)' (archaic).

* LShift Intrinsic::    Left-shift bits.

* LStat Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get file information.
* LStat Intrinsic (function):: Get file information.
* LTime Intrinsic::     Convert time to local time info.

* MatMul Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* Max Intrinsic::       Maximum value.
* Max0 Intrinsic::      Maximum value (archaic).
* Max1 Intrinsic::      Maximum value (archaic).

* MaxExponent Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* MaxLoc Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* MaxVal Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* MClock Intrinsic::    Get number of clock ticks for process.
* MClock8 Intrinsic::   Get number of clock ticks for process.

* Merge Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* Min Intrinsic::       Minimum value.
* Min0 Intrinsic::      Minimum value (archaic).
* Min1 Intrinsic::      Minimum value (archaic).

* MinExponent Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* MinLoc Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* MinVal Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* Mod Intrinsic::       Remainder.

* Modulo Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* MvBits Intrinsic::    Moving a bit field.

* Nearest Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)

* NInt Intrinsic::      Convert to `INTEGER' value rounded
                         to nearest whole number.

* Not Intrinsic::       Boolean NOT.

* Or Intrinsic::        Boolean OR.

* Pack Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* PError Intrinsic::    Print error message for last error.

* Precision Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* Present Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* Product Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)

* Radix Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* Rand Intrinsic::      Random number.

* Random_Number Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* Random_Seed Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* Range Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* Real Intrinsic::      Convert value to type `REAL(KIND=1)'.

* RealPart Intrinsic::  Extract real part of complex.

* Rename Intrinsic (subroutine):: Rename file.

* Repeat Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* Reshape Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* RRSpacing Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)

* RShift Intrinsic::    Right-shift bits.

* Scale Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* Scan Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* Second Intrinsic (function):: Get CPU time for process in seconds.
* Second Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get CPU time for process
                         in seconds.

* Selected_Int_Kind Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* Selected_Real_Kind Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* Set_Exponent Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* Shape Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* Short Intrinsic::     Convert to `INTEGER(KIND=6)' value
                         truncated to whole number.

* Sign Intrinsic::      Apply sign to magnitude.

* Signal Intrinsic (subroutine):: Muck with signal handling.

* Sin Intrinsic::       Sine.

* SinH Intrinsic::      Hyperbolic sine.

* Sleep Intrinsic::     Sleep for a specified time.

* Sngl Intrinsic::      Convert (archaic).

* Spacing Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* Spread Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* SqRt Intrinsic::      Square root.

* SRand Intrinsic::     Random seed.
* Stat Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get file information.
* Stat Intrinsic (function):: Get file information.

* Sum Intrinsic::       (Reserved for future use.)

* SymLnk Intrinsic (subroutine):: Make symbolic link in file system.

* System Intrinsic (subroutine):: Invoke shell (system) command.

* System_Clock Intrinsic:: Get current system clock value.

* Tan Intrinsic::       Tangent.

* TanH Intrinsic::      Hyperbolic tangent.

* Time Intrinsic (UNIX):: Get current time as time value.

* Time8 Intrinsic::     Get current time as time value.

* Tiny Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* Transfer Intrinsic::  (Reserved for future use.)
* Transpose Intrinsic:: (Reserved for future use.)
* Trim Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* TtyNam Intrinsic (subroutine):: Get name of terminal device for unit.
* TtyNam Intrinsic (function):: Get name of terminal device for unit.

* UBound Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* UMask Intrinsic (subroutine):: Set file creation permissions mask.

* Unlink Intrinsic (subroutine):: Unlink file.

* Unpack Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* Verify Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* XOr Intrinsic::       Boolean XOR.
* ZAbs Intrinsic::      Absolute value (archaic).
* ZCos Intrinsic::      Cosine (archaic).
* ZExp Intrinsic::      Exponential (archaic).

* ZLog Intrinsic::      Natural logarithm (archaic).
* ZSin Intrinsic::      Sine (archaic).
* ZSqRt Intrinsic::     Square root (archaic).

File: g77.info,  Node: Abort Intrinsic,  Next: Abs Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.1 Abort Intrinsic
........................


     CALL Abort()

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Prints a message and potentially causes a core dump via `abort(3)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Abs Intrinsic,  Next: Access Intrinsic,  Prev: Abort Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.2 Abs Intrinsic
......................


     Abs(A)

Abs: `INTEGER' or `REAL' function.  The exact type depends on that of
argument A--if A is `COMPLEX', this function's type is `REAL' with the
same `KIND=' value as the type of A.  Otherwise, this function's type
is the same as that of A.

A: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the absolute value of A.

   If A is type `COMPLEX', the absolute value is computed as:

     SQRT(REALPART(A)**2+IMAGPART(A)**2)

Otherwise, it is computed by negating A if it is negative, or returning
A.

   *Note Sign Intrinsic::, for how to explicitly compute the positive
or negative form of the absolute value of an expression.

File: g77.info,  Node: Access Intrinsic,  Next: AChar Intrinsic,  Prev: Abs Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.3 Access Intrinsic
.........................


     Access(NAME, MODE)

Access: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

MODE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Checks file NAME for accessibility in the mode specified by MODE and
returns 0 if the file is accessible in that mode, otherwise an error
code if the file is inaccessible or MODE is invalid.  See `access(2)'.
A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the name in
NAME--otherwise, trailing blanks in NAME are ignored.  MODE may be a
concatenation of any of the following characters:

`r'
     Read permission

`w'
     Write permission

`x'
     Execute permission

`SPC'
     Existence

File: g77.info,  Node: AChar Intrinsic,  Next: ACos Intrinsic,  Prev: Access Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.4 AChar Intrinsic
........................


     AChar(I)

AChar: `CHARACTER*1' function.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `f90'.

Description:

   Returns the ASCII character corresponding to the code specified by I.

   *Note IAChar Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

   *Note Char Intrinsic::, for the function corresponding to the
system's native character set.

File: g77.info,  Node: ACos Intrinsic,  Next: AdjustL Intrinsic,  Prev: AChar Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.5 ACos Intrinsic
.......................


     ACos(X)

ACos: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the arc-cosine (inverse cosine) of X in radians.

   *Note Cos Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

File: g77.info,  Node: AdjustL Intrinsic,  Next: AdjustR Intrinsic,  Prev: ACos Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.6 AdjustL Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL AdjustL' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: AdjustR Intrinsic,  Next: AImag Intrinsic,  Prev: AdjustL Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.7 AdjustR Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL AdjustR' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: AImag Intrinsic,  Next: AInt Intrinsic,  Prev: AdjustR Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.8 AImag Intrinsic
........................


     AImag(Z)

AImag: `REAL' function.  This intrinsic is valid when argument Z is
`COMPLEX(KIND=1)'.  When Z is any other `COMPLEX' type, this intrinsic
is valid only when used as the argument to `REAL()', as explained below.

Z: `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the (possibly converted) imaginary part of Z.

   Use of `AIMAG()' with an argument of a type other than
`COMPLEX(KIND=1)' is restricted to the following case:

     REAL(AIMAG(Z))

This expression converts the imaginary part of Z to `REAL(KIND=1)'.

   *Note REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: AInt Intrinsic,  Next: Alarm Intrinsic,  Prev: AImag Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.9 AInt Intrinsic
.......................


     AInt(A)

AInt: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument A.

A: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude truncated and
its sign preserved.  (Also called "truncation towards zero".)

   *Note ANInt Intrinsic::, for how to round to nearest whole number.

   *Note Int Intrinsic::, for how to truncate and then convert number
to `INTEGER'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Alarm Intrinsic,  Next: All Intrinsic,  Prev: AInt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.10 Alarm Intrinsic
.........................


     CALL Alarm(SECONDS, HANDLER, STATUS)

SECONDS: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

HANDLER: Signal handler (`INTEGER FUNCTION' or `SUBROUTINE') or
dummy/global `INTEGER(KIND=1)' scalar.

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Causes external subroutine HANDLER to be executed after a delay of
SECONDS seconds by using `alarm(1)' to set up a signal and `signal(2)'
to catch it.  If STATUS is supplied, it will be returned with the
number of seconds remaining until any previously scheduled alarm was
due to be delivered, or zero if there was no previously scheduled alarm.
*Note Signal Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: All Intrinsic,  Next: Allocated Intrinsic,  Prev: Alarm Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.11 All Intrinsic
.......................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL All' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Allocated Intrinsic,  Next: ALog Intrinsic,  Prev: All Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.12 Allocated Intrinsic
.............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Allocated' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: ALog Intrinsic,  Next: ALog10 Intrinsic,  Prev: Allocated Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.13 ALog Intrinsic
........................


     ALog(X)

ALog: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `LOG()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Log Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ALog10 Intrinsic,  Next: AMax0 Intrinsic,  Prev: ALog Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.14 ALog10 Intrinsic
..........................


     ALog10(X)

ALog10: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `LOG10()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Log10 Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: AMax0 Intrinsic,  Next: AMax1 Intrinsic,  Prev: ALog10 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.15 AMax0 Intrinsic
.........................


     AMax0(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

AMax0: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MAX()' that is specific to one type for A and a
different return type.  *Note Max Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: AMax1 Intrinsic,  Next: AMin0 Intrinsic,  Prev: AMax0 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.16 AMax1 Intrinsic
.........................


     AMax1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

AMax1: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=1)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MAX()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Max Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: AMin0 Intrinsic,  Next: AMin1 Intrinsic,  Prev: AMax1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.17 AMin0 Intrinsic
.........................


     AMin0(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

AMin0: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MIN()' that is specific to one type for A and a
different return type.  *Note Min Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: AMin1 Intrinsic,  Next: AMod Intrinsic,  Prev: AMin0 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.18 AMin1 Intrinsic
.........................


     AMin1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

AMin1: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=1)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MIN()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Min Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: AMod Intrinsic,  Next: And Intrinsic,  Prev: AMin1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.19 AMod Intrinsic
........................


     AMod(A, P)

AMod: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

P: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MOD()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Mod Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: And Intrinsic,  Next: ANInt Intrinsic,  Prev: AMod Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.20 And Intrinsic
.......................


     And(I, J)

And: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL' function, the exact type being the result
of cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

I: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

J: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Returns value resulting from boolean AND of pair of bits in each of
I and J.

File: g77.info,  Node: ANInt Intrinsic,  Next: Any Intrinsic,  Prev: And Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.21 ANInt Intrinsic
.........................


     ANInt(A)

ANInt: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument A.

A: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude eliminated by
rounding to the nearest whole number and with its sign preserved.

   A fractional portion exactly equal to `.5' is rounded to the whole
number that is larger in magnitude.  (Also called "Fortran round".)

   *Note AInt Intrinsic::, for how to truncate to whole number.

   *Note NInt Intrinsic::, for how to round and then convert number to
`INTEGER'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Any Intrinsic,  Next: ASin Intrinsic,  Prev: ANInt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.22 Any Intrinsic
.......................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Any' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: ASin Intrinsic,  Next: Associated Intrinsic,  Prev: Any Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.23 ASin Intrinsic
........................


     ASin(X)

ASin: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the arc-sine (inverse sine) of X in radians.

   *Note Sin Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

File: g77.info,  Node: Associated Intrinsic,  Next: ATan Intrinsic,  Prev: ASin Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.24 Associated Intrinsic
..............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Associated' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: ATan Intrinsic,  Next: ATan2 Intrinsic,  Prev: Associated Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.25 ATan Intrinsic
........................


     ATan(X)

ATan: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the arc-tangent (inverse tangent) of X in radians.

   *Note Tan Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

File: g77.info,  Node: ATan2 Intrinsic,  Next: BesJ0 Intrinsic,  Prev: ATan Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.26 ATan2 Intrinsic
.........................


     ATan2(Y, X)

ATan2: `REAL' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

Y: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the arc-tangent (inverse tangent) of the complex number (Y,
X) in radians.

   *Note Tan Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

File: g77.info,  Node: BesJ0 Intrinsic,  Next: BesJ1 Intrinsic,  Prev: ATan2 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.27 BesJ0 Intrinsic
.........................


     BesJ0(X)

BesJ0: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Calculates the Bessel function of the first kind of order 0 of X.
See `bessel(3m)', on whose implementation the function depends.

File: g77.info,  Node: BesJ1 Intrinsic,  Next: BesJN Intrinsic,  Prev: BesJ0 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.28 BesJ1 Intrinsic
.........................


     BesJ1(X)

BesJ1: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Calculates the Bessel function of the first kind of order 1 of X.
See `bessel(3m)', on whose implementation the function depends.

File: g77.info,  Node: BesJN Intrinsic,  Next: BesY0 Intrinsic,  Prev: BesJ1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.29 BesJN Intrinsic
.........................


     BesJN(N, X)

BesJN: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

N: `INTEGER' not wider than the default kind; scalar; INTENT(IN).

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Calculates the Bessel function of the first kind of order N of X.
See `bessel(3m)', on whose implementation the function depends.

File: g77.info,  Node: BesY0 Intrinsic,  Next: BesY1 Intrinsic,  Prev: BesJN Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.30 BesY0 Intrinsic
.........................


     BesY0(X)

BesY0: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Calculates the Bessel function of the second kind of order 0 of X.
See `bessel(3m)', on whose implementation the function depends.

File: g77.info,  Node: BesY1 Intrinsic,  Next: BesYN Intrinsic,  Prev: BesY0 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.31 BesY1 Intrinsic
.........................


     BesY1(X)

BesY1: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Calculates the Bessel function of the second kind of order 1 of X.
See `bessel(3m)', on whose implementation the function depends.

File: g77.info,  Node: BesYN Intrinsic,  Next: Bit_Size Intrinsic,  Prev: BesY1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.32 BesYN Intrinsic
.........................


     BesYN(N, X)

BesYN: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

N: `INTEGER' not wider than the default kind; scalar; INTENT(IN).

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Calculates the Bessel function of the second kind of order N of X.
See `bessel(3m)', on whose implementation the function depends.

File: g77.info,  Node: Bit_Size Intrinsic,  Next: BTest Intrinsic,  Prev: BesYN Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.33 Bit_Size Intrinsic
............................


     Bit_Size(I)

Bit_Size: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that
of argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar.

Intrinsic groups: `f90'.

Description:

   Returns the number of bits (integer precision plus sign bit)
represented by the type for I.

   *Note BTest Intrinsic::, for how to test the value of a bit in a
variable or array.

   *Note IBSet Intrinsic::, for how to set a bit in a variable to 1.

   *Note IBClr Intrinsic::, for how to set a bit in a variable to 0.

File: g77.info,  Node: BTest Intrinsic,  Next: CAbs Intrinsic,  Prev: Bit_Size Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.34 BTest Intrinsic
.........................


     BTest(I, POS)

BTest: `LOGICAL(KIND=1)' function.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

POS: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns `.TRUE.' if bit POS in I is 1, `.FALSE.' otherwise.

   (Bit 0 is the low-order (rightmost) bit, adding the value 2**0, or 1,
to the number if set to 1; bit 1 is the next-higher-order bit, adding
2**1, or 2; bit 2 adds 2**2, or 4; and so on.)

   *Note Bit_Size Intrinsic::, for how to obtain the number of bits in
a type.  The leftmost bit of I is `BIT_SIZE(I-1)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: CAbs Intrinsic,  Next: CCos Intrinsic,  Prev: BTest Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.35 CAbs Intrinsic
........................


     CAbs(A)

CAbs: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

A: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `ABS()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Abs Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CCos Intrinsic,  Next: Ceiling Intrinsic,  Prev: CAbs Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.36 CCos Intrinsic
........................


     CCos(X)

CCos: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `COS()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Cos Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Ceiling Intrinsic,  Next: CExp Intrinsic,  Prev: CCos Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.37 Ceiling Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Ceiling' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: CExp Intrinsic,  Next: Char Intrinsic,  Prev: Ceiling Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.38 CExp Intrinsic
........................


     CExp(X)

CExp: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `EXP()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Exp Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Char Intrinsic,  Next: ChDir Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: CExp Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.39 Char Intrinsic
........................


     Char(I)

Char: `CHARACTER*1' function.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the character corresponding to the code specified by I,
using the system's native character set.

   Because the system's native character set is used, the
correspondence between character and their codes is not necessarily the
same between GNU Fortran implementations.

   Note that no intrinsic exists to convert a numerical value to a
printable character string.  For example, there is no intrinsic that,
given an `INTEGER' or `REAL' argument with the value `154', returns the
`CHARACTER' result `'154''.

   Instead, you can use internal-file I/O to do this kind of conversion.
For example:

     INTEGER VALUE
     CHARACTER*10 STRING
     VALUE = 154
     WRITE (STRING, '(I10)'), VALUE
     PRINT *, STRING
     END

   The above program, when run, prints:

             154

   *Note IChar Intrinsic::, for the inverse of the `CHAR' function.

   *Note AChar Intrinsic::, for the function corresponding to the ASCII
character set.

File: g77.info,  Node: ChDir Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: ChMod Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Char Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.40 ChDir Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL ChDir(DIR, STATUS)

DIR: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Sets the current working directory to be DIR.  If the STATUS
argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a nonzero error code
otherwise upon return.  See `chdir(3)'.

   _Caution:_ Using this routine during I/O to a unit connected with a
non-absolute file name can cause subsequent I/O on such a unit to fail
because the I/O library might reopen files by name.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note ChDir
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ChMod Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: CLog Intrinsic,  Prev: ChDir Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.41 ChMod Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL ChMod(NAME, MODE, STATUS)

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

MODE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Changes the access mode of file NAME according to the specification
MODE, which is given in the format of `chmod(1)'.  A null character
(`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the name in NAME--otherwise, trailing
blanks in NAME are ignored.  Currently, NAME must not contain the
single quote character.

   If the STATUS argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a
nonzero error code upon return.

   Note that this currently works by actually invoking `/bin/chmod' (or
the `chmod' found when the library was configured) and so might fail in
some circumstances and will, anyway, be slow.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note ChMod
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CLog Intrinsic,  Next: Cmplx Intrinsic,  Prev: ChMod Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.42 CLog Intrinsic
........................


     CLog(X)

CLog: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `LOG()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Log Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Cmplx Intrinsic,  Next: Complex Intrinsic,  Prev: CLog Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.43 Cmplx Intrinsic
.........................


     Cmplx(X, Y)

Cmplx: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' function.

X: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Y: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; OPTIONAL (must be omitted if X is `COMPLEX');
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   If X is not type `COMPLEX', constructs a value of type
`COMPLEX(KIND=1)' from the real and imaginary values specified by X and
Y, respectively.  If Y is omitted, `0.' is assumed.

   If X is type `COMPLEX', converts it to type `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'.

   *Note Complex Intrinsic::, for information on easily constructing a
`COMPLEX' value of arbitrary precision from `REAL' arguments.

File: g77.info,  Node: Complex Intrinsic,  Next: Conjg Intrinsic,  Prev: Cmplx Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.44 Complex Intrinsic
...........................


     Complex(REAL, IMAG)

Complex: `COMPLEX' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

REAL: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

IMAG: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `gnu'.

Description:

   Returns a `COMPLEX' value that has `Real' and `Imag' as its real and
imaginary parts, respectively.

   If REAL and IMAG are the same type, and that type is not `INTEGER',
no data conversion is performed, and the type of the resulting value
has the same kind value as the types of REAL and IMAG.

   If REAL and IMAG are not the same type, the usual type-promotion
rules are applied to both, converting either or both to the appropriate
`REAL' type.  The type of the resulting value has the same kind value
as the type to which both REAL and IMAG were converted, in this case.

   If REAL and IMAG are both `INTEGER', they are both converted to
`REAL(KIND=1)', and the result of the `COMPLEX()' invocation is type
`COMPLEX(KIND=1)'.

   _Note:_ The way to do this in standard Fortran 90 is too hairy to
describe here, but it is important to note that `CMPLX(D1,D2)' returns
a `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' result even if `D1' and `D2' are type
`REAL(KIND=2)'.  Hence the availability of `COMPLEX()' in GNU Fortran.

File: g77.info,  Node: Conjg Intrinsic,  Next: Cos Intrinsic,  Prev: Complex Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.45 Conjg Intrinsic
.........................


     Conjg(Z)

Conjg: `COMPLEX' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument Z.

Z: `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the complex conjugate:

     COMPLEX(REALPART(Z), -IMAGPART(Z))

File: g77.info,  Node: Cos Intrinsic,  Next: CosH Intrinsic,  Prev: Conjg Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.46 Cos Intrinsic
.......................


     Cos(X)

Cos: `REAL' or `COMPLEX' function, the exact type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL' or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the cosine of X, an angle measured in radians.

   *Note ACos Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

File: g77.info,  Node: CosH Intrinsic,  Next: Count Intrinsic,  Prev: Cos Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.47 CosH Intrinsic
........................


     CosH(X)

CosH: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the hyperbolic cosine of X.

File: g77.info,  Node: Count Intrinsic,  Next: CPU_Time Intrinsic,  Prev: CosH Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.48 Count Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Count' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: CPU_Time Intrinsic,  Next: CShift Intrinsic,  Prev: Count Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.49 CPU_Time Intrinsic
............................


     CALL CPU_Time(SECONDS)

SECONDS: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `f90'.

Description:

   Returns in SECONDS the current value of the system time.  This
implementation of the Fortran 95 intrinsic is just an alias for
`second' *Note Second Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

   On some systems, the underlying timings are represented using types
with sufficiently small limits that overflows (wraparounds) are
possible, such as 32-bit types.  Therefore, the values returned by this
intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than
previous values, during a single run of the compiled program.

File: g77.info,  Node: CShift Intrinsic,  Next: CSin Intrinsic,  Prev: CPU_Time Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.50 CShift Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL CShift' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: CSin Intrinsic,  Next: CSqRt Intrinsic,  Prev: CShift Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.51 CSin Intrinsic
........................


     CSin(X)

CSin: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `SIN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Sin Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CSqRt Intrinsic,  Next: CTime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: CSin Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.52 CSqRt Intrinsic
.........................


     CSqRt(X)

CSqRt: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `SQRT()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
SqRt Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CTime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: CTime Intrinsic (function),  Prev: CSqRt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.53 CTime Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL CTime(STIME, RESULT)

STIME: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

RESULT: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Converts STIME, a system time value, such as returned by `TIME8()',
to a string of the form `Sat Aug 19 18:13:14 1995', and returns that
string in RESULT.

   *Note Time8 Intrinsic::.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note CTime
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CTime Intrinsic (function),  Next: DAbs Intrinsic,  Prev: CTime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.54 CTime Intrinsic (function)
....................................


     CTime(STIME)

CTime: `CHARACTER*(*)' function.

STIME: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Converts STIME, a system time value, such as returned by `TIME8()',
to a string of the form `Sat Aug 19 18:13:14 1995', and returns that
string as the function value.

   *Note Time8 Intrinsic::.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note CTime
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DAbs Intrinsic,  Next: DACos Intrinsic,  Prev: CTime Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.55 DAbs Intrinsic
........................


     DAbs(A)

DAbs: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `ABS()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Abs Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DACos Intrinsic,  Next: DASin Intrinsic,  Prev: DAbs Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.56 DACos Intrinsic
.........................


     DACos(X)

DACos: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `ACOS()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
ACos Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DASin Intrinsic,  Next: DATan Intrinsic,  Prev: DACos Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.57 DASin Intrinsic
.........................


     DASin(X)

DASin: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `ASIN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
ASin Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DATan Intrinsic,  Next: DATan2 Intrinsic,  Prev: DASin Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.58 DATan Intrinsic
.........................


     DATan(X)

DATan: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `ATAN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
ATan Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DATan2 Intrinsic,  Next: Date_and_Time Intrinsic,  Prev: DATan Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.59 DATan2 Intrinsic
..........................


     DATan2(Y, X)

DATan2: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

Y: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `ATAN2()' that is specific to one type for Y and X.
*Note ATan2 Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Date_and_Time Intrinsic,  Next: DbesJ0 Intrinsic,  Prev: DATan2 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.60 Date_and_Time Intrinsic
.................................


     CALL Date_and_Time(DATE, TIME, ZONE, VALUES)

DATE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

TIME: `CHARACTER'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

ZONE: `CHARACTER'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

VALUES: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; DIMENSION(8); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `f90'.

Description:

   Returns:
DATE
     The date in the form CCYYMMDD: century, year, month and day;

TIME
     The time in the form `HHMMSS.SS': hours, minutes, seconds and
     milliseconds;

ZONE
     The difference between local time and UTC (GMT) in the form SHHMM:
     sign, hours and minutes, e.g. `-0500' (winter in New York);

VALUES
     The year, month of the year, day of the month, time difference in
     minutes from UTC, hour of the day, minutes of the hour, seconds of
     the minute, and milliseconds of the second in successive values of
     the array.

   Programs making use of this intrinsic might not be Year 10000 (Y10K)
compliant.  For example, the date might appear, to such programs, to
wrap around (change from a larger value to a smaller one) as of the
Year 10000.

   On systems where a millisecond timer isn't available, the millisecond
value is returned as zero.

File: g77.info,  Node: DbesJ0 Intrinsic,  Next: DbesJ1 Intrinsic,  Prev: Date_and_Time Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.61 DbesJ0 Intrinsic
..........................


     DbesJ0(X)

DbesJ0: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `BESJ0()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
BesJ0 Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DbesJ1 Intrinsic,  Next: DbesJN Intrinsic,  Prev: DbesJ0 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.62 DbesJ1 Intrinsic
..........................


     DbesJ1(X)

DbesJ1: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `BESJ1()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
BesJ1 Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DbesJN Intrinsic,  Next: DbesY0 Intrinsic,  Prev: DbesJ1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.63 DbesJN Intrinsic
..........................


     DbesJN(N, X)

DbesJN: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

N: `INTEGER' not wider than the default kind; scalar; INTENT(IN).

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `BESJN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
BesJN Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DbesY0 Intrinsic,  Next: DbesY1 Intrinsic,  Prev: DbesJN Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.64 DbesY0 Intrinsic
..........................


     DbesY0(X)

DbesY0: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `BESY0()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
BesY0 Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DbesY1 Intrinsic,  Next: DbesYN Intrinsic,  Prev: DbesY0 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.65 DbesY1 Intrinsic
..........................


     DbesY1(X)

DbesY1: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `BESY1()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
BesY1 Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DbesYN Intrinsic,  Next: Dble Intrinsic,  Prev: DbesY1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.66 DbesYN Intrinsic
..........................


     DbesYN(N, X)

DbesYN: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

N: `INTEGER' not wider than the default kind; scalar; INTENT(IN).

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `BESYN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
BesYN Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Dble Intrinsic,  Next: DCos Intrinsic,  Prev: DbesYN Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.67 Dble Intrinsic
........................


     Dble(A)

Dble: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns A converted to double precision (`REAL(KIND=2)').  If A is
`COMPLEX', the real part of A is used for the conversion and the
imaginary part disregarded.

   *Note Sngl Intrinsic::, for the function that converts to single
precision.

   *Note Int Intrinsic::, for the function that converts to `INTEGER'.

   *Note Complex Intrinsic::, for the function that converts to
`COMPLEX'.

File: g77.info,  Node: DCos Intrinsic,  Next: DCosH Intrinsic,  Prev: Dble Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.68 DCos Intrinsic
........................


     DCos(X)

DCos: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `COS()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Cos Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DCosH Intrinsic,  Next: DDiM Intrinsic,  Prev: DCos Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.69 DCosH Intrinsic
.........................


     DCosH(X)

DCosH: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `COSH()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
CosH Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DDiM Intrinsic,  Next: DErF Intrinsic,  Prev: DCosH Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.70 DDiM Intrinsic
........................


     DDiM(X, Y)

DDiM: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Y: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `DIM()' that is specific to one type for X and Y.
*Note DiM Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DErF Intrinsic,  Next: DErFC Intrinsic,  Prev: DDiM Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.71 DErF Intrinsic
........................


     DErF(X)

DErF: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `ERF()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
ErF Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DErFC Intrinsic,  Next: DExp Intrinsic,  Prev: DErF Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.72 DErFC Intrinsic
.........................


     DErFC(X)

DErFC: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `ERFC()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
ErFC Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DExp Intrinsic,  Next: Digits Intrinsic,  Prev: DErFC Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.73 DExp Intrinsic
........................


     DExp(X)

DExp: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `EXP()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Exp Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Digits Intrinsic,  Next: DiM Intrinsic,  Prev: DExp Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.74 Digits Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Digits' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DiM Intrinsic,  Next: DInt Intrinsic,  Prev: Digits Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.75 DiM Intrinsic
.......................


     DiM(X, Y)

DiM: `INTEGER' or `REAL' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

X: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Y: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns `X-Y' if X is greater than Y; otherwise returns zero.

File: g77.info,  Node: DInt Intrinsic,  Next: DLog Intrinsic,  Prev: DiM Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.76 DInt Intrinsic
........................


     DInt(A)

DInt: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `AINT()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
AInt Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DLog Intrinsic,  Next: DLog10 Intrinsic,  Prev: DInt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.77 DLog Intrinsic
........................


     DLog(X)

DLog: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `LOG()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Log Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DLog10 Intrinsic,  Next: DMax1 Intrinsic,  Prev: DLog Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.78 DLog10 Intrinsic
..........................


     DLog10(X)

DLog10: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `LOG10()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Log10 Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DMax1 Intrinsic,  Next: DMin1 Intrinsic,  Prev: DLog10 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.79 DMax1 Intrinsic
.........................


     DMax1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

DMax1: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MAX()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Max Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DMin1 Intrinsic,  Next: DMod Intrinsic,  Prev: DMax1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.80 DMin1 Intrinsic
.........................


     DMin1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

DMin1: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MIN()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Min Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DMod Intrinsic,  Next: DNInt Intrinsic,  Prev: DMin1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.81 DMod Intrinsic
........................


     DMod(A, P)

DMod: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

P: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MOD()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Mod Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DNInt Intrinsic,  Next: Dot_Product Intrinsic,  Prev: DMod Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.82 DNInt Intrinsic
.........................


     DNInt(A)

DNInt: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `ANINT()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
ANInt Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Dot_Product Intrinsic,  Next: DProd Intrinsic,  Prev: DNInt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.83 Dot_Product Intrinsic
...............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Dot_Product' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DProd Intrinsic,  Next: DSign Intrinsic,  Prev: Dot_Product Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.84 DProd Intrinsic
.........................


     DProd(X, Y)

DProd: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Y: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns `DBLE(X)*DBLE(Y)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: DSign Intrinsic,  Next: DSin Intrinsic,  Prev: DProd Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.85 DSign Intrinsic
.........................


     DSign(A, B)

DSign: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

B: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `SIGN()' that is specific to one type for A and B.
*Note Sign Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DSin Intrinsic,  Next: DSinH Intrinsic,  Prev: DSign Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.86 DSin Intrinsic
........................


     DSin(X)

DSin: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `SIN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Sin Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DSinH Intrinsic,  Next: DSqRt Intrinsic,  Prev: DSin Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.87 DSinH Intrinsic
.........................


     DSinH(X)

DSinH: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `SINH()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
SinH Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DSqRt Intrinsic,  Next: DTan Intrinsic,  Prev: DSinH Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.88 DSqRt Intrinsic
.........................


     DSqRt(X)

DSqRt: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `SQRT()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
SqRt Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DTan Intrinsic,  Next: DTanH Intrinsic,  Prev: DSqRt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.89 DTan Intrinsic
........................


     DTan(X)

DTan: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `TAN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Tan Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DTanH Intrinsic,  Next: DTime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: DTan Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.90 DTanH Intrinsic
.........................


     DTanH(X)

DTanH: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

X: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `TANH()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
TanH Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DTime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: EOShift Intrinsic,  Prev: DTanH Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.91 DTime Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL DTime(TARRAY, RESULT)

TARRAY: `REAL(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(2); INTENT(OUT).

RESULT: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Initially, return the number of seconds of runtime since the start
of the process's execution in RESULT, and the user and system
components of this in `TARRAY(1)' and `TARRAY(2)' respectively.  The
value of RESULT is equal to `TARRAY(1) + TARRAY(2)'.

   Subsequent invocations of `DTIME()' set values based on accumulations
since the previous invocation.

   On some systems, the underlying timings are represented using types
with sufficiently small limits that overflows (wraparounds) are
possible, such as 32-bit types.  Therefore, the values returned by this
intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than
previous values, during a single run of the compiled program.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note DTime
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: EOShift Intrinsic,  Next: Epsilon Intrinsic,  Prev: DTime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.92 EOShift Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL EOShift' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Epsilon Intrinsic,  Next: ErF Intrinsic,  Prev: EOShift Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.93 Epsilon Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Epsilon' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: ErF Intrinsic,  Next: ErFC Intrinsic,  Prev: Epsilon Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.94 ErF Intrinsic
.......................


     ErF(X)

ErF: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the error function of X.  See `erf(3m)', which provides the
implementation.

File: g77.info,  Node: ErFC Intrinsic,  Next: ETime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: ErF Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.95 ErFC Intrinsic
........................


     ErFC(X)

ErFC: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the complementary error function of X: `ERFC(R) = 1 -
ERF(R)' (except that the result might be more accurate than explicitly
evaluating that formulae would give).  See `erfc(3m)', which provides
the implementation.

File: g77.info,  Node: ETime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: ETime Intrinsic (function),  Prev: ErFC Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.96 ETime Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL ETime(TARRAY, RESULT)

TARRAY: `REAL(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(2); INTENT(OUT).

RESULT: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Return the number of seconds of runtime since the start of the
process's execution in RESULT, and the user and system components of
this in `TARRAY(1)' and `TARRAY(2)' respectively.  The value of RESULT
is equal to `TARRAY(1) + TARRAY(2)'.

   On some systems, the underlying timings are represented using types
with sufficiently small limits that overflows (wraparounds) are
possible, such as 32-bit types.  Therefore, the values returned by this
intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than
previous values, during a single run of the compiled program.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note ETime
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ETime Intrinsic (function),  Next: Exit Intrinsic,  Prev: ETime Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.97 ETime Intrinsic (function)
....................................


     ETime(TARRAY)

ETime: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

TARRAY: `REAL(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(2); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Return the number of seconds of runtime since the start of the
process's execution as the function value, and the user and system
components of this in `TARRAY(1)' and `TARRAY(2)' respectively.  The
functions' value is equal to `TARRAY(1) + TARRAY(2)'.

   On some systems, the underlying timings are represented using types
with sufficiently small limits that overflows (wraparounds) are
possible, such as 32-bit types.  Therefore, the values returned by this
intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than
previous values, during a single run of the compiled program.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note ETime
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Exit Intrinsic,  Next: Exp Intrinsic,  Prev: ETime Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.98 Exit Intrinsic
........................


     CALL Exit(STATUS)

STATUS: `INTEGER' not wider than the default kind; OPTIONAL; scalar;
INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Exit the program with status STATUS after closing open Fortran I/O
units and otherwise behaving as `exit(2)'.  If STATUS is omitted the
canonical `success' value will be returned to the system.

File: g77.info,  Node: Exp Intrinsic,  Next: Exponent Intrinsic,  Prev: Exit Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.99 Exp Intrinsic
.......................


     Exp(X)

Exp: `REAL' or `COMPLEX' function, the exact type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL' or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns `E**X', where E is approximately 2.7182818.

   *Note Log Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

File: g77.info,  Node: Exponent Intrinsic,  Next: FDate Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Exp Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.100 Exponent Intrinsic
.............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Exponent' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: FDate Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: FDate Intrinsic (function),  Prev: Exponent Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.101 FDate Intrinsic (subroutine)
.......................................


     CALL FDate(DATE)

DATE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the current date (using the same format as `CTIME()') in
DATE.

   Equivalent to:

     CALL CTIME(DATE, TIME8())

   Programs making use of this intrinsic might not be Year 10000 (Y10K)
compliant.  For example, the date might appear, to such programs, to
wrap around (change from a larger value to a smaller one) as of the
Year 10000.

   *Note CTime Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FDate
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FDate Intrinsic (function),  Next: FGet Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: FDate Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.102 FDate Intrinsic (function)
.....................................


     FDate()

FDate: `CHARACTER*(*)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the current date (using the same format as `CTIME()').

   Equivalent to:

     CTIME(TIME8())

   Programs making use of this intrinsic might not be Year 10000 (Y10K)
compliant.  For example, the date might appear, to such programs, to
wrap around (change from a larger value to a smaller one) as of the
Year 10000.

   *Note CTime Intrinsic (function)::.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FDate
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FGet Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: FGetC Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: FDate Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.103 FGet Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL FGet(C, STATUS)

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Reads a single character into C in stream mode from unit 5
(by-passing normal formatted output) using `getc(3)'.  Returns in
STATUS 0 on success, -1 on end-of-file, and the error code from
`ferror(3)' otherwise.

   Stream I/O should not be mixed with normal record-oriented
(formatted or unformatted) I/O on the same unit; the results are
unpredictable.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FGet
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FGetC Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Float Intrinsic,  Prev: FGet Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.104 FGetC Intrinsic (subroutine)
.......................................


     CALL FGetC(UNIT, C, STATUS)

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Reads a single character into C in stream mode from unit UNIT
(by-passing normal formatted output) using `getc(3)'.  Returns in
STATUS 0 on success, -1 on end-of-file, and the error code from
`ferror(3)' otherwise.

   Stream I/O should not be mixed with normal record-oriented
(formatted or unformatted) I/O on the same unit; the results are
unpredictable.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FGetC
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Float Intrinsic,  Next: Floor Intrinsic,  Prev: FGetC Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.105 Float Intrinsic
..........................


     Float(A)

Float: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `REAL()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Real Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Floor Intrinsic,  Next: Flush Intrinsic,  Prev: Float Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.106 Floor Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Floor' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Flush Intrinsic,  Next: FNum Intrinsic,  Prev: Floor Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.107 Flush Intrinsic
..........................


     CALL Flush(UNIT)

UNIT: `INTEGER'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Flushes Fortran unit(s) currently open for output.  Without the
optional argument, all such units are flushed, otherwise just the unit
specified by UNIT.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as a
library procedure that might or might not support the (optional) UNIT
argument.

File: g77.info,  Node: FNum Intrinsic,  Next: FPut Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Flush Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.108 FNum Intrinsic
.........................


     FNum(UNIT)

FNum: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the Unix file descriptor number corresponding to the open
Fortran I/O unit UNIT.  This could be passed to an interface to C I/O
routines.

File: g77.info,  Node: FPut Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: FPutC Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: FNum Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.109 FPut Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL FPut(C, STATUS)

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Writes the single character C in stream mode to unit 6 (by-passing
normal formatted output) using `putc(3)'.  Returns in STATUS 0 on
success, the error code from `ferror(3)' otherwise.

   Stream I/O should not be mixed with normal record-oriented
(formatted or unformatted) I/O on the same unit; the results are
unpredictable.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FPut
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FPutC Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Fraction Intrinsic,  Prev: FPut Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.110 FPutC Intrinsic (subroutine)
.......................................


     CALL FPutC(UNIT, C, STATUS)

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Writes the single character UNIT in stream mode to unit 6
(by-passing normal formatted output) using `putc(3)'.  Returns in C 0
on success, the error code from `ferror(3)' otherwise.

   Stream I/O should not be mixed with normal record-oriented
(formatted or unformatted) I/O on the same unit; the results are
unpredictable.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FPutC
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Fraction Intrinsic,  Next: FSeek Intrinsic,  Prev: FPutC Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.111 Fraction Intrinsic
.............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Fraction' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: FSeek Intrinsic,  Next: FStat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Fraction Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.112 FSeek Intrinsic
..........................


     CALL FSeek(UNIT, OFFSET, WHENCE, ERRLAB)

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

OFFSET: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

WHENCE: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

ERRLAB: `*LABEL', where LABEL is the label of an executable statement;
OPTIONAL.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Attempts to move Fortran unit UNIT to the specified OFFSET: absolute
offset if WHENCE=0; relative to the current offset if WHENCE=1;
relative to the end of the file if WHENCE=2.  It branches to label
ERRLAB if UNIT is not open or if the call otherwise fails.

File: g77.info,  Node: FStat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: FStat Intrinsic (function),  Prev: FSeek Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.113 FStat Intrinsic (subroutine)
.......................................


     CALL FStat(UNIT, SARRAY, STATUS)

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Obtains data about the file open on Fortran I/O unit UNIT and places
them in the array SARRAY.  The values in this array are extracted from
the `stat' structure as returned by `fstat(2)' q.v., as follows:

  1. Device ID

  2. Inode number

  3. File mode

  4. Number of links

  5. Owner's uid

  6. Owner's gid

  7. ID of device containing directory entry for file (0 if not
     available)

  8. File size (bytes)

  9. Last access time

 10. Last modification time

 11. Last file status change time

 12. Preferred I/O block size (-1 if not available)

 13. Number of blocks allocated (-1 if not available)

   Not all these elements are relevant on all systems.  If an element
is not relevant, it is returned as 0.

   If the STATUS argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a
nonzero error code upon return.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FStat
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FStat Intrinsic (function),  Next: FTell Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: FStat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.114 FStat Intrinsic (function)
.....................................


     FStat(UNIT, SARRAY)

FStat: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Obtains data about the file open on Fortran I/O unit UNIT and places
them in the array SARRAY.  The values in this array are extracted from
the `stat' structure as returned by `fstat(2)' q.v., as follows:

  1. Device ID

  2. Inode number

  3. File mode

  4. Number of links

  5. Owner's uid

  6. Owner's gid

  7. ID of device containing directory entry for file (0 if not
     available)

  8. File size (bytes)

  9. Last access time

 10. Last modification time

 11. Last file status change time

 12. Preferred I/O block size (-1 if not available)

 13. Number of blocks allocated (-1 if not available)

   Not all these elements are relevant on all systems.  If an element
is not relevant, it is returned as 0.

   Returns 0 on success or a nonzero error code.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FStat
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FTell Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: FTell Intrinsic (function),  Prev: FStat Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.115 FTell Intrinsic (subroutine)
.......................................


     CALL FTell(UNIT, OFFSET)

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

OFFSET: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Sets OFFSET to the current offset of Fortran unit UNIT (or to -1 if
UNIT is not open).

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FTell
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FTell Intrinsic (function),  Next: GError Intrinsic,  Prev: FTell Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.116 FTell Intrinsic (function)
.....................................


     FTell(UNIT)

FTell: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the current offset of Fortran unit UNIT (or -1 if UNIT is
not open).

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FTell
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: GError Intrinsic,  Next: GetArg Intrinsic,  Prev: FTell Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.117 GError Intrinsic
...........................


     CALL GError(MESSAGE)

MESSAGE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the system error message corresponding to the last system
error (C `errno').

File: g77.info,  Node: GetArg Intrinsic,  Next: GetCWD Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: GError Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.118 GetArg Intrinsic
...........................


     CALL GetArg(POS, VALUE)

POS: `INTEGER' not wider than the default kind; scalar; INTENT(IN).

VALUE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Sets VALUE to the POS-th command-line argument (or to all blanks if
there are fewer than VALUE command-line arguments); `CALL GETARG(0,
VALUE)' sets VALUE to the name of the program (on systems that support
this feature).

   *Note IArgC Intrinsic::, for information on how to get the number of
arguments.

File: g77.info,  Node: GetCWD Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: GetCWD Intrinsic (function),  Prev: GetArg Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.119 GetCWD Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL GetCWD(NAME, STATUS)

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Places the current working directory in NAME.  If the STATUS
argument is supplied, it contains 0 success or a nonzero error code
upon return (`ENOSYS' if the system does not provide `getcwd(3)' or
`getwd(3)').

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note GetCWD
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: GetCWD Intrinsic (function),  Next: GetEnv Intrinsic,  Prev: GetCWD Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.120 GetCWD Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     GetCWD(NAME)

GetCWD: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Places the current working directory in NAME.  Returns 0 on success,
otherwise a nonzero error code (`ENOSYS' if the system does not provide
`getcwd(3)' or `getwd(3)').

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note GetCWD
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: GetEnv Intrinsic,  Next: GetGId Intrinsic,  Prev: GetCWD Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.121 GetEnv Intrinsic
...........................


     CALL GetEnv(NAME, VALUE)

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

VALUE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Sets VALUE to the value of environment variable given by the value
of NAME (`$name' in shell terms) or to blanks if `$name' has not been
set.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the name in
NAME--otherwise, trailing blanks in NAME are ignored.

File: g77.info,  Node: GetGId Intrinsic,  Next: GetLog Intrinsic,  Prev: GetEnv Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.122 GetGId Intrinsic
...........................


     GetGId()

GetGId: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the group id for the current process.

File: g77.info,  Node: GetLog Intrinsic,  Next: GetPId Intrinsic,  Prev: GetGId Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.123 GetLog Intrinsic
...........................


     CALL GetLog(LOGIN)

LOGIN: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the login name for the process in LOGIN.

   _Caution:_ On some systems, the `getlogin(3)' function, which this
intrinsic calls at run time, is either not implemented or returns a
null pointer.  In the latter case, this intrinsic returns blanks in
LOGIN.

File: g77.info,  Node: GetPId Intrinsic,  Next: GetUId Intrinsic,  Prev: GetLog Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.124 GetPId Intrinsic
...........................


     GetPId()

GetPId: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the process id for the current process.

File: g77.info,  Node: GetUId Intrinsic,  Next: GMTime Intrinsic,  Prev: GetPId Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.125 GetUId Intrinsic
...........................


     GetUId()

GetUId: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the user id for the current process.

File: g77.info,  Node: GMTime Intrinsic,  Next: HostNm Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: GetUId Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.126 GMTime Intrinsic
...........................


     CALL GMTime(STIME, TARRAY)

STIME: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

TARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(9); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Given a system time value STIME, fills TARRAY with values extracted
from it appropriate to the GMT time zone using `gmtime(3)'.

   The array elements are as follows:

  1. Seconds after the minute, range 0-59 or 0-61 to allow for leap
     seconds

  2. Minutes after the hour, range 0-59

  3. Hours past midnight, range 0-23

  4. Day of month, range 0-31

  5. Number of months since January, range 0-12

  6. Years since 1900

  7. Number of days since Sunday, range 0-6

  8. Days since January 1

  9. Daylight savings indicator: positive if daylight savings is in
     effect, zero if not, and negative if the information isn't
     available.

File: g77.info,  Node: HostNm Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: HostNm Intrinsic (function),  Prev: GMTime Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.127 HostNm Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL HostNm(NAME, STATUS)

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Fills NAME with the system's host name returned by `gethostname(2)'.
If the STATUS argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a
nonzero error code upon return (`ENOSYS' if the system does not provide
`gethostname(2)').

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   On some systems (specifically SCO) it might be necessary to link the
"socket" library if you call this routine.  Typically this means adding
`-lg2c -lsocket -lm' to the `g77' command line when linking the program.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note HostNm
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: HostNm Intrinsic (function),  Next: Huge Intrinsic,  Prev: HostNm Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.128 HostNm Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     HostNm(NAME)

HostNm: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Fills NAME with the system's host name returned by `gethostname(2)',
returning 0 on success or a nonzero error code (`ENOSYS' if the system
does not provide `gethostname(2)').

   On some systems (specifically SCO) it might be necessary to link the
"socket" library if you call this routine.  Typically this means adding
`-lg2c -lsocket -lm' to the `g77' command line when linking the program.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note HostNm
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Huge Intrinsic,  Next: IAbs Intrinsic,  Prev: HostNm Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.129 Huge Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Huge' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IAbs Intrinsic,  Next: IAChar Intrinsic,  Prev: Huge Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.130 IAbs Intrinsic
.........................


     IAbs(A)

IAbs: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `ABS()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Abs Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: IAChar Intrinsic,  Next: IAnd Intrinsic,  Prev: IAbs Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.131 IAChar Intrinsic
...........................


     IAChar(C)

IAChar: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `f90'.

Description:

   Returns the code for the ASCII character in the first character
position of C.

   *Note AChar Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

   *Note IChar Intrinsic::, for the function corresponding to the
system's native character set.

File: g77.info,  Node: IAnd Intrinsic,  Next: IArgC Intrinsic,  Prev: IAChar Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.132 IAnd Intrinsic
.........................


     IAnd(I, J)

IAnd: `INTEGER' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

J: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns value resulting from boolean AND of pair of bits in each of
I and J.

File: g77.info,  Node: IArgC Intrinsic,  Next: IBClr Intrinsic,  Prev: IAnd Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.133 IArgC Intrinsic
..........................


     IArgC()

IArgC: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the number of command-line arguments.

   This count does not include the specification of the program name
itself.

File: g77.info,  Node: IBClr Intrinsic,  Next: IBits Intrinsic,  Prev: IArgC Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.134 IBClr Intrinsic
..........................


     IBClr(I, POS)

IBClr: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

POS: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns the value of I with bit POS cleared (set to zero).  *Note
BTest Intrinsic::, for information on bit positions.

File: g77.info,  Node: IBits Intrinsic,  Next: IBSet Intrinsic,  Prev: IBClr Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.135 IBits Intrinsic
..........................


     IBits(I, POS, LEN)

IBits: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

POS: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

LEN: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Extracts a subfield of length LEN from I, starting from bit position
POS and extending left for LEN bits.  The result is right-justified and
the remaining bits are zeroed.  The value of `POS+LEN' must be less
than or equal to the value `BIT_SIZE(I)'.  *Note Bit_Size Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: IBSet Intrinsic,  Next: IChar Intrinsic,  Prev: IBits Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.136 IBSet Intrinsic
..........................


     IBSet(I, POS)

IBSet: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

POS: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns the value of I with bit POS set (to one).  *Note BTest
Intrinsic::, for information on bit positions.

File: g77.info,  Node: IChar Intrinsic,  Next: IDate Intrinsic (UNIX),  Prev: IBSet Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.137 IChar Intrinsic
..........................


     IChar(C)

IChar: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the code for the character in the first character position
of C.

   Because the system's native character set is used, the
correspondence between character and their codes is not necessarily the
same between GNU Fortran implementations.

   Note that no intrinsic exists to convert a printable character
string to a numerical value.  For example, there is no intrinsic that,
given the `CHARACTER' value `'154'', returns an `INTEGER' or `REAL'
value with the value `154'.

   Instead, you can use internal-file I/O to do this kind of conversion.
For example:

     INTEGER VALUE
     CHARACTER*10 STRING
     STRING = '154'
     READ (STRING, '(I10)'), VALUE
     PRINT *, VALUE
     END

   The above program, when run, prints:

      154

   *Note Char Intrinsic::, for the inverse of the `ICHAR' function.

   *Note IAChar Intrinsic::, for the function corresponding to the
ASCII character set.

File: g77.info,  Node: IDate Intrinsic (UNIX),  Next: IDiM Intrinsic,  Prev: IChar Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.138 IDate Intrinsic (UNIX)
.................................


     CALL IDate(TARRAY)

TARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(3); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Fills TARRAY with the numerical values at the current local time.
The day (in the range 1-31), month (in the range 1-12), and year appear
in elements 1, 2, and 3 of TARRAY, respectively.  The year has four
significant digits.

   Programs making use of this intrinsic might not be Year 10000 (Y10K)
compliant.  For example, the date might appear, to such programs, to
wrap around (change from a larger value to a smaller one) as of the
Year 10000.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note IDate
Intrinsic (VXT)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: IDiM Intrinsic,  Next: IDInt Intrinsic,  Prev: IDate Intrinsic (UNIX),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.139 IDiM Intrinsic
.........................


     IDiM(X, Y)

IDiM: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

X: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Y: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `DIM()' that is specific to one type for X and Y.
*Note DiM Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: IDInt Intrinsic,  Next: IDNInt Intrinsic,  Prev: IDiM Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.140 IDInt Intrinsic
..........................


     IDInt(A)

IDInt: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `INT()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Int Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: IDNInt Intrinsic,  Next: IEOr Intrinsic,  Prev: IDInt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.141 IDNInt Intrinsic
...........................


     IDNInt(A)

IDNInt: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `NINT()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
NInt Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: IEOr Intrinsic,  Next: IErrNo Intrinsic,  Prev: IDNInt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.142 IEOr Intrinsic
.........................


     IEOr(I, J)

IEOr: `INTEGER' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

J: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns value resulting from boolean exclusive-OR of pair of bits in
each of I and J.

File: g77.info,  Node: IErrNo Intrinsic,  Next: IFix Intrinsic,  Prev: IEOr Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.143 IErrNo Intrinsic
...........................


     IErrNo()

IErrNo: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the last system error number (corresponding to the C
`errno').

File: g77.info,  Node: IFix Intrinsic,  Next: Imag Intrinsic,  Prev: IErrNo Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.144 IFix Intrinsic
.........................


     IFix(A)

IFix: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `INT()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Int Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Imag Intrinsic,  Next: ImagPart Intrinsic,  Prev: IFix Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.145 Imag Intrinsic
.........................


     Imag(Z)

Imag: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument Z.

Z: `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   The imaginary part of Z is returned, without conversion.

   _Note:_ The way to do this in standard Fortran 90 is `AIMAG(Z)'.
However, when, for example, Z is `DOUBLE COMPLEX', `AIMAG(Z)' means
something different for some compilers that are not true Fortran 90
compilers but offer some extensions standardized by Fortran 90 (such as
the `DOUBLE COMPLEX' type, also known as `COMPLEX(KIND=2)').

   The advantage of `IMAG()' is that, while not necessarily more or
less portable than `AIMAG()', it is more likely to cause a compiler
that doesn't support it to produce a diagnostic than generate incorrect
code.

   *Note REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: ImagPart Intrinsic,  Next: Index Intrinsic,  Prev: Imag Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.146 ImagPart Intrinsic
.............................


     ImagPart(Z)

ImagPart: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument Z.

Z: `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `gnu'.

Description:

   The imaginary part of Z is returned, without conversion.

   _Note:_ The way to do this in standard Fortran 90 is `AIMAG(Z)'.
However, when, for example, Z is `DOUBLE COMPLEX', `AIMAG(Z)' means
something different for some compilers that are not true Fortran 90
compilers but offer some extensions standardized by Fortran 90 (such as
the `DOUBLE COMPLEX' type, also known as `COMPLEX(KIND=2)').

   The advantage of `IMAGPART()' is that, while not necessarily more or
less portable than `AIMAG()', it is more likely to cause a compiler
that doesn't support it to produce a diagnostic than generate incorrect
code.

   *Note REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: Index Intrinsic,  Next: Int Intrinsic,  Prev: ImagPart Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.147 Index Intrinsic
..........................


     Index(STRING, SUBSTRING)

Index: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

STRING: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SUBSTRING: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the position of the start of the first occurrence of string
SUBSTRING as a substring in STRING, counting from one.  If SUBSTRING
doesn't occur in STRING, zero is returned.

File: g77.info,  Node: Int Intrinsic,  Next: Int2 Intrinsic,  Prev: Index Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.148 Int Intrinsic
........................


     Int(A)

Int: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude truncated and
its sign preserved, converted to type `INTEGER(KIND=1)'.

   If A is type `COMPLEX', its real part is truncated and converted,
and its imaginary part is disregarded.

   *Note NInt Intrinsic::, for how to convert, rounded to nearest whole
number.

   *Note AInt Intrinsic::, for how to truncate to whole number without
converting.

File: g77.info,  Node: Int2 Intrinsic,  Next: Int8 Intrinsic,  Prev: Int Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.149 Int2 Intrinsic
.........................


     Int2(A)

Int2: `INTEGER(KIND=6)' function.

A: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `gnu'.

Description:

   Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude truncated and
its sign preserved, converted to type `INTEGER(KIND=6)'.

   If A is type `COMPLEX', its real part is truncated and converted,
and its imaginary part is disregarded.

   *Note Int Intrinsic::.

   The precise meaning of this intrinsic might change in a future
version of the GNU Fortran language, as more is learned about how it is
used.

File: g77.info,  Node: Int8 Intrinsic,  Next: IOr Intrinsic,  Prev: Int2 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.150 Int8 Intrinsic
.........................


     Int8(A)

Int8: `INTEGER(KIND=2)' function.

A: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `gnu'.

Description:

   Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude truncated and
its sign preserved, converted to type `INTEGER(KIND=2)'.

   If A is type `COMPLEX', its real part is truncated and converted,
and its imaginary part is disregarded.

   *Note Int Intrinsic::.

   The precise meaning of this intrinsic might change in a future
version of the GNU Fortran language, as more is learned about how it is
used.

File: g77.info,  Node: IOr Intrinsic,  Next: IRand Intrinsic,  Prev: Int8 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.151 IOr Intrinsic
........................


     IOr(I, J)

IOr: `INTEGER' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

J: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns value resulting from boolean OR of pair of bits in each of I
and J.

File: g77.info,  Node: IRand Intrinsic,  Next: IsaTty Intrinsic,  Prev: IOr Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.152 IRand Intrinsic
..........................


     IRand(FLAG)

IRand: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

FLAG: `INTEGER'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns a uniform quasi-random number up to a system-dependent limit.
If FLAG is 0, the next number in sequence is returned; if FLAG is 1,
the generator is restarted by calling the UNIX function `srand(0)'; if
FLAG has any other value, it is used as a new seed with `srand()'.

   *Note SRand Intrinsic::.

   _Note:_ As typically implemented (by the routine of the same name in
the C library), this random number generator is a very poor one, though
the BSD and GNU libraries provide a much better implementation than the
`traditional' one.  On a different system you almost certainly want to
use something better.

File: g77.info,  Node: IsaTty Intrinsic,  Next: IShft Intrinsic,  Prev: IRand Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.153 IsaTty Intrinsic
...........................


     IsaTty(UNIT)

IsaTty: `LOGICAL(KIND=1)' function.

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns `.TRUE.' if and only if the Fortran I/O unit specified by
UNIT is connected to a terminal device.  See `isatty(3)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: IShft Intrinsic,  Next: IShftC Intrinsic,  Prev: IsaTty Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.154 IShft Intrinsic
..........................


     IShft(I, SHIFT)

IShft: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SHIFT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   All bits representing I are shifted SHIFT places.  `SHIFT.GT.0'
indicates a left shift, `SHIFT.EQ.0' indicates no shift and
`SHIFT.LT.0' indicates a right shift.  If the absolute value of the
shift count is greater than `BIT_SIZE(I)', the result is undefined.
Bits shifted out from the left end or the right end are lost.  Zeros
are shifted in from the opposite end.

   *Note IShftC Intrinsic::, for the circular-shift equivalent.

File: g77.info,  Node: IShftC Intrinsic,  Next: ISign Intrinsic,  Prev: IShft Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.155 IShftC Intrinsic
...........................


     IShftC(I, SHIFT, SIZE)

IShftC: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SHIFT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SIZE: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   The rightmost SIZE bits of the argument I are shifted circularly
SHIFT places, i.e. the bits shifted out of one end are shifted into the
opposite end.  No bits are lost.  The unshifted bits of the result are
the same as the unshifted bits of I.  The  absolute value of the
argument SHIFT must be less than or equal to SIZE.  The value of SIZE
must be greater than or equal to one and less than or equal to
`BIT_SIZE(I)'.

   *Note IShft Intrinsic::, for the logical shift equivalent.

File: g77.info,  Node: ISign Intrinsic,  Next: ITime Intrinsic,  Prev: IShftC Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.156 ISign Intrinsic
..........................


     ISign(A, B)

ISign: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

B: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `SIGN()' that is specific to one type for A and B.
*Note Sign Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ITime Intrinsic,  Next: Kill Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: ISign Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.157 ITime Intrinsic
..........................


     CALL ITime(TARRAY)

TARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(3); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the current local time hour, minutes, and seconds in elements
1, 2, and 3 of TARRAY, respectively.

File: g77.info,  Node: Kill Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Kind Intrinsic,  Prev: ITime Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.158 Kill Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL Kill(PID, SIGNAL, STATUS)

PID: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SIGNAL: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Sends the signal specified by SIGNAL to the process PID.  If the
STATUS argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a nonzero
error code upon return.  See `kill(2)'.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Kill
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Kind Intrinsic,  Next: LBound Intrinsic,  Prev: Kill Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.159 Kind Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Kind' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: LBound Intrinsic,  Next: Len Intrinsic,  Prev: Kind Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.160 LBound Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL LBound' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Len Intrinsic,  Next: Len_Trim Intrinsic,  Prev: LBound Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.161 Len Intrinsic
........................


     Len(STRING)

Len: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

STRING: `CHARACTER'; scalar.

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the length of STRING.

   If STRING is an array, the length of an element of STRING is
returned.

   Note that STRING need not be defined when this intrinsic is invoked,
since only the length, not the content, of STRING is needed.

   *Note Bit_Size Intrinsic::, for the function that determines the
size of its argument in bits.

File: g77.info,  Node: Len_Trim Intrinsic,  Next: LGe Intrinsic,  Prev: Len Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.162 Len_Trim Intrinsic
.............................


     Len_Trim(STRING)

Len_Trim: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

STRING: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f90'.

Description:

   Returns the index of the last non-blank character in STRING.
`LNBLNK' and `LEN_TRIM' are equivalent.

File: g77.info,  Node: LGe Intrinsic,  Next: LGt Intrinsic,  Prev: Len_Trim Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.163 LGe Intrinsic
........................


     LGe(STRING_A, STRING_B)

LGe: `LOGICAL(KIND=1)' function.

STRING_A: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STRING_B: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns `.TRUE.' if `STRING_A.GE.STRING_B', `.FALSE.' otherwise.
STRING_A and STRING_B are interpreted as containing ASCII character
codes.  If either value contains a character not in the ASCII character
set, the result is processor dependent.

   If the STRING_A and STRING_B are not the same length, the shorter is
compared as if spaces were appended to it to form a value that has the
same length as the longer.

   The lexical comparison intrinsics `LGe', `LGt', `LLe', and `LLt'
differ from the corresponding intrinsic operators `.GE.', `.GT.',
`.LE.', `.LT.'.  Because the ASCII collating sequence is assumed, the
following expressions always return `.TRUE.':

     LGE ('0', ' ')
     LGE ('A', '0')
     LGE ('a', 'A')

   The following related expressions do _not_ always return `.TRUE.',
as they are not necessarily evaluated assuming the arguments use ASCII
encoding:

     '0' .GE. ' '
     'A' .GE. '0'
     'a' .GE. 'A'

   The same difference exists between `LGt' and `.GT.'; between `LLe'
and `.LE.'; and between `LLt' and `.LT.'.

File: g77.info,  Node: LGt Intrinsic,  Next: Link Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: LGe Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.164 LGt Intrinsic
........................


     LGt(STRING_A, STRING_B)

LGt: `LOGICAL(KIND=1)' function.

STRING_A: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STRING_B: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns `.TRUE.' if `STRING_A.GT.STRING_B', `.FALSE.' otherwise.
STRING_A and STRING_B are interpreted as containing ASCII character
codes.  If either value contains a character not in the ASCII character
set, the result is processor dependent.

   If the STRING_A and STRING_B are not the same length, the shorter is
compared as if spaces were appended to it to form a value that has the
same length as the longer.

   *Note LGe Intrinsic::, for information on the distinction between
the `LGT' intrinsic and the `.GT.' operator.

File: g77.info,  Node: Link Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: LLe Intrinsic,  Prev: LGt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.165 Link Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL Link(PATH1, PATH2, STATUS)

PATH1: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

PATH2: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Makes a (hard) link from file PATH1 to PATH2.  A null character
(`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the names in PATH1 and PATH2--otherwise,
trailing blanks in PATH1 and PATH2 are ignored.  If the STATUS argument
is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a nonzero error code upon
return.  See `link(2)'.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Link
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: LLe Intrinsic,  Next: LLt Intrinsic,  Prev: Link Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.166 LLe Intrinsic
........................


     LLe(STRING_A, STRING_B)

LLe: `LOGICAL(KIND=1)' function.

STRING_A: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STRING_B: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns `.TRUE.' if `STRING_A.LE.STRING_B', `.FALSE.' otherwise.
STRING_A and STRING_B are interpreted as containing ASCII character
codes.  If either value contains a character not in the ASCII character
set, the result is processor dependent.

   If the STRING_A and STRING_B are not the same length, the shorter is
compared as if spaces were appended to it to form a value that has the
same length as the longer.

   *Note LGe Intrinsic::, for information on the distinction between
the `LLE' intrinsic and the `.LE.' operator.

File: g77.info,  Node: LLt Intrinsic,  Next: LnBlnk Intrinsic,  Prev: LLe Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.167 LLt Intrinsic
........................


     LLt(STRING_A, STRING_B)

LLt: `LOGICAL(KIND=1)' function.

STRING_A: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STRING_B: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns `.TRUE.' if `STRING_A.LT.STRING_B', `.FALSE.' otherwise.
STRING_A and STRING_B are interpreted as containing ASCII character
codes.  If either value contains a character not in the ASCII character
set, the result is processor dependent.

   If the STRING_A and STRING_B are not the same length, the shorter is
compared as if spaces were appended to it to form a value that has the
same length as the longer.

   *Note LGe Intrinsic::, for information on the distinction between
the `LLT' intrinsic and the `.LT.' operator.

File: g77.info,  Node: LnBlnk Intrinsic,  Next: Loc Intrinsic,  Prev: LLt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.168 LnBlnk Intrinsic
...........................


     LnBlnk(STRING)

LnBlnk: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

STRING: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the index of the last non-blank character in STRING.
`LNBLNK' and `LEN_TRIM' are equivalent.

File: g77.info,  Node: Loc Intrinsic,  Next: Log Intrinsic,  Prev: LnBlnk Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.169 Loc Intrinsic
........................


     Loc(ENTITY)

Loc: `INTEGER(KIND=7)' function.

ENTITY: Any type; cannot be a constant or expression.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   The `LOC()' intrinsic works the same way as the `%LOC()' construct.
*Note The `%LOC()' Construct: %LOC(), for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: Log Intrinsic,  Next: Log10 Intrinsic,  Prev: Loc Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.170 Log Intrinsic
........................


     Log(X)

Log: `REAL' or `COMPLEX' function, the exact type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL' or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the natural logarithm of X, which must be greater than zero
or, if type `COMPLEX', must not be zero.

   *Note Exp Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

   *Note Log10 Intrinsic::, for the `common' (base-10) logarithm
function.

File: g77.info,  Node: Log10 Intrinsic,  Next: Logical Intrinsic,  Prev: Log Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.171 Log10 Intrinsic
..........................


     Log10(X)

Log10: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the common logarithm (base 10) of X, which must be greater
than zero.

   The inverse of this function is `10. ** LOG10(X)'.

   *Note Log Intrinsic::, for the natural logarithm function.

File: g77.info,  Node: Logical Intrinsic,  Next: Long Intrinsic,  Prev: Log10 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.172 Logical Intrinsic
............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Logical' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Long Intrinsic,  Next: LShift Intrinsic,  Prev: Logical Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.173 Long Intrinsic
.........................


     Long(A)

Long: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER(KIND=6)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `INT()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Int Intrinsic::.

   The precise meaning of this intrinsic might change in a future
version of the GNU Fortran language, as more is learned about how it is
used.

File: g77.info,  Node: LShift Intrinsic,  Next: LStat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Long Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.174 LShift Intrinsic
...........................


     LShift(I, SHIFT)

LShift: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SHIFT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Returns I shifted to the left SHIFT bits.

   Although similar to the expression `I*(2**SHIFT)', there are
important differences.  For example, the sign of the result is not
necessarily the same as the sign of I.

   Currently this intrinsic is defined assuming the underlying
representation of I is as a two's-complement integer.  It is unclear at
this point whether that definition will apply when a different
representation is involved.

   *Note LShift Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

   *Note IShft Intrinsic::, for information on a more widely available
left-shifting intrinsic that is also more precisely defined.

File: g77.info,  Node: LStat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: LStat Intrinsic (function),  Prev: LShift Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.175 LStat Intrinsic (subroutine)
.......................................


     CALL LStat(FILE, SARRAY, STATUS)

FILE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Obtains data about the given file FILE and places them in the array
SARRAY.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the name in
FILE--otherwise, trailing blanks in FILE are ignored.  If FILE is a
symbolic link it returns data on the link itself, so the routine is
available only on systems that support symbolic links.  The values in
this array are extracted from the `stat' structure as returned by
`fstat(2)' q.v., as follows:

  1. Device ID

  2. Inode number

  3. File mode

  4. Number of links

  5. Owner's uid

  6. Owner's gid

  7. ID of device containing directory entry for file (0 if not
     available)

  8. File size (bytes)

  9. Last access time

 10. Last modification time

 11. Last file status change time

 12. Preferred I/O block size (-1 if not available)

 13. Number of blocks allocated (-1 if not available)

   Not all these elements are relevant on all systems.  If an element
is not relevant, it is returned as 0.

   If the STATUS argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a
nonzero error code upon return (`ENOSYS' if the system does not provide
`lstat(2)').

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note LStat
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: LStat Intrinsic (function),  Next: LTime Intrinsic,  Prev: LStat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.176 LStat Intrinsic (function)
.....................................


     LStat(FILE, SARRAY)

LStat: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

FILE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Obtains data about the given file FILE and places them in the array
SARRAY.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the name in
FILE--otherwise, trailing blanks in FILE are ignored.  If FILE is a
symbolic link it returns data on the link itself, so the routine is
available only on systems that support symbolic links.  The values in
this array are extracted from the `stat' structure as returned by
`fstat(2)' q.v., as follows:

  1. Device ID

  2. Inode number

  3. File mode

  4. Number of links

  5. Owner's uid

  6. Owner's gid

  7. ID of device containing directory entry for file (0 if not
     available)

  8. File size (bytes)

  9. Last access time

 10. Last modification time

 11. Last file status change time

 12. Preferred I/O block size (-1 if not available)

 13. Number of blocks allocated (-1 if not available)

   Not all these elements are relevant on all systems.  If an element
is not relevant, it is returned as 0.

   Returns 0 on success or a nonzero error code (`ENOSYS' if the system
does not provide `lstat(2)').

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note LStat
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: LTime Intrinsic,  Next: MatMul Intrinsic,  Prev: LStat Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.177 LTime Intrinsic
..........................


     CALL LTime(STIME, TARRAY)

STIME: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

TARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(9); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Given a system time value STIME, fills TARRAY with values extracted
from it appropriate to the GMT time zone using `localtime(3)'.

   The array elements are as follows:

  1. Seconds after the minute, range 0-59 or 0-61 to allow for leap
     seconds

  2. Minutes after the hour, range 0-59

  3. Hours past midnight, range 0-23

  4. Day of month, range 0-31

  5. Number of months since January, range 0-12

  6. Years since 1900

  7. Number of days since Sunday, range 0-6

  8. Days since January 1

  9. Daylight savings indicator: positive if daylight savings is in
     effect, zero if not, and negative if the information isn't
     available.

File: g77.info,  Node: MatMul Intrinsic,  Next: Max Intrinsic,  Prev: LTime Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.178 MatMul Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL MatMul' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Max Intrinsic,  Next: Max0 Intrinsic,  Prev: MatMul Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.179 Max Intrinsic
........................


     Max(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

Max: `INTEGER' or `REAL' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

A: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the argument with the largest value.

   *Note Min Intrinsic::, for the opposite function.

File: g77.info,  Node: Max0 Intrinsic,  Next: Max1 Intrinsic,  Prev: Max Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.180 Max0 Intrinsic
.........................


     Max0(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

Max0: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MAX()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Max Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Max1 Intrinsic,  Next: MaxExponent Intrinsic,  Prev: Max0 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.181 Max1 Intrinsic
.........................


     Max1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

Max1: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=1)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MAX()' that is specific to one type for A and a
different return type.  *Note Max Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: MaxExponent Intrinsic,  Next: MaxLoc Intrinsic,  Prev: Max1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.182 MaxExponent Intrinsic
................................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL MaxExponent' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: MaxLoc Intrinsic,  Next: MaxVal Intrinsic,  Prev: MaxExponent Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.183 MaxLoc Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL MaxLoc' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: MaxVal Intrinsic,  Next: MClock Intrinsic,  Prev: MaxLoc Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.184 MaxVal Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL MaxVal' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: MClock Intrinsic,  Next: MClock8 Intrinsic,  Prev: MaxVal Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.185 MClock Intrinsic
...........................


     MClock()

MClock: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the number of clock ticks since the start of the process.
Supported on systems with `clock(3)' (q.v.).

   This intrinsic is not fully portable, such as to systems with 32-bit
`INTEGER' types but supporting times wider than 32 bits.  Therefore,
the values returned by this intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or
numerically less than previous values, during a single run of the
compiled program.

   *Note MClock8 Intrinsic::, for information on a similar intrinsic
that might be portable to more GNU Fortran implementations, though to
fewer Fortran compilers.

   If the system does not support `clock(3)', -1 is returned.

File: g77.info,  Node: MClock8 Intrinsic,  Next: Merge Intrinsic,  Prev: MClock Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.186 MClock8 Intrinsic
............................


     MClock8()

MClock8: `INTEGER(KIND=2)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the number of clock ticks since the start of the process.
Supported on systems with `clock(3)' (q.v.).

   _Warning:_ this intrinsic does not increase the range of the timing
values over that returned by `clock(3)'.  On a system with a 32-bit
`clock(3)', `MCLOCK8' will return a 32-bit value, even though converted
to an `INTEGER(KIND=2)' value.  That means overflows of the 32-bit
value can still occur.  Therefore, the values returned by this intrinsic
might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than previous values,
during a single run of the compiled program.

   No Fortran implementations other than GNU Fortran are known to
support this intrinsic at the time of this writing.  *Note MClock
Intrinsic::, for information on a similar intrinsic that might be
portable to more Fortran compilers, though to fewer GNU Fortran
implementations.

   If the system does not support `clock(3)', -1 is returned.

File: g77.info,  Node: Merge Intrinsic,  Next: Min Intrinsic,  Prev: MClock8 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.187 Merge Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Merge' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Min Intrinsic,  Next: Min0 Intrinsic,  Prev: Merge Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.188 Min Intrinsic
........................


     Min(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

Min: `INTEGER' or `REAL' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

A: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the argument with the smallest value.

   *Note Max Intrinsic::, for the opposite function.

File: g77.info,  Node: Min0 Intrinsic,  Next: Min1 Intrinsic,  Prev: Min Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.189 Min0 Intrinsic
.........................


     Min0(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

Min0: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MIN()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Min Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Min1 Intrinsic,  Next: MinExponent Intrinsic,  Prev: Min0 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.190 Min1 Intrinsic
.........................


     Min1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)

Min1: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=1)'; at least two such arguments must be provided;
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `MIN()' that is specific to one type for A and a
different return type.  *Note Min Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: MinExponent Intrinsic,  Next: MinLoc Intrinsic,  Prev: Min1 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.191 MinExponent Intrinsic
................................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL MinExponent' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: MinLoc Intrinsic,  Next: MinVal Intrinsic,  Prev: MinExponent Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.192 MinLoc Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL MinLoc' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: MinVal Intrinsic,  Next: Mod Intrinsic,  Prev: MinLoc Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.193 MinVal Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL MinVal' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Mod Intrinsic,  Next: Modulo Intrinsic,  Prev: MinVal Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.194 Mod Intrinsic
........................


     Mod(A, P)

Mod: `INTEGER' or `REAL' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

A: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

P: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns remainder calculated as:

     A - (INT(A / P) * P)

   P must not be zero.

File: g77.info,  Node: Modulo Intrinsic,  Next: MvBits Intrinsic,  Prev: Mod Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.195 Modulo Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Modulo' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: MvBits Intrinsic,  Next: Nearest Intrinsic,  Prev: Modulo Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.196 MvBits Intrinsic
...........................


     CALL MvBits(FROM, FROMPOS, LEN, TO, TOPOS)

FROM: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

FROMPOS: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

LEN: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

TO: `INTEGER' with same `KIND=' value as for FROM; scalar;
INTENT(INOUT).

TOPOS: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Moves LEN bits from positions FROMPOS through `FROMPOS+LEN-1' of
FROM to positions TOPOS through `FROMPOS+LEN-1' of TO.  The portion of
argument TO not affected by the movement of bits is unchanged.
Arguments FROM and TO are permitted to be the same numeric storage
unit.  The values of `FROMPOS+LEN' and `TOPOS+LEN' must be less than or
equal to `BIT_SIZE(FROM)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Nearest Intrinsic,  Next: NInt Intrinsic,  Prev: MvBits Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.197 Nearest Intrinsic
............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Nearest' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: NInt Intrinsic,  Next: Not Intrinsic,  Prev: Nearest Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.198 NInt Intrinsic
.........................


     NInt(A)

NInt: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude eliminated by
rounding to the nearest whole number and with its sign preserved,
converted to type `INTEGER(KIND=1)'.

   If A is type `COMPLEX', its real part is rounded and converted.

   A fractional portion exactly equal to `.5' is rounded to the whole
number that is larger in magnitude.  (Also called "Fortran round".)

   *Note Int Intrinsic::, for how to convert, truncate to whole number.

   *Note ANInt Intrinsic::, for how to round to nearest whole number
without converting.

File: g77.info,  Node: Not Intrinsic,  Next: Or Intrinsic,  Prev: NInt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.199 Not Intrinsic
........................


     Not(I)

Not: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `mil', `f90', `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns value resulting from boolean NOT of each bit in I.

File: g77.info,  Node: Or Intrinsic,  Next: Pack Intrinsic,  Prev: Not Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.200 Or Intrinsic
.......................


     Or(I, J)

Or: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

I: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

J: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Returns value resulting from boolean OR of pair of bits in each of I
and J.

File: g77.info,  Node: Pack Intrinsic,  Next: PError Intrinsic,  Prev: Or Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.201 Pack Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Pack' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: PError Intrinsic,  Next: Precision Intrinsic,  Prev: Pack Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.202 PError Intrinsic
...........................


     CALL PError(STRING)

STRING: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Prints (on the C `stderr' stream) a newline-terminated error message
corresponding to the last system error.  This is prefixed by STRING, a
colon and a space.  See `perror(3)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Precision Intrinsic,  Next: Present Intrinsic,  Prev: PError Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.203 Precision Intrinsic
..............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Precision' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Present Intrinsic,  Next: Product Intrinsic,  Prev: Precision Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.204 Present Intrinsic
............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Present' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Product Intrinsic,  Next: Radix Intrinsic,  Prev: Present Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.205 Product Intrinsic
............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Product' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Radix Intrinsic,  Next: Rand Intrinsic,  Prev: Product Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.206 Radix Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Radix' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Rand Intrinsic,  Next: Random_Number Intrinsic,  Prev: Radix Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.207 Rand Intrinsic
.........................


     Rand(FLAG)

Rand: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

FLAG: `INTEGER'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns a uniform quasi-random number between 0 and 1.  If FLAG is
0, the next number in sequence is returned; if FLAG is 1, the generator
is restarted by calling `srand(0)'; if FLAG has any other value, it is
used as a new seed with `srand'.

   *Note SRand Intrinsic::.

   _Note:_ As typically implemented (by the routine of the same name in
the C library), this random number generator is a very poor one, though
the BSD and GNU libraries provide a much better implementation than the
`traditional' one.  On a different system you almost certainly want to
use something better.

File: g77.info,  Node: Random_Number Intrinsic,  Next: Random_Seed Intrinsic,  Prev: Rand Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.208 Random_Number Intrinsic
..................................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Random_Number' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Random_Seed Intrinsic,  Next: Range Intrinsic,  Prev: Random_Number Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.209 Random_Seed Intrinsic
................................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Random_Seed' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Range Intrinsic,  Next: Real Intrinsic,  Prev: Random_Seed Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.210 Range Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Range' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Real Intrinsic,  Next: RealPart Intrinsic,  Prev: Range Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.211 Real Intrinsic
.........................


     Real(A)

Real: `REAL' function.  The exact type is `REAL(KIND=1)' when argument
A is any type other than `COMPLEX', or when it is `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'.
When A is any `COMPLEX' type other than `COMPLEX(KIND=1)', this
intrinsic is valid only when used as the argument to `REAL()', as
explained below.

A: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Converts A to `REAL(KIND=1)'.

   Use of `REAL()' with a `COMPLEX' argument (other than
`COMPLEX(KIND=1)') is restricted to the following case:

     REAL(REAL(A))

This expression converts the real part of A to `REAL(KIND=1)'.

   *Note RealPart Intrinsic::, for information on a GNU Fortran
intrinsic that extracts the real part of an arbitrary `COMPLEX' value.

   *Note REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: RealPart Intrinsic,  Next: Rename Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Real Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.212 RealPart Intrinsic
.............................


     RealPart(Z)

RealPart: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument Z.

Z: `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `gnu'.

Description:

   The real part of Z is returned, without conversion.

   _Note:_ The way to do this in standard Fortran 90 is `REAL(Z)'.
However, when, for example, Z is `COMPLEX(KIND=2)', `REAL(Z)' means
something different for some compilers that are not true Fortran 90
compilers but offer some extensions standardized by Fortran 90 (such as
the `DOUBLE COMPLEX' type, also known as `COMPLEX(KIND=2)').

   The advantage of `REALPART()' is that, while not necessarily more or
less portable than `REAL()', it is more likely to cause a compiler that
doesn't support it to produce a diagnostic than generate incorrect code.

   *Note REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: Rename Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Repeat Intrinsic,  Prev: RealPart Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.213 Rename Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL Rename(PATH1, PATH2, STATUS)

PATH1: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

PATH2: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Renames the file PATH1 to PATH2.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks
the end of the names in PATH1 and PATH2--otherwise, trailing blanks in
PATH1 and PATH2 are ignored.  See `rename(2)'.  If the STATUS argument
is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a nonzero error code upon
return.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Rename
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Repeat Intrinsic,  Next: Reshape Intrinsic,  Prev: Rename Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.214 Repeat Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Repeat' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Reshape Intrinsic,  Next: RRSpacing Intrinsic,  Prev: Repeat Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.215 Reshape Intrinsic
............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Reshape' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: RRSpacing Intrinsic,  Next: RShift Intrinsic,  Prev: Reshape Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.216 RRSpacing Intrinsic
..............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL RRSpacing' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: RShift Intrinsic,  Next: Scale Intrinsic,  Prev: RRSpacing Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.217 RShift Intrinsic
...........................


     RShift(I, SHIFT)

RShift: `INTEGER' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument I.

I: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SHIFT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Returns I shifted to the right SHIFT bits.

   Although similar to the expression `I/(2**SHIFT)', there are
important differences.  For example, the sign of the result is
undefined.

   Currently this intrinsic is defined assuming the underlying
representation of I is as a two's-complement integer.  It is unclear at
this point whether that definition will apply when a different
representation is involved.

   *Note RShift Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

   *Note IShft Intrinsic::, for information on a more widely available
right-shifting intrinsic that is also more precisely defined.

File: g77.info,  Node: Scale Intrinsic,  Next: Scan Intrinsic,  Prev: RShift Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.218 Scale Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Scale' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Scan Intrinsic,  Next: Second Intrinsic (function),  Prev: Scale Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.219 Scan Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Scan' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Second Intrinsic (function),  Next: Second Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Scan Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.220 Second Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     Second()

Second: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the process's runtime in seconds--the same value as the UNIX
function `etime' returns.

   On some systems, the underlying timings are represented using types
with sufficiently small limits that overflows (wraparounds) are
possible, such as 32-bit types.  Therefore, the values returned by this
intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than
previous values, during a single run of the compiled program.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Second
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Second Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Selected_Int_Kind Intrinsic,  Prev: Second Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.221 Second Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL Second(SECONDS)

SECONDS: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the process's runtime in seconds in SECONDS--the same value
as the UNIX function `etime' returns.

   On some systems, the underlying timings are represented using types
with sufficiently small limits that overflows (wraparounds) are
possible, such as 32-bit types.  Therefore, the values returned by this
intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than
previous values, during a single run of the compiled program.

   This routine is known from Cray Fortran.  *Note CPU_Time Intrinsic::,
for a standard equivalent.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Second
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Selected_Int_Kind Intrinsic,  Next: Selected_Real_Kind Intrinsic,  Prev: Second Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.222 Selected_Int_Kind Intrinsic
......................................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Selected_Int_Kind' to use this name for
an external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Selected_Real_Kind Intrinsic,  Next: Set_Exponent Intrinsic,  Prev: Selected_Int_Kind Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.223 Selected_Real_Kind Intrinsic
.......................................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Selected_Real_Kind' to use this name
for an external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Set_Exponent Intrinsic,  Next: Shape Intrinsic,  Prev: Selected_Real_Kind Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.224 Set_Exponent Intrinsic
.................................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Set_Exponent' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Shape Intrinsic,  Next: Short Intrinsic,  Prev: Set_Exponent Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.225 Shape Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Shape' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Short Intrinsic,  Next: Sign Intrinsic,  Prev: Shape Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.226 Short Intrinsic
..........................


     Short(A)

Short: `INTEGER(KIND=6)' function.

A: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude truncated and
its sign preserved, converted to type `INTEGER(KIND=6)'.

   If A is type `COMPLEX', its real part is truncated and converted,
and its imaginary part is disregarded.

   *Note Int Intrinsic::.

   The precise meaning of this intrinsic might change in a future
version of the GNU Fortran language, as more is learned about how it is
used.

File: g77.info,  Node: Sign Intrinsic,  Next: Signal Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Short Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.227 Sign Intrinsic
.........................


     Sign(A, B)

Sign: `INTEGER' or `REAL' function, the exact type being the result of
cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

A: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

B: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns `ABS(A)*S', where S is +1 if `B.GE.0', -1 otherwise.

   *Note Abs Intrinsic::, for the function that returns the magnitude
of a value.

File: g77.info,  Node: Signal Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Sin Intrinsic,  Prev: Sign Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.228 Signal Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL Signal(NUMBER, HANDLER, STATUS)

NUMBER: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

HANDLER: Signal handler (`INTEGER FUNCTION' or `SUBROUTINE') or
dummy/global `INTEGER(KIND=1)' scalar.

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=7)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   If HANDLER is a an `EXTERNAL' routine, arranges for it to be invoked
with a single integer argument (of system-dependent length) when signal
NUMBER occurs.  If HANDLER is an integer, it can be used to turn off
handling of signal NUMBER or revert to its default action.  See
`signal(2)'.

   Note that HANDLER will be called using C conventions, so the value
of its argument in Fortran terms Fortran terms is obtained by applying
`%LOC()' (or `LOC()') to it.

   The value returned by `signal(2)' is written to STATUS, if that
argument is supplied.  Otherwise the return value is ignored.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   _Warning:_ Use of the `libf2c' run-time library function `signal_'
directly (such as via `EXTERNAL SIGNAL') requires use of the `%VAL()'
construct to pass an `INTEGER' value (such as `SIG_IGN' or `SIG_DFL')
for the HANDLER argument.

   However, while `CALL SIGNAL(SIGNUM, %VAL(SIG_IGN))' works when
`SIGNAL' is treated as an external procedure (and resolves, at link
time, to `libf2c''s `signal_' routine), this construct is not valid
when `SIGNAL' is recognized as the intrinsic of that name.

   Therefore, for maximum portability and reliability, code such
references to the `SIGNAL' facility as follows:

     INTRINSIC SIGNAL
     ...
     CALL SIGNAL(SIGNUM, SIG_IGN)

   `g77' will compile such a call correctly, while other compilers will
generally either do so as well or reject the `INTRINSIC SIGNAL'
statement via a diagnostic, allowing you to take appropriate action.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Signal
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Sin Intrinsic,  Next: SinH Intrinsic,  Prev: Signal Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.229 Sin Intrinsic
........................


     Sin(X)

Sin: `REAL' or `COMPLEX' function, the exact type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL' or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the sine of X, an angle measured in radians.

   *Note ASin Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

File: g77.info,  Node: SinH Intrinsic,  Next: Sleep Intrinsic,  Prev: Sin Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.230 SinH Intrinsic
.........................


     SinH(X)

SinH: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the hyperbolic sine of X.

File: g77.info,  Node: Sleep Intrinsic,  Next: Sngl Intrinsic,  Prev: SinH Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.231 Sleep Intrinsic
..........................


     CALL Sleep(SECONDS)

SECONDS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Causes the process to pause for SECONDS seconds.  See `sleep(2)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Sngl Intrinsic,  Next: Spacing Intrinsic,  Prev: Sleep Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.232 Sngl Intrinsic
.........................


     Sngl(A)

Sngl: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

A: `REAL(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Archaic form of `REAL()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Real Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Spacing Intrinsic,  Next: Spread Intrinsic,  Prev: Sngl Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.233 Spacing Intrinsic
............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Spacing' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Spread Intrinsic,  Next: SqRt Intrinsic,  Prev: Spacing Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.234 Spread Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Spread' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: SqRt Intrinsic,  Next: SRand Intrinsic,  Prev: Spread Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.235 SqRt Intrinsic
.........................


     SqRt(X)

SqRt: `REAL' or `COMPLEX' function, the exact type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL' or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the square root of X, which must not be negative.

   To calculate and represent the square root of a negative number,
complex arithmetic must be used.  For example, `SQRT(COMPLEX(X))'.

   The inverse of this function is `SQRT(X) * SQRT(X)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: SRand Intrinsic,  Next: Stat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: SqRt Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.236 SRand Intrinsic
..........................


     CALL SRand(SEED)

SEED: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Reinitializes the generator with the seed in SEED.  *Note IRand
Intrinsic::.  *Note Rand Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Stat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Stat Intrinsic (function),  Prev: SRand Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.237 Stat Intrinsic (subroutine)
......................................


     CALL Stat(FILE, SARRAY, STATUS)

FILE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Obtains data about the given file FILE and places them in the array
SARRAY.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the name in
FILE--otherwise, trailing blanks in FILE are ignored.  The values in
this array are extracted from the `stat' structure as returned by
`fstat(2)' q.v., as follows:

  1. Device ID

  2. Inode number

  3. File mode

  4. Number of links

  5. Owner's uid

  6. Owner's gid

  7. ID of device containing directory entry for file (0 if not
     available)

  8. File size (bytes)

  9. Last access time

 10. Last modification time

 11. Last file status change time

 12. Preferred I/O block size (-1 if not available)

 13. Number of blocks allocated (-1 if not available)

   Not all these elements are relevant on all systems.  If an element
is not relevant, it is returned as 0.

   If the STATUS argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a
nonzero error code upon return.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Stat
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Stat Intrinsic (function),  Next: Sum Intrinsic,  Prev: Stat Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.238 Stat Intrinsic (function)
....................................


     Stat(FILE, SARRAY)

Stat: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

FILE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SARRAY: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Obtains data about the given file FILE and places them in the array
SARRAY.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the name in
FILE--otherwise, trailing blanks in FILE are ignored.  The values in
this array are extracted from the `stat' structure as returned by
`fstat(2)' q.v., as follows:

  1. Device ID

  2. Inode number

  3. File mode

  4. Number of links

  5. Owner's uid

  6. Owner's gid

  7. ID of device containing directory entry for file (0 if not
     available)

  8. File size (bytes)

  9. Last access time

 10. Last modification time

 11. Last file status change time

 12. Preferred I/O block size (-1 if not available)

 13. Number of blocks allocated (-1 if not available)

   Not all these elements are relevant on all systems.  If an element
is not relevant, it is returned as 0.

   Returns 0 on success or a nonzero error code.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Stat
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Sum Intrinsic,  Next: SymLnk Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Stat Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.239 Sum Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Sum' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: SymLnk Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: System Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Sum Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.240 SymLnk Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL SymLnk(PATH1, PATH2, STATUS)

PATH1: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

PATH2: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Makes a symbolic link from file PATH1 to PATH2.  A null character
(`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the names in PATH1 and PATH2--otherwise,
trailing blanks in PATH1 and PATH2 are ignored.  If the STATUS argument
is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a nonzero error code upon
return (`ENOSYS' if the system does not provide `symlink(2)').

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note SymLnk
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: System Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: System_Clock Intrinsic,  Prev: SymLnk Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.241 System Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL System(COMMAND, STATUS)

COMMAND: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Passes the command COMMAND to a shell (see `system(3)').  If
argument STATUS is present, it contains the value returned by
`system(3)', presumably 0 if the shell command succeeded.  Note that
which shell is used to invoke the command is system-dependent and
environment-dependent.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note System
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: System_Clock Intrinsic,  Next: Tan Intrinsic,  Prev: System Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.242 System_Clock Intrinsic
.................................


     CALL System_Clock(COUNT, RATE, MAX)

COUNT: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

RATE: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

MAX: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `f90'.

Description:

   Returns in COUNT the current value of the system clock; this is the
value returned by the UNIX function `times(2)' in this implementation,
but isn't in general.  RATE is the number of clock ticks per second and
MAX is the maximum value this can take, which isn't very useful in this
implementation since it's just the maximum C `unsigned int' value.

   On some systems, the underlying timings are represented using types
with sufficiently small limits that overflows (wraparounds) are
possible, such as 32-bit types.  Therefore, the values returned by this
intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than
previous values, during a single run of the compiled program.

File: g77.info,  Node: Tan Intrinsic,  Next: TanH Intrinsic,  Prev: System_Clock Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.243 Tan Intrinsic
........................


     Tan(X)

Tan: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the tangent of X, an angle measured in radians.

   *Note ATan Intrinsic::, for the inverse of this function.

File: g77.info,  Node: TanH Intrinsic,  Next: Time Intrinsic (UNIX),  Prev: Tan Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.244 TanH Intrinsic
.........................


     TanH(X)

TanH: `REAL' function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of
argument X.

X: `REAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).

Description:

   Returns the hyperbolic tangent of X.

File: g77.info,  Node: Time Intrinsic (UNIX),  Next: Time8 Intrinsic,  Prev: TanH Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.245 Time Intrinsic (UNIX)
................................


     Time()

Time: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the current time encoded as an integer (in the manner of the
UNIX function `time(3)').  This value is suitable for passing to
`CTIME', `GMTIME', and `LTIME'.

   This intrinsic is not fully portable, such as to systems with 32-bit
`INTEGER' types but supporting times wider than 32 bits.  Therefore,
the values returned by this intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or
numerically less than previous values, during a single run of the
compiled program.

   *Note Time8 Intrinsic::, for information on a similar intrinsic that
might be portable to more GNU Fortran implementations, though to fewer
Fortran compilers.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Time
Intrinsic (VXT)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Time8 Intrinsic,  Next: Tiny Intrinsic,  Prev: Time Intrinsic (UNIX),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.246 Time8 Intrinsic
..........................


     Time8()

Time8: `INTEGER(KIND=2)' function.

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the current time encoded as a long integer (in the manner of
the UNIX function `time(3)').  This value is suitable for passing to
`CTIME', `GMTIME', and `LTIME'.

   _Warning:_ this intrinsic does not increase the range of the timing
values over that returned by `time(3)'.  On a system with a 32-bit
`time(3)', `TIME8' will return a 32-bit value, even though converted to
an `INTEGER(KIND=2)' value.  That means overflows of the 32-bit value
can still occur.  Therefore, the values returned by this intrinsic
might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than previous values,
during a single run of the compiled program.

   No Fortran implementations other than GNU Fortran are known to
support this intrinsic at the time of this writing.  *Note Time
Intrinsic (UNIX)::, for information on a similar intrinsic that might
be portable to more Fortran compilers, though to fewer GNU Fortran
implementations.

File: g77.info,  Node: Tiny Intrinsic,  Next: Transfer Intrinsic,  Prev: Time8 Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.247 Tiny Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Tiny' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Transfer Intrinsic,  Next: Transpose Intrinsic,  Prev: Tiny Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.248 Transfer Intrinsic
.............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Transfer' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Transpose Intrinsic,  Next: Trim Intrinsic,  Prev: Transfer Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.249 Transpose Intrinsic
..............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Transpose' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Trim Intrinsic,  Next: TtyNam Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: Transpose Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.250 Trim Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Trim' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: TtyNam Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: TtyNam Intrinsic (function),  Prev: Trim Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.251 TtyNam Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL TtyNam(UNIT, NAME)

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Sets NAME to the name of the terminal device open on logical unit
UNIT or to a blank string if UNIT is not connected to a terminal.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note TtyNam
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: TtyNam Intrinsic (function),  Next: UBound Intrinsic,  Prev: TtyNam Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.252 TtyNam Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     TtyNam(UNIT)

TtyNam: `CHARACTER*(*)' function.

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Returns the name of the terminal device open on logical unit UNIT or
a blank string if UNIT is not connected to a terminal.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note TtyNam
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: UBound Intrinsic,  Next: UMask Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: TtyNam Intrinsic (function),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.253 UBound Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL UBound' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: UMask Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Unlink Intrinsic (subroutine),  Prev: UBound Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.254 UMask Intrinsic (subroutine)
.......................................


     CALL UMask(MASK, OLD)

MASK: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

OLD: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Sets the file creation mask to MASK and returns the old value in
argument OLD if it is supplied.  See `umask(2)'.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note UMask
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Unlink Intrinsic (subroutine),  Next: Unpack Intrinsic,  Prev: UMask Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.255 Unlink Intrinsic (subroutine)
........................................


     CALL Unlink(FILE, STATUS)

FILE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

STATUS: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `unix'.

Description:

   Unlink the file FILE.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks the end of
the name in FILE--otherwise, trailing blanks in FILE are ignored.  If
the STATUS argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or a nonzero
error code upon return.  See `unlink(2)'.

   Some non-GNU implementations of Fortran provide this intrinsic as
only a function, not as a subroutine, or do not support the (optional)
STATUS argument.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Unlink
Intrinsic (function)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Unpack Intrinsic,  Next: Verify Intrinsic,  Prev: Unlink Intrinsic (subroutine),  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.256 Unpack Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Unpack' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Verify Intrinsic,  Next: XOr Intrinsic,  Prev: Unpack Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.257 Verify Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL Verify' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: XOr Intrinsic,  Next: ZAbs Intrinsic,  Prev: Verify Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.258 XOr Intrinsic
........................


     XOr(I, J)

XOr: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL' function, the exact type being the result
of cross-promoting the types of all the arguments.

I: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

J: `INTEGER' or `LOGICAL'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Returns value resulting from boolean exclusive-OR of pair of bits in
each of I and J.

File: g77.info,  Node: ZAbs Intrinsic,  Next: ZCos Intrinsic,  Prev: XOr Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.259 ZAbs Intrinsic
.........................


     ZAbs(A)

ZAbs: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `ABS()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Abs Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ZCos Intrinsic,  Next: ZExp Intrinsic,  Prev: ZAbs Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.260 ZCos Intrinsic
.........................


     ZCos(X)

ZCos: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `COS()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Cos Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ZExp Intrinsic,  Next: ZLog Intrinsic,  Prev: ZCos Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.261 ZExp Intrinsic
.........................


     ZExp(X)

ZExp: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `EXP()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Exp Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ZLog Intrinsic,  Next: ZSin Intrinsic,  Prev: ZExp Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.262 ZLog Intrinsic
.........................


     ZLog(X)

ZLog: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `LOG()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Log Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ZSin Intrinsic,  Next: ZSqRt Intrinsic,  Prev: ZLog Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.263 ZSin Intrinsic
.........................


     ZSin(X)

ZSin: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `SIN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Sin Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ZSqRt Intrinsic,  Prev: ZSin Intrinsic,  Up: Table of Intrinsic Functions

8.11.9.264 ZSqRt Intrinsic
..........................


     ZSqRt(X)

ZSqRt: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `SQRT()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
SqRt Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Scope and Classes of Names,  Next: I/O,  Prev: Functions and Subroutines,  Up: Language

8.12 Scope and Classes of Symbolic Names
========================================

(The following information augments or overrides the information in
Chapter 18 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran
language.  Chapter 18 of that document otherwise serves as the basis
for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)

* Menu:

* Underscores in Symbol Names::

File: g77.info,  Node: Underscores in Symbol Names,  Up: Scope and Classes of Names

8.12.1 Underscores in Symbol Names
----------------------------------

Underscores (`_') are accepted in symbol names after the first
character (which must be a letter).

File: g77.info,  Node: I/O,  Next: Fortran 90 Features,  Prev: Scope and Classes of Names,  Up: Language

8.13 I/O
========

A dollar sign at the end of an output format specification suppresses
the newline at the end of the output.

   Edit descriptors in `FORMAT' statements may contain compile-time
`INTEGER' constant expressions in angle brackets, such as
     10    FORMAT (I<WIDTH>)

   The `OPEN' specifier `NAME=' is equivalent to `FILE='.

   These Fortran 90 features are supported:
   * The `O' and `Z' edit descriptors are supported for I/O of integers
     in octal and hexadecimal formats, respectively.

   * The `FILE=' specifier may be omitted in an `OPEN' statement if
     `STATUS='SCRATCH'' is supplied.  The `STATUS='REPLACE'' specifier
     is supported.

File: g77.info,  Node: Fortran 90 Features,  Prev: I/O,  Up: Language

8.14 Fortran 90 Features
========================

For convenience this section collects a list (probably incomplete) of
the Fortran 90 features supported by the GNU Fortran language, even if
they are documented elsewhere.  *Note Characters, Lines, and Execution
Sequence: Characters Lines Sequence, for information on additional
fixed source form lexical issues.  Further, the free source form is
supported through the `-ffree-form' option.  Other Fortran 90 features
can be turned on by the `-ff90' option; see *note Fortran 90::.  For
information on the Fortran 90 intrinsics available, see *note Table of
Intrinsic Functions::.

Automatic arrays in procedures

Character assignments
     In character assignments, the variable being assigned may occur on
     the right hand side of the assignment.

Character strings
     Strings may have zero length and substrings of character constants
     are permitted.  Character constants may be enclosed in double
     quotes (`"') as well as single quotes.  *Note Character Type::.

Construct names
     (Symbolic tags on blocks.)  *Note Construct Names::.

`CYCLE' and `EXIT'
     *Note The `CYCLE' and `EXIT' Statements: CYCLE and EXIT.

`DOUBLE COMPLEX'
     *Note `DOUBLE COMPLEX' Statement: DOUBLE COMPLEX.

`DO WHILE'
     *Note DO WHILE::.

`END' decoration
     *Note Statements::.

`END DO'
     *Note END DO::.

`KIND'

`IMPLICIT NONE'

`INCLUDE' statements
     *Note INCLUDE::.

List-directed and namelist I/O on internal files

Binary, octal and hexadecimal constants
     These are supported more generally than required by Fortran 90.
     *Note Integer Type::.

`O' and `Z' edit descriptors

`NAMELIST'
     *Note NAMELIST::.

`OPEN' specifiers
     `STATUS='REPLACE'' is supported.  The `FILE=' specifier may be
     omitted in an `OPEN' statement if `STATUS='SCRATCH'' is supplied.

`FORMAT' edit descriptors
     The `Z' edit descriptor is supported.

Relational operators
     The operators `<', `<=', `==', `/=', `>' and `>=' may be used
     instead of `.LT.', `.LE.', `.EQ.', `.NE.', `.GT.' and `.GE.'
     respectively.

`SELECT CASE'
     Not fully implemented.  *Note `SELECT CASE' on `CHARACTER' Type:
     SELECT CASE on CHARACTER Type.

Specification statements
     A limited subset of the Fortran 90 syntax and semantics for
     variable declarations is supported, including `KIND'.  *Note Kind
     Notation::.  (`KIND' is of limited usefulness in the absence of the
     `KIND'-related intrinsics, since these intrinsics permit writing
     more widely portable code.)  An example of supported `KIND' usage
     is:
          INTEGER (KIND=1) :: FOO=1, BAR=2
          CHARACTER (LEN=3) FOO
     `PARAMETER' and `DIMENSION' attributes aren't supported.

File: g77.info,  Node: Compiler,  Next: Other Dialects,  Prev: Language,  Up: Top

10 The GNU Fortran Compiler
***************************

The GNU Fortran compiler, `g77', supports programs written in the GNU
Fortran language and in some other dialects of Fortran.

   Some aspects of how `g77' works are universal regardless of dialect,
and yet are not properly part of the GNU Fortran language itself.
These are described below.

   _Note: This portion of the documentation definitely needs a lot of
work!_

* Menu:

* Compiler Limits::
* Run-time Environment Limits::
* Compiler Types::
* Compiler Constants::
* Compiler Intrinsics::

File: g77.info,  Node: Compiler Limits,  Next: Run-time Environment Limits,  Up: Compiler

10.1 Compiler Limits
====================

`g77', as with GNU tools in general, imposes few arbitrary restrictions
on lengths of identifiers, number of continuation lines, number of
external symbols in a program, and so on.

   For example, some other Fortran compiler have an option (such as
`-NlX') to increase the limit on the number of continuation lines.
Also, some Fortran compilation systems have an option (such as `-NxX')
to increase the limit on the number of external symbols.

   `g77', `gcc', and GNU `ld' (the GNU linker) have no equivalent
options, since they do not impose arbitrary limits in these areas.

   `g77' does currently limit the number of dimensions in an array to
the same degree as do the Fortran standards--seven (7).  This
restriction might be lifted in a future version.

File: g77.info,  Node: Run-time Environment Limits,  Next: Compiler Types,  Prev: Compiler Limits,  Up: Compiler

10.2 Run-time Environment Limits
================================

As a portable Fortran implementation, `g77' offers its users direct
access to, and otherwise depends upon, the underlying facilities of the
system used to build `g77', the system on which `g77' itself is used to
compile programs, and the system on which the `g77'-compiled program is
actually run.  (For most users, the three systems are of the same
type--combination of operating environment and hardware--often the same
physical system.)

   The run-time environment for a particular system inevitably imposes
some limits on a program's use of various system facilities.  These
limits vary from system to system.

   Even when such limits might be well beyond the possibility of being
encountered on a particular system, the `g77' run-time environment has
certain built-in limits, usually, but not always, stemming from
intrinsics with inherently limited interfaces.

   Currently, the `g77' run-time environment does not generally offer a
less-limiting environment by augmenting the underlying system's own
environment.

   Therefore, code written in the GNU Fortran language, while
syntactically and semantically portable, might nevertheless make
non-portable assumptions about the run-time environment--assumptions
that prove to be false for some particular environments.

   The GNU Fortran language, the `g77' compiler and run-time
environment, and the `g77' documentation do not yet offer comprehensive
portable work-arounds for such limits, though programmers should be
able to find their own in specific instances.

   Not all of the limitations are described in this document.  Some of
the known limitations include:

* Menu:

* Timer Wraparounds::
* Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems::
* Array Size::
* Character-variable Length::
* Year 10000 (Y10K) Problems::

File: g77.info,  Node: Timer Wraparounds,  Next: Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems,  Up: Run-time Environment Limits

10.2.1 Timer Wraparounds
------------------------

Intrinsics that return values computed from system timers, whether
elapsed (wall-clock) timers, process CPU timers, or other kinds of
timers, are prone to experiencing wrap-around errors (or returning
wrapped-around values from successive calls) due to insufficient ranges
offered by the underlying system's timers.

   Some of the symptoms of such behaviors include apparently negative
time being computed for a duration, an extremely short amount of time
being computed for a long duration, and an extremely long amount of
time being computed for a short duration.

   See the following for intrinsics known to have potential problems in
these areas on at least some systems: *note CPU_Time Intrinsic::, *note
DTime Intrinsic (function)::, *note DTime Intrinsic (subroutine)::,
*note ETime Intrinsic (function)::, *note ETime Intrinsic
(subroutine)::, *note MClock Intrinsic::, *note MClock8 Intrinsic::,
*note Secnds Intrinsic::, *note Second Intrinsic (function)::, *note
Second Intrinsic (subroutine)::, *note System_Clock Intrinsic::, *note
Time Intrinsic (UNIX)::, *note Time Intrinsic (VXT)::, *note Time8
Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems,  Next: Array Size,  Prev: Timer Wraparounds,  Up: Run-time Environment Limits

10.2.2 Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems
-------------------------------

While the `g77' compiler itself is believed to be Year-2000 (Y2K)
compliant, some intrinsics are not, and, potentially, some underlying
systems are not, perhaps rendering some Y2K-compliant intrinsics
non-compliant when used on those particular systems.

   Fortran code that uses non-Y2K-compliant intrinsics (listed below)
is, itself, almost certainly not compliant, and should be modified to
use Y2K-compliant intrinsics instead.

   Fortran code that uses no non-Y2K-compliant intrinsics, but which
currently is running on a non-Y2K-compliant system, can be made more
Y2K compliant by compiling and linking it for use on a new
Y2K-compliant system, such as a new version of an old,
non-Y2K-compliant, system.

   Currently, information on Y2K and related issues is being maintained
at `http://www.gnu.org/software/year2000-list.html'.

   See the following for intrinsics known to have potential problems in
these areas on at least some systems: *note Date Intrinsic::, *note
IDate Intrinsic (VXT)::.

   The `libg2c' library shipped with any `g77' that warns about
invocation of a non-Y2K-compliant intrinsic has renamed the `EXTERNAL'
procedure names of those intrinsics.  This is done so that the `libg2c'
implementations of these intrinsics cannot be directly linked to as
`EXTERNAL' names (which normally would avoid the non-Y2K-intrinsic
warning).

   The renamed forms of the `EXTERNAL' names of these renamed procedures
may be linked to by appending the string `_y2kbug' to the name of the
procedure in the source code.  For example:

     CHARACTER*20 STR
     INTEGER YY, MM, DD
     EXTERNAL DATE_Y2KBUG, VXTIDATE_Y2KBUG
     CALL DATE_Y2KBUG (STR)
     CALL VXTIDATE_Y2KBUG (MM, DD, YY)

   (Note that the `EXTERNAL' statement is not actually required, since
the modified names are not recognized as intrinsics by the current
version of `g77'.  But it is shown in this specific case, for purposes
of illustration.)

   The renaming of `EXTERNAL' procedure names of these intrinsics
causes unresolved references at link time.  For example, `EXTERNAL
DATE; CALL DATE(STR)' is normally compiled by `g77' as, in C,
`date_(&str, 20);'.  This, in turn, links to the `date_' procedure in
the `libE77' portion of `libg2c', which purposely calls a nonexistent
procedure named `G77_date_y2kbuggy_0'.  The resulting link-time error
is designed, via this name, to encourage the programmer to look up the
index entries to this portion of the `g77' documentation.

   Generally, we recommend that the `EXTERNAL' method of invoking
procedures in `libg2c' _not_ be used.  When used, some of the
correctness checking normally performed by `g77' is skipped.

   In particular, it is probably better to use the `INTRINSIC' method
of invoking non-Y2K-compliant procedures, so anyone compiling the code
can quickly notice the potential Y2K problems (via the warnings
printing by `g77') without having to even look at the code itself.

   If there are problems linking `libg2c' to code compiled by `g77'
that involve the string `y2kbug', and these are not explained above,
that probably indicates that a version of `libg2c' older than `g77' is
being linked to, or that the new library is being linked to code
compiled by an older version of `g77'.

   That's because, as of the version that warns about non-Y2K-compliant
intrinsic invocation, `g77' references the `libg2c' implementations of
those intrinsics using new names, containing the string `y2kbug'.

   So, linking newly-compiled code (invoking one of the intrinsics in
question) to an old library might yield an unresolved reference to
`G77_date_y2kbug_0'.  (The old library calls it `G77_date_0'.)

   Similarly, linking previously-compiled code to a new library might
yield an unresolved reference to `G77_vxtidate_0'.  (The new library
calls it `G77_vxtidate_y2kbug_0'.)

   The proper fix for the above problems is to obtain the latest
release of `g77' and related products (including `libg2c') and install
them on all systems, then recompile, relink, and install (as
appropriate) all existing Fortran programs.

   (Normally, this sort of renaming is steadfastly avoided.  In this
case, however, it seems more important to highlight potential Y2K
problems than to ease the transition of potentially non-Y2K-compliant
code to new versions of `g77' and `libg2c'.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Array Size,  Next: Character-variable Length,  Prev: Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems,  Up: Run-time Environment Limits

10.2.3 Array Size
-----------------

Currently, `g77' uses the default `INTEGER' type for array indexes,
which limits the sizes of single-dimension arrays on systems offering a
larger address space than can be addressed by that type.  (That `g77'
puts all arrays in memory could be considered another limitation--it
could use large temporary files--but that decision is left to the
programmer as an implementation choice by most Fortran implementations.)

   It is not yet clear whether this limitation never, sometimes, or
always applies to the sizes of multiple-dimension arrays as a whole.

   For example, on a system with 64-bit addresses and 32-bit default
`INTEGER', an array with a size greater than can be addressed by a
32-bit offset can be declared using multiple dimensions.  Such an array
is therefore larger than a single-dimension array can be, on the same
system.

   Whether large multiple-dimension arrays are reliably supported
depends mostly on the `gcc' back end (code generator) used by `g77',
and has not yet been fully investigated.

File: g77.info,  Node: Character-variable Length,  Next: Year 10000 (Y10K) Problems,  Prev: Array Size,  Up: Run-time Environment Limits

10.2.4 Character-variable Length
--------------------------------

Currently, `g77' uses the default `INTEGER' type for the lengths of
`CHARACTER' variables and array elements.

   This means that, for example, a system with a 64-bit address space
and a 32-bit default `INTEGER' type does not, under `g77', support a
`CHARACTER*N' declaration where N is greater than 2147483647.

File: g77.info,  Node: Year 10000 (Y10K) Problems,  Prev: Character-variable Length,  Up: Run-time Environment Limits

10.2.5 Year 10000 (Y10K) Problems
---------------------------------

Most intrinsics returning, or computing values based on, date
information are prone to Year-10000 (Y10K) problems, due to supporting
only 4 digits for the year.

   See the following for examples: *note FDate Intrinsic (function)::,
*note FDate Intrinsic (subroutine)::, *note IDate Intrinsic (UNIX)::,
*note Time Intrinsic (VXT)::, *note Date_and_Time Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Compiler Types,  Next: Compiler Constants,  Prev: Run-time Environment Limits,  Up: Compiler

10.3 Compiler Types
===================

Fortran implementations have a fair amount of freedom given them by the
standard as far as how much storage space is used and how much precision
and range is offered by the various types such as `LOGICAL(KIND=1)',
`INTEGER(KIND=1)', `REAL(KIND=1)', `REAL(KIND=2)', `COMPLEX(KIND=1)',
and `CHARACTER'.  Further, many compilers offer so-called `*N'
notation, but the interpretation of N varies across compilers and
target architectures.

   The standard requires that `LOGICAL(KIND=1)', `INTEGER(KIND=1)', and
`REAL(KIND=1)' occupy the same amount of storage space, and that
`COMPLEX(KIND=1)' and `REAL(KIND=2)' take twice as much storage space
as `REAL(KIND=1)'.  Further, it requires that `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'
entities be ordered such that when a `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' variable is
storage-associated (such as via `EQUIVALENCE') with a two-element
`REAL(KIND=1)' array named `R', `R(1)' corresponds to the real element
and `R(2)' to the imaginary element of the `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' variable.

   (Few requirements as to precision or ranges of any of these are
placed on the implementation, nor is the relationship of storage sizes
of these types to the `CHARACTER' type specified, by the standard.)

   `g77' follows the above requirements, warning when compiling a
program requires placement of items in memory that contradict the
requirements of the target architecture.  (For example, a program can
require placement of a `REAL(KIND=2)' on a boundary that is not an even
multiple of its size, but still an even multiple of the size of a
`REAL(KIND=1)' variable.  On some target architectures, using the
canonical mapping of Fortran types to underlying architectural types,
such placement is prohibited by the machine definition or the
Application Binary Interface (ABI) in force for the configuration
defined for building `gcc' and `g77'.  `g77' warns about such
situations when it encounters them.)

   `g77' follows consistent rules for configuring the mapping between
Fortran types, including the `*N' notation, and the underlying
architectural types as accessed by a similarly-configured applicable
version of the `gcc' compiler.  These rules offer a widely portable,
consistent Fortran/C environment, although they might well conflict
with the expectations of users of Fortran compilers designed and
written for particular architectures.

   These rules are based on the configuration that is in force for the
version of `gcc' built in the same release as `g77' (and which was
therefore used to build both the `g77' compiler components and the
`libg2c' run-time library):

`REAL(KIND=1)'
     Same as `float' type.

`REAL(KIND=2)'
     Same as whatever floating-point type that is twice the size of a
     `float'--usually, this is a `double'.

`INTEGER(KIND=1)'
     Same as an integral type that is occupies the same amount of
     memory storage as `float'--usually, this is either an `int' or a
     `long int'.

`LOGICAL(KIND=1)'
     Same `gcc' type as `INTEGER(KIND=1)'.

`INTEGER(KIND=2)'
     Twice the size, and usually nearly twice the range, as
     `INTEGER(KIND=1)'--usually, this is either a `long int' or a `long
     long int'.

`LOGICAL(KIND=2)'
     Same `gcc' type as `INTEGER(KIND=2)'.

`INTEGER(KIND=3)'
     Same `gcc' type as signed `char'.

`LOGICAL(KIND=3)'
     Same `gcc' type as `INTEGER(KIND=3)'.

`INTEGER(KIND=6)'
     Twice the size, and usually nearly twice the range, as
     `INTEGER(KIND=3)'--usually, this is a `short'.

`LOGICAL(KIND=6)'
     Same `gcc' type as `INTEGER(KIND=6)'.

`COMPLEX(KIND=1)'
     Two `REAL(KIND=1)' scalars (one for the real part followed by one
     for the imaginary part).

`COMPLEX(KIND=2)'
     Two `REAL(KIND=2)' scalars.

`NUMERIC-TYPE*N'
     (Where NUMERIC-TYPE is any type other than `CHARACTER'.)  Same as
     whatever `gcc' type occupies N times the storage space of a `gcc'
     `char' item.

`DOUBLE PRECISION'
     Same as `REAL(KIND=2)'.

`DOUBLE COMPLEX'
     Same as `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'.

   Note that the above are proposed correspondences and might change in
future versions of `g77'--avoid writing code depending on them.

   Other types supported by `g77' are derived from gcc types such as
`char', `short', `int', `long int', `long long int', `long double', and
so on.  That is, whatever types `gcc' already supports, `g77' supports
now or probably will support in a future version.  The rules for the
`NUMERIC-TYPE*N' notation apply to these types, and new values for
`NUMERIC-TYPE(KIND=N)' will be assigned in a way that encourages
clarity, consistency, and portability.

File: g77.info,  Node: Compiler Constants,  Next: Compiler Intrinsics,  Prev: Compiler Types,  Up: Compiler

10.4 Compiler Constants
=======================

`g77' strictly assigns types to _all_ constants not documented as
"typeless" (typeless constants including `'1'Z', for example).  Many
other Fortran compilers attempt to assign types to typed constants
based on their context.  This results in hard-to-find bugs, nonportable
code, and is not in the spirit (though it strictly follows the letter)
of the 77 and 90 standards.

   `g77' might offer, in a future release, explicit constructs by which
a wider variety of typeless constants may be specified, and/or
user-requested warnings indicating places where `g77' might differ from
how other compilers assign types to constants.

   *Note Context-Sensitive Constants::, for more information on this
issue.

File: g77.info,  Node: Compiler Intrinsics,  Prev: Compiler Constants,  Up: Compiler

10.5 Compiler Intrinsics
========================

`g77' offers an ever-widening set of intrinsics.  Currently these all
are procedures (functions and subroutines).

   Some of these intrinsics are unimplemented, but their names reserved
to reduce future problems with existing code as they are implemented.
Others are implemented as part of the GNU Fortran language, while yet
others are provided for compatibility with other dialects of Fortran
but are not part of the GNU Fortran language.

   To manage these distinctions, `g77' provides intrinsic _groups_, a
facility that is simply an extension of the intrinsic groups provided
by the GNU Fortran language.

* Menu:

* Intrinsic Groups::  How intrinsics are grouped for easy management.
* Other Intrinsics::  Intrinsics other than those in the GNU
                       Fortran language.

File: g77.info,  Node: Intrinsic Groups,  Next: Other Intrinsics,  Up: Compiler Intrinsics

10.5.1 Intrinsic Groups
-----------------------

A given specific intrinsic belongs in one or more groups.  Each group
is deleted, disabled, hidden, or enabled by default or a command-line
option.  The meaning of each term follows.

Deleted
     No intrinsics are recognized as belonging to that group.

Disabled
     Intrinsics are recognized as belonging to the group, but
     references to them (other than via the `INTRINSIC' statement) are
     disallowed through that group.

Hidden
     Intrinsics in that group are recognized and enabled (if
     implemented) _only_ if the first mention of the actual name of an
     intrinsic in a program unit is in an `INTRINSIC' statement.

Enabled
     Intrinsics in that group are recognized and enabled (if
     implemented).

   The distinction between deleting and disabling a group is illustrated
by the following example.  Assume intrinsic `FOO' belongs only to group
`FGR'.  If group `FGR' is deleted, the following program unit will
successfully compile, because `FOO()' will be seen as a reference to an
external function named `FOO':

     PRINT *, FOO()
     END

If group `FGR' is disabled, compiling the above program will produce
diagnostics, either because the `FOO' intrinsic is improperly invoked
or, if properly invoked, it is not enabled.  To change the above
program so it references an external function `FOO' instead of the
disabled `FOO' intrinsic, add the following line to the top:

     EXTERNAL FOO

So, deleting a group tells `g77' to pretend as though the intrinsics in
that group do not exist at all, whereas disabling it tells `g77' to
recognize them as (disabled) intrinsics in intrinsic-like contexts.

   Hiding a group is like enabling it, but the intrinsic must be first
named in an `INTRINSIC' statement to be considered a reference to the
intrinsic rather than to an external procedure.  This might be the
"safest" way to treat a new group of intrinsics when compiling old
code, because it allows the old code to be generally written as if
those new intrinsics never existed, but to be changed to use them by
inserting `INTRINSIC' statements in the appropriate places.  However,
it should be the goal of development to use `EXTERNAL' for all names of
external procedures that might be intrinsic names.

   If an intrinsic is in more than one group, it is enabled if any of
its containing groups are enabled; if not so enabled, it is hidden if
any of its containing groups are hidden; if not so hidden, it is
disabled if any of its containing groups are disabled; if not so
disabled, it is deleted.  This extra complication is necessary because
some intrinsics, such as `IBITS', belong to more than one group, and
hence should be enabled if any of the groups to which they belong are
enabled, and so on.

   The groups are:

`badu77'
     UNIX intrinsics having inappropriate forms (usually functions that
     have intended side effects).

`gnu'
     Intrinsics the GNU Fortran language supports that are extensions to
     the Fortran standards (77 and 90).

`f2c'
     Intrinsics supported by AT&T's `f2c' converter and/or `libf2c'.

`f90'
     Fortran 90 intrinsics.

`mil'
     MIL-STD 1753 intrinsics (`MVBITS', `IAND', `BTEST', and so on).

`unix'
     UNIX intrinsics (`IARGC', `EXIT', `ERF', and so on).

`vxt'
     VAX/VMS FORTRAN (current as of v4) intrinsics.

File: g77.info,  Node: Other Intrinsics,  Prev: Intrinsic Groups,  Up: Compiler Intrinsics

10.5.2 Other Intrinsics
-----------------------

`g77' supports intrinsics other than those in the GNU Fortran language
proper.  This set of intrinsics is described below.

   (Note that the empty lines appearing in the menu below are not
intentional--they result from a bug in the `makeinfo' program.)

* Menu:


* ACosD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* AIMax0 Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* AIMin0 Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* AJMax0 Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* AJMin0 Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* ASinD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* ATan2D Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* ATanD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* BITest Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* BJTest Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* CDAbs Intrinsic::     Absolute value (archaic).
* CDCos Intrinsic::     Cosine (archaic).
* CDExp Intrinsic::     Exponential (archaic).
* CDLog Intrinsic::     Natural logarithm (archaic).
* CDSin Intrinsic::     Sine (archaic).
* CDSqRt Intrinsic::    Square root (archaic).

* ChDir Intrinsic (function):: Change directory.

* ChMod Intrinsic (function):: Change file modes.

* CosD Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* DACosD Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* DASinD Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* DATan2D Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* DATanD Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* Date Intrinsic::      Get current date as dd-Mon-yy.

* DbleQ Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* DCmplx Intrinsic::    Construct `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' value.
* DConjg Intrinsic::    Complex conjugate (archaic).

* DCosD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* DFloat Intrinsic::    Conversion (archaic).

* DFlotI Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* DFlotJ Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* DImag Intrinsic::     Convert/extract imaginary part of complex (archaic).

* DReal Intrinsic::     Convert value to type `REAL(KIND=2)'.

* DSinD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* DTanD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* DTime Intrinsic (function):: Get elapsed time since last time.

* FGet Intrinsic (function):: Read a character from unit 5 stream-wise.

* FGetC Intrinsic (function):: Read a character stream-wise.

* FloatI Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* FloatJ Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* FPut Intrinsic (function):: Write a character to unit 6 stream-wise.

* FPutC Intrinsic (function):: Write a character stream-wise.

* IDate Intrinsic (VXT):: Get local time info (VAX/VMS).

* IIAbs Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IIAnd Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IIBClr Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* IIBits Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* IIBSet Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* IIDiM Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IIDInt Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* IIDNnt Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* IIEOr Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IIFix Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IInt Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* IIOr Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* IIQint Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* IIQNnt Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* IIShftC Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* IISign Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)

* IMax0 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IMax1 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IMin0 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IMin1 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* IMod Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* INInt Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* INot Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* IZExt Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JIAbs Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JIAnd Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JIBClr Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JIBits Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JIBSet Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JIDiM Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JIDInt Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JIDNnt Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JIEOr Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JIFix Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JInt Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* JIOr Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* JIQint Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JIQNnt Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JIShft Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JIShftC Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* JISign Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* JMax0 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JMax1 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JMin0 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JMin1 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JMod Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* JNInt Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* JNot Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* JZExt Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* Kill Intrinsic (function):: Signal a process.

* Link Intrinsic (function):: Make hard link in file system.

* QAbs Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QACos Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QACosD Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* QASin Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QASinD Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* QATan Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QATan2 Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* QATan2D Intrinsic::   (Reserved for future use.)
* QATanD Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* QCos Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QCosD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QCosH Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QDiM Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QExp Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QExt Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QExtD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QFloat Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* QInt Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QLog Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QLog10 Intrinsic::    (Reserved for future use.)
* QMax1 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QMin1 Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QMod Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QNInt Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QSin Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QSinD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QSinH Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QSqRt Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QTan Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)
* QTanD Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)
* QTanH Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* Rename Intrinsic (function):: Rename file.

* Secnds Intrinsic::    Get local time offset since midnight.

* Signal Intrinsic (function):: Muck with signal handling.

* SinD Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* SnglQ Intrinsic::     (Reserved for future use.)

* SymLnk Intrinsic (function):: Make symbolic link in file system.

* System Intrinsic (function):: Invoke shell (system) command.

* TanD Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

* Time Intrinsic (VXT):: Get the time as a character value.

* UMask Intrinsic (function):: Set file creation permissions mask.

* Unlink Intrinsic (function):: Unlink file.

* ZExt Intrinsic::      (Reserved for future use.)

File: g77.info,  Node: ACosD Intrinsic,  Next: AIMax0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.1 ACosD Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL ACosD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: AIMax0 Intrinsic,  Next: AIMin0 Intrinsic,  Prev: ACosD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.2 AIMax0 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL AIMax0' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: AIMin0 Intrinsic,  Next: AJMax0 Intrinsic,  Prev: AIMax0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.3 AIMin0 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL AIMin0' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: AJMax0 Intrinsic,  Next: AJMin0 Intrinsic,  Prev: AIMin0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.4 AJMax0 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL AJMax0' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: AJMin0 Intrinsic,  Next: ASinD Intrinsic,  Prev: AJMax0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.5 AJMin0 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL AJMin0' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: ASinD Intrinsic,  Next: ATan2D Intrinsic,  Prev: AJMin0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.6 ASinD Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL ASinD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: ATan2D Intrinsic,  Next: ATanD Intrinsic,  Prev: ASinD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.7 ATan2D Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL ATan2D' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: ATanD Intrinsic,  Next: BITest Intrinsic,  Prev: ATan2D Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.8 ATanD Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL ATanD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: BITest Intrinsic,  Next: BJTest Intrinsic,  Prev: ATanD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.9 BITest Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL BITest' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: BJTest Intrinsic,  Next: CDAbs Intrinsic,  Prev: BITest Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.10 BJTest Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL BJTest' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: CDAbs Intrinsic,  Next: CDCos Intrinsic,  Prev: BJTest Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.11 CDAbs Intrinsic
.........................


     CDAbs(A)

CDAbs: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `ABS()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Abs Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CDCos Intrinsic,  Next: CDExp Intrinsic,  Prev: CDAbs Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.12 CDCos Intrinsic
.........................


     CDCos(X)

CDCos: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `COS()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Cos Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CDExp Intrinsic,  Next: CDLog Intrinsic,  Prev: CDCos Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.13 CDExp Intrinsic
.........................


     CDExp(X)

CDExp: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `EXP()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Exp Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CDLog Intrinsic,  Next: CDSin Intrinsic,  Prev: CDExp Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.14 CDLog Intrinsic
.........................


     CDLog(X)

CDLog: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `LOG()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Log Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CDSin Intrinsic,  Next: CDSqRt Intrinsic,  Prev: CDLog Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.15 CDSin Intrinsic
.........................


     CDSin(X)

CDSin: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `SIN()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
Sin Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CDSqRt Intrinsic,  Next: ChDir Intrinsic (function),  Prev: CDSin Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.16 CDSqRt Intrinsic
..........................


     CDSqRt(X)

CDSqRt: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `SQRT()' that is specific to one type for X.  *Note
SqRt Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ChDir Intrinsic (function),  Next: ChMod Intrinsic (function),  Prev: CDSqRt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.17 ChDir Intrinsic (function)
....................................


     ChDir(DIR)

ChDir: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

DIR: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Sets the current working directory to be DIR.  Returns 0 on success
or a nonzero error code.  See `chdir(3)'.

   _Caution:_ Using this routine during I/O to a unit connected with a
non-absolute file name can cause subsequent I/O on such a unit to fail
because the I/O library might reopen files by name.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note ChDir
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ChMod Intrinsic (function),  Next: CosD Intrinsic,  Prev: ChDir Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.18 ChMod Intrinsic (function)
....................................


     ChMod(NAME, MODE)

ChMod: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

NAME: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

MODE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Changes the access mode of file NAME according to the specification
MODE, which is given in the format of `chmod(1)'.  A null character
(`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the name in NAME--otherwise, trailing
blanks in NAME are ignored.  Currently, NAME must not contain the
single quote character.

   Returns 0 on success or a nonzero error code otherwise.

   Note that this currently works by actually invoking `/bin/chmod' (or
the `chmod' found when the library was configured) and so might fail in
some circumstances and will, anyway, be slow.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note ChMod
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: CosD Intrinsic,  Next: DACosD Intrinsic,  Prev: ChMod Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.19 CosD Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL CosD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DACosD Intrinsic,  Next: DASinD Intrinsic,  Prev: CosD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.20 DACosD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DACosD' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DASinD Intrinsic,  Next: DATan2D Intrinsic,  Prev: DACosD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.21 DASinD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DASinD' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DATan2D Intrinsic,  Next: DATanD Intrinsic,  Prev: DASinD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.22 DATan2D Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DATan2D' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DATanD Intrinsic,  Next: Date Intrinsic,  Prev: DATan2D Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.23 DATanD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DATanD' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Date Intrinsic,  Next: DbleQ Intrinsic,  Prev: DATanD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.24 Date Intrinsic
........................


     CALL Date(DATE)

DATE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns DATE in the form `DD-MMM-YY', representing the numeric day
of the month DD, a three-character abbreviation of the month name MMM
and the last two digits of the year YY, e.g. `25-Nov-96'.

   This intrinsic is not recommended, due to the year 2000 approaching.
Therefore, programs making use of this intrinsic might not be Year 2000
(Y2K) compliant.  *Note CTime Intrinsic (subroutine)::, for information
on obtaining more digits for the current (or any) date.

File: g77.info,  Node: DbleQ Intrinsic,  Next: DCmplx Intrinsic,  Prev: Date Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.25 DbleQ Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DbleQ' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DCmplx Intrinsic,  Next: DConjg Intrinsic,  Prev: DbleQ Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.26 DCmplx Intrinsic
..........................


     DCmplx(X, Y)

DCmplx: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

X: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Y: `INTEGER' or `REAL'; OPTIONAL (must be omitted if X is `COMPLEX');
scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   If X is not type `COMPLEX', constructs a value of type
`COMPLEX(KIND=2)' from the real and imaginary values specified by X and
Y, respectively.  If Y is omitted, `0D0' is assumed.

   If X is type `COMPLEX', converts it to type `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'.

   Although this intrinsic is not standard Fortran, it is a popular
extension offered by many compilers that support `DOUBLE COMPLEX',
since it offers the easiest way to convert to `DOUBLE COMPLEX' without
using Fortran 90 features (such as the `KIND=' argument to the
`CMPLX()' intrinsic).

   (`CMPLX(0D0, 0D0)' returns a single-precision `COMPLEX' result, as
required by standard FORTRAN 77.  That's why so many compilers provide
`DCMPLX()', since `DCMPLX(0D0, 0D0)' returns a `DOUBLE COMPLEX' result.
Still, `DCMPLX()' converts even `REAL*16' arguments to their `REAL*8'
equivalents in most dialects of Fortran, so neither it nor `CMPLX()'
allow easy construction of arbitrary-precision values without
potentially forcing a conversion involving extending or reducing
precision.  GNU Fortran provides such an intrinsic, called `COMPLEX()'.)

   *Note Complex Intrinsic::, for information on easily constructing a
`COMPLEX' value of arbitrary precision from `REAL' arguments.

File: g77.info,  Node: DConjg Intrinsic,  Next: DCosD Intrinsic,  Prev: DCmplx Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.27 DConjg Intrinsic
..........................


     DConjg(Z)

DConjg: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' function.

Z: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `CONJG()' that is specific to one type for Z.  *Note
Conjg Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DCosD Intrinsic,  Next: DFloat Intrinsic,  Prev: DConjg Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.28 DCosD Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DCosD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DFloat Intrinsic,  Next: DFlotI Intrinsic,  Prev: DCosD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.29 DFloat Intrinsic
..........................


     DFloat(A)

DFloat: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `REAL()' that is specific to one type for A.  *Note
Real Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DFlotI Intrinsic,  Next: DFlotJ Intrinsic,  Prev: DFloat Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.30 DFlotI Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DFlotI' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DFlotJ Intrinsic,  Next: DImag Intrinsic,  Prev: DFlotI Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.31 DFlotJ Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DFlotJ' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DImag Intrinsic,  Next: DReal Intrinsic,  Prev: DFlotJ Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.32 DImag Intrinsic
.........................


     DImag(Z)

DImag: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

Z: `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `f2c', `vxt'.

Description:

   Archaic form of `AIMAG()' that is specific to one type for Z.  *Note
AImag Intrinsic::.

File: g77.info,  Node: DReal Intrinsic,  Next: DSinD Intrinsic,  Prev: DImag Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.33 DReal Intrinsic
.........................


     DReal(A)

DReal: `REAL(KIND=2)' function.

A: `INTEGER', `REAL', or `COMPLEX'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `vxt'.

Description:

   Converts A to `REAL(KIND=2)'.

   If A is type `COMPLEX', its real part is converted (if necessary) to
`REAL(KIND=2)', and its imaginary part is disregarded.

   Although this intrinsic is not standard Fortran, it is a popular
extension offered by many compilers that support `DOUBLE COMPLEX',
since it offers the easiest way to extract the real part of a `DOUBLE
COMPLEX' value without using the Fortran 90 `REAL()' intrinsic in a way
that produces a return value inconsistent with the way many FORTRAN 77
compilers handle `REAL()' of a `DOUBLE COMPLEX' value.

   *Note RealPart Intrinsic::, for information on a GNU Fortran
intrinsic that avoids these areas of confusion.

   *Note Dble Intrinsic::, for information on the standard FORTRAN 77
replacement for `DREAL()'.

   *Note REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex::, for more information on this
issue.

File: g77.info,  Node: DSinD Intrinsic,  Next: DTanD Intrinsic,  Prev: DReal Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.34 DSinD Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DSinD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DTanD Intrinsic,  Next: DTime Intrinsic (function),  Prev: DSinD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.35 DTanD Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL DTanD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: DTime Intrinsic (function),  Next: FGet Intrinsic (function),  Prev: DTanD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.36 DTime Intrinsic (function)
....................................


     DTime(TARRAY)

DTime: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

TARRAY: `REAL(KIND=1)'; DIMENSION(2); INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Initially, return the number of seconds of runtime since the start
of the process's execution as the function value, and the user and
system components of this in `TARRAY(1)' and `TARRAY(2)' respectively.
The functions' value is equal to `TARRAY(1) + TARRAY(2)'.

   Subsequent invocations of `DTIME()' return values accumulated since
the previous invocation.

   On some systems, the underlying timings are represented using types
with sufficiently small limits that overflows (wraparounds) are
possible, such as 32-bit types.  Therefore, the values returned by this
intrinsic might be, or become, negative, or numerically less than
previous values, during a single run of the compiled program.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note DTime
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FGet Intrinsic (function),  Next: FGetC Intrinsic (function),  Prev: DTime Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.37 FGet Intrinsic (function)
...................................


     FGet(C)

FGet: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Reads a single character into C in stream mode from unit 5
(by-passing normal formatted input) using `getc(3)'.  Returns 0 on
success, -1 on end-of-file, and the error code from `ferror(3)'
otherwise.

   Stream I/O should not be mixed with normal record-oriented
(formatted or unformatted) I/O on the same unit; the results are
unpredictable.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FGet
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FGetC Intrinsic (function),  Next: FloatI Intrinsic,  Prev: FGet Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.38 FGetC Intrinsic (function)
....................................


     FGetC(UNIT, C)

FGetC: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Reads a single character into C in stream mode from unit UNIT
(by-passing normal formatted output) using `getc(3)'.  Returns 0 on
success, -1 on end-of-file, and the error code from `ferror(3)'
otherwise.

   Stream I/O should not be mixed with normal record-oriented
(formatted or unformatted) I/O on the same unit; the results are
unpredictable.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FGetC
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FloatI Intrinsic,  Next: FloatJ Intrinsic,  Prev: FGetC Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.39 FloatI Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL FloatI' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: FloatJ Intrinsic,  Next: FPut Intrinsic (function),  Prev: FloatI Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.40 FloatJ Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL FloatJ' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: FPut Intrinsic (function),  Next: FPutC Intrinsic (function),  Prev: FloatJ Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.41 FPut Intrinsic (function)
...................................


     FPut(C)

FPut: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Writes the single character C in stream mode to unit 6 (by-passing
normal formatted output) using `getc(3)'.  Returns 0 on success, the
error code from `ferror(3)' otherwise.

   Stream I/O should not be mixed with normal record-oriented
(formatted or unformatted) I/O on the same unit; the results are
unpredictable.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FPut
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: FPutC Intrinsic (function),  Next: IDate Intrinsic (VXT),  Prev: FPut Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.42 FPutC Intrinsic (function)
....................................


     FPutC(UNIT, C)

FPutC: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

UNIT: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

C: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Writes the single character C in stream mode to unit UNIT
(by-passing normal formatted output) using `putc(3)'.  Returns 0 on
success, the error code from `ferror(3)' otherwise.

   Stream I/O should not be mixed with normal record-oriented
(formatted or unformatted) I/O on the same unit; the results are
unpredictable.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note FPutC
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: IDate Intrinsic (VXT),  Next: IIAbs Intrinsic,  Prev: FPutC Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.43 IDate Intrinsic (VXT)
...............................


     CALL IDate(M, D, Y)

M: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

D: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Y: `INTEGER(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns the numerical values of the current local time.  The month
(in the range 1-12) is returned in M, the day (in the range 1-31) in D,
and the year in Y (in the range 0-99).

   This intrinsic is not recommended, due to the fact that its return
value for year wraps around century boundaries (change from a larger
value to a smaller one).  Therefore, programs making use of this
intrinsic, for instance, might not be Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant.  For
example, the date might appear, to such programs, to wrap around as of
the Year 2000.

   *Note IDate Intrinsic (UNIX)::, for information on obtaining more
digits for the current date.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note IDate
Intrinsic (UNIX)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIAbs Intrinsic,  Next: IIAnd Intrinsic,  Prev: IDate Intrinsic (VXT),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.44 IIAbs Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIAbs' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIAnd Intrinsic,  Next: IIBClr Intrinsic,  Prev: IIAbs Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.45 IIAnd Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIAnd' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIBClr Intrinsic,  Next: IIBits Intrinsic,  Prev: IIAnd Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.46 IIBClr Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIBClr' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIBits Intrinsic,  Next: IIBSet Intrinsic,  Prev: IIBClr Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.47 IIBits Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIBits' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIBSet Intrinsic,  Next: IIDiM Intrinsic,  Prev: IIBits Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.48 IIBSet Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIBSet' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIDiM Intrinsic,  Next: IIDInt Intrinsic,  Prev: IIBSet Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.49 IIDiM Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIDiM' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIDInt Intrinsic,  Next: IIDNnt Intrinsic,  Prev: IIDiM Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.50 IIDInt Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIDInt' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIDNnt Intrinsic,  Next: IIEOr Intrinsic,  Prev: IIDInt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.51 IIDNnt Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIDNnt' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIEOr Intrinsic,  Next: IIFix Intrinsic,  Prev: IIDNnt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.52 IIEOr Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIEOr' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIFix Intrinsic,  Next: IInt Intrinsic,  Prev: IIEOr Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.53 IIFix Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIFix' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IInt Intrinsic,  Next: IIOr Intrinsic,  Prev: IIFix Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.54 IInt Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IInt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIOr Intrinsic,  Next: IIQint Intrinsic,  Prev: IInt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.55 IIOr Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIOr' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIQint Intrinsic,  Next: IIQNnt Intrinsic,  Prev: IIOr Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.56 IIQint Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIQint' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIQNnt Intrinsic,  Next: IIShftC Intrinsic,  Prev: IIQint Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.57 IIQNnt Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIQNnt' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IIShftC Intrinsic,  Next: IISign Intrinsic,  Prev: IIQNnt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.58 IIShftC Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IIShftC' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IISign Intrinsic,  Next: IMax0 Intrinsic,  Prev: IIShftC Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.59 IISign Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IISign' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IMax0 Intrinsic,  Next: IMax1 Intrinsic,  Prev: IISign Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.60 IMax0 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IMax0' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IMax1 Intrinsic,  Next: IMin0 Intrinsic,  Prev: IMax0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.61 IMax1 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IMax1' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IMin0 Intrinsic,  Next: IMin1 Intrinsic,  Prev: IMax1 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.62 IMin0 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IMin0' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IMin1 Intrinsic,  Next: IMod Intrinsic,  Prev: IMin0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.63 IMin1 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IMin1' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IMod Intrinsic,  Next: INInt Intrinsic,  Prev: IMin1 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.64 IMod Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IMod' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: INInt Intrinsic,  Next: INot Intrinsic,  Prev: IMod Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.65 INInt Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL INInt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: INot Intrinsic,  Next: IZExt Intrinsic,  Prev: INInt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.66 INot Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL INot' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: IZExt Intrinsic,  Next: JIAbs Intrinsic,  Prev: INot Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.67 IZExt Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL IZExt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIAbs Intrinsic,  Next: JIAnd Intrinsic,  Prev: IZExt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.68 JIAbs Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIAbs' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIAnd Intrinsic,  Next: JIBClr Intrinsic,  Prev: JIAbs Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.69 JIAnd Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIAnd' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIBClr Intrinsic,  Next: JIBits Intrinsic,  Prev: JIAnd Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.70 JIBClr Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIBClr' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIBits Intrinsic,  Next: JIBSet Intrinsic,  Prev: JIBClr Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.71 JIBits Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIBits' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIBSet Intrinsic,  Next: JIDiM Intrinsic,  Prev: JIBits Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.72 JIBSet Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIBSet' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIDiM Intrinsic,  Next: JIDInt Intrinsic,  Prev: JIBSet Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.73 JIDiM Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIDiM' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIDInt Intrinsic,  Next: JIDNnt Intrinsic,  Prev: JIDiM Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.74 JIDInt Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIDInt' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIDNnt Intrinsic,  Next: JIEOr Intrinsic,  Prev: JIDInt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.75 JIDNnt Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIDNnt' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIEOr Intrinsic,  Next: JIFix Intrinsic,  Prev: JIDNnt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.76 JIEOr Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIEOr' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIFix Intrinsic,  Next: JInt Intrinsic,  Prev: JIEOr Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.77 JIFix Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIFix' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JInt Intrinsic,  Next: JIOr Intrinsic,  Prev: JIFix Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.78 JInt Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JInt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIOr Intrinsic,  Next: JIQint Intrinsic,  Prev: JInt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.79 JIOr Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIOr' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIQint Intrinsic,  Next: JIQNnt Intrinsic,  Prev: JIOr Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.80 JIQint Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIQint' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIQNnt Intrinsic,  Next: JIShft Intrinsic,  Prev: JIQint Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.81 JIQNnt Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIQNnt' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIShft Intrinsic,  Next: JIShftC Intrinsic,  Prev: JIQNnt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.82 JIShft Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIShft' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JIShftC Intrinsic,  Next: JISign Intrinsic,  Prev: JIShft Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.83 JIShftC Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JIShftC' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JISign Intrinsic,  Next: JMax0 Intrinsic,  Prev: JIShftC Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.84 JISign Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JISign' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JMax0 Intrinsic,  Next: JMax1 Intrinsic,  Prev: JISign Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.85 JMax0 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JMax0' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JMax1 Intrinsic,  Next: JMin0 Intrinsic,  Prev: JMax0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.86 JMax1 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JMax1' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JMin0 Intrinsic,  Next: JMin1 Intrinsic,  Prev: JMax1 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.87 JMin0 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JMin0' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JMin1 Intrinsic,  Next: JMod Intrinsic,  Prev: JMin0 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.88 JMin1 Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JMin1' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JMod Intrinsic,  Next: JNInt Intrinsic,  Prev: JMin1 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.89 JMod Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JMod' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JNInt Intrinsic,  Next: JNot Intrinsic,  Prev: JMod Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.90 JNInt Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JNInt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JNot Intrinsic,  Next: JZExt Intrinsic,  Prev: JNInt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.91 JNot Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JNot' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: JZExt Intrinsic,  Next: Kill Intrinsic (function),  Prev: JNot Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.92 JZExt Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL JZExt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Kill Intrinsic (function),  Next: Link Intrinsic (function),  Prev: JZExt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.93 Kill Intrinsic (function)
...................................


     Kill(PID, SIGNAL)

Kill: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

PID: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

SIGNAL: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Sends the signal specified by SIGNAL to the process PID.  Returns 0
on success or a nonzero error code.  See `kill(2)'.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Kill
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Link Intrinsic (function),  Next: QAbs Intrinsic,  Prev: Kill Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.94 Link Intrinsic (function)
...................................


     Link(PATH1, PATH2)

Link: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

PATH1: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

PATH2: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Makes a (hard) link from file PATH1 to PATH2.  A null character
(`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the names in PATH1 and PATH2--otherwise,
trailing blanks in PATH1 and PATH2 are ignored.  Returns 0 on success
or a nonzero error code.  See `link(2)'.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Link
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: QAbs Intrinsic,  Next: QACos Intrinsic,  Prev: Link Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.95 QAbs Intrinsic
........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QAbs' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QACos Intrinsic,  Next: QACosD Intrinsic,  Prev: QAbs Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.96 QACos Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QACos' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QACosD Intrinsic,  Next: QASin Intrinsic,  Prev: QACos Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.97 QACosD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QACosD' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QASin Intrinsic,  Next: QASinD Intrinsic,  Prev: QACosD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.98 QASin Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QASin' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QASinD Intrinsic,  Next: QATan Intrinsic,  Prev: QASin Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.99 QASinD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QASinD' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QATan Intrinsic,  Next: QATan2 Intrinsic,  Prev: QASinD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.100 QATan Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QATan' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QATan2 Intrinsic,  Next: QATan2D Intrinsic,  Prev: QATan Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.101 QATan2 Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QATan2' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QATan2D Intrinsic,  Next: QATanD Intrinsic,  Prev: QATan2 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.102 QATan2D Intrinsic
............................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QATan2D' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QATanD Intrinsic,  Next: QCos Intrinsic,  Prev: QATan2D Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.103 QATanD Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QATanD' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QCos Intrinsic,  Next: QCosD Intrinsic,  Prev: QATanD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.104 QCos Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QCos' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QCosD Intrinsic,  Next: QCosH Intrinsic,  Prev: QCos Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.105 QCosD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QCosD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QCosH Intrinsic,  Next: QDiM Intrinsic,  Prev: QCosD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.106 QCosH Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QCosH' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QDiM Intrinsic,  Next: QExp Intrinsic,  Prev: QCosH Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.107 QDiM Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QDiM' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QExp Intrinsic,  Next: QExt Intrinsic,  Prev: QDiM Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.108 QExp Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QExp' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QExt Intrinsic,  Next: QExtD Intrinsic,  Prev: QExp Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.109 QExt Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QExt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QExtD Intrinsic,  Next: QFloat Intrinsic,  Prev: QExt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.110 QExtD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QExtD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QFloat Intrinsic,  Next: QInt Intrinsic,  Prev: QExtD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.111 QFloat Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QFloat' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QInt Intrinsic,  Next: QLog Intrinsic,  Prev: QFloat Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.112 QInt Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QInt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QLog Intrinsic,  Next: QLog10 Intrinsic,  Prev: QInt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.113 QLog Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QLog' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QLog10 Intrinsic,  Next: QMax1 Intrinsic,  Prev: QLog Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.114 QLog10 Intrinsic
...........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QLog10' to use this name for an
external procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QMax1 Intrinsic,  Next: QMin1 Intrinsic,  Prev: QLog10 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.115 QMax1 Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QMax1' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QMin1 Intrinsic,  Next: QMod Intrinsic,  Prev: QMax1 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.116 QMin1 Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QMin1' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QMod Intrinsic,  Next: QNInt Intrinsic,  Prev: QMin1 Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.117 QMod Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QMod' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QNInt Intrinsic,  Next: QSin Intrinsic,  Prev: QMod Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.118 QNInt Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QNInt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QSin Intrinsic,  Next: QSinD Intrinsic,  Prev: QNInt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.119 QSin Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QSin' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QSinD Intrinsic,  Next: QSinH Intrinsic,  Prev: QSin Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.120 QSinD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QSinD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QSinH Intrinsic,  Next: QSqRt Intrinsic,  Prev: QSinD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.121 QSinH Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QSinH' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QSqRt Intrinsic,  Next: QTan Intrinsic,  Prev: QSinH Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.122 QSqRt Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QSqRt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QTan Intrinsic,  Next: QTanD Intrinsic,  Prev: QSqRt Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.123 QTan Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QTan' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QTanD Intrinsic,  Next: QTanH Intrinsic,  Prev: QTan Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.124 QTanD Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QTanD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: QTanH Intrinsic,  Next: Rename Intrinsic (function),  Prev: QTanD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.125 QTanH Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL QTanH' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Rename Intrinsic (function),  Next: Secnds Intrinsic,  Prev: QTanH Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.126 Rename Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     Rename(PATH1, PATH2)

Rename: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

PATH1: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

PATH2: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Renames the file PATH1 to PATH2.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks
the end of the names in PATH1 and PATH2--otherwise, trailing blanks in
PATH1 and PATH2 are ignored.  See `rename(2)'.  Returns 0 on success or
a nonzero error code.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Rename
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Secnds Intrinsic,  Next: Signal Intrinsic (function),  Prev: Rename Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.127 Secnds Intrinsic
...........................


     Secnds(T)

Secnds: `REAL(KIND=1)' function.

T: `REAL(KIND=1)'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns the local time in seconds since midnight minus the value T.

   This values returned by this intrinsic become numerically less than
previous values (they wrap around) during a single run of the compiler
program, under normal circumstances (such as running through the
midnight hour).

File: g77.info,  Node: Signal Intrinsic (function),  Next: SinD Intrinsic,  Prev: Secnds Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.128 Signal Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     Signal(NUMBER, HANDLER)

Signal: `INTEGER(KIND=7)' function.

NUMBER: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

HANDLER: Signal handler (`INTEGER FUNCTION' or `SUBROUTINE') or
dummy/global `INTEGER(KIND=1)' scalar.

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   If HANDLER is a an `EXTERNAL' routine, arranges for it to be invoked
with a single integer argument (of system-dependent length) when signal
NUMBER occurs.  If HANDLER is an integer, it can be used to turn off
handling of signal NUMBER or revert to its default action.  See
`signal(2)'.

   Note that HANDLER will be called using C conventions, so the value
of its argument in Fortran terms is obtained by applying `%LOC()' (or
`LOC()') to it.

   The value returned by `signal(2)' is returned.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   _Warning:_ If the returned value is stored in an `INTEGER(KIND=1)'
(default `INTEGER') argument, truncation of the original return value
occurs on some systems (such as Alphas, which have 64-bit pointers but
32-bit default integers), with no warning issued by `g77' under normal
circumstances.

   Therefore, the following code fragment might silently fail on some
systems:

     INTEGER RTN
     EXTERNAL MYHNDL
     RTN = SIGNAL(SIGNUM, MYHNDL)
     ...
     ! Restore original handler:
     RTN = SIGNAL(SIGNUM, RTN)

   The reason for the failure is that `RTN' might not hold all the
information on the original handler for the signal, thus restoring an
invalid handler.  This bug could manifest itself as a spurious run-time
failure at an arbitrary point later during the program's execution, for
example.

   _Warning:_ Use of the `libf2c' run-time library function `signal_'
directly (such as via `EXTERNAL SIGNAL') requires use of the `%VAL()'
construct to pass an `INTEGER' value (such as `SIG_IGN' or `SIG_DFL')
for the HANDLER argument.

   However, while `RTN = SIGNAL(SIGNUM, %VAL(SIG_IGN))' works when
`SIGNAL' is treated as an external procedure (and resolves, at link
time, to `libf2c''s `signal_' routine), this construct is not valid
when `SIGNAL' is recognized as the intrinsic of that name.

   Therefore, for maximum portability and reliability, code such
references to the `SIGNAL' facility as follows:

     INTRINSIC SIGNAL
     ...
     RTN = SIGNAL(SIGNUM, SIG_IGN)

   `g77' will compile such a call correctly, while other compilers will
generally either do so as well or reject the `INTRINSIC SIGNAL'
statement via a diagnostic, allowing you to take appropriate action.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Signal
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: SinD Intrinsic,  Next: SnglQ Intrinsic,  Prev: Signal Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.129 SinD Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL SinD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: SnglQ Intrinsic,  Next: SymLnk Intrinsic (function),  Prev: SinD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.130 SnglQ Intrinsic
..........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL SnglQ' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: SymLnk Intrinsic (function),  Next: System Intrinsic (function),  Prev: SnglQ Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.131 SymLnk Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     SymLnk(PATH1, PATH2)

SymLnk: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

PATH1: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

PATH2: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Makes a symbolic link from file PATH1 to PATH2.  A null character
(`CHAR(0)') marks the end of the names in PATH1 and PATH2--otherwise,
trailing blanks in PATH1 and PATH2 are ignored.  Returns 0 on success
or a nonzero error code (`ENOSYS' if the system does not provide
`symlink(2)').

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note SymLnk
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: System Intrinsic (function),  Next: TanD Intrinsic,  Prev: SymLnk Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.132 System Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     System(COMMAND)

System: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

COMMAND: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Passes the command COMMAND to a shell (see `system(3)').  Returns
the value returned by `system(3)', presumably 0 if the shell command
succeeded.  Note that which shell is used to invoke the command is
system-dependent and environment-dependent.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.  However, the function form can be valid in
cases where the actual side effects performed by the call are
unimportant to the application.

   For example, on a UNIX system, `SAME = SYSTEM('cmp a b')' does not
perform any side effects likely to be important to the program, so the
programmer would not care if the actual system call (and invocation of
`cmp') was optimized away in a situation where the return value could
be determined otherwise, or was not actually needed (`SAME' not
actually referenced after the sample assignment statement).

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note System
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: TanD Intrinsic,  Next: Time Intrinsic (VXT),  Prev: System Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.133 TanD Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL TanD' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Time Intrinsic (VXT),  Next: UMask Intrinsic (function),  Prev: TanD Intrinsic,  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.134 Time Intrinsic (VXT)
...............................


     CALL Time(TIME)

TIME: `CHARACTER*8'; scalar; INTENT(OUT).

Intrinsic groups: `vxt'.

Description:

   Returns in TIME a character representation of the current time as
obtained from `ctime(3)'.

   Programs making use of this intrinsic might not be Year 10000 (Y10K)
compliant.  For example, the date might appear, to such programs, to
wrap around (change from a larger value to a smaller one) as of the
Year 10000.

   *Note FDate Intrinsic (subroutine)::, for an equivalent routine.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Time
Intrinsic (UNIX)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: UMask Intrinsic (function),  Next: Unlink Intrinsic (function),  Prev: Time Intrinsic (VXT),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.135 UMask Intrinsic (function)
.....................................


     UMask(MASK)

UMask: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

MASK: `INTEGER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Sets the file creation mask to MASK and returns the old value.  See
`umask(2)'.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note UMask
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Unlink Intrinsic (function),  Next: ZExt Intrinsic,  Prev: UMask Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.136 Unlink Intrinsic (function)
......................................


     Unlink(FILE)

Unlink: `INTEGER(KIND=1)' function.

FILE: `CHARACTER'; scalar; INTENT(IN).

Intrinsic groups: `badu77'.

Description:

   Unlink the file FILE.  A null character (`CHAR(0)') marks the end of
the name in FILE--otherwise, trailing blanks in FILE are ignored.
Returns 0 on success or a nonzero error code.  See `unlink(2)'.

   Due to the side effects performed by this intrinsic, the function
form is not recommended.

   For information on other intrinsics with the same name: *Note Unlink
Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: ZExt Intrinsic,  Prev: Unlink Intrinsic (function),  Up: Other Intrinsics

10.5.2.137 ZExt Intrinsic
.........................

This intrinsic is not yet implemented.  The name is, however, reserved
as an intrinsic.  Use `EXTERNAL ZExt' to use this name for an external
procedure.

File: g77.info,  Node: Other Dialects,  Next: Other Compilers,  Prev: Compiler,  Up: Top

9 Other Dialects
****************

GNU Fortran supports a variety of features that are not considered part
of the GNU Fortran language itself, but are representative of various
dialects of Fortran that `g77' supports in whole or in part.

   Any of the features listed below might be disallowed by `g77' unless
some command-line option is specified.  Currently, some of the features
are accepted using the default invocation of `g77', but that might
change in the future.

   _Note: This portion of the documentation definitely needs a lot of
work!_

* Menu:

* Source Form::       Details of fixed-form and free-form source.
* Trailing Comment::  Use of `/*' to start a comment.
* Debug Line::        Use of `D' in column 1.
* Dollar Signs::      Use of `$' in symbolic names.
* Case Sensitivity::  Uppercase and lowercase in source files.
* VXT Fortran::       ...versus the GNU Fortran language.
* Fortran 90::        ...versus the GNU Fortran language.
* Pedantic Compilation::  Enforcing the standard.
* Distensions::       Misfeatures supported by GNU Fortran.

File: g77.info,  Node: Source Form,  Next: Trailing Comment,  Up: Other Dialects

9.1 Source Form
===============

GNU Fortran accepts programs written in either fixed form or free form.

   Fixed form corresponds to ANSI FORTRAN 77 (plus popular extensions,
such as allowing tabs) and Fortran 90's fixed form.

   Free form corresponds to Fortran 90's free form (though possibly not
entirely up-to-date, and without complaining about some things that for
which Fortran 90 requires diagnostics, such as the spaces in the
constant in `R = 3 . 1').

   The way a Fortran compiler views source files depends entirely on the
implementation choices made for the compiler, since those choices are
explicitly left to the implementation by the published Fortran
standards.  GNU Fortran currently tries to be somewhat like a few
popular compilers (`f2c', Digital ("DEC") Fortran, and so on).

   This section describes how `g77' interprets source lines.

* Menu:

* Carriage Returns::  Carriage returns ignored.
* Tabs::              Tabs converted to spaces.
* Short Lines::       Short lines padded with spaces (fixed-form only).
* Long Lines::        Long lines truncated.
* Ampersands::        Special Continuation Lines.

File: g77.info,  Node: Carriage Returns,  Next: Tabs,  Up: Source Form

9.1.1 Carriage Returns
----------------------

Carriage returns (`\r') in source lines are ignored.  This is somewhat
different from `f2c', which seems to treat them as spaces outside
character/Hollerith constants, and encodes them as `\r' inside such
constants.

File: g77.info,  Node: Tabs,  Next: Short Lines,  Prev: Carriage Returns,  Up: Source Form

9.1.2 Tabs
----------

A source line with a <TAB> character anywhere in it is treated as
entirely significant--however long it is--instead of ending in column
72 (for fixed-form source) or 132 (for free-form source).  This also is
different from `f2c', which encodes tabs as `\t' (the ASCII <TAB>
character) inside character and Hollerith constants, but nevertheless
seems to treat the column position as if it had been affected by the
canonical tab positioning.

   `g77' effectively translates tabs to the appropriate number of
spaces (a la the default for the UNIX `expand' command) before doing
any other processing, other than (currently) noting whether a tab was
found on a line and using this information to decide how to interpret
the length of the line and continued constants.

File: g77.info,  Node: Short Lines,  Next: Long Lines,  Prev: Tabs,  Up: Source Form

9.1.3 Short Lines
-----------------

Source lines shorter than the applicable fixed-form length are treated
as if they were padded with spaces to that length.  (None of this is
relevant to source files written in free form.)

   This affects only continued character and Hollerith constants, and
is a different interpretation than provided by some other popular
compilers (although a bit more consistent with the traditional
punched-card basis of Fortran and the way the Fortran standard
expressed fixed source form).

   `g77' might someday offer an option to warn about cases where
differences might be seen as a result of this treatment, and perhaps an
option to specify the alternate behavior as well.

   Note that this padding cannot apply to lines that are effectively of
infinite length--such lines are specified using command-line options
like `-ffixed-line-length-none', for example.

File: g77.info,  Node: Long Lines,  Next: Ampersands,  Prev: Short Lines,  Up: Source Form

9.1.4 Long Lines
----------------

Source lines longer than the applicable length are truncated to that
length.  Currently, `g77' does not warn if the truncated characters are
not spaces, to accommodate existing code written for systems that
treated truncated text as commentary (especially in columns 73 through
80).

   *Note Options Controlling Fortran Dialect: Fortran Dialect Options,
for information on the `-ffixed-line-length-N' option, which can be
used to set the line length applicable to fixed-form source files.

File: g77.info,  Node: Ampersands,  Prev: Long Lines,  Up: Source Form

9.1.5 Ampersand Continuation Line
---------------------------------

A `&' in column 1 of fixed-form source denotes an arbitrary-length
continuation line, imitating the behavior of `f2c'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Trailing Comment,  Next: Debug Line,  Prev: Source Form,  Up: Other Dialects

9.2 Trailing Comment
====================

`g77' supports use of `/*' to start a trailing comment.  In the GNU
Fortran language, `!' is used for this purpose.

   `/*' is not in the GNU Fortran language because the use of `/*' in a
program might suggest to some readers that a block, not trailing,
comment is started (and thus ended by `*/', not end of line), since
that is the meaning of `/*' in C.

   Also, such readers might think they can use `//' to start a trailing
comment as an alternative to `/*', but `//' already denotes
concatenation, and such a "comment" might actually result in a program
that compiles without error (though it would likely behave incorrectly).

File: g77.info,  Node: Debug Line,  Next: Dollar Signs,  Prev: Trailing Comment,  Up: Other Dialects

9.3 Debug Line
==============

Use of `D' or `d' as the first character (column 1) of a source line
denotes a debug line.

   In turn, a debug line is treated as either a comment line or a
normal line, depending on whether debug lines are enabled.

   When treated as a comment line, a line beginning with `D' or `d' is
treated as if it the first character was `C' or `c', respectively.
When treated as a normal line, such a line is treated as if the first
character was <SPC> (space).

   (Currently, `g77' provides no means for treating debug lines as
normal lines.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Dollar Signs,  Next: Case Sensitivity,  Prev: Debug Line,  Up: Other Dialects

9.4 Dollar Signs in Symbol Names
================================

Dollar signs (`$') are allowed in symbol names (after the first
character) when the `-fdollar-ok' option is specified.

File: g77.info,  Node: Case Sensitivity,  Next: VXT Fortran,  Prev: Dollar Signs,  Up: Other Dialects

9.5 Case Sensitivity
====================

GNU Fortran offers the programmer way too much flexibility in deciding
how source files are to be treated vis-a-vis uppercase and lowercase
characters.  There are 66 useful settings that affect case sensitivity,
plus 10 settings that are nearly useless, with the remaining 116
settings being either redundant or useless.

   None of these settings have any effect on the contents of comments
(the text after a `c' or `C' in Column 1, for example) or of character
or Hollerith constants.  Note that things like the `E' in the statement
`CALL FOO(3.2E10)' and the `TO' in `ASSIGN 10 TO LAB' are considered
built-in keywords, and so are affected by these settings.

   Low-level switches are identified in this section as follows:

     A Source Case Conversion:

          0 Preserve (see Note 1)

          1 Convert to Upper Case

          2 Convert to Lower Case

     B Built-in Keyword Matching:

          0 Match Any Case (per-character basis)

          1 Match Upper Case Only

          2 Match Lower Case Only

          3 Match InitialCaps Only (see tables for spellings)

     C Built-in Intrinsic Matching:

          0 Match Any Case (per-character basis)

          1 Match Upper Case Only

          2 Match Lower Case Only

          3 Match InitialCaps Only (see tables for spellings)

     D User-defined Symbol Possibilities (warnings only):

          0 Allow Any Case (per-character basis)

          1 Allow Upper Case Only

          2 Allow Lower Case Only

          3 Allow InitialCaps Only (see Note 2)

   Note 1: `g77' eventually will support `NAMELIST' in a manner that is
consistent with these source switches--in the sense that input will be
expected to meet the same requirements as source code in terms of
matching symbol names and keywords (for the exponent letters).

   Currently, however, `NAMELIST' is supported by `libg2c', which
uppercases `NAMELIST' input and symbol names for matching.  This means
not only that `NAMELIST' output currently shows symbol (and keyword)
names in uppercase even if lower-case source conversion (option A2) is
selected, but that `NAMELIST' cannot be adequately supported when
source case preservation (option A0) is selected.

   If A0 is selected, a warning message will be output for each
`NAMELIST' statement to this effect.  The behavior of the program is
undefined at run time if two or more symbol names appear in a given
`NAMELIST' such that the names are identical when converted to upper
case (e.g. `NAMELIST /X/ VAR, Var, var').  For complete and total
elegance, perhaps there should be a warning when option A2 is selected,
since the output of NAMELIST is currently in uppercase but will someday
be lowercase (when a `libg77' is written), but that seems to be
overkill for a product in beta test.

   Note 2: Rules for InitialCaps names are:

   - Must be a single uppercase letter, *or*

   - Must start with an uppercase letter and contain at least one
     lowercase letter.

   So `A', `Ab', `ABc', `AbC', and `Abc' are valid InitialCaps names,
but `AB', `A2', and `ABC' are not.  Note that most, but not all,
built-in names meet these requirements--the exceptions are some of the
two-letter format specifiers, such as `BN' and `BZ'.

   Here are the names of the corresponding command-line options:

     A0: -fsource-case-preserve
     A1: -fsource-case-upper
     A2: -fsource-case-lower

     B0: -fmatch-case-any
     B1: -fmatch-case-upper
     B2: -fmatch-case-lower
     B3: -fmatch-case-initcap

     C0: -fintrin-case-any
     C1: -fintrin-case-upper
     C2: -fintrin-case-lower
     C3: -fintrin-case-initcap

     D0: -fsymbol-case-any
     D1: -fsymbol-case-upper
     D2: -fsymbol-case-lower
     D3: -fsymbol-case-initcap

   Useful combinations of the above settings, along with abbreviated
option names that set some of these combinations all at once:

      1: A0--  B0---  C0---  D0---    -fcase-preserve
      2: A0--  B0---  C0---  D-1--
      3: A0--  B0---  C0---  D--2-
      4: A0--  B0---  C0---  D---3
      5: A0--  B0---  C-1--  D0---
      6: A0--  B0---  C-1--  D-1--
      7: A0--  B0---  C-1--  D--2-
      8: A0--  B0---  C-1--  D---3
      9: A0--  B0---  C--2-  D0---
     10: A0--  B0---  C--2-  D-1--
     11: A0--  B0---  C--2-  D--2-
     12: A0--  B0---  C--2-  D---3
     13: A0--  B0---  C---3  D0---
     14: A0--  B0---  C---3  D-1--
     15: A0--  B0---  C---3  D--2-
     16: A0--  B0---  C---3  D---3
     17: A0--  B-1--  C0---  D0---
     18: A0--  B-1--  C0---  D-1--
     19: A0--  B-1--  C0---  D--2-
     20: A0--  B-1--  C0---  D---3
     21: A0--  B-1--  C-1--  D0---
     22: A0--  B-1--  C-1--  D-1--    -fcase-strict-upper
     23: A0--  B-1--  C-1--  D--2-
     24: A0--  B-1--  C-1--  D---3
     25: A0--  B-1--  C--2-  D0---
     26: A0--  B-1--  C--2-  D-1--
     27: A0--  B-1--  C--2-  D--2-
     28: A0--  B-1--  C--2-  D---3
     29: A0--  B-1--  C---3  D0---
     30: A0--  B-1--  C---3  D-1--
     31: A0--  B-1--  C---3  D--2-
     32: A0--  B-1--  C---3  D---3
     33: A0--  B--2-  C0---  D0---
     34: A0--  B--2-  C0---  D-1--
     35: A0--  B--2-  C0---  D--2-
     36: A0--  B--2-  C0---  D---3
     37: A0--  B--2-  C-1--  D0---
     38: A0--  B--2-  C-1--  D-1--
     39: A0--  B--2-  C-1--  D--2-
     40: A0--  B--2-  C-1--  D---3
     41: A0--  B--2-  C--2-  D0---
     42: A0--  B--2-  C--2-  D-1--
     43: A0--  B--2-  C--2-  D--2-    -fcase-strict-lower
     44: A0--  B--2-  C--2-  D---3
     45: A0--  B--2-  C---3  D0---
     46: A0--  B--2-  C---3  D-1--
     47: A0--  B--2-  C---3  D--2-
     48: A0--  B--2-  C---3  D---3
     49: A0--  B---3  C0---  D0---
     50: A0--  B---3  C0---  D-1--
     51: A0--  B---3  C0---  D--2-
     52: A0--  B---3  C0---  D---3
     53: A0--  B---3  C-1--  D0---
     54: A0--  B---3  C-1--  D-1--
     55: A0--  B---3  C-1--  D--2-
     56: A0--  B---3  C-1--  D---3
     57: A0--  B---3  C--2-  D0---
     58: A0--  B---3  C--2-  D-1--
     59: A0--  B---3  C--2-  D--2-
     60: A0--  B---3  C--2-  D---3
     61: A0--  B---3  C---3  D0---
     62: A0--  B---3  C---3  D-1--
     63: A0--  B---3  C---3  D--2-
     64: A0--  B---3  C---3  D---3    -fcase-initcap
     65: A-1-  B01--  C01--  D01--    -fcase-upper
     66: A--2  B0-2-  C0-2-  D0-2-    -fcase-lower

   Number 22 is the "strict" ANSI FORTRAN 77 model wherein all input
(except comments, character constants, and Hollerith strings) must be
entered in uppercase.  Use `-fcase-strict-upper' to specify this
combination.

   Number 43 is like Number 22 except all input must be lowercase.  Use
`-fcase-strict-lower' to specify this combination.

   Number 65 is the "classic" ANSI FORTRAN 77 model as implemented on
many non-UNIX machines whereby all the source is translated to
uppercase.  Use `-fcase-upper' to specify this combination.

   Number 66 is the "canonical" UNIX model whereby all the source is
translated to lowercase.  Use `-fcase-lower' to specify this
combination.

   There are a few nearly useless combinations:

     67: A-1-  B01--  C01--  D--2-
     68: A-1-  B01--  C01--  D---3
     69: A-1-  B01--  C--23  D01--
     70: A-1-  B01--  C--23  D--2-
     71: A-1-  B01--  C--23  D---3
     72: A--2  B01--  C0-2-  D-1--
     73: A--2  B01--  C0-2-  D---3
     74: A--2  B01--  C-1-3  D0-2-
     75: A--2  B01--  C-1-3  D-1--
     76: A--2  B01--  C-1-3  D---3

   The above allow some programs to be compiled but with restrictions
that make most useful programs impossible: Numbers 67 and 72 warn about
_any_ user-defined symbol names (such as `SUBROUTINE FOO'); Numbers 68
and 73 warn about any user-defined symbol names longer than one
character that don't have at least one non-alphabetic character after
the first; Numbers 69 and 74 disallow any references to intrinsics; and
Numbers 70, 71, 75, and 76 are combinations of the restrictions in
67+69, 68+69, 72+74, and 73+74, respectively.

   All redundant combinations are shown in the above tables anyplace
where more than one setting is shown for a low-level switch.  For
example, `B0-2-' means either setting 0 or 2 is valid for switch B.
The "proper" setting in such a case is the one that copies the setting
of switch A--any other setting might slightly reduce the speed of the
compiler, though possibly to an unmeasurable extent.

   All remaining combinations are useless in that they prevent
successful compilation of non-null source files (source files with
something other than comments).

File: g77.info,  Node: VXT Fortran,  Next: Fortran 90,  Prev: Case Sensitivity,  Up: Other Dialects

9.6 VXT Fortran
===============

`g77' supports certain constructs that have different meanings in VXT
Fortran than they do in the GNU Fortran language.

   Generally, this manual uses the invented term VXT Fortran to refer
VAX FORTRAN (circa v4).  That compiler offered many popular features,
though not necessarily those that are specific to the VAX processor
architecture, the VMS operating system, or Digital Equipment
Corporation's Fortran product line.  (VAX and VMS probably are
trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.)

   An extension offered by a Digital Fortran product that also is
offered by several other Fortran products for different kinds of
systems is probably going to be considered for inclusion in `g77'
someday, and is considered a VXT Fortran feature.

   The `-fvxt' option generally specifies that, where the meaning of a
construct is ambiguous (means one thing in GNU Fortran and another in
VXT Fortran), the VXT Fortran meaning is to be assumed.

* Menu:

* Double Quote Meaning::  `"2000' as octal constant.
* Exclamation Point::     `!' in column 6.

File: g77.info,  Node: Double Quote Meaning,  Next: Exclamation Point,  Up: VXT Fortran

9.6.1 Meaning of Double Quote
-----------------------------

`g77' treats double-quote (`"') as beginning an octal constant of
`INTEGER(KIND=1)' type when the `-fvxt' option is specified.  The form
of this octal constant is

     "OCTAL-DIGITS

where OCTAL-DIGITS is a nonempty string of characters in the set
`01234567'.

   For example, the `-fvxt' option permits this:

     PRINT *, "20
     END

The above program would print the value `16'.

   *Note Integer Type::, for information on the preferred construct for
integer constants specified using GNU Fortran's octal notation.

   (In the GNU Fortran language, the double-quote character (`"')
delimits a character constant just as does apostrophe (`'').  There is
no way to allow both constructs in the general case, since statements
like `PRINT *,"2000 !comment?"' would be ambiguous.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Exclamation Point,  Prev: Double Quote Meaning,  Up: VXT Fortran

9.6.2 Meaning of Exclamation Point in Column 6
----------------------------------------------

`g77' treats an exclamation point (`!') in column 6 of a fixed-form
source file as a continuation character rather than as the beginning of
a comment (as it does in any other column) when the `-fvxt' option is
specified.

   The following program, when run, prints a message indicating whether
it is interpreted according to GNU Fortran (and Fortran 90) rules or
VXT Fortran rules:

     C234567  (This line begins in column 1.)
           I = 0
          !1
           IF (I.EQ.0) PRINT *, ' I am a VXT Fortran program'
           IF (I.EQ.1) PRINT *, ' I am a Fortran 90 program'
           IF (I.LT.0 .OR. I.GT.1) PRINT *, ' I am a HAL 9000 computer'
           END

   (In the GNU Fortran and Fortran 90 languages, exclamation point is a
valid character and, unlike space (<SPC>) or zero (`0'), marks a line
as a continuation line when it appears in column 6.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Fortran 90,  Next: Pedantic Compilation,  Prev: VXT Fortran,  Up: Other Dialects

9.7 Fortran 90
==============

The GNU Fortran language includes a number of features that are part of
Fortran 90, even when the `-ff90' option is not specified.  The
features enabled by `-ff90' are intended to be those that, when `-ff90'
is not specified, would have another meaning to `g77'--usually meaning
something invalid in the GNU Fortran language.

   So, the purpose of `-ff90' is not to specify whether `g77' is to
gratuitously reject Fortran 90 constructs.  The `-pedantic' option
specified with `-fno-f90' is intended to do that, although its
implementation is certainly incomplete at this point.

   When `-ff90' is specified:

   * The type of `REAL(EXPR)' and `AIMAG(EXPR)', where EXPR is
     `COMPLEX' type, is the same type as the real part of EXPR.

     For example, assuming `Z' is type `COMPLEX(KIND=2)', `REAL(Z)'
     would return a value of type `REAL(KIND=2)', not of type
     `REAL(KIND=1)', since `-ff90' is specified.

File: g77.info,  Node: Pedantic Compilation,  Next: Distensions,  Prev: Fortran 90,  Up: Other Dialects

9.8 Pedantic Compilation
========================

The `-fpedantic' command-line option specifies that `g77' is to warn
about code that is not standard-conforming.  This is useful for finding
some extensions `g77' accepts that other compilers might not accept.
(Note that the `-pedantic' and `-pedantic-errors' options always imply
`-fpedantic'.)

   With `-fno-f90' in force, ANSI FORTRAN 77 is used as the standard
for conforming code.  With `-ff90' in force, Fortran 90 is used.

   The constructs for which `g77' issues diagnostics when `-fpedantic'
and `-fno-f90' are in force are:

   * Automatic arrays, as in

          SUBROUTINE X(N)
          REAL A(N)
          ...

     where `A' is not listed in any `ENTRY' statement, and thus is not
     a dummy argument.

   * The commas in `READ (5), I' and `WRITE (10), J'.

     These commas are disallowed by FORTRAN 77, but, while strictly
     superfluous, are syntactically elegant, especially given that
     commas are required in statements such as `READ 99, I' and `PRINT
     *, J'.  Many compilers permit the superfluous commas for this
     reason.

   * `DOUBLE COMPLEX', either explicitly or implicitly.

     An explicit use of this type is via a `DOUBLE COMPLEX' or
     `IMPLICIT DOUBLE COMPLEX' statement, for examples.

     An example of an implicit use is the expression `C*D', where `C'
     is `COMPLEX(KIND=1)' and `D' is `DOUBLE PRECISION'.  This
     expression is prohibited by ANSI FORTRAN 77 because the rules of
     promotion would suggest that it produce a `DOUBLE COMPLEX'
     result--a type not provided for by that standard.

   * Automatic conversion of numeric expressions to `INTEGER(KIND=1)'
     in contexts such as:

        - Array-reference indexes.

        - Alternate-return values.

        - Computed `GOTO'.

        - `FORMAT' run-time expressions (not yet supported).

        - Dimension lists in specification statements.

        - Numbers for I/O statements (such as `READ (UNIT=3.2), I')

        - Sizes of `CHARACTER' entities in specification statements.

        - Kind types in specification entities (a Fortran 90 feature).

        - Initial, terminal, and incrementation parameters for
          implied-`DO' constructs in `DATA' statements.

   * Automatic conversion of `LOGICAL' expressions to `INTEGER' in
     contexts such as arithmetic `IF' (where `COMPLEX' expressions are
     disallowed anyway).

   * Zero-size array dimensions, as in:

          INTEGER I(10,20,4:2)

   * Zero-length `CHARACTER' entities, as in:

          PRINT *, ''

   * Substring operators applied to character constants and named
     constants, as in:

          PRINT *, 'hello'(3:5)

   * Null arguments passed to statement function, as in:

          PRINT *, FOO(,3)

   * Disagreement among program units regarding whether a given `COMMON'
     area is `SAVE'd (for targets where program units in a single source
     file are "glued" together as they typically are for UNIX
     development environments).

   * Disagreement among program units regarding the size of a named
     `COMMON' block.

   * Specification statements following first `DATA' statement.

     (In the GNU Fortran language, `DATA I/1/' may be followed by
     `INTEGER J', but not `INTEGER I'.  The `-fpedantic' option
     disallows both of these.)

   * Semicolon as statement separator, as in:

          CALL FOO; CALL BAR

   * Use of `&' in column 1 of fixed-form source (to indicate
     continuation).

   * Use of `CHARACTER' constants to initialize numeric entities, and
     vice versa.

   * Expressions having two arithmetic operators in a row, such as
     `X*-Y'.

   If `-fpedantic' is specified along with `-ff90', the following
constructs result in diagnostics:

   * Use of semicolon as a statement separator on a line that has an
     `INCLUDE' directive.

File: g77.info,  Node: Distensions,  Prev: Pedantic Compilation,  Up: Other Dialects

9.9 Distensions
===============

The `-fugly-*' command-line options determine whether certain features
supported by VAX FORTRAN and other such compilers, but considered too
ugly to be in code that can be changed to use safer and/or more
portable constructs, are accepted.  These are humorously referred to as
"distensions", extensions that just plain look ugly in the harsh light
of day.

* Menu:

* Ugly Implicit Argument Conversion::  Disabled via `-fno-ugly-args'.
* Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays::           Enabled via `-fugly-assumed'.
* Ugly Null Arguments::                Enabled via `-fugly-comma'.
* Ugly Complex Part Extraction::       Enabled via `-fugly-complex'.
* Ugly Conversion of Initializers::    Disabled via `-fno-ugly-init'.
* Ugly Integer Conversions::           Enabled via `-fugly-logint'.
* Ugly Assigned Labels::               Enabled via `-fugly-assign'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Ugly Implicit Argument Conversion,  Next: Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays,  Up: Distensions

9.9.1 Implicit Argument Conversion
----------------------------------

The `-fno-ugly-args' option disables passing typeless and Hollerith
constants as actual arguments in procedure invocations.  For example:

     CALL FOO(4HABCD)
     CALL BAR('123'O)

These constructs can be too easily used to create non-portable code,
but are not considered as "ugly" as others.  Further, they are widely
used in existing Fortran source code in ways that often are quite
portable.  Therefore, they are enabled by default.

File: g77.info,  Node: Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays,  Next: Ugly Null Arguments,  Prev: Ugly Implicit Argument Conversion,  Up: Distensions

9.9.2 Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays
------------------------------

The `-fugly-assumed' option enables the treatment of any array with a
final dimension specified as `1' as an assumed-size array, as if `*'
had been specified instead.

   For example, `DIMENSION X(1)' is treated as if it had read
`DIMENSION X(*)' if `X' is listed as a dummy argument in a preceding
`SUBROUTINE', `FUNCTION', or `ENTRY' statement in the same program unit.

   Use an explicit lower bound to avoid this interpretation.  For
example, `DIMENSION X(1:1)' is never treated as if it had read
`DIMENSION X(*)' or `DIMENSION X(1:*)'.  Nor is `DIMENSION X(2-1)'
affected by this option, since that kind of expression is unlikely to
have been intended to designate an assumed-size array.

   This option is used to prevent warnings being issued about apparent
out-of-bounds reference such as `X(2) = 99'.

   It also prevents the array from being used in contexts that disallow
assumed-size arrays, such as `PRINT *,X'.  In such cases, a diagnostic
is generated and the source file is not compiled.

   The construct affected by this option is used only in old code that
pre-exists the widespread acceptance of adjustable and assumed-size
arrays in the Fortran community.

   _Note:_ This option does not affect how `DIMENSION X(1)' is treated
if `X' is listed as a dummy argument only _after_ the `DIMENSION'
statement (presumably in an `ENTRY' statement).  For example,
`-fugly-assumed' has no effect on the following program unit:

     SUBROUTINE X
     REAL A(1)
     RETURN
     ENTRY Y(A)
     PRINT *, A
     END

File: g77.info,  Node: Ugly Null Arguments,  Next: Ugly Complex Part Extraction,  Prev: Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays,  Up: Distensions

9.9.4 Ugly Null Arguments
-------------------------

The `-fugly-comma' option enables use of a single trailing comma to
mean "pass an extra trailing null argument" in a list of actual
arguments to an external procedure, and use of an empty list of
arguments to such a procedure to mean "pass a single null argument".

   (Null arguments often are used in some procedure-calling schemes to
indicate omitted arguments.)

   For example, `CALL FOO(,)' means "pass two null arguments", rather
than "pass one null argument".  Also, `CALL BAR()' means "pass one null
argument".

   This construct is considered "ugly" because it does not provide an
elegant way to pass a single null argument that is syntactically
distinct from passing no arguments.  That is, this construct changes
the meaning of code that makes no use of the construct.

   So, with `-fugly-comma' in force, `CALL FOO()' and `I = JFUNC()'
pass a single null argument, instead of passing no arguments as
required by the Fortran 77 and 90 standards.

   _Note:_ Many systems gracefully allow the case where a procedure
call passes one extra argument that the called procedure does not
expect.

   So, in practice, there might be no difference in the behavior of a
program that does `CALL FOO()' or `I = JFUNC()' and is compiled with
`-fugly-comma' in force as compared to its behavior when compiled with
the default, `-fno-ugly-comma', in force, assuming `FOO' and `JFUNC' do
not expect any arguments to be passed.

File: g77.info,  Node: Ugly Complex Part Extraction,  Next: Ugly Conversion of Initializers,  Prev: Ugly Null Arguments,  Up: Distensions

9.9.3 Ugly Complex Part Extraction
----------------------------------

The `-fugly-complex' option enables use of the `REAL()' and `AIMAG()'
intrinsics with arguments that are `COMPLEX' types other than
`COMPLEX(KIND=1)'.

   With `-ff90' in effect, these intrinsics return the unconverted real
and imaginary parts (respectively) of their argument.

   With `-fno-f90' in effect, these intrinsics convert the real and
imaginary parts to `REAL(KIND=1)', and return the result of that
conversion.

   Due to this ambiguity, the GNU Fortran language defines these
constructs as invalid, except in the specific case where they are
entirely and solely passed as an argument to an invocation of the
`REAL()' intrinsic.  For example,

     REAL(REAL(Z))

is permitted even when `Z' is `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' and `-fno-ugly-complex'
is in effect, because the meaning is clear.

   `g77' enforces this restriction, unless `-fugly-complex' is
specified, in which case the appropriate interpretation is chosen and
no diagnostic is issued.

   *Note CMPAMBIG::, for information on how to cope with existing code
with unclear expectations of `REAL()' and `AIMAG()' with
`COMPLEX(KIND=2)' arguments.

   *Note RealPart Intrinsic::, for information on the `REALPART()'
intrinsic, used to extract the real part of a complex expression
without conversion.  *Note ImagPart Intrinsic::, for information on the
`IMAGPART()' intrinsic, used to extract the imaginary part of a complex
expression without conversion.

File: g77.info,  Node: Ugly Conversion of Initializers,  Next: Ugly Integer Conversions,  Prev: Ugly Complex Part Extraction,  Up: Distensions

9.9.5 Ugly Conversion of Initializers
-------------------------------------

The constructs disabled by `-fno-ugly-init' are:

   * Use of Hollerith and typeless constants in contexts where they set
     initial (compile-time) values for variables, arrays, and named
     constants--that is, `DATA' and `PARAMETER' statements, plus
     type-declaration statements specifying initial values.

     Here are some sample initializations that are disabled by the
     `-fno-ugly-init' option:

          PARAMETER (VAL='9A304FFE'X)
          REAL*8 STRING/8HOUTPUT00/
          DATA VAR/4HABCD/

   * In the same contexts as above, use of character constants to
     initialize numeric items and vice versa (one constant per item).

     Here are more sample initializations that are disabled by the
     `-fno-ugly-init' option:

          INTEGER IA
          CHARACTER BELL
          PARAMETER (IA = 'A')
          PARAMETER (BELL = 7)

   * Use of Hollerith and typeless constants on the right-hand side of
     assignment statements to numeric types, and in other contexts
     (such as passing arguments in invocations of intrinsic procedures
     and statement functions) that are treated as assignments to known
     types (the dummy arguments, in these cases).

     Here are sample statements that are disabled by the
     `-fno-ugly-init' option:

          IVAR = 4HABCD
          PRINT *, IMAX0(2HAB, 2HBA)

   The above constructs, when used, can tend to result in non-portable
code.  But, they are widely used in existing Fortran code in ways that
often are quite portable.  Therefore, they are enabled by default.

File: g77.info,  Node: Ugly Integer Conversions,  Next: Ugly Assigned Labels,  Prev: Ugly Conversion of Initializers,  Up: Distensions

9.9.6 Ugly Integer Conversions
------------------------------

The constructs enabled via `-fugly-logint' are:

   * Automatic conversion between `INTEGER' and `LOGICAL' as dictated by
     context (typically implies nonportable dependencies on how a
     particular implementation encodes `.TRUE.' and `.FALSE.').

   * Use of a `LOGICAL' variable in `ASSIGN' and assigned-`GOTO'
     statements.

   The above constructs are disabled by default because use of them
tends to lead to non-portable code.  Even existing Fortran code that
uses that often turns out to be non-portable, if not outright buggy.

   Some of this is due to differences among implementations as far as
how `.TRUE.' and `.FALSE.' are encoded as `INTEGER' values--Fortran
code that assumes a particular coding is likely to use one of the above
constructs, and is also likely to not work correctly on implementations
using different encodings.

   *Note Equivalence Versus Equality::, for more information.

File: g77.info,  Node: Ugly Assigned Labels,  Prev: Ugly Integer Conversions,  Up: Distensions

9.9.7 Ugly Assigned Labels
--------------------------

The `-fugly-assign' option forces `g77' to use the same storage for
assigned labels as it would for a normal assignment to the same
variable.

   For example, consider the following code fragment:

     I = 3
     ASSIGN 10 TO I

Normally, for portability and improved diagnostics, `g77' reserves
distinct storage for a "sibling" of `I', used only for `ASSIGN'
statements to that variable (along with the corresponding
assigned-`GOTO' and assigned-`FORMAT'-I/O statements that reference the
variable).

   However, some code (that violates the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard)
attempts to copy assigned labels among variables involved with `ASSIGN'
statements, as in:

     ASSIGN 10 TO I
     ISTATE(5) = I
     ...
     J = ISTATE(ICUR)
     GOTO J

Such code doesn't work under `g77' unless `-fugly-assign' is specified
on the command-line, ensuring that the value of `I' referenced in the
second line is whatever value `g77' uses to designate statement label
`10', so the value may be copied into the `ISTATE' array, later
retrieved into a variable of the appropriate type (`J'), and used as
the target of an assigned-`GOTO' statement.

   _Note:_ To avoid subtle program bugs, when `-fugly-assign' is
specified, `g77' requires the type of variables specified in
assigned-label contexts _must_ be the same type returned by `%LOC()'.
On many systems, this type is effectively the same as
`INTEGER(KIND=1)', while, on others, it is effectively the same as
`INTEGER(KIND=2)'.

   Do _not_ depend on `g77' actually writing valid pointers to these
variables, however.  While `g77' currently chooses that implementation,
it might be changed in the future.

   *Note Assigned Statement Labels (ASSIGN and GOTO): Assigned
Statement Labels, for implementation details on assigned-statement
labels.

File: g77.info,  Node: Other Compilers,  Next: Other Languages,  Prev: Other Dialects,  Up: Top

11 Other Compilers
******************

An individual Fortran source file can be compiled to an object (`*.o')
file instead of to the final program executable.  This allows several
portions of a program to be compiled at different times and linked
together whenever a new version of the program is needed.  However, it
introduces the issue of "object compatibility" across the various
object files (and libraries, or `*.a' files) that are linked together
to produce any particular executable file.

   Object compatibility is an issue when combining, in one program,
Fortran code compiled by more than one compiler (or more than one
configuration of a compiler).  If the compilers disagree on how to
transform the names of procedures, there will normally be errors when
linking such programs.  Worse, if the compilers agree on naming, but
disagree on issues like how to pass parameters, return arguments, and
lay out `COMMON' areas, the earliest detected errors might be the
incorrect results produced by the program (and that assumes these
errors are detected, which is not always the case).

   Normally, `g77' generates code that is object-compatible with code
generated by a version of `f2c' configured (with, for example, `f2c.h'
definitions) to be generally compatible with `g77' as built by `gcc'.
(Normally, `f2c' will, by default, conform to the appropriate
configuration, but it is possible that older or perhaps even newer
versions of `f2c', or versions having certain configuration changes to
`f2c' internals, will produce object files that are incompatible with
`g77'.)

   For example, a Fortran string subroutine argument will become two
arguments on the C side: a `char *' and an `int' length.

   Much of this compatibility results from the fact that `g77' uses the
same run-time library, `libf2c', used by `f2c', though `g77' gives its
version the name `libg2c' so as to avoid conflicts when linking,
installing them in the same directories, and so on.

   Other compilers might or might not generate code that is
object-compatible with `libg2c' and current `g77', and some might offer
such compatibility only when explicitly selected via a command-line
option to the compiler.

   _Note: This portion of the documentation definitely needs a lot of
work!_

* Menu:

* Dropping f2c Compatibility::  When speed is more important.
* Compilers Other Than f2c::    Interoperation with code from other compilers.

File: g77.info,  Node: Dropping f2c Compatibility,  Next: Compilers Other Than f2c,  Up: Other Compilers

11.1 Dropping `f2c' Compatibility
=================================

Specifying `-fno-f2c' allows `g77' to generate, in some cases, faster
code, by not needing to allow to the possibility of linking with code
compiled by `f2c'.

   For example, this affects how `REAL(KIND=1)', `COMPLEX(KIND=1)', and
`COMPLEX(KIND=2)' functions are called.  With `-fno-f2c', they are
compiled as returning the appropriate `gcc' type (`float', `__complex__
float', `__complex__ double', in many configurations).

   With `-ff2c' in force, they are compiled differently (with perhaps
slower run-time performance) to accommodate the restrictions inherent
in `f2c''s use of K&R C as an intermediate language--`REAL(KIND=1)'
functions return C's `double' type, while `COMPLEX' functions return
`void' and use an extra argument pointing to a place for the functions
to return their values.

   It is possible that, in some cases, leaving `-ff2c' in force might
produce faster code than using `-fno-f2c'.  Feel free to experiment,
but remember to experiment with changing the way _entire programs and
their Fortran libraries are compiled_ at a time, since this sort of
experimentation affects the interface of code generated for a Fortran
source file--that is, it affects object compatibility.

   Note that `f2c' compatibility is a fairly static target to achieve,
though not necessarily perfectly so, since, like `g77', it is still
being improved.  However, specifying `-fno-f2c' causes `g77' to
generate code that will probably be incompatible with code generated by
future versions of `g77' when the same option is in force.  You should
make sure you are always able to recompile complete programs from
source code when upgrading to new versions of `g77' or `f2c',
especially when using options such as `-fno-f2c'.

   Therefore, if you are using `g77' to compile libraries and other
object files for possible future use and you don't want to require
recompilation for future use with subsequent versions of `g77', you
might want to stick with `f2c' compatibility for now, and carefully
watch for any announcements about changes to the `f2c'/`libf2c'
interface that might affect existing programs (thus requiring
recompilation).

   It is probable that a future version of `g77' will not, by default,
generate object files compatible with `f2c', and that version probably
would no longer use `libf2c'.  If you expect to depend on this
compatibility in the long term, use the options `-ff2c -ff2c-library'
when compiling all of the applicable code.  This should cause future
versions of `g77' either to produce compatible code (at the expense of
the availability of some features and performance), or at the very
least, to produce diagnostics.

   (The library `g77' produces will no longer be named `libg2c' when it
is no longer generally compatible with `libf2c'.  It will likely be
referred to, and, if installed as a distinct library, named `libg77',
or some other as-yet-unused name.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Compilers Other Than f2c,  Prev: Dropping f2c Compatibility,  Up: Other Compilers

11.2 Compilers Other Than `f2c'
===============================

On systems with Fortran compilers other than `f2c' and `g77', code
compiled by `g77' is not expected to work well with code compiled by
the native compiler.  (This is true for `f2c'-compiled objects as well.)
Libraries compiled with the native compiler probably will have to be
recompiled with `g77' to be used with `g77'-compiled code.

   Reasons for such incompatibilities include:

   * There might be differences in the way names of Fortran procedures
     are translated for use in the system's object-file format.  For
     example, the statement `CALL FOO' might be compiled by `g77' to
     call a procedure the linker `ld' sees given the name `_foo_',
     while the apparently corresponding statement `SUBROUTINE FOO'
     might be compiled by the native compiler to define the
     linker-visible name `_foo', or `_FOO_', and so on.

   * There might be subtle type mismatches which cause subroutine
     arguments and function return values to get corrupted.

     This is why simply getting `g77' to transform procedure names the
     same way a native compiler does is not usually a good idea--unless
     some effort has been made to ensure that, aside from the way the
     two compilers transform procedure names, everything else about the
     way they generate code for procedure interfaces is identical.

   * Native compilers use libraries of private I/O routines which will
     not be available at link time unless you have the native
     compiler--and you would have to explicitly ask for them.

     For example, on the Sun you would have to add `-L/usr/lang/SCx.x
     -lF77 -lV77' to the link command.

File: g77.info,  Node: Other Languages,  Next: Debugging and Interfacing,  Prev: Other Compilers,  Up: Top

12 Other Languages
******************

_Note: This portion of the documentation definitely needs a lot of
work!_

* Menu:

* Interoperating with C and C++::

File: g77.info,  Node: Interoperating with C and C++,  Up: Other Languages

12.1 Tools and advice for interoperating with C and C++
=======================================================

The following discussion assumes that you are running `g77' in `f2c'
compatibility mode, i.e. not using `-fno-f2c'.  It provides some advice
about quick and simple techniques for linking Fortran and C (or C++),
the most common requirement.  For the full story consult the
description of code generation.  *Note Debugging and Interfacing::.

   When linking Fortran and C, it's usually best to use `g77' to do the
linking so that the correct libraries are included (including the maths
one).  If you're linking with C++ you will want to add `-lstdc++',
`-lg++' or whatever.  If you need to use another driver program (or
`ld' directly), you can find out what linkage options `g77' passes by
running `g77 -v'.

* Menu:

* C Interfacing Tools::
* C Access to Type Information::
* f2c Skeletons and Prototypes::
* C++ Considerations::
* Startup Code::

File: g77.info,  Node: C Interfacing Tools,  Next: C Access to Type Information,  Up: Interoperating with C and C++

12.1.1 C Interfacing Tools
--------------------------

Even if you don't actually use it as a compiler, `f2c' from
`ftp://ftp.netlib.org/f2c/src', can be a useful tool when you're
interfacing (linking) Fortran and C.  *Note Generating Skeletons and
Prototypes with `f2c': f2c Skeletons and Prototypes.

   To use `f2c' for this purpose you only need retrieve and build the
`src' directory from the distribution, consult the `README'
instructions there for machine-specifics, and install the `f2c' program
on your path.

   Something else that might be useful is `cfortran.h' from
`ftp://zebra.desy.de/cfortran'.  This is a fairly general tool which
can be used to generate interfaces for calling in both directions
between Fortran and C.  It can be used in `f2c' mode with
`g77'--consult its documentation for details.

File: g77.info,  Node: C Access to Type Information,  Next: f2c Skeletons and Prototypes,  Prev: C Interfacing Tools,  Up: Interoperating with C and C++

12.1.2 Accessing Type Information in C
--------------------------------------

Generally, C code written to link with `g77' code--calling and/or being
called from Fortran--should `#include <g2c.h>' to define the C versions
of the Fortran types.  Don't assume Fortran `INTEGER' types correspond
to C `int's, for instance; instead, declare them as `integer', a type
defined by `g2c.h'.  `g2c.h' is installed where `gcc' will find it by
default, assuming you use a copy of `gcc' compatible with `g77',
probably built at the same time as `g77'.

File: g77.info,  Node: f2c Skeletons and Prototypes,  Next: C++ Considerations,  Prev: C Access to Type Information,  Up: Interoperating with C and C++

12.1.3 Generating Skeletons and Prototypes with `f2c'
-----------------------------------------------------

A simple and foolproof way to write `g77'-callable C routines--e.g. to
interface with an existing library--is to write a file (named, for
example, `fred.f') of dummy Fortran skeletons comprising just the
declaration of the routine(s) and dummy arguments plus `END' statements.
Then run `f2c' on file `fred.f' to produce `fred.c' into which you can
edit useful code, confident the calling sequence is correct, at least.
(There are some errors otherwise commonly made in generating C
interfaces with `f2c' conventions, such as not using `doublereal' as
the return type of a `REAL' `FUNCTION'.)

   `f2c' also can help with calling Fortran from C, using its `-P'
option to generate C prototypes appropriate for calling the Fortran.(1)
If the Fortran code containing any routines to be called from C is in
file `joe.f', use the command `f2c -P joe.f' to generate the file
`joe.P' containing prototype information.  `#include' this in the C
which has to call the Fortran routines to make sure you get it right.

   *Note Arrays (DIMENSION): Arrays, for information on the differences
between the way Fortran (including compilers like `g77') and C handle
arrays.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The files generated like this can also be used for inter-unit
consistency checking of dummy and actual arguments, although the
`ftnchek' tool from `ftp://ftp.netlib.org/fortran' or
`ftp://ftp.dsm.fordham.edu' is probably better for this purpose.

File: g77.info,  Node: C++ Considerations,  Next: Startup Code,  Prev: f2c Skeletons and Prototypes,  Up: Interoperating with C and C++

12.1.4 C++ Considerations
-------------------------

`f2c' can be used to generate suitable code for compilation with a C++
system using the `-C++' option.  The important thing about linking
`g77'-compiled code with C++ is that the prototypes for the `g77'
routines must specify C linkage to avoid name mangling.  So, use an
`extern "C"' declaration.  `f2c''s `-C++' option will not take care of
this when generating skeletons or prototype files as above, however, it
will avoid clashes with C++ reserved words in addition to those in C.

File: g77.info,  Node: Startup Code,  Prev: C++ Considerations,  Up: Interoperating with C and C++

12.1.5 Startup Code
-------------------

Unlike with some runtime systems, it shouldn't be necessary (unless
there are bugs) to use a Fortran main program unit to ensure the
runtime--specifically the I/O system--is initialized.

   However, to use the `g77' intrinsics `GETARG' and `IARGC', either
the `main' routine from the `libg2c' library must be used, or the
`f_setarg' routine (new as of `egcs' version 1.1 and `g77' version
0.5.23) must be called with the appropriate `argc' and `argv' arguments
prior to the program calling `GETARG' or `IARGC'.

   To provide more flexibility for mixed-language programming involving
`g77' while allowing for shared libraries, as of `egcs' version 1.1 and
`g77' version 0.5.23, `g77''s `main' routine in `libg2c' does the
following, in order:

  1. Calls `f_setarg' with the incoming `argc' and `argv' arguments, in
     the same order as for `main' itself.

     This sets up the command-line environment for `GETARG' and `IARGC'.

  2. Calls `f_setsig' (with no arguments).

     This sets up the signaling and exception environment.

  3. Calls `f_init' (with no arguments).

     This initializes the I/O environment, though that should not be
     necessary, as all I/O functions in `libf2c' are believed to call
     `f_init' automatically, if necessary.

     (A future version of `g77' might skip this explicit step, to speed
     up normal exit of a program.)

  4. Arranges for `f_exit' to be called (with no arguments) when the
     program exits.

     This ensures that the I/O environment is properly shut down before
     the program exits normally.  Otherwise, output buffers might not
     be fully flushed, scratch files might not be deleted, and so on.

     The simple way `main' does this is to call `f_exit' itself after
     calling `MAIN__' (in the next step).

     However, this does not catch the cases where the program might
     call `exit' directly, instead of using the `EXIT' intrinsic
     (implemented as `exit_' in `libf2c').

     So, `main' attempts to use the operating environment's `onexit' or
     `atexit' facility, if available, to cause `f_exit' to be called
     automatically upon any invocation of `exit'.

  5. Calls `MAIN__' (with no arguments).

     This starts executing the Fortran main program unit for the
     application.  (Both `g77' and `f2c' currently compile a main
     program unit so that its global name is `MAIN__'.)

  6. If no `onexit' or `atexit' is provided by the system, calls
     `f_exit'.

  7. Calls `exit' with a zero argument, to signal a successful program
     termination.

  8. Returns a zero value to the caller, to signal a successful program
     termination, in case `exit' doesn't exit on the system.

   All of the above names are C `extern' names, i.e. not mangled.

   When using the `main' procedure provided by `g77' without a Fortran
main program unit, you need to provide `MAIN__' as the entry point for
your C code.  (Make sure you link the object file that defines that
entry point with the rest of your program.)

   To provide your own `main' procedure in place of `g77''s, make sure
you specify the object file defining that procedure _before_ `-lg2c' on
the `g77' command line.  Since the `-lg2c' option is implicitly
provided, this is usually straightforward.  (Use the `--verbose' option
to see how and where `g77' implicitly adds `-lg2c' in a command line
that will link the program.  Feel free to specify `-lg2c' explicitly,
as appropriate.)

   However, when providing your own `main', make sure you perform the
appropriate tasks in the appropriate order.  For example, if your
`main' does not call `f_setarg', make sure the rest of your application
does not call `GETARG' or `IARGC'.

   And, if your `main' fails to ensure that `f_exit' is called upon
program exit, some files might end up incompletely written, some
scratch files might be left lying around, and some existing files being
written might be left with old data not properly truncated at the end.

   Note that, generally, the `g77' operating environment does not
depend on a procedure named `MAIN__' actually being called prior to any
other `g77'-compiled code.  That is, `MAIN__' does not, itself, set up
any important operating-environment characteristics upon which other
code might depend.  This might change in future versions of `g77', with
appropriate notification in the release notes.

   For more information, consult the source code for the above routines.
These are in `gcc/libf2c/libF77/', named `main.c', `setarg.c',
`setsig.c', `getarg_.c', and `iargc_.c'.

   Also, the file `gcc/gcc/f/com.c' contains the code `g77' uses to
open-code (inline) references to `IARGC'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Debugging and Interfacing,  Next: Collected Fortran Wisdom,  Prev: Other Languages,  Up: Top

13 Debugging and Interfacing
****************************

GNU Fortran currently generates code that is object-compatible with the
`f2c' converter.  Also, it avoids limitations in the current GBE, such
as the inability to generate a procedure with multiple entry points, by
generating code that is structured differently (in terms of procedure
names, scopes, arguments, and so on) than might be expected.

   As a result, writing code in other languages that calls on, is
called by, or shares in-memory data with `g77'-compiled code generally
requires some understanding of the way `g77' compiles code for various
constructs.

   Similarly, using a debugger to debug `g77'-compiled code, even if
that debugger supports native Fortran debugging, generally requires
this sort of information.

   This section describes some of the basic information on how `g77'
compiles code for constructs involving interfaces to other languages
and to debuggers.

   _Caution:_ Much or all of this information pertains to only the
current release of `g77', sometimes even to using certain compiler
options with `g77' (such as `-fno-f2c').  Do not write code that
depends on this information without clearly marking said code as
nonportable and subject to review for every new release of `g77'.  This
information is provided primarily to make debugging of code generated
by this particular release of `g77' easier for the user, and partly to
make writing (generally nonportable) interface code easier.  Both of
these activities require tracking changes in new version of `g77' as
they are installed, because new versions can change the behaviors
described in this section.

* Menu:

* Main Program Unit::  How `g77' compiles a main program unit.
* Procedures::         How `g77' constructs parameter lists
                       for procedures.
* Functions::          Functions returning floating-point or character data.
* Names::              Naming of user-defined variables, procedures, etc.
* Common Blocks::      Accessing common variables while debugging.
* Local Equivalence Areas::  Accessing `EQUIVALENCE' while debugging.
* Complex Variables::  How `g77' performs complex arithmetic.
* Arrays::             Dealing with (possibly multi-dimensional) arrays.
* Adjustable Arrays::  Special consideration for adjustable arrays.
* Alternate Entry Points::  How `g77' implements alternate `ENTRY'.
* Alternate Returns::  How `g77' handles alternate returns.
* Assigned Statement Labels::  How `g77' handles `ASSIGN'.
* Run-time Library Errors::  Meanings of some `IOSTAT=' values.

File: g77.info,  Node: Main Program Unit,  Next: Procedures,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.1 Main Program Unit (PROGRAM)
================================

When `g77' compiles a main program unit, it gives it the public
procedure name `MAIN__'.  The `libg2c' library has the actual `main()'
procedure as is typical of C-based environments, and it is this
procedure that performs some initial start-up activity and then calls
`MAIN__'.

   Generally, `g77' and `libg2c' are designed so that you need not
include a main program unit written in Fortran in your program--it can
be written in C or some other language.  Especially for I/O handling,
this is the case, although `g77' version 0.5.16 includes a bug fix for
`libg2c' that solved a problem with using the `OPEN' statement as the
first Fortran I/O activity in a program without a Fortran main program
unit.

   However, if you don't intend to use `g77' (or `f2c') to compile your
main program unit--that is, if you intend to compile a `main()'
procedure using some other language--you should carefully examine the
code for `main()' in `libg2c', found in the source file
`gcc/libf2c/libF77/main.c', to see what kinds of things might need to
be done by your `main()' in order to provide the Fortran environment
your Fortran code is expecting.

   For example, `libg2c''s `main()' sets up the information used by the
`IARGC' and `GETARG' intrinsics.  Bypassing `libg2c''s `main()' without
providing a substitute for this activity would mean that invoking
`IARGC' and `GETARG' would produce undefined results.

   When debugging, one implication of the fact that `main()', which is
the place where the debugged program "starts" from the debugger's point
of view, is in `libg2c' is that you won't be starting your Fortran
program at a point you recognize as your Fortran code.

   The standard way to get around this problem is to set a break point
(a one-time, or temporary, break point will do) at the entrance to
`MAIN__', and then run the program.  A convenient way to do so is to
add the `gdb' command

     tbreak MAIN__

to the file `.gdbinit' in the directory in which you're debugging
(using `gdb').

   After doing this, the debugger will see the current execution point
of the program as at the beginning of the main program unit of your
program.

   Of course, if you really want to set a break point at some other
place in your program and just start the program running, without first
breaking at `MAIN__', that should work fine.

File: g77.info,  Node: Procedures,  Next: Functions,  Prev: Main Program Unit,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.2 Procedures (SUBROUTINE and FUNCTION)
=========================================

Currently, `g77' passes arguments via reference--specifically, by
passing a pointer to the location in memory of a variable, array, array
element, a temporary location that holds the result of evaluating an
expression, or a temporary or permanent location that holds the value
of a constant.

   Procedures that accept `CHARACTER' arguments are implemented by
`g77' so that each `CHARACTER' argument has two actual arguments.

   The first argument occupies the expected position in the argument
list and has the user-specified name.  This argument is a pointer to an
array of characters, passed by the caller.

   The second argument is appended to the end of the user-specified
calling sequence and is named `__g77_length_X', where X is the
user-specified name.  This argument is of the C type `ftnlen' (see
`gcc/libf2c/g2c.h.in' for information on that type) and is the number
of characters the caller has allocated in the array pointed to by the
first argument.

   A procedure will ignore the length argument if `X' is not declared
`CHARACTER*(*)', because for other declarations, it knows the length.
Not all callers necessarily "know" this, however, which is why they all
pass the extra argument.

   The contents of the `CHARACTER' argument are specified by the
address passed in the first argument (named after it).  The procedure
can read or write these contents as appropriate.

   When more than one `CHARACTER' argument is present in the argument
list, the length arguments are appended in the order the original
arguments appear.  So `CALL FOO('HI','THERE')' is implemented in C as
`foo("hi","there",2,5);', ignoring the fact that `g77' does not provide
the trailing null bytes on the constant strings (`f2c' does provide
them, but they are unnecessary in a Fortran environment, and you should
not expect them to be there).

   Note that the above information applies to `CHARACTER' variables and
arrays *only*.  It does *not* apply to external `CHARACTER' functions
or to intrinsic `CHARACTER' functions.  That is, no second length
argument is passed to `FOO' in this case:

     CHARACTER X
     EXTERNAL X
     CALL FOO(X)

Nor does `FOO' expect such an argument in this case:

     SUBROUTINE FOO(X)
     CHARACTER X
     EXTERNAL X

   Because of this implementation detail, if a program has a bug such
that there is disagreement as to whether an argument is a procedure,
and the type of the argument is `CHARACTER', subtle symptoms might
appear.

File: g77.info,  Node: Functions,  Next: Names,  Prev: Procedures,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.3 Functions (FUNCTION and RETURN)
====================================

`g77' handles in a special way functions that return the following
types:

   * `CHARACTER'

   * `COMPLEX'

   * `REAL(KIND=1)'

   For `CHARACTER', `g77' implements a subroutine (a C function
returning `void') with two arguments prepended: `__g77_result', which
the caller passes as a pointer to a `char' array expected to hold the
return value, and `__g77_length', which the caller passes as an
`ftnlen' value specifying the length of the return value as declared in
the calling program.  For `CHARACTER*(*)', the called function uses
`__g77_length' to determine the size of the array that `__g77_result'
points to; otherwise, it ignores that argument.

   For `COMPLEX', when `-ff2c' is in force, `g77' implements a
subroutine with one argument prepended: `__g77_result', which the
caller passes as a pointer to a variable of the type of the function.
The called function writes the return value into this variable instead
of returning it as a function value.  When `-fno-f2c' is in force,
`g77' implements a `COMPLEX' function as `gcc''s `__complex__ float' or
`__complex__ double' function (or an emulation thereof, when
`-femulate-complex' is in effect), returning the result of the function
in the same way as `gcc' would.

   For `REAL(KIND=1)', when `-ff2c' is in force, `g77' implements a
function that actually returns `REAL(KIND=2)' (typically C's `double'
type).  When `-fno-f2c' is in force, `REAL(KIND=1)' functions return
`float'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Names,  Next: Common Blocks,  Prev: Functions,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.4 Names
==========

Fortran permits each implementation to decide how to represent names as
far as how they're seen in other contexts, such as debuggers and when
interfacing to other languages, and especially as far as how casing is
handled.

   External names--names of entities that are public, or "accessible",
to all modules in a program--normally have an underscore (`_') appended
by `g77', to generate code that is compatible with `f2c'.  External
names include names of Fortran things like common blocks, external
procedures (subroutines and functions, but not including statement
functions, which are internal procedures), and entry point names.

   However, use of the `-fno-underscoring' option disables this kind of
transformation of external names (though inhibiting the transformation
certainly improves the chances of colliding with incompatible externals
written in other languages--but that might be intentional.

   When `-funderscoring' is in force, any name (external or local) that
already has at least one underscore in it is implemented by `g77' by
appending two underscores.  (This second underscore can be disabled via
the `-fno-second-underscore' option.)  External names are changed this
way for `f2c' compatibility.  Local names are changed this way to avoid
collisions with external names that are different in the source
code--`f2c' does the same thing, but there's no compatibility issue
there except for user expectations while debugging.

   For example:

     Max_Cost = 0

Here, a user would, in the debugger, refer to this variable using the
name `max_cost__' (or `MAX_COST__' or `Max_Cost__', as described below).
(We hope to improve `g77' in this regard in the future--don't write
scripts depending on this behavior!  Also, consider experimenting with
the `-fno-underscoring' option to try out debugging without having to
massage names by hand like this.)

   `g77' provides a number of command-line options that allow the user
to control how case mapping is handled for source files.  The default
is the traditional UNIX model for Fortran compilers--names are mapped
to lower case.  Other command-line options can be specified to map
names to upper case, or to leave them exactly as written in the source
file.

   For example:

     Foo = 9.436

Here, it is normally the case that the variable assigned will be named
`foo'.  This would be the name to enter when using a debugger to access
the variable.

   However, depending on the command-line options specified, the name
implemented by `g77' might instead be `FOO' or even `Foo', thus
affecting how debugging is done.

   Also:

     Call Foo

This would normally call a procedure that, if it were in a separate C
program, be defined starting with the line:

     void foo_()

However, `g77' command-line options could be used to change the casing
of names, resulting in the name `FOO_' or `Foo_' being given to the
procedure instead of `foo_', and the `-fno-underscoring' option could
be used to inhibit the appending of the underscore to the name.

File: g77.info,  Node: Common Blocks,  Next: Local Equivalence Areas,  Prev: Names,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.5 Common Blocks (COMMON)
===========================

`g77' names and lays out `COMMON' areas the same way `f2c' does, for
compatibility with `f2c'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Local Equivalence Areas,  Next: Complex Variables,  Prev: Common Blocks,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.6 Local Equivalence Areas (EQUIVALENCE)
==========================================

`g77' treats storage-associated areas involving a `COMMON' block as
explained in the section on common blocks.

   A local `EQUIVALENCE' area is a collection of variables and arrays
connected to each other in any way via `EQUIVALENCE', none of which are
listed in a `COMMON' statement.

   (_Note:_ `g77' version 0.5.18 and earlier chose the name for X using
a different method when more than one name was in the list of names of
entities placed at the beginning of the array.  Though the
documentation specified that the first name listed in the `EQUIVALENCE'
statements was chosen for X, `g77' in fact chose the name using a
method that was so complicated, it seemed easier to change it to an
alphabetical sort than to describe the previous method in the
documentation.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Complex Variables,  Next: Arrays,  Prev: Local Equivalence Areas,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.7 Complex Variables (COMPLEX)
================================

As of 0.5.20, `g77' defaults to handling `COMPLEX' types (and related
intrinsics, constants, functions, and so on) in a manner that makes
direct debugging involving these types in Fortran language mode
difficult.

   Essentially, `g77' implements these types using an internal
construct similar to C's `struct', at least as seen by the `gcc' back
end.

   Currently, the back end, when outputting debugging info with the
compiled code for the assembler to digest, does not detect these
`struct' types as being substitutes for Fortran complex.  As a result,
the Fortran language modes of debuggers such as `gdb' see these types
as C `struct' types, which they might or might not support.

   Until this is fixed, switch to C language mode to work with entities
of `COMPLEX' type and then switch back to Fortran language mode
afterward.  (In `gdb', this is accomplished via `set lang c' and either
`set lang fortran' or `set lang auto'.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Arrays,  Next: Adjustable Arrays,  Prev: Complex Variables,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.8 Arrays (DIMENSION)
=======================

Fortran uses "column-major ordering" in its arrays.  This differs from
other languages, such as C, which use "row-major ordering".  The
difference is that, with Fortran, array elements adjacent to each other
in memory differ in the _first_ subscript instead of the last;
`A(5,10,20)' immediately follows `A(4,10,20)', whereas with row-major
ordering it would follow `A(5,10,19)'.

   This consideration affects not only interfacing with and debugging
Fortran code, it can greatly affect how code is designed and written,
especially when code speed and size is a concern.

   Fortran also differs from C, a popular language for interfacing and
to support directly in debuggers, in the way arrays are treated.  In C,
arrays are single-dimensional and have interesting relationships to
pointers, neither of which is true for Fortran.  As a result, dealing
with Fortran arrays from within an environment limited to C concepts
can be challenging.

   For example, accessing the array element `A(5,10,20)' is easy enough
in Fortran (use `A(5,10,20)'), but in C some difficult machinations are
needed.  First, C would treat the A array as a single-dimension array.
Second, C does not understand low bounds for arrays as does Fortran.
Third, C assumes a low bound of zero (0), while Fortran defaults to a
low bound of one (1) and can supports an arbitrary low bound.
Therefore, calculations must be done to determine what the C equivalent
of `A(5,10,20)' would be, and these calculations require knowing the
dimensions of `A'.

   For `DIMENSION A(2:11,21,0:29)', the calculation of the offset of
`A(5,10,20)' would be:

       (5-2)
     + (10-1)*(11-2+1)
     + (20-0)*(11-2+1)*(21-1+1)
     = 4293

So the C equivalent in this case would be `a[4293]'.

   When using a debugger directly on Fortran code, the C equivalent
might not work, because some debuggers cannot understand the notion of
low bounds other than zero.  However, unlike `f2c', `g77' does inform
the GBE that a multi-dimensional array (like `A' in the above example)
is really multi-dimensional, rather than a single-dimensional array, so
at least the dimensionality of the array is preserved.

   Debuggers that understand Fortran should have no trouble with
nonzero low bounds, but for non-Fortran debuggers, especially C
debuggers, the above example might have a C equivalent of `a[4305]'.
This calculation is arrived at by eliminating the subtraction of the
lower bound in the first parenthesized expression on each line--that
is, for `(5-2)' substitute `(5)', for `(10-1)' substitute `(10)', and
for `(20-0)' substitute `(20)'.  Actually, the implication of this can
be that the expression `*(&a[2][1][0] + 4293)' works fine, but that
`a[20][10][5]' produces the equivalent of `*(&a[0][0][0] + 4305)'
because of the missing lower bounds.

   Come to think of it, perhaps the behavior is due to the debugger
internally compensating for the lower bounds by offsetting the base
address of `a', leaving `&a' set lower, in this case, than
`&a[2][1][0]' (the address of its first element as identified by
subscripts equal to the corresponding lower bounds).

   You know, maybe nobody really needs to use arrays.

File: g77.info,  Node: Adjustable Arrays,  Next: Alternate Entry Points,  Prev: Arrays,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.9 Adjustable Arrays (DIMENSION)
==================================

Adjustable and automatic arrays in Fortran require the implementation
(in this case, the `g77' compiler) to "memorize" the expressions that
dimension the arrays each time the procedure is invoked.  This is so
that subsequent changes to variables used in those expressions, made
during execution of the procedure, do not have any effect on the
dimensions of those arrays.

   For example:

     REAL ARRAY(5)
     DATA ARRAY/5*2/
     CALL X(ARRAY, 5)
     END
     SUBROUTINE X(A, N)
     DIMENSION A(N)
     N = 20
     PRINT *, N, A
     END

Here, the implementation should, when running the program, print
something like:

     20   2.  2.  2.  2.  2.

Note that this shows that while the value of `N' was successfully
changed, the size of the `A' array remained at 5 elements.

   To support this, `g77' generates code that executes before any user
code (and before the internally generated computed `GOTO' to handle
alternate entry points, as described below) that evaluates each
(nonconstant) expression in the list of subscripts for an array, and
saves the result of each such evaluation to be used when determining
the size of the array (instead of re-evaluating the expressions).

   So, in the above example, when `X' is first invoked, code is
executed that copies the value of `N' to a temporary.  And that same
temporary serves as the actual high bound for the single dimension of
the `A' array (the low bound being the constant 1).  Since the user
program cannot (legitimately) change the value of the temporary during
execution of the procedure, the size of the array remains constant
during each invocation.

   For alternate entry points, the code `g77' generates takes into
account the possibility that a dummy adjustable array is not actually
passed to the actual entry point being invoked at that time.  In that
case, the public procedure implementing the entry point passes to the
master private procedure implementing all the code for the entry points
a `NULL' pointer where a pointer to that adjustable array would be
expected.  The `g77'-generated code doesn't attempt to evaluate any of
the expressions in the subscripts for an array if the pointer to that
array is `NULL' at run time in such cases.  (Don't depend on this
particular implementation by writing code that purposely passes `NULL'
pointers where the callee expects adjustable arrays, even if you know
the callee won't reference the arrays--nor should you pass `NULL'
pointers for any dummy arguments used in calculating the bounds of such
arrays or leave undefined any values used for that purpose in
COMMON--because the way `g77' implements these things might change in
the future!)

File: g77.info,  Node: Alternate Entry Points,  Next: Alternate Returns,  Prev: Adjustable Arrays,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.10 Alternate Entry Points (ENTRY)
====================================

The GBE does not understand the general concept of alternate entry
points as Fortran provides via the ENTRY statement.  `g77' gets around
this by using an approach to compiling procedures having at least one
`ENTRY' statement that is almost identical to the approach used by
`f2c'.  (An alternate approach could be used that would probably
generate faster, but larger, code that would also be a bit easier to
debug.)

   Information on how `g77' implements `ENTRY' is provided for those
trying to debug such code.  The choice of implementation seems unlikely
to affect code (compiled in other languages) that interfaces to such
code.

   `g77' compiles exactly one public procedure for the primary entry
point of a procedure plus each `ENTRY' point it specifies, as usual.
That is, in terms of the public interface, there is no difference
between

     SUBROUTINE X
     END
     SUBROUTINE Y
     END

and:

     SUBROUTINE X
     ENTRY Y
     END

   The difference between the above two cases lies in the code compiled
for the `X' and `Y' procedures themselves, plus the fact that, for the
second case, an extra internal procedure is compiled.

   For every Fortran procedure with at least one `ENTRY' statement,
`g77' compiles an extra procedure named `__g77_masterfun_X', where X is
the name of the primary entry point (which, in the above case, using
the standard compiler options, would be `x_' in C).

   This extra procedure is compiled as a private procedure--that is, a
procedure not accessible by name to separately compiled modules.  It
contains all the code in the program unit, including the code for the
primary entry point plus for every entry point.  (The code for each
public procedure is quite short, and explained later.)

   The extra procedure has some other interesting characteristics.

   The argument list for this procedure is invented by `g77'.  It
contains a single integer argument named `__g77_which_entrypoint',
passed by value (as in Fortran's `%VAL()' intrinsic), specifying the
entry point index--0 for the primary entry point, 1 for the first entry
point (the first `ENTRY' statement encountered), 2 for the second entry
point, and so on.

   It also contains, for functions returning `CHARACTER' and (when
`-ff2c' is in effect) `COMPLEX' functions, and for functions returning
different types among the `ENTRY' statements (e.g. `REAL FUNCTION R()'
containing `ENTRY I()'), an argument named `__g77_result' that is
expected at run time to contain a pointer to where to store the result
of the entry point.  For `CHARACTER' functions, this storage area is an
array of the appropriate number of characters; for `COMPLEX' functions,
it is the appropriate area for the return type; for
multiple-return-type functions, it is a union of all the supported
return types (which cannot include `CHARACTER', since combining
`CHARACTER' and non-`CHARACTER' return types via `ENTRY' in a single
function is not supported by `g77').

   For `CHARACTER' functions, the `__g77_result' argument is followed
by yet another argument named `__g77_length' that, at run time,
specifies the caller's expected length of the returned value.  Note
that only `CHARACTER*(*)' functions and entry points actually make use
of this argument, even though it is always passed by all callers of
public `CHARACTER' functions (since the caller does not generally know
whether such a function is `CHARACTER*(*)' or whether there are any
other callers that don't have that information).

   The rest of the argument list is the union of all the arguments
specified for all the entry points (in their usual forms, e.g.
`CHARACTER' arguments have extra length arguments, all appended at the
end of this list).  This is considered the "master list" of arguments.

   The code for this procedure has, before the code for the first
executable statement, code much like that for the following Fortran
statement:

            GOTO (100000,100001,100002), __g77_which_entrypoint
     100000 ...code for primary entry point...
     100001 ...code immediately following first ENTRY statement...
     100002 ...code immediately following second ENTRY statement...

(Note that invalid Fortran statement labels and variable names are used
in the above example to highlight the fact that it represents code
generated by the `g77' internals, not code to be written by the user.)

   It is this code that, when the procedure is called, picks which
entry point to start executing.

   Getting back to the public procedures (`x' and `Y' in the original
example), those procedures are fairly simple.  Their interfaces are
just like they would be if they were self-contained procedures (without
`ENTRY'), of course, since that is what the callers expect.  Their code
consists of simply calling the private procedure, described above, with
the appropriate extra arguments (the entry point index, and perhaps a
pointer to a multiple-type- return variable, local to the public
procedure, that contains all the supported returnable non-character
types).  For arguments that are not listed for a given entry point that
are listed for other entry points, and therefore that are in the
"master list" for the private procedure, null pointers (in C, the
`NULL' macro) are passed.  Also, for entry points that are part of a
multiple-type- returning function, code is compiled after the call of
the private procedure to extract from the multi-type union the
appropriate result, depending on the type of the entry point in
question, returning that result to the original caller.

   When debugging a procedure containing alternate entry points, you
can either set a break point on the public procedure itself (e.g.  a
break point on `X' or `Y') or on the private procedure that contains
most of the pertinent code (e.g. `__g77_masterfun_X').  If you do the
former, you should use the debugger's command to "step into" the called
procedure to get to the actual code; with the latter approach, the
break point leaves you right at the actual code, skipping over the
public entry point and its call to the private procedure (unless you
have set a break point there as well, of course).

   Further, the list of dummy arguments that is visible when the
private procedure is active is going to be the expanded version of the
list for whichever particular entry point is active, as explained
above, and the way in which return values are handled might well be
different from how they would be handled for an equivalent single-entry
function.

File: g77.info,  Node: Alternate Returns,  Next: Assigned Statement Labels,  Prev: Alternate Entry Points,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.11 Alternate Returns (SUBROUTINE and RETURN)
===============================================

Subroutines with alternate returns (e.g. `SUBROUTINE X(*)' and `CALL
X(*50)') are implemented by `g77' as functions returning the C `int'
type.  The actual alternate-return arguments are omitted from the
calling sequence.  Instead, the caller uses the return value to do a
rough equivalent of the Fortran computed-`GOTO' statement, as in `GOTO
(50), X()' in the example above (where `X' is quietly declared as an
`INTEGER(KIND=1)' function), and the callee just returns whatever
integer is specified in the `RETURN' statement for the subroutine For
example, `RETURN 1' is implemented as `X = 1' followed by `RETURN' in
C, and `RETURN' by itself is `X = 0' and `RETURN').

File: g77.info,  Node: Assigned Statement Labels,  Next: Run-time Library Errors,  Prev: Alternate Returns,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.12 Assigned Statement Labels (ASSIGN and GOTO)
=================================================

For portability to machines where a pointer (such as to a label, which
is how `g77' implements `ASSIGN' and its relatives, the assigned-`GOTO'
and assigned-`FORMAT'-I/O statements) is wider (bitwise) than an
`INTEGER(KIND=1)', `g77' uses a different memory location to hold the
`ASSIGN'ed value of a variable than it does the numerical value in that
variable, unless the variable is wide enough (can hold enough bits).

   In particular, while `g77' implements

     I = 10

as, in C notation, `i = 10;', it implements

     ASSIGN 10 TO I

as, in GNU's extended C notation (for the label syntax),
`__g77_ASSIGN_I = &&L10;' (where `L10' is just a massaging of the
Fortran label `10' to make the syntax C-like; `g77' doesn't actually
generate the name `L10' or any other name like that, since debuggers
cannot access labels anyway).

   While this currently means that an `ASSIGN' statement does not
overwrite the numeric contents of its target variable, _do not_ write
any code depending on this feature.  `g77' has already changed this
implementation across versions and might do so in the future.  This
information is provided only to make debugging Fortran programs
compiled with the current version of `g77' somewhat easier.  If there's
no debugger-visible variable named `__g77_ASSIGN_I' in a program unit
that does `ASSIGN 10 TO I', that probably means `g77' has decided it
can store the pointer to the label directly into `I' itself.

   *Note Ugly Assigned Labels::, for information on a command-line
option to force `g77' to use the same storage for both normal and
assigned-label uses of a variable.

File: g77.info,  Node: Run-time Library Errors,  Prev: Assigned Statement Labels,  Up: Debugging and Interfacing

13.13 Run-time Library Errors
=============================

The `libg2c' library currently has the following table to relate error
code numbers, returned in `IOSTAT=' variables, to messages.  This
information should, in future versions of this document, be expanded
upon to include detailed descriptions of each message.

   In line with good coding practices, any of the numbers in the list
below should _not_ be directly written into Fortran code you write.
Instead, make a separate `INCLUDE' file that defines `PARAMETER' names
for them, and use those in your code, so you can more easily change the
actual numbers in the future.

   The information below is culled from the definition of `F_err' in
`f/runtime/libI77/err.c' in the `g77' source tree.

     100: "error in format"
     101: "illegal unit number"
     102: "formatted io not allowed"
     103: "unformatted io not allowed"
     104: "direct io not allowed"
     105: "sequential io not allowed"
     106: "can't backspace file"
     107: "null file name"
     108: "can't stat file"
     109: "unit not connected"
     110: "off end of record"
     111: "truncation failed in endfile"
     112: "incomprehensible list input"
     113: "out of free space"
     114: "unit not connected"
     115: "read unexpected character"
     116: "bad logical input field"
     117: "bad variable type"
     118: "bad namelist name"
     119: "variable not in namelist"
     120: "no end record"
     121: "variable count incorrect"
     122: "subscript for scalar variable"
     123: "invalid array section"
     124: "substring out of bounds"
     125: "subscript out of bounds"
     126: "can't read file"
     127: "can't write file"
     128: "'new' file exists"
     129: "can't append to file"
     130: "non-positive record number"
     131: "I/O started while already doing I/O"

File: g77.info,  Node: Collected Fortran Wisdom,  Next: Trouble,  Prev: Debugging and Interfacing,  Up: Top

14 Collected Fortran Wisdom
***************************

Most users of `g77' can be divided into two camps:

   * Those writing new Fortran code to be compiled by `g77'.

   * Those using `g77' to compile existing, "legacy" code.

   Users writing new code generally understand most of the necessary
aspects of Fortran to write "mainstream" code, but often need help
deciding how to handle problems, such as the construction of libraries
containing `BLOCK DATA'.

   Users dealing with "legacy" code sometimes don't have much
experience with Fortran, but believe that the code they're compiling
already works when compiled by other compilers (and might not
understand why, as is sometimes the case, it doesn't work when compiled
by `g77').

   The following information is designed to help users do a better job
coping with existing, "legacy" Fortran code, and with writing new code
as well.

* Menu:

* Advantages Over f2c::        If `f2c' is so great, why `g77'?
* Block Data and Libraries::   How `g77' solves a common problem.
* Loops::                      Fortran `DO' loops surprise many people.
* Working Programs::           Getting programs to work should be done first.
* Overly Convenient Options::  Temptations to avoid, habits to not form.
* Faster Programs::            Everybody wants these, but at what cost?

File: g77.info,  Node: Advantages Over f2c,  Next: Block Data and Libraries,  Up: Collected Fortran Wisdom

14.1 Advantages Over f2c
========================

Without `f2c', `g77' would have taken much longer to do and probably
not been as good for quite a while.  Sometimes people who notice how
much `g77' depends on, and documents encouragement to use, `f2c' ask
why `g77' was created if `f2c' already existed.

   This section gives some basic answers to these questions, though it
is not intended to be comprehensive.

* Menu:

* Language Extensions::  Features used by Fortran code.
* Diagnostic Abilities:: Abilities to spot problems early.
* Compiler Options::     Features helpful to accommodate legacy code, etc.
* Compiler Speed::       Speed of the compilation process.
* Program Speed::        Speed of the generated, optimized code.
* Ease of Debugging::    Debugging ease-of-use at the source level.
* Character and Hollerith Constants::  A byte saved is a byte earned.

File: g77.info,  Node: Language Extensions,  Next: Diagnostic Abilities,  Up: Advantages Over f2c

14.1.1 Language Extensions
--------------------------

`g77' offers several extensions to FORTRAN 77 language that `f2c'
doesn't:

   * Automatic arrays

   * `CYCLE' and `EXIT'

   * Construct names

   * `SELECT CASE'

   * `KIND=' and `LEN=' notation

   * Semicolon as statement separator

   * Constant expressions in `FORMAT' statements (such as
     `FORMAT(I<J>)', where `J' is a `PARAMETER' named constant)

   * `MvBits' intrinsic

   * `libU77' (Unix-compatibility) library, with routines known to
     compiler as intrinsics (so they work even when compiler options
     are used to change the interfaces used by Fortran routines)

   `g77' also implements iterative `DO' loops so that they work even in
the presence of certain "extreme" inputs, unlike `f2c'.  *Note Loops::.

   However, `f2c' offers a few that `g77' doesn't, such as:

   * Intrinsics in `PARAMETER' statements

   * Array bounds expressions (such as `REAL M(N(2))')

   * `AUTOMATIC' statement

   It is expected that `g77' will offer some or all of these missing
features at some time in the future.

File: g77.info,  Node: Diagnostic Abilities,  Next: Compiler Options,  Prev: Language Extensions,  Up: Advantages Over f2c

14.1.2 Diagnostic Abilities
---------------------------

`g77' offers better diagnosis of problems in `FORMAT' statements.
`f2c' doesn't, for example, emit any diagnostic for
`FORMAT(XZFAJG10324)', leaving that to be diagnosed, at run time, by
the `libf2c' run-time library.

File: g77.info,  Node: Compiler Options,  Next: Compiler Speed,  Prev: Diagnostic Abilities,  Up: Advantages Over f2c

14.1.3 Compiler Options
-----------------------

`g77' offers compiler options that `f2c' doesn't, most of which are
designed to more easily accommodate legacy code:

   * Two that control the automatic appending of extra underscores to
     external names

   * One that allows dollar signs (`$') in symbol names

   * A variety that control acceptance of various "ugly" constructs

   * Several that specify acceptable use of upper and lower case in the
     source code

   * Many that enable, disable, delete, or hide groups of intrinsics

   * One to specify the length of fixed-form source lines (normally 72)

   * One to specify the the source code is written in Fortran-90-style
     free-form

   However, `f2c' offers a few that `g77' doesn't, like an option to
have `REAL' default to `REAL*8'.  It is expected that `g77' will offer
all of the missing options pertinent to being a Fortran compiler at
some time in the future.

File: g77.info,  Node: Compiler Speed,  Next: Program Speed,  Prev: Compiler Options,  Up: Advantages Over f2c

14.1.4 Compiler Speed
---------------------

Saving the steps of writing and then rereading C code is a big reason
why `g77' should be able to compile code much faster than using `f2c'
in conjunction with the equivalent invocation of `gcc'.

   However, due to `g77''s youth, lots of self-checking is still being
performed.  As a result, this improvement is as yet unrealized (though
the potential seems to be there for quite a big speedup in the future).
It is possible that, as of version 0.5.18, `g77' is noticeably faster
compiling many Fortran source files than using `f2c' in conjunction
with `gcc'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Program Speed,  Next: Ease of Debugging,  Prev: Compiler Speed,  Up: Advantages Over f2c

14.1.5 Program Speed
--------------------

`g77' has the potential to better optimize code than `f2c', even when
`gcc' is used to compile the output of `f2c', because `f2c' must
necessarily translate Fortran into a somewhat lower-level language (C)
that cannot preserve all the information that is potentially useful for
optimization, while `g77' can gather, preserve, and transmit that
information directly to the GBE.

   For example, `g77' implements `ASSIGN' and assigned `GOTO' using
direct assignment of pointers to labels and direct jumps to labels,
whereas `f2c' maps the assigned labels to integer values and then uses
a C `switch' statement to encode the assigned `GOTO' statements.

   However, as is typical, theory and reality don't quite match, at
least not in all cases, so it is still the case that `f2c' plus `gcc'
can generate code that is faster than `g77'.

   Version 0.5.18 of `g77' offered default settings and options, via
patches to the `gcc' back end, that allow for better program speed,
though some of these improvements also affected the performance of
programs translated by `f2c' and then compiled by `g77''s version of
`gcc'.

   Version 0.5.20 of `g77' offers further performance improvements, at
least one of which (alias analysis) is not generally applicable to
`f2c' (though `f2c' could presumably be changed to also take advantage
of this new capability of the `gcc' back end, assuming this is made
available in an upcoming release of `gcc').

File: g77.info,  Node: Ease of Debugging,  Next: Character and Hollerith Constants,  Prev: Program Speed,  Up: Advantages Over f2c

14.1.6 Ease of Debugging
------------------------

Because `g77' compiles directly to assembler code like `gcc', instead
of translating to an intermediate language (C) as does `f2c', support
for debugging can be better for `g77' than `f2c'.

   However, although `g77' might be somewhat more "native" in terms of
debugging support than `f2c' plus `gcc', there still are a lot of
things "not quite right".  Many of the important ones should be
resolved in the near future.

   For example, `g77' doesn't have to worry about reserved names like
`f2c' does.  Given `FOR = WHILE', `f2c' must necessarily translate this
to something _other_ than `for = while;', because C reserves those
words.

   However, `g77' does still uses things like an extra level of
indirection for `ENTRY'-laden procedures--in this case, because the
back end doesn't yet support multiple entry points.

   Another example is that, given

     COMMON A, B
     EQUIVALENCE (B, C)

the `g77' user should be able to access the variables directly, by name,
without having to traverse C-like structures and unions, while `f2c' is
unlikely to ever offer this ability (due to limitations in the C
language).

   Yet another example is arrays.  `g77' represents them to the debugger
using the same "dimensionality" as in the source code, while `f2c' must
necessarily convert them all to one-dimensional arrays to fit into the
confines of the C language.  However, the level of support offered by
debuggers for interactive Fortran-style access to arrays as compiled by
`g77' can vary widely.  In some cases, it can actually be an advantage
that `f2c' converts everything to widely supported C semantics.

   In fairness, `g77' could do many of the things `f2c' does to get
things working at least as well as `f2c'--for now, the developers
prefer making `g77' work the way they think it is supposed to, and
finding help improving the other products (the back end of `gcc';
`gdb'; and so on) to get things working properly.

File: g77.info,  Node: Character and Hollerith Constants,  Prev: Ease of Debugging,  Up: Advantages Over f2c

14.1.7 Character and Hollerith Constants
----------------------------------------

To avoid the extensive hassle that would be needed to avoid this, `f2c'
uses C character constants to encode character and Hollerith constants.
That means a constant like `'HELLO'' is translated to `"hello"' in C,
which further means that an extra null byte is present at the end of
the constant.  This null byte is superfluous.

   `g77' does not generate such null bytes.  This represents significant
savings of resources, such as on systems where `/dev/null' or
`/dev/zero' represent bottlenecks in the systems' performance, because
`g77' simply asks for fewer zeros from the operating system than `f2c'.
(Avoiding spurious use of zero bytes, each byte typically have eight
zero bits, also reduces the liabilities in case Microsoft's rumored
patent on the digits 0 and 1 is upheld.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Block Data and Libraries,  Next: Loops,  Prev: Advantages Over f2c,  Up: Collected Fortran Wisdom

14.2 Block Data and Libraries
=============================

To ensure that block data program units are linked, especially a concern
when they are put into libraries, give each one a name (as in `BLOCK
DATA FOO') and make sure there is an `EXTERNAL FOO' statement in every
program unit that uses any common block initialized by the
corresponding `BLOCK DATA'.  `g77' currently compiles a `BLOCK DATA' as
if it were a `SUBROUTINE', that is, it generates an actual procedure
having the appropriate name.  The procedure does nothing but return
immediately if it happens to be called.  For `EXTERNAL FOO', where
`FOO' is not otherwise referenced in the same program unit, `g77'
assumes there exists a `BLOCK DATA FOO' in the program and ensures that
by generating a reference to it so the linker will make sure it is
present.  (Specifically, `g77' outputs in the data section a static
pointer to the external name `FOO'.)

   The implementation `g77' currently uses to make this work is one of
the few things not compatible with `f2c' as currently shipped.  `f2c'
currently does nothing with `EXTERNAL FOO' except issue a warning that
`FOO' is not otherwise referenced, and, for `BLOCK DATA FOO', `f2c'
doesn't generate a dummy procedure with the name `FOO'.  The upshot is
that you shouldn't mix `f2c' and `g77' in this particular case.  If you
use `f2c' to compile `BLOCK DATA FOO', then any `g77'-compiled program
unit that says `EXTERNAL FOO' will result in an unresolved reference
when linked.  If you do the opposite, then `FOO' might not be linked in
under various circumstances (such as when `FOO' is in a library, or
you're using a "clever" linker--so clever, it produces a broken program
with little or no warning by omitting initializations of global data
because they are contained in unreferenced procedures).

   The changes you make to your code to make `g77' handle this
situation, however, appear to be a widely portable way to handle it.
That is, many systems permit it (as they should, since the FORTRAN 77
standard permits `EXTERNAL FOO' when `FOO' is a block data program
unit), and of the ones that might not link `BLOCK DATA FOO' under some
circumstances, most of them appear to do so once `EXTERNAL FOO' is
present in the appropriate program units.

   Here is the recommended approach to modifying a program containing a
program unit such as the following:

     BLOCK DATA FOO
     COMMON /VARS/ X, Y, Z
     DATA X, Y, Z / 3., 4., 5. /
     END

If the above program unit might be placed in a library module, then
ensure that every program unit in every program that references that
particular `COMMON' area uses the `EXTERNAL' statement to force the
area to be initialized.

   For example, change a program unit that starts with

     INTEGER FUNCTION CURX()
     COMMON /VARS/ X, Y, Z
     CURX = X
     END

so that it uses the `EXTERNAL' statement, as in:

     INTEGER FUNCTION CURX()
     COMMON /VARS/ X, Y, Z
     EXTERNAL FOO
     CURX = X
     END

That way, `CURX' is compiled by `g77' (and many other compilers) so
that the linker knows it must include `FOO', the `BLOCK DATA' program
unit that sets the initial values for the variables in `VAR', in the
executable program.

File: g77.info,  Node: Loops,  Next: Working Programs,  Prev: Block Data and Libraries,  Up: Collected Fortran Wisdom

14.3 Loops
==========

The meaning of a `DO' loop in Fortran is precisely specified in the
Fortran standard...and is quite different from what many programmers
might expect.

   In particular, Fortran iterative `DO' loops are implemented as if
the number of trips through the loop is calculated _before_ the loop is
entered.

   The number of trips for a loop is calculated from the START, END,
and INCREMENT values specified in a statement such as:

     DO ITER = START, END, INCREMENT

The trip count is evaluated using a fairly simple formula based on the
three values following the `=' in the statement, and it is that trip
count that is effectively decremented during each iteration of the loop.
If, at the beginning of an iteration of the loop, the trip count is
zero or negative, the loop terminates.  The per-loop-iteration
modifications to ITER are not related to determining whether to
terminate the loop.

   There are two important things to remember about the trip count:

   * It can be _negative_, in which case it is treated as if it was
     zero--meaning the loop is not executed at all.

   * The type used to _calculate_ the trip count is the same type as
     ITER, but the final calculation, and thus the type of the trip
     count itself, always is `INTEGER(KIND=1)'.

   These two items mean that there are loops that cannot be written in
straightforward fashion using the Fortran `DO'.

   For example, on a system with the canonical 32-bit two's-complement
implementation of `INTEGER(KIND=1)', the following loop will not work:

     DO I = -2000000000, 2000000000

Although the START and END values are well within the range of
`INTEGER(KIND=1)', the _trip count_ is not.  The expected trip count is
40000000001, which is outside the range of `INTEGER(KIND=1)' on many
systems.

   Instead, the above loop should be constructed this way:

     I = -2000000000
     DO
       IF (I .GT. 2000000000) EXIT
       ...
       I = I + 1
     END DO

The simple `DO' construct and the `EXIT' statement (used to leave the
innermost loop) are F90 features that `g77' supports.

   Some Fortran compilers have buggy implementations of `DO', in that
they don't follow the standard.  They implement `DO' as a
straightforward translation to what, in C, would be a `for' statement.
Instead of creating a temporary variable to hold the trip count as
calculated at run time, these compilers use the iteration variable ITER
to control whether the loop continues at each iteration.

   The bug in such an implementation shows up when the trip count is
within the range of the type of ITER, but the magnitude of `ABS(END) +
ABS(INCR)' exceeds that range.  For example:

     DO I = 2147483600, 2147483647

A loop started by the above statement will work as implemented by
`g77', but the use, by some compilers, of a more C-like implementation
akin to

     for (i = 2147483600; i <= 2147483647; ++i)

produces a loop that does not terminate, because `i' can never be
greater than 2147483647, since incrementing it beyond that value
overflows `i', setting it to -2147483648.  This is a large, negative
number that still is less than 2147483647.

   Another example of unexpected behavior of `DO' involves using a
nonintegral iteration variable ITER, that is, a `REAL' variable.
Consider the following program:

           DATA BEGIN, END, STEP /.1, .31, .007/
           DO 10 R = BEGIN, END, STEP
              IF (R .GT. END) PRINT *, R, ' .GT. ', END, '!!'
              PRINT *,R
     10    CONTINUE
           PRINT *,'LAST = ',R
           IF (R .LE. END) PRINT *, R, ' .LE. ', END, '!!'
           END

A C-like view of `DO' would hold that the two "exclamatory" `PRINT'
statements are never executed.  However, this is the output of running
the above program as compiled by `g77' on a GNU/Linux ix86 system:

      .100000001
      .107000001
      .114
      .120999999
      ...
      .289000005
      .296000004
      .303000003
     LAST =   .310000002
      .310000002 .LE.   .310000002!!

   Note that one of the two checks in the program turned up an apparent
violation of the programmer's expectation--yet, the loop is correctly
implemented by `g77', in that it has 30 iterations.  This trip count of
30 is correct when evaluated using the floating-point representations
for the BEGIN, END, and INCR values (.1, .31, .007) on GNU/Linux ix86
are used.  On other systems, an apparently more accurate trip count of
31 might result, but, nevertheless, `g77' is faithfully following the
Fortran standard, and the result is not what the author of the sample
program above apparently expected.  (Such other systems might, for
different values in the `DATA' statement, violate the other
programmer's expectation, for example.)

   Due to this combination of imprecise representation of
floating-point values and the often-misunderstood interpretation of
`DO' by standard-conforming compilers such as `g77', use of `DO' loops
with `REAL' iteration variables is not recommended.  Such use can be
caught by specifying `-Wsurprising'.  *Note Warning Options::, for more
information on this option.

File: g77.info,  Node: Working Programs,  Next: Overly Convenient Options,  Prev: Loops,  Up: Collected Fortran Wisdom

14.4 Working Programs
=====================

Getting Fortran programs to work in the first place can be quite a
challenge--even when the programs already work on other systems, or
when using other compilers.

   `g77' offers some facilities that might be useful for tracking down
bugs in such programs.

* Menu:

* Not My Type::
* Variables Assumed To Be Zero::
* Variables Assumed To Be Saved::
* Unwanted Variables::
* Unused Arguments::
* Surprising Interpretations of Code::
* Aliasing Assumed To Work::
* Output Assumed To Flush::
* Large File Unit Numbers::
* Floating-point precision::
* Inconsistent Calling Sequences::

File: g77.info,  Node: Not My Type,  Next: Variables Assumed To Be Zero,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.1 Not My Type
------------------

A fruitful source of bugs in Fortran source code is use, or mis-use, of
Fortran's implicit-typing feature, whereby the type of a variable,
array, or function is determined by the first character of its name.

   Simple cases of this include statements like `LOGX=9.227', without a
statement such as `REAL LOGX'.  In this case, `LOGX' is implicitly
given `INTEGER(KIND=1)' type, with the result of the assignment being
that it is given the value `9'.

   More involved cases include a function that is defined starting with
a statement like `DOUBLE PRECISION FUNCTION IPS(...)'.  Any caller of
this function that does not also declare `IPS' as type `DOUBLE
PRECISION' (or, in GNU Fortran, `REAL(KIND=2)') is likely to assume it
returns `INTEGER', or some other type, leading to invalid results or
even program crashes.

   The `-Wimplicit' option might catch failures to properly specify the
types of variables, arrays, and functions in the code.

   However, in code that makes heavy use of Fortran's implicit-typing
facility, this option might produce so many warnings about cases that
are working, it would be hard to find the one or two that represent
bugs.  This is why so many experienced Fortran programmers strongly
recommend widespread use of the `IMPLICIT NONE' statement, despite it
not being standard FORTRAN 77, to completely turn off implicit typing.
(`g77' supports `IMPLICIT NONE', as do almost all FORTRAN 77 compilers.)

   Note that `-Wimplicit' catches only implicit typing of _names_.  It
does not catch implicit typing of expressions such as `X**(2/3)'.  Such
expressions can be buggy as well--in fact, `X**(2/3)' is equivalent to
`X**0', due to the way Fortran expressions are given types and then
evaluated.  (In this particular case, the programmer probably wanted
`X**(2./3.)'.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Variables Assumed To Be Zero,  Next: Variables Assumed To Be Saved,  Prev: Not My Type,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.2 Variables Assumed To Be Zero
-----------------------------------

Many Fortran programs were developed on systems that provided automatic
initialization of all, or some, variables and arrays to zero.  As a
result, many of these programs depend, sometimes inadvertently, on this
behavior, though to do so violates the Fortran standards.

   You can ask `g77' for this behavior by specifying the
`-finit-local-zero' option when compiling Fortran code.  (You might
want to specify `-fno-automatic' as well, to avoid code-size inflation
for non-optimized compilations.)

   Note that a program that works better when compiled with the
`-finit-local-zero' option is almost certainly depending on a
particular system's, or compiler's, tendency to initialize some
variables to zero.  It might be worthwhile finding such cases and
fixing them, using techniques such as compiling with the `-O
-Wuninitialized' options using `g77'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Variables Assumed To Be Saved,  Next: Unwanted Variables,  Prev: Variables Assumed To Be Zero,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.3 Variables Assumed To Be Saved
------------------------------------

Many Fortran programs were developed on systems that saved the values
of all, or some, variables and arrays across procedure calls.  As a
result, many of these programs depend, sometimes inadvertently, on
being able to assign a value to a variable, perform a `RETURN' to a
calling procedure, and, upon subsequent invocation, reference the
previously assigned variable to obtain the value.

   They expect this despite not using the `SAVE' statement to specify
that the value in a variable is expected to survive procedure returns
and calls.  Depending on variables and arrays to retain values across
procedure calls without using `SAVE' to require it violates the Fortran
standards.

   You can ask `g77' to assume `SAVE' is specified for all relevant
(local) variables and arrays by using the `-fno-automatic' option.

   Note that a program that works better when compiled with the
`-fno-automatic' option is almost certainly depending on not having to
use the `SAVE' statement as required by the Fortran standard.  It might
be worthwhile finding such cases and fixing them, using techniques such
as compiling with the `-O -Wuninitialized' options using `g77'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Unwanted Variables,  Next: Unused Arguments,  Prev: Variables Assumed To Be Saved,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.4 Unwanted Variables
-------------------------

The `-Wunused' option can find bugs involving implicit typing, sometimes
more easily than using `-Wimplicit' in code that makes heavy use of
implicit typing.  An unused variable or array might indicate that the
spelling for its declaration is different from that of its intended
uses.

   Other than cases involving typos, unused variables rarely indicate
actual bugs in a program.  However, investigating such cases thoroughly
has, on occasion, led to the discovery of code that had not been
completely written--where the programmer wrote declarations as needed
for the whole algorithm, wrote some or even most of the code for that
algorithm, then got distracted and forgot that the job was not complete.

File: g77.info,  Node: Unused Arguments,  Next: Surprising Interpretations of Code,  Prev: Unwanted Variables,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.5 Unused Arguments
-----------------------

As with unused variables, It is possible that unused arguments to a
procedure might indicate a bug.  Compile with `-W -Wunused' option to
catch cases of unused arguments.

   Note that `-W' also enables warnings regarding overflow of
floating-point constants under certain circumstances.

File: g77.info,  Node: Surprising Interpretations of Code,  Next: Aliasing Assumed To Work,  Prev: Unused Arguments,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.6 Surprising Interpretations of Code
-----------------------------------------

The `-Wsurprising' option can help find bugs involving expression
evaluation or in the way `DO' loops with non-integral iteration
variables are handled.  Cases found by this option might indicate a
difference of interpretation between the author of the code involved,
and a standard-conforming compiler such as `g77'.  Such a difference
might produce actual bugs.

   In any case, changing the code to explicitly do what the programmer
might have expected it to do, so `g77' and other compilers are more
likely to follow the programmer's expectations, might be worthwhile,
especially if such changes make the program work better.

File: g77.info,  Node: Aliasing Assumed To Work,  Next: Output Assumed To Flush,  Prev: Surprising Interpretations of Code,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.7 Aliasing Assumed To Work
-------------------------------

The `-falias-check', `-fargument-alias', `-fargument-noalias', and
`-fno-argument-noalias-global' options, introduced in version 0.5.20 and
`g77''s version 2.7.2.2.f.2 of `gcc', were withdrawn as of `g77'
version 0.5.23 due to their not being supported by `gcc' version 2.8.

   These options control the assumptions regarding aliasing
(overlapping) of writes and reads to main memory (core) made by the
`gcc' back end.

   The information below still is useful, but applies to only those
versions of `g77' that support the alias analysis implied by support
for these options.

   These options are effective only when compiling with `-O'
(specifying any level other than `-O0') or with `-falias-check'.

   The default for Fortran code is `-fargument-noalias-global'.  (The
default for C code and code written in other C-based languages is
`-fargument-alias'.  These defaults apply regardless of whether you use
`g77' or `gcc' to compile your code.)

   Note that, on some systems, compiling with `-fforce-addr' in effect
can produce more optimal code when the default aliasing options are in
effect (and when optimization is enabled).

   If your program is not working when compiled with optimization, it
is possible it is violating the Fortran standards (77 and 90) by
relying on the ability to "safely" modify variables and arrays that are
aliased, via procedure calls, to other variables and arrays, without
using `EQUIVALENCE' to explicitly set up this kind of aliasing.

   (The FORTRAN 77 standard's prohibition of this sort of overlap,
generally referred to therein as "storage association", appears in
Sections 15.9.3.6.  This prohibition allows implementations, such as
`g77', to, for example, implement the passing of procedures and even
values in `COMMON' via copy operations into local, perhaps more
efficiently accessed temporaries at entry to a procedure, and, where
appropriate, via copy operations back out to their original locations
in memory at exit from that procedure, without having to take into
consideration the order in which the local copies are updated by the
code, among other things.)

   To test this hypothesis, try compiling your program with the
`-fargument-alias' option, which causes the compiler to revert to
assumptions essentially the same as made by versions of `g77' prior to
0.5.20.

   If the program works using this option, that strongly suggests that
the bug is in your program.  Finding and fixing the bug(s) should
result in a program that is more standard-conforming and that can be
compiled by `g77' in a way that results in a faster executable.

   (You might want to try compiling with `-fargument-noalias', a kind
of half-way point, to see if the problem is limited to aliasing between
dummy arguments and `COMMON' variables--this option assumes that such
aliasing is not done, while still allowing aliasing among dummy
arguments.)

   An example of aliasing that is invalid according to the standards is
shown in the following program, which might _not_ produce the expected
results when executed:

     I = 1
     CALL FOO(I, I)
     PRINT *, I
     END

     SUBROUTINE FOO(J, K)
     J = J + K
     K = J * K
     PRINT *, J, K
     END

   The above program attempts to use the temporary aliasing of the `J'
and `K' arguments in `FOO' to effect a pathological behavior--the
simultaneous changing of the values of _both_ `J' and `K' when either
one of them is written.

   The programmer likely expects the program to print these values:

     2  4
     4

   However, since the program is not standard-conforming, an
implementation's behavior when running it is undefined, because
subroutine `FOO' modifies at least one of the arguments, and they are
aliased with each other.  (Even if one of the assignment statements was
deleted, the program would still violate these rules.  This kind of
on-the-fly aliasing is permitted by the standard only when none of the
aliased items are defined, or written, while the aliasing is in effect.)

   As a practical example, an optimizing compiler might schedule the `J
=' part of the second line of `FOO' _after_ the reading of `J' and `K'
for the `J * K' expression, resulting in the following output:

     2  2
     2

   Essentially, compilers are promised (by the standard and, therefore,
by programmers who write code they claim to be standard-conforming)
that if they cannot detect aliasing via static analysis of a single
program unit's `EQUIVALENCE' and `COMMON' statements, no such aliasing
exists.  In such cases, compilers are free to assume that an assignment
to one variable will not change the value of another variable, allowing
it to avoid generating code to re-read the value of the other variable,
to re-schedule reads and writes, and so on, to produce a faster
executable.

   The same promise holds true for arrays (as seen by the called
procedure)--an element of one dummy array cannot be aliased with, or
overlap, any element of another dummy array or be in a `COMMON' area
known to the procedure.

   (These restrictions apply only when the procedure defines, or writes
to, one of the aliased variables or arrays.)

   Unfortunately, there is no way to find _all_ possible cases of
violations of the prohibitions against aliasing in Fortran code.
Static analysis is certainly imperfect, as is run-time analysis, since
neither can catch all violations.  (Static analysis can catch all
likely violations, and some that might never actually happen, while
run-time analysis can catch only those violations that actually happen
during a particular run.  Neither approach can cope with programs
mixing Fortran code with routines written in other languages, however.)

   Currently, `g77' provides neither static nor run-time facilities to
detect any cases of this problem, although other products might.
Run-time facilities are more likely to be offered by future versions of
`g77', though patches improving `g77' so that it provides either form
of detection are welcome.

File: g77.info,  Node: Output Assumed To Flush,  Next: Large File Unit Numbers,  Prev: Aliasing Assumed To Work,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.8 Output Assumed To Flush
------------------------------

For several versions prior to 0.5.20, `g77' configured its version of
the `libf2c' run-time library so that one of its configuration macros,
`ALWAYS_FLUSH', was defined.

   This was done as a result of a belief that many programs expected
output to be flushed to the operating system (under UNIX, via the
`fflush()' library call) with the result that errors, such as disk
full, would be immediately flagged via the relevant `ERR=' and
`IOSTAT=' mechanism.

   Because of the adverse effects this approach had on the performance
of many programs, `g77' no longer configures `libf2c' (now named
`libg2c' in its `g77' incarnation) to always flush output.

   If your program depends on this behavior, either insert the
appropriate `CALL FLUSH' statements, or modify the sources to the
`libg2c', rebuild and reinstall `g77', and relink your programs with
the modified library.

   (Ideally, `libg2c' would offer the choice at run-time, so that a
compile-time option to `g77' or `f2c' could result in generating the
appropriate calls to flushing or non-flushing library routines.)

   Some Fortran programs require output (writes) to be flushed to the
operating system (under UNIX, via the `fflush()' library call) so that
errors, such as disk full, are immediately flagged via the relevant
`ERR=' and `IOSTAT=' mechanism, instead of such errors being flagged
later as subsequent writes occur, forcing the previously written data
to disk, or when the file is closed.

   Essentially, the difference can be viewed as synchronous error
reporting (immediate flagging of errors during writes) versus
asynchronous, or, more precisely, buffered error reporting (detection
of errors might be delayed).

   `libg2c' supports flagging write errors immediately when it is built
with the `ALWAYS_FLUSH' macro defined.  This results in a `libg2c' that
runs slower, sometimes quite a bit slower, under certain
circumstances--for example, accessing files via the networked file
system NFS--but the effect can be more reliable, robust file I/O.

   If you know that Fortran programs requiring this level of precision
of error reporting are to be compiled using the version of `g77' you
are building, you might wish to modify the `g77' source tree so that
the version of `libg2c' is built with the `ALWAYS_FLUSH' macro defined,
enabling this behavior.

   To do this, find this line in `gcc/libf2c/f2c.h' in your `g77'
source tree:

     /* #define ALWAYS_FLUSH */

   Remove the leading `/* ', so the line begins with `#define', and the
trailing ` */'.

   Then build or rebuild `g77' as appropriate.

File: g77.info,  Node: Large File Unit Numbers,  Next: Floating-point precision,  Prev: Output Assumed To Flush,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.9 Large File Unit Numbers
------------------------------

If your program crashes at run time with a message including the text
`illegal unit number', that probably is a message from the run-time
library, `libg2c'.

   The message means that your program has attempted to use a file unit
number that is out of the range accepted by `libg2c'.  Normally, this
range is 0 through 99, and the high end of the range is controlled by a
`libg2c' source-file macro named `MXUNIT'.

   If you can easily change your program to use unit numbers in the
range 0 through 99, you should do so.

   As distributed, whether as part of `f2c' or `g77', `libf2c' accepts
file unit numbers only in the range 0 through 99.  For example, a
statement such as `WRITE (UNIT=100)' causes a run-time crash in
`libf2c', because the unit number, 100, is out of range.

   If you know that Fortran programs at your installation require the
use of unit numbers higher than 99, you can change the value of the
`MXUNIT' macro, which represents the maximum unit number, to an
appropriately higher value.

   To do this, edit the file `gcc/libf2c/libI77/fio.h' in your `g77'
source tree, changing the following line:

     #define MXUNIT 100

   Change the line so that the value of `MXUNIT' is defined to be at
least one _greater_ than the maximum unit number used by the Fortran
programs on your system.

   (For example, a program that does `WRITE (UNIT=255)' would require
`MXUNIT' set to at least 256 to avoid crashing.)

   Then build or rebuild `g77' as appropriate.

   _Note:_ Changing this macro has _no_ effect on other limits your
system might place on the number of files open at the same time.  That
is, the macro might allow a program to do `WRITE (UNIT=100)', but the
library and operating system underlying `libf2c' might disallow it if
many other files have already been opened (via `OPEN' or implicitly via
`READ', `WRITE', and so on).  Information on how to increase these
other limits should be found in your system's documentation.

File: g77.info,  Node: Floating-point precision,  Next: Inconsistent Calling Sequences,  Prev: Large File Unit Numbers,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.10 Floating-point precision
--------------------------------

If your program depends on exact IEEE 754 floating-point handling it may
help on some systems--specifically x86 or m68k hardware--to use the
`-ffloat-store' option or to reset the precision flag on the
floating-point unit.  *Note Optimize Options::.

   However, it might be better simply to put the FPU into double
precision mode and not take the performance hit of `-ffloat-store'.  On
x86 and m68k GNU systems you can do this with a technique similar to
that for turning on floating-point exceptions (*note Floating-point
Exception Handling::).  The control word could be set to double
precision by some code like this one:
     #include <fpu_control.h>
     {
       fpu_control_t cw = (_FPU_DEFAULT & ~_FPU_EXTENDED) | _FPU_DOUBLE;
       _FPU_SETCW(cw);
     }
   (It is not clear whether this has any effect on the operation of the
GNU maths library, but we have no evidence of it causing trouble.)

   Some targets (such as the Alpha) may need special options for full
IEEE conformance.  *Note Hardware Models and Configurations:
(gcc)Submodel Options.

File: g77.info,  Node: Inconsistent Calling Sequences,  Prev: Floating-point precision,  Up: Working Programs

14.4.11 Inconsistent Calling Sequences
--------------------------------------

Code containing inconsistent calling sequences in the same file is
normally rejected--see *note GLOBALS::.  (Use, say, `ftnchek' to ensure
consistency across source files.  *Note Generating Skeletons and
Prototypes with `f2c': f2c Skeletons and Prototypes.)

   Mysterious errors, which may appear to be code generation problems,
can appear specifically on the x86 architecture with some such
inconsistencies.  On x86 hardware, floating-point return values of
functions are placed on the floating-point unit's register stack, not
the normal stack.  Thus calling a `REAL' or `DOUBLE PRECISION'
`FUNCTION' as some other sort of procedure, or vice versa, scrambles
the floating-point stack.  This may break unrelated code executed
later.  Similarly if, say, external C routines are written incorrectly.

File: g77.info,  Node: Overly Convenient Options,  Next: Faster Programs,  Prev: Working Programs,  Up: Collected Fortran Wisdom

14.5 Overly Convenient Command-line Options
===========================================

These options should be used only as a quick-and-dirty way to determine
how well your program will run under different compilation models
without having to change the source.  Some are more problematic than
others, depending on how portable and maintainable you want the program
to be (and, of course, whether you are allowed to change it at all is
crucial).

   You should not continue to use these command-line options to compile
a given program, but rather should make changes to the source code:

`-finit-local-zero'
     (This option specifies that any uninitialized local variables and
     arrays have default initialization to binary zeros.)

     Many other compilers do this automatically, which means lots of
     Fortran code developed with those compilers depends on it.

     It is safer (and probably would produce a faster program) to find
     the variables and arrays that need such initialization and provide
     it explicitly via `DATA', so that `-finit-local-zero' is not
     needed.

     Consider using `-Wuninitialized' (which requires `-O') to find
     likely candidates, but do not specify `-finit-local-zero' or
     `-fno-automatic', or this technique won't work.

`-fno-automatic'
     (This option specifies that all local variables and arrays are to
     be treated as if they were named in `SAVE' statements.)

     Many other compilers do this automatically, which means lots of
     Fortran code developed with those compilers depends on it.

     The effect of this is that all non-automatic variables and arrays
     are made static, that is, not placed on the stack or in heap
     storage.  This might cause a buggy program to appear to work
     better.  If so, rather than relying on this command-line option
     (and hoping all compilers provide the equivalent one), add `SAVE'
     statements to some or all program unit sources, as appropriate.
     Consider using `-Wuninitialized' (which requires `-O') to find
     likely candidates, but do not specify `-finit-local-zero' or
     `-fno-automatic', or this technique won't work.

     The default is `-fautomatic', which tells `g77' to try and put
     variables and arrays on the stack (or in fast registers) where
     possible and reasonable.  This tends to make programs faster.

     _Note:_ Automatic variables and arrays are not affected by this
     option.  These are variables and arrays that are _necessarily_
     automatic, either due to explicit statements, or due to the way
     they are declared.  Examples include local variables and arrays
     not given the `SAVE' attribute in procedures declared `RECURSIVE',
     and local arrays declared with non-constant bounds (automatic
     arrays).  Currently, `g77' supports only automatic arrays, not
     `RECURSIVE' procedures or other means of explicitly specifying
     that variables or arrays are automatic.

`-fGROUP-intrinsics-hide'
     Change the source code to use `EXTERNAL' for any external procedure
     that might be the name of an intrinsic.  It is easy to find these
     using `-fGROUP-intrinsics-disable'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Faster Programs,  Prev: Overly Convenient Options,  Up: Collected Fortran Wisdom

14.6 Faster Programs
====================

Aside from the usual `gcc' options, such as `-O', `-ffast-math', and so
on, consider trying some of the following approaches to speed up your
program (once you get it working).

* Menu:

* Aligned Data::
* Prefer Automatic Uninitialized Variables::
* Avoid f2c Compatibility::
* Use Submodel Options::

File: g77.info,  Node: Aligned Data,  Next: Prefer Automatic Uninitialized Variables,  Up: Faster Programs

14.6.1 Aligned Data
-------------------

On some systems, such as those with Pentium Pro CPUs, programs that
make heavy use of `REAL(KIND=2)' (`DOUBLE PRECISION') might run much
slower than possible due to the compiler not aligning these 64-bit
values to 64-bit boundaries in memory.  (The effect also is present,
though to a lesser extent, on the 586 (Pentium) architecture.)

   The Intel x86 architecture generally ensures that these programs will
work on all its implementations, but particular implementations (such
as Pentium Pro) perform better with more strict alignment.  (Such
behavior isn't unique to the Intel x86 architecture.)  Other
architectures might _demand_ 64-bit alignment of 64-bit data.

   There are a variety of approaches to use to address this problem:

   * Order your `COMMON' and `EQUIVALENCE' areas such that the
     variables and arrays with the widest alignment guidelines come
     first.

     For example, on most systems, this would mean placing
     `COMPLEX(KIND=2)', `REAL(KIND=2)', and `INTEGER(KIND=2)' entities
     first, followed by `REAL(KIND=1)', `INTEGER(KIND=1)', and
     `LOGICAL(KIND=1)' entities, then `INTEGER(KIND=6)' entities, and
     finally `CHARACTER' and `INTEGER(KIND=3)' entities.

     The reason to use such placement is it makes it more likely that
     your data will be aligned properly, without requiring you to do
     detailed analysis of each aggregate (`COMMON' and `EQUIVALENCE')
     area.

     Specifically, on systems where the above guidelines are
     appropriate, placing `CHARACTER' entities before `REAL(KIND=2)'
     entities can work just as well, but only if the number of bytes
     occupied by the `CHARACTER' entities is divisible by the
     recommended alignment for `REAL(KIND=2)'.

     By ordering the placement of entities in aggregate areas according
     to the simple guidelines above, you avoid having to carefully
     count the number of bytes occupied by each entity to determine
     whether the actual alignment of each subsequent entity meets the
     alignment guidelines for the type of that entity.

     If you don't ensure correct alignment of `COMMON' elements, the
     compiler may be forced by some systems to violate the Fortran
     semantics by adding padding to get `DOUBLE PRECISION' data
     properly aligned.  If the unfortunate practice is employed of
     overlaying different types of data in the `COMMON' block, the
     different variants of this block may become misaligned with
     respect to each other.  Even if your platform doesn't require
     strict alignment, `COMMON' should be laid out as above for
     portability.  (Unfortunately the FORTRAN 77 standard didn't
     anticipate this possible requirement, which is
     compiler-independent on a given platform.)

   * Use the (x86-specific) `-malign-double' option when compiling
     programs for the Pentium and Pentium Pro architectures (called 586
     and 686 in the `gcc' configuration subsystem).  The warning about
     this in the `gcc' manual isn't generally relevant to Fortran, but
     using it will force `COMMON' to be padded if necessary to align
     `DOUBLE PRECISION' data.

     When `DOUBLE PRECISION' data is forcibly aligned in `COMMON' by
     `g77' due to specifying `-malign-double', `g77' issues a warning
     about the need to insert padding.

     In this case, each and every program unit that uses the same
     `COMMON' area must specify the same layout of variables and their
     types for that area and be compiled with `-malign-double' as well.
     `g77' will issue warnings in each case, but as long as every
     program unit using that area is compiled with the same warnings,
     the resulting object files should work when linked together unless
     the program makes additional assumptions about `COMMON' area
     layouts that are outside the scope of the FORTRAN 77 standard, or
     uses `EQUIVALENCE' or different layouts in ways that assume no
     padding is ever inserted by the compiler.

   * Ensure that `crt0.o' or `crt1.o' on your system guarantees a 64-bit
     aligned stack for `main()'.  The recent one from GNU (`glibc2')
     will do this on x86 systems, but we don't know of any other x86
     setups where it will be right.  Read your system's documentation
     to determine if it is appropriate to upgrade to a more recent
     version to obtain the optimal alignment.

   Progress is being made on making this work "out of the box" on
future versions of `g77', `gcc', and some of the relevant operating
systems (such as GNU/Linux).

File: g77.info,  Node: Prefer Automatic Uninitialized Variables,  Next: Avoid f2c Compatibility,  Prev: Aligned Data,  Up: Faster Programs

14.6.2 Prefer Automatic Uninitialized Variables
-----------------------------------------------

If you're using `-fno-automatic' already, you probably should change
your code to allow compilation with `-fautomatic' (the default), to
allow the program to run faster.

   Similarly, you should be able to use `-fno-init-local-zero' (the
default) instead of `-finit-local-zero'.  This is because it is rare
that every variable affected by these options in a given program
actually needs to be so affected.

   For example, `-fno-automatic', which effectively `SAVE's every local
non-automatic variable and array, affects even things like `DO'
iteration variables, which rarely need to be `SAVE'd, and this often
reduces run-time performances.  Similarly, `-fno-init-local-zero'
forces such variables to be initialized to zero--when `SAVE'd (such as
when `-fno-automatic'), this by itself generally affects only startup
time for a program, but when not `SAVE'd, it can slow down the
procedure every time it is called.

   *Note Overly Convenient Command-Line Options: Overly Convenient
Options, for information on the `-fno-automatic' and
`-finit-local-zero' options and how to convert their use into selective
changes in your own code.

File: g77.info,  Node: Avoid f2c Compatibility,  Next: Use Submodel Options,  Prev: Prefer Automatic Uninitialized Variables,  Up: Faster Programs

14.6.3 Avoid f2c Compatibility
------------------------------

If you aren't linking with any code compiled using `f2c', try using the
`-fno-f2c' option when compiling _all_ the code in your program.  (Note
that `libf2c' is _not_ an example of code that is compiled using
`f2c'--it is compiled by a C compiler, typically `gcc'.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Use Submodel Options,  Prev: Avoid f2c Compatibility,  Up: Faster Programs

14.6.4 Use Submodel Options
---------------------------

Using an appropriate `-m' option to generate specific code for your CPU
may be worthwhile, though it may mean the executable won't run on other
versions of the CPU that don't support the same instruction set.  *Note
Hardware Models and Configurations: (gcc)Submodel Options.  For
instance on an x86 system the compiler might have been built--as shown
by `g77 -v'--for the target `i386-pc-linux-gnu', i.e. an `i386' CPU.
In that case to generate code best optimized for a Pentium you could
use the option `-march=pentium'.

   For recent CPUs that don't have explicit support in the released
version of `gcc', it _might_ still be possible to get improvements with
certain `-m' options.

   `-fomit-frame-pointer' can help performance on x86 systems and
others.  It will, however, inhibit debugging on the systems on which it
is not turned on anyway by `-O'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Trouble,  Next: Open Questions,  Prev: Collected Fortran Wisdom,  Up: Top

15 Known Causes of Trouble with GNU Fortran
*******************************************

This section describes known problems that affect users of GNU Fortran.
Most of these are not GNU Fortran bugs per se--if they were, we would
fix them.  But the result for a user might be like the result of a bug.

   Some of these problems are due to bugs in other software, some are
missing features that are too much work to add, and some are places
where people's opinions differ as to what is best.

   (Note that some of this portion of the manual is lifted directly
from the `gcc' manual, with minor modifications to tailor it to users
of `g77'.  Anytime a bug seems to have more to do with the `gcc'
portion of `g77', see *note Known Causes of Trouble with GCC:
(gcc)Trouble.)

* Menu:

* But-bugs::         Bugs really in other programs or elsewhere.
* Known Bugs::       Bugs known to be in this version of `g77'.
* Missing Features:: Features we already know we want to add later.
* Disappointments::  Regrettable things we can't change.
* Non-bugs::         Things we think are right, but some others disagree.
* Warnings and Errors::  Which problems in your code get warnings,
                        and which get errors.

File: g77.info,  Node: But-bugs,  Next: Known Bugs,  Up: Trouble

15.1 Bugs Not In GNU Fortran
============================

These are bugs to which the maintainers often have to reply, "but that
isn't a bug in `g77'...".  Some of these already are fixed in new
versions of other software; some still need to be fixed; some are
problems with how `g77' is installed or is being used; some are the
result of bad hardware that causes software to misbehave in sometimes
bizarre ways; some just cannot be addressed at this time until more is
known about the problem.

   Please don't re-report these bugs to the `g77' maintainers--if you
must remind someone how important it is to you that the problem be
fixed, talk to the people responsible for the other products identified
below, but preferably only after you've tried the latest versions of
those products.  The `g77' maintainers have their hands full working on
just fixing and improving `g77', without serving as a clearinghouse for
all bugs that happen to affect `g77' users.

   *Note Collected Fortran Wisdom::, for information on behavior of
Fortran programs, and the programs that compile them, that might be
_thought_ to indicate bugs.

* Menu:

* Signal 11 and Friends::  Strange behavior by any software.
* Cannot Link Fortran Programs::  Unresolved references.
* Large Common Blocks::    Problems on older GNU/Linux systems.
* Debugger Problems::      When the debugger crashes.
* NeXTStep Problems::      Misbehaving executables.
* Stack Overflow::         More misbehaving executables.
* Nothing Happens::        Less behaving executables.
* Strange Behavior at Run Time::  Executables misbehaving due to
                            bugs in your program.
* Floating-point Errors::  The results look wrong, but....

File: g77.info,  Node: Signal 11 and Friends,  Next: Cannot Link Fortran Programs,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.1 Signal 11 and Friends
----------------------------

A whole variety of strange behaviors can occur when the software, or
the way you are using the software, stresses the hardware in a way that
triggers hardware bugs.  This might seem hard to believe, but it
happens frequently enough that there exist documents explaining in
detail what the various causes of the problems are, what typical
symptoms look like, and so on.

   Generally these problems are referred to in this document as "signal
11" crashes, because the Linux kernel, running on the most popular
hardware (the Intel x86 line), often stresses the hardware more than
other popular operating systems.  When hardware problems do occur under
GNU/Linux on x86 systems, these often manifest themselves as "signal 11"
problems, as illustrated by the following diagnostic:

     sh# g77 myprog.f
     gcc: Internal compiler error: program f771 got fatal signal 11
     sh#

   It is _very_ important to remember that the above message is _not_
the only one that indicates a hardware problem, nor does it always
indicate a hardware problem.

   In particular, on systems other than those running the Linux kernel,
the message might appear somewhat or very different, as it will if the
error manifests itself while running a program other than the `g77'
compiler.  For example, it will appear somewhat different when running
your program, when running Emacs, and so on.

   How to cope with such problems is well beyond the scope of this
manual.

   However, users of Linux-based systems (such as GNU/Linux) should
review `http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/', a source of detailed
information on diagnosing hardware problems, by recognizing their
common symptoms.

   Users of other operating systems and hardware might find this
reference useful as well.  If you know of similar material for another
hardware/software combination, please let us know so we can consider
including a reference to it in future versions of this manual.

File: g77.info,  Node: Cannot Link Fortran Programs,  Next: Large Common Blocks,  Prev: Signal 11 and Friends,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.2 Cannot Link Fortran Programs
-----------------------------------

On some systems, perhaps just those with out-of-date (shared?)
libraries, unresolved-reference errors happen when linking
`g77'-compiled programs (which should be done using `g77').

   If this happens to you, try appending `-lc' to the command you use
to link the program, e.g. `g77 foo.f -lc'.  `g77' already specifies
`-lg2c -lm' when it calls the linker, but it cannot also specify `-lc'
because not all systems have a file named `libc.a'.

   It is unclear at this point whether there are legitimately installed
systems where `-lg2c -lm' is insufficient to resolve code produced by
`g77'.

   If your program doesn't link due to unresolved references to names
like `_main', make sure you're using the `g77' command to do the link,
since this command ensures that the necessary libraries are loaded by
specifying `-lg2c -lm' when it invokes the `gcc' command to do the
actual link.  (Use the `-v' option to discover more about what actually
happens when you use the `g77' and `gcc' commands.)

   Also, try specifying `-lc' as the last item on the `g77' command
line, in case that helps.

File: g77.info,  Node: Large Common Blocks,  Next: Debugger Problems,  Prev: Cannot Link Fortran Programs,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.3 Large Common Blocks
--------------------------

On some older GNU/Linux systems, programs with common blocks larger
than 16MB cannot be linked without some kind of error message being
produced.

   This is a bug in older versions of `ld', fixed in more recent
versions of `binutils', such as version 2.6.

File: g77.info,  Node: Debugger Problems,  Next: NeXTStep Problems,  Prev: Large Common Blocks,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.4 Debugger Problems
------------------------

There are some known problems when using `gdb' on code compiled by
`g77'.  Inadequate investigation as of the release of 0.5.16 results in
not knowing which products are the culprit, but `gdb-4.14' definitely
crashes when, for example, an attempt is made to print the contents of
a `COMPLEX(KIND=2)' dummy array, on at least some GNU/Linux machines,
plus some others.  Attempts to access assumed-size arrays are also
known to crash recent versions of `gdb'.  (`gdb''s Fortran support was
done for a different compiler and isn't properly compatible with `g77'.)

File: g77.info,  Node: NeXTStep Problems,  Next: Stack Overflow,  Prev: Debugger Problems,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.5 NeXTStep Problems
------------------------

Developers of Fortran code on NeXTStep (all architectures) have to
watch out for the following problem when writing programs with large,
statically allocated (i.e. non-stack based) data structures (common
blocks, saved arrays).

   Due to the way the native loader (`/bin/ld') lays out data
structures in virtual memory, it is very easy to create an executable
wherein the `__DATA' segment overlaps (has addresses in common) with
the `UNIX STACK' segment.

   This leads to all sorts of trouble, from the executable simply not
executing, to bus errors.  The NeXTStep command line tool `ebadexec'
points to the problem as follows:

     % /bin/ebadexec a.out
     /bin/ebadexec: __LINKEDIT segment (truncated address = 0x3de000
     rounded size = 0x2a000) of executable file: a.out overlaps with UNIX
     STACK segment (truncated address = 0x400000 rounded size =
     0x3c00000) of executable file: a.out

   (In the above case, it is the `__LINKEDIT' segment that overlaps the
stack segment.)

   This can be cured by assigning the `__DATA' segment (virtual)
addresses beyond the stack segment.  A conservative estimate for this
is from address 6000000 (hexadecimal) onwards--this has always worked
for me [Toon Moene]:

     % g77 -segaddr __DATA 6000000 test.f
     % ebadexec a.out
     ebadexec: file: a.out appears to be executable
     %

   Browsing through `gcc/gcc/f/Makefile.in', you will find that the
`f771' program itself also has to be linked with these flags--it has
large statically allocated data structures.  (Version 0.5.18 reduces
this somewhat, but probably not enough.)

   (The above item was contributed by Toon Moene
(<toonATmoene.nl>).)

File: g77.info,  Node: Stack Overflow,  Next: Nothing Happens,  Prev: NeXTStep Problems,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.6 Stack Overflow
---------------------

`g77' code might fail at runtime (probably with a "segmentation
violation") due to overflowing the stack.  This happens most often on
systems with an environment that provides substantially more heap space
(for use when arbitrarily allocating and freeing memory) than stack
space.

   Often this can be cured by increasing or removing your shell's limit
on stack usage, typically using `limit stacksize' (in `csh' and
derivatives) or `ulimit -s' (in `sh' and derivatives).

   Increasing the allowed stack size might, however, require changing
some operating system or system configuration parameters.

   You might be able to work around the problem by compiling with the
`-fno-automatic' option to reduce stack usage, probably at the expense
of speed.

   `g77', on most machines, puts many variables and arrays on the stack
where possible, and can be configured (by changing
`FFECOM_sizeMAXSTACKITEM' in `gcc/gcc/f/com.c') to force smaller-sized
entities into static storage (saving on stack space) or permit
larger-sized entities to be put on the stack (which can improve
run-time performance, as it presents more opportunities for the GBE to
optimize the generated code).

   _Note:_ Putting more variables and arrays on the stack might cause
problems due to system-dependent limits on stack size.  Also, the value
of `FFECOM_sizeMAXSTACKITEM' has no effect on automatic variables and
arrays.  *Note But-bugs::, for more information.  _Note:_ While
`libg2c' places a limit on the range of Fortran file-unit numbers, the
underlying library and operating system might impose different kinds of
limits.  For example, some systems limit the number of files
simultaneously open by a running program.  Information on how to
increase these limits should be found in your system's documentation.

   However, if your program uses large automatic arrays (for example,
has declarations like `REAL A(N)' where `A' is a local array and `N' is
a dummy or `COMMON' variable that can have a large value), neither use
of `-fno-automatic', nor changing the cut-off point for `g77' for using
the stack, will solve the problem by changing the placement of these
large arrays, as they are _necessarily_ automatic.

   `g77' currently provides no means to specify that automatic arrays
are to be allocated on the heap instead of the stack.  So, other than
increasing the stack size, your best bet is to change your source code
to avoid large automatic arrays.  Methods for doing this currently are
outside the scope of this document.

   (_Note:_ If your system puts stack and heap space in the same memory
area, such that they are effectively combined, then a stack overflow
probably indicates a program that is either simply too large for the
system, or buggy.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Nothing Happens,  Next: Strange Behavior at Run Time,  Prev: Stack Overflow,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.7 Nothing Happens
----------------------

It is occasionally reported that a "simple" program, such as a "Hello,
World!" program, does nothing when it is run, even though the compiler
reported no errors, despite the program containing nothing other than a
simple `PRINT' statement.

   This most often happens because the program has been compiled and
linked on a UNIX system and named `test', though other names can lead
to similarly unexpected run-time behavior on various systems.

   Essentially this problem boils down to giving your program a name
that is already known to the shell you are using to identify some other
program, which the shell continues to execute instead of your program
when you invoke it via, for example:

     sh# test
     sh#

   Under UNIX and many other system, a simple command name invokes a
searching mechanism that might well not choose the program located in
the current working directory if there is another alternative (such as
the `test' command commonly installed on UNIX systems).

   The reliable way to invoke a program you just linked in the current
directory under UNIX is to specify it using an explicit pathname, as in:

     sh# ./test
      Hello, World!
     sh#

   Users who encounter this problem should take the time to read up on
how their shell searches for commands, how to set their search path,
and so on.  The relevant UNIX commands to learn about include `man',
`info' (on GNU systems), `setenv' (or `set' and `env'), `which', and
`find'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Strange Behavior at Run Time,  Next: Floating-point Errors,  Prev: Nothing Happens,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.8 Strange Behavior at Run Time
-----------------------------------

`g77' code might fail at runtime with "segmentation violation", "bus
error", or even something as subtle as a procedure call overwriting a
variable or array element that it is not supposed to touch.

   These can be symptoms of a wide variety of actual bugs that occurred
earlier during the program's run, but manifested themselves as
_visible_ problems some time later.

   Overflowing the bounds of an array--usually by writing beyond the
end of it--is one of two kinds of bug that often occurs in Fortran code.
(Compile your code with the `-fbounds-check' option to catch many of
these kinds of errors at program run time.)

   The other kind of bug is a mismatch between the actual arguments
passed to a procedure and the dummy arguments as declared by that
procedure.

   Both of these kinds of bugs, and some others as well, can be
difficult to track down, because the bug can change its behavior, or
even appear to not occur, when using a debugger.

   That is, these bugs can be quite sensitive to data, including data
representing the placement of other data in memory (that is, pointers,
such as the placement of stack frames in memory).

   `g77' now offers the ability to catch and report some of these
problems at compile, link, or run time, such as by generating code to
detect references to beyond the bounds of most arrays (except
assumed-size arrays), and checking for agreement between calling and
called procedures.  Future improvements are likely to be made in the
procedure-mismatch area, at least.

   In the meantime, finding and fixing the programming bugs that lead
to these behaviors is, ultimately, the user's responsibility, as
difficult as that task can sometimes be.

   One runtime problem that has been observed might have a simple
solution.  If a formatted `WRITE' produces an endless stream of spaces,
check that your program is linked against the correct version of the C
library.  The configuration process takes care to account for your
system's normal `libc' not being ANSI-standard, which will otherwise
cause this behavior.  If your system's default library is ANSI-standard
and you subsequently link against a non-ANSI one, there might be
problems such as this one.

   Specifically, on Solaris2 systems, avoid picking up the `BSD'
library from `/usr/ucblib'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Floating-point Errors,  Prev: Strange Behavior at Run Time,  Up: But-bugs

15.1.9 Floating-point Errors
----------------------------

Some programs appear to produce inconsistent floating-point results
compiled by `g77' versus by other compilers.

   Often the reason for this behavior is the fact that floating-point
values are represented on almost all Fortran systems by
_approximations_, and these approximations are inexact even for
apparently simple values like 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9,
1.1, and so on.  Most Fortran systems, including all current ports of
`g77', use binary arithmetic to represent these approximations.

   Therefore, the exact value of any floating-point approximation as
manipulated by `g77'-compiled code is representable by adding some
combination of the values 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and so on (just keep
dividing by two) through the precision of the fraction (typically
around 23 bits for `REAL(KIND=1)', 52 for `REAL(KIND=2)'), then
multiplying the sum by a integral power of two (in Fortran, by `2**N')
that typically is between -127 and +128 for `REAL(KIND=1)' and -1023
and +1024 for `REAL(KIND=2)', then multiplying by -1 if the number is
negative.

   So, a value like 0.2 is exactly represented in decimal--since it is
a fraction, `2/10', with a denominator that is compatible with the base
of the number system (base 10).  However, `2/10' cannot be represented
by any finite number of sums of any of 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and so on, so
0.2 cannot be exactly represented in binary notation.

   (On the other hand, decimal notation can represent any binary number
in a finite number of digits.  Decimal notation cannot do so with
ternary, or base-3, notation, which would represent floating-point
numbers as sums of any of `1/1', `1/3', `1/9', and so on.  After all,
no finite number of decimal digits can exactly represent `1/3'.
Fortunately, few systems use ternary notation.)

   Moreover, differences in the way run-time I/O libraries convert
between these approximations and the decimal representation often used
by programmers and the programs they write can result in apparent
differences between results that do not actually exist, or exist to
such a small degree that they usually are not worth worrying about.

   For example, consider the following program:

     PRINT *, 0.2
     END

   When compiled by `g77', the above program might output `0.20000003',
while another compiler might produce a executable that outputs `0.2'.

   This particular difference is due to the fact that, currently,
conversion of floating-point values by the `libg2c' library, used by
`g77', handles only double-precision values.

   Since `0.2' in the program is a single-precision value, it is
converted to double precision (still in binary notation) before being
converted back to decimal.  The conversion to binary appends _binary_
zero digits to the original value--which, again, is an inexact
approximation of 0.2--resulting in an approximation that is much less
exact than is connoted by the use of double precision.

   (The appending of binary zero digits has essentially the same effect
as taking a particular decimal approximation of `1/3', such as
`0.3333333', and appending decimal zeros to it, producing
`0.33333330000000000'.  Treating the resulting decimal approximation as
if it really had 18 or so digits of valid precision would make it seem
a very poor approximation of `1/3'.)

   As a result of converting the single-precision approximation to
double precision by appending binary zeros, the conversion of the
resulting double-precision value to decimal produces what looks like an
incorrect result, when in fact the result is _inexact_, and is probably
no less inaccurate or imprecise an approximation of 0.2 than is
produced by other compilers that happen to output the converted value
as "exactly" `0.2'.  (Some compilers behave in a way that can make them
appear to retain more accuracy across a conversion of a single-precision
constant to double precision.  *Note Context-Sensitive Constants::, to
see why this practice is illusory and even dangerous.)

   Note that a more exact approximation of the constant is computed
when the program is changed to specify a double-precision constant:

     PRINT *, 0.2D0
     END

   Future versions of `g77' and/or `libg2c' might convert
single-precision values directly to decimal, instead of converting them
to double precision first.  This would tend to result in output that is
more consistent with that produced by some other Fortran
implementations.

   A useful source of information on floating-point computation is David
Goldberg, `What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About
Floating-Point Arithmetic', Computing Surveys, 23, March 1991, pp.
5-48.  An online version is available at `http://docs.sun.com/'.

   Information related to the IEEE 754 floating-point standard can be
found at `http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/754/' and
`http://http.cs.berkeley.edu/%7Ewkahan/ieee754status/'; see also slides
from the short course referenced from
`http://http.cs.berkeley.edu/%7Efateman/'.

   The supplement to the PostScript-formatted Goldberg document,
referenced above, is available in HTML format.  See `Differences Among
IEEE 754 Implementations' by Doug Priest.  This document explores some
of the issues surrounding computing of extended (80-bit) results on
processors such as the x86, especially when those results are
arbitrarily truncated to 32-bit or 64-bit values by the compiler as
"spills".

   (_Note:_ `g77' specifically, and `gcc' generally, does arbitrarily
truncate 80-bit results during spills as of this writing.  It is not
yet clear whether a future version of the GNU compiler suite will offer
80-bit spills as an option, or perhaps even as the default behavior.)

   The GNU C library provides routines for controlling the FPU, and
other documentation about this.

   *Note Floating-point precision::, regarding IEEE 754 conformance.

File: g77.info,  Node: Known Bugs,  Next: Missing Features,  Prev: But-bugs,  Up: Trouble

15.2 Known Bugs In GNU Fortran
==============================

   This section identifies bugs that `g77' _users_ might run into in
the GCC-3.4.6 version of `g77'.  This includes bugs that are actually
in the `gcc' back end (GBE) or in `libf2c', because those sets of code
are at least somewhat under the control of (and necessarily intertwined
with) `g77', so it isn't worth separating them out.

   For information on bugs in _other_ versions of `g77', see *note News
About GNU Fortran: News.  There, lists of bugs fixed in various
versions of `g77' can help determine what bugs existed in prior
versions.

   The following information was last updated on 2004-05-18:

   * `g77' fails to warn about use of a "live" iterative-DO variable as
     an implied-DO variable in a `WRITE' or `PRINT' statement (although
     it does warn about this in a `READ' statement).

   * Something about `g77''s straightforward handling of label
     references and definitions sometimes prevents the GBE from
     unrolling loops.  Until this is solved, try inserting or removing
     `CONTINUE' statements as the terminal statement, using the `END DO'
     form instead, and so on.

   * Some confusion in diagnostics concerning failing `INCLUDE'
     statements from within `INCLUDE''d or `#include''d files.

   * `g77' assumes that `INTEGER(KIND=1)' constants range from `-2**31'
     to `2**31-1' (the range for two's-complement 32-bit values),
     instead of determining their range from the actual range of the
     type for the configuration (and, someday, for the constant).

     Further, it generally doesn't implement the handling of constants
     very well in that it makes assumptions about the configuration
     that it no longer makes regarding variables (types).

     Included with this item is the fact that `g77' doesn't recognize
     that, on IEEE-754/854-compliant systems, `0./0.' should produce a
     NaN and no warning instead of the value `0.' and a warning.

   * `g77' uses way too much memory and CPU time to process large
     aggregate areas having any initialized elements.

     For example, `REAL A(1000000)' followed by `DATA A(1)/1/' takes up
     way too much time and space, including the size of the generated
     assembler file.

     Version 0.5.18 improves cases like this--specifically, cases of
     _sparse_ initialization that leave large, contiguous areas
     uninitialized--significantly.  However, even with the
     improvements, these cases still require too much memory and CPU
     time.

     (Version 0.5.18 also improves cases where the initial values are
     zero to a much greater degree, so if the above example ends with
     `DATA A(1)/0/', the compile-time performance will be about as good
     as it will ever get, aside from unrelated improvements to the
     compiler.)

     Note that `g77' does display a warning message to notify the user
     before the compiler appears to hang.  A warning message is issued
     when `g77' sees code that provides initial values (e.g. via
     `DATA') to an aggregate area (`COMMON' or `EQUIVALENCE', or even a
     large enough array or `CHARACTER' variable) that is large enough
     to increase `g77''s compile time by roughly a factor of 10.

     This size currently is quite small, since `g77' currently has a
     known bug requiring too much memory and time to handle such cases.
     In `gcc/gcc/f/data.c', the macro `FFEDATA_sizeTOO_BIG_INIT_' is
     defined to the minimum size for the warning to appear.  The size
     is specified in storage units, which can be bytes, words, or
     whatever, on a case-by-case basis.

     After changing this macro definition, you must (of course) rebuild
     and reinstall `g77' for the change to take effect.

     Note that, as of version 0.5.18, improvements have reduced the
     scope of the problem for _sparse_ initialization of large arrays,
     especially those with large, contiguous uninitialized areas.
     However, the warning is issued at a point prior to when `g77'
     knows whether the initialization is sparse, and delaying the
     warning could mean it is produced too late to be helpful.

     Therefore, the macro definition should not be adjusted to reflect
     sparse cases.  Instead, adjust it to generate the warning when
     densely initialized arrays begin to cause responses noticeably
     slower than linear performance would suggest.

   * When debugging, after starting up the debugger but before being
     able to see the source code for the main program unit, the user
     must currently set a breakpoint at `MAIN__' (or `MAIN___' or
     `MAIN_' if `MAIN__' doesn't exist) and run the program until it
     hits the breakpoint.  At that point, the main program unit is
     activated and about to execute its first executable statement, but
     that's the state in which the debugger should start up, as is the
     case for languages like C.

   * Debugging `g77'-compiled code using debuggers other than `gdb' is
     likely not to work.

     Getting `g77' and `gdb' to work together is a known
     problem--getting `g77' to work properly with other debuggers, for
     which source code often is unavailable to `g77' developers, seems
     like a much larger, unknown problem, and is a lower priority than
     making `g77' and `gdb' work together properly.

     On the other hand, information about problems other debuggers have
     with `g77' output might make it easier to properly fix `g77', and
     perhaps even improve `gdb', so it is definitely welcome.  Such
     information might even lead to all relevant products working
     together properly sooner.

   * `g77' doesn't work perfectly on 64-bit configurations such as the
     Digital Semiconductor ("DEC") Alpha.

     This problem is largely resolved as of version 0.5.23.

   * `g77' currently inserts needless padding for things like `COMMON
     A,IPAD' where `A' is `CHARACTER*1' and `IPAD' is `INTEGER(KIND=1)'
     on machines like x86, because the back end insists that `IPAD' be
     aligned to a 4-byte boundary, but the processor has no such
     requirement (though it is usually good for performance).

     The `gcc' back end needs to provide a wider array of
     specifications of alignment requirements and preferences for
     targets, and front ends like `g77' should take advantage of this
     when it becomes available.

   * The `libf2c' routines that perform some run-time arithmetic on
     `COMPLEX' operands were modified circa version 0.5.20 of `g77' to
     work properly even in the presence of aliased operands.

     While the `g77' and `netlib' versions of `libf2c' differ on how
     this is accomplished, the main differences are that we believe the
     `g77' version works properly even in the presence of _partially_
     aliased operands.

     However, these modifications have reduced performance on targets
     such as x86, due to the extra copies of operands involved.

File: g77.info,  Node: Missing Features,  Next: Disappointments,  Prev: Known Bugs,  Up: Trouble

15.3 Missing Features
=====================

This section lists features we know are missing from `g77', and which
we want to add someday.  (There is no priority implied in the ordering
below.)

* Menu:

GNU Fortran language:
* Better Source Model::
* Fortran 90 Support::
* Intrinsics in PARAMETER Statements::
* Arbitrary Concatenation::
* SELECT CASE on CHARACTER Type::
* RECURSIVE Keyword::
* Popular Non-standard Types::
* Full Support for Compiler Types::
* Array Bounds Expressions::
* POINTER Statements::
* Sensible Non-standard Constructs::
* READONLY Keyword::
* FLUSH Statement::
* Expressions in FORMAT Statements::
* Explicit Assembler Code::
* Q Edit Descriptor::

GNU Fortran dialects:
* Old-style PARAMETER Statements::
* TYPE and ACCEPT I/O Statements::
* STRUCTURE UNION RECORD MAP::
* OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords::
* ENCODE and DECODE::
* AUTOMATIC Statement::
* Suppressing Space Padding::
* Fortran Preprocessor::
* Bit Operations on Floating-point Data::
* Really Ugly Character Assignments::

New facilities:
* POSIX Standard::
* Floating-point Exception Handling::
* Nonportable Conversions::
* Large Automatic Arrays::
* Support for Threads::
* Increasing Precision/Range::
* Enabling Debug Lines::

Better diagnostics:
* Better Warnings::
* Gracefully Handle Sensible Bad Code::
* Non-standard Conversions::
* Non-standard Intrinsics::
* Modifying DO Variable::
* Better Pedantic Compilation::
* Warn About Implicit Conversions::
* Invalid Use of Hollerith Constant::
* Dummy Array Without Dimensioning Dummy::
* Invalid FORMAT Specifiers::
* Ambiguous Dialects::
* Unused Labels::
* Informational Messages::

Run-time facilities:
* Uninitialized Variables at Run Time::
* Portable Unformatted Files::
* Better List-directed I/O::
* Default to Console I/O::

Debugging:
* Labels Visible to Debugger::

File: g77.info,  Node: Better Source Model,  Next: Fortran 90 Support,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.1 Better Source Model
--------------------------

`g77' needs to provide, as the default source-line model, a "pure
visual" mode, where the interpretation of a source program in this mode
can be accurately determined by a user looking at a traditionally
displayed rendition of the program (assuming the user knows whether the
program is fixed or free form).

   The design should assume the user cannot tell tabs from spaces and
cannot see trailing spaces on lines, but has canonical tab stops and,
for fixed-form source, has the ability to always know exactly where
column 72 is (since the Fortran standard itself requires this for
fixed-form source).

   This would change the default treatment of fixed-form source to not
treat lines with tabs as if they were infinitely long--instead, they
would end at column 72 just as if the tabs were replaced by spaces in
the canonical way.

   As part of this, provide common alternate models (Digital, `f2c',
and so on) via command-line options.  This includes allowing
arbitrarily long lines for free-form source as well as fixed-form
source and providing various limits and diagnostics as appropriate.

   Also, `g77' should offer, perhaps even default to, warnings when
characters beyond the last valid column are anything other than spaces.
This would mean code with "sequence numbers" in columns 73 through 80
would be rejected, and there's a lot of that kind of code around, but
one of the most frequent bugs encountered by new users is accidentally
writing fixed-form source code into and beyond column 73.  So, maybe
the users of old code would be able to more easily handle having to
specify, say, a `-Wno-col73to80' option.

File: g77.info,  Node: Fortran 90 Support,  Next: Intrinsics in PARAMETER Statements,  Prev: Better Source Model,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.2 Fortran 90 Support
-------------------------

`g77' does not support many of the features that distinguish Fortran 90
(and, now, Fortran 95) from ANSI FORTRAN 77.

   Some Fortran 90 features are supported, because they make sense to
offer even to die-hard users of F77.  For example, many of them codify
various ways F77 has been extended to meet users' needs during its
tenure, so `g77' might as well offer them as the primary way to meet
those same needs, even if it offers compatibility with one or more of
the ways those needs were met by other F77 compilers in the industry.

   Still, many important F90 features are not supported, because no
attempt has been made to research each and every feature and assess its
viability in `g77'.  In the meantime, users who need those features must
use Fortran 90 compilers anyway, and the best approach to adding some
F90 features to GNU Fortran might well be to fund a comprehensive
project to create GNU Fortran 95.

File: g77.info,  Node: Intrinsics in PARAMETER Statements,  Next: Arbitrary Concatenation,  Prev: Fortran 90 Support,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.3 Intrinsics in `PARAMETER' Statements
-------------------------------------------

`g77' doesn't allow intrinsics in `PARAMETER' statements.

   Related to this, `g77' doesn't allow non-integral exponentiation in
`PARAMETER' statements, such as `PARAMETER (R=2**.25)'.  It is unlikely
`g77' will ever support this feature, as doing it properly requires
complete emulation of a target computer's floating-point facilities when
building `g77' as a cross-compiler.  But, if the `gcc' back end is
enhanced to provide such a facility, `g77' will likely use that facility
in implementing this feature soon afterwards.

File: g77.info,  Node: Arbitrary Concatenation,  Next: SELECT CASE on CHARACTER Type,  Prev: Intrinsics in PARAMETER Statements,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.4 Arbitrary Concatenation
------------------------------

`g77' doesn't support arbitrary operands for concatenation in contexts
where run-time allocation is required.  For example:

     SUBROUTINE X(A)
     CHARACTER*(*) A
     CALL FOO(A // 'suffix')

File: g77.info,  Node: SELECT CASE on CHARACTER Type,  Next: RECURSIVE Keyword,  Prev: Arbitrary Concatenation,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.5 `SELECT CASE' on `CHARACTER' Type
----------------------------------------

Character-type selector/cases for `SELECT CASE' currently are not
supported.

File: g77.info,  Node: RECURSIVE Keyword,  Next: Popular Non-standard Types,  Prev: SELECT CASE on CHARACTER Type,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.6 `RECURSIVE' Keyword
--------------------------

`g77' doesn't support the `RECURSIVE' keyword that F90 compilers do.
Nor does it provide any means for compiling procedures designed to do
recursion.

   All recursive code can be rewritten to not use recursion, but the
result is not pretty.

File: g77.info,  Node: Popular Non-standard Types,  Next: Full Support for Compiler Types,  Prev: RECURSIVE Keyword,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.8 Popular Non-standard Types
---------------------------------

`g77' doesn't fully support `INTEGER*2', `LOGICAL*1', and similar.  In
the meantime, version 0.5.18 provides rudimentary support for them.

File: g77.info,  Node: Full Support for Compiler Types,  Next: Array Bounds Expressions,  Prev: Popular Non-standard Types,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.9 Full Support for Compiler Types
--------------------------------------

`g77' doesn't support `INTEGER', `REAL', and `COMPLEX' equivalents for
_all_ applicable back-end-supported types (`char', `short int', `int',
`long int', `long long int', and `long double').  This means providing
intrinsic support, and maybe constant support (using F90 syntax) as
well, and, for most machines will result in automatic support of
`INTEGER*1', `INTEGER*2', `INTEGER*8', maybe even `REAL*16', and so on.

File: g77.info,  Node: Array Bounds Expressions,  Next: POINTER Statements,  Prev: Full Support for Compiler Types,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.10 Array Bounds Expressions
--------------------------------

`g77' doesn't support more general expressions to dimension arrays,
such as array element references, function references, etc.

   For example, `g77' currently does not accept the following:

     SUBROUTINE X(M, N)
     INTEGER N(10), M(N(2), N(1))

File: g77.info,  Node: POINTER Statements,  Next: Sensible Non-standard Constructs,  Prev: Array Bounds Expressions,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.11 POINTER Statements
--------------------------

`g77' doesn't support pointers or allocatable objects (other than
automatic arrays).  This set of features is probably considered just
behind intrinsics in `PARAMETER' statements on the list of large,
important things to add to `g77'.

   In the meantime, consider using the `INTEGER(KIND=7)' declaration to
specify that a variable must be able to hold a pointer.  This construct
is not portable to other non-GNU compilers, but it is portable to all
machines GNU Fortran supports when `g77' is used.

   *Note Functions and Subroutines::, for information on `%VAL()',
`%REF()', and `%DESCR()' constructs, which are useful for passing
pointers to procedures written in languages other than Fortran.

File: g77.info,  Node: Sensible Non-standard Constructs,  Next: READONLY Keyword,  Prev: POINTER Statements,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.12 Sensible Non-standard Constructs
----------------------------------------

`g77' rejects things other compilers accept, like `INTRINSIC SQRT,SQRT'.
As time permits in the future, some of these things that are easy for
humans to read and write and unlikely to be intended to mean something
else will be accepted by `g77' (though `-fpedantic' should trigger
warnings about such non-standard constructs).

   Until `g77' no longer gratuitously rejects sensible code, you might
as well fix your code to be more standard-conforming and portable.

   The kind of case that is important to except from the recommendation
to change your code is one where following good coding rules would
force you to write non-standard code that nevertheless has a clear
meaning.

   For example, when writing an `INCLUDE' file that defines a common
block, it might be appropriate to include a `SAVE' statement for the
common block (such as `SAVE /CBLOCK/'), so that variables defined in
the common block retain their values even when all procedures declaring
the common block become inactive (return to their callers).

   However, putting `SAVE' statements in an `INCLUDE' file would
prevent otherwise standard-conforming code from also specifying the
`SAVE' statement, by itself, to indicate that all local variables and
arrays are to have the `SAVE' attribute.

   For this reason, `g77' already has been changed to allow this
combination, because although the general problem of gratuitously
rejecting unambiguous and "safe" constructs still exists in `g77', this
particular construct was deemed useful enough that it was worth fixing
`g77' for just this case.

   So, while there is no need to change your code to avoid using this
particular construct, there might be other, equally appropriate but
non-standard constructs, that you shouldn't have to stop using just
because `g77' (or any other compiler) gratuitously rejects it.

   Until the general problem is solved, if you have any such construct
you believe is worthwhile using (e.g. not just an arbitrary, redundant
specification of an attribute), please submit a bug report with an
explanation, so we can consider fixing `g77' just for cases like yours.

File: g77.info,  Node: READONLY Keyword,  Next: FLUSH Statement,  Prev: Sensible Non-standard Constructs,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.13 `READONLY' Keyword
--------------------------

Support for `READONLY', in `OPEN' statements, requires `libg2c' support,
to make sure that `CLOSE(...,STATUS='DELETE')' does not delete a file
opened on a unit with the `READONLY' keyword, and perhaps to trigger a
fatal diagnostic if a `WRITE' or `PRINT' to such a unit is attempted.

   _Note:_ It is not sufficient for `g77' and `libg2c' (its version of
`libf2c') to assume that `READONLY' does not need some kind of explicit
support at run time, due to UNIX systems not (generally) needing it.
`g77' is not just a UNIX-based compiler!

   Further, mounting of non-UNIX filesystems on UNIX systems (such as
via NFS) might require proper `READONLY' support.

   (Similar issues might be involved with supporting the `SHARED'
keyword.)

File: g77.info,  Node: FLUSH Statement,  Next: Expressions in FORMAT Statements,  Prev: READONLY Keyword,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.14 `FLUSH' Statement
-------------------------

`g77' could perhaps use a `FLUSH' statement that does what `CALL FLUSH'
does, but that supports `*' as the unit designator (same unit as for
`PRINT') and accepts `ERR=' and/or `IOSTAT=' specifiers.

File: g77.info,  Node: Expressions in FORMAT Statements,  Next: Explicit Assembler Code,  Prev: FLUSH Statement,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.15 Expressions in `FORMAT' Statements
------------------------------------------

`g77' doesn't support `FORMAT(I<J>)' and the like.  Supporting this
requires a significant redesign or replacement of `libg2c'.

   However, `g77' does support this construct when the expression is
constant (as of version 0.5.22).  For example:

           PARAMETER (IWIDTH = 12)
     10    FORMAT (I<IWIDTH>)

   Otherwise, at least for output (`PRINT' and `WRITE'), Fortran code
making use of this feature can be rewritten to avoid it by constructing
the `FORMAT' string in a `CHARACTER' variable or array, then using that
variable or array in place of the `FORMAT' statement label to do the
original `PRINT' or `WRITE'.

   Many uses of this feature on input can be rewritten this way as
well, but not all can.  For example, this can be rewritten:

           READ 20, I
     20    FORMAT (I<J>)

   However, this cannot, in general, be rewritten, especially when
`ERR=' and `END=' constructs are employed:

           READ 30, J, I
     30    FORMAT (I<J>)

File: g77.info,  Node: Explicit Assembler Code,  Next: Q Edit Descriptor,  Prev: Expressions in FORMAT Statements,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.16 Explicit Assembler Code
-------------------------------

`g77' needs to provide some way, a la `gcc', for `g77' code to specify
explicit assembler code.

File: g77.info,  Node: Q Edit Descriptor,  Next: Old-style PARAMETER Statements,  Prev: Explicit Assembler Code,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.17 Q Edit Descriptor
-------------------------

The `Q' edit descriptor in `FORMAT's isn't supported.  (This is meant
to get the number of characters remaining in an input record.)
Supporting this requires a significant redesign or replacement of
`libg2c'.

   A workaround might be using internal I/O or the stream-based
intrinsics.  *Note FGetC Intrinsic (subroutine)::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Old-style PARAMETER Statements,  Next: TYPE and ACCEPT I/O Statements,  Prev: Q Edit Descriptor,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.18 Old-style PARAMETER Statements
--------------------------------------

`g77' doesn't accept `PARAMETER I=1'.  Supporting this obsolete form of
the `PARAMETER' statement would not be particularly hard, as most of the
parsing code is already in place and working.

   Until time/money is spent implementing it, you might as well fix
your code to use the standard form, `PARAMETER (I=1)' (possibly needing
`INTEGER I' preceding the `PARAMETER' statement as well, otherwise, in
the obsolete form of `PARAMETER', the type of the variable is set from
the type of the constant being assigned to it).

File: g77.info,  Node: TYPE and ACCEPT I/O Statements,  Next: STRUCTURE UNION RECORD MAP,  Prev: Old-style PARAMETER Statements,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.19 `TYPE' and `ACCEPT' I/O Statements
------------------------------------------

`g77' doesn't support the I/O statements `TYPE' and `ACCEPT'.  These
are common extensions that should be easy to support, but also are
fairly easy to work around in user code.

   Generally, any `TYPE fmt,list' I/O statement can be replaced by
`PRINT fmt,list'.  And, any `ACCEPT fmt,list' statement can be replaced
by `READ fmt,list'.

File: g77.info,  Node: STRUCTURE UNION RECORD MAP,  Next: OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords,  Prev: TYPE and ACCEPT I/O Statements,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.20 `STRUCTURE', `UNION', `RECORD', `MAP'
---------------------------------------------

`g77' doesn't support `STRUCTURE', `UNION', `RECORD', `MAP'.  This set
of extensions is quite a bit lower on the list of large, important
things to add to `g77', partly because it requires a great deal of work
either upgrading or replacing `libg2c'.

File: g77.info,  Node: OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords,  Next: ENCODE and DECODE,  Prev: STRUCTURE UNION RECORD MAP,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.21 `OPEN', `CLOSE', and `INQUIRE' Keywords
-----------------------------------------------

`g77' doesn't have support for keywords such as `DISP='DELETE'' in the
`OPEN', `CLOSE', and `INQUIRE' statements.  These extensions are easy
to add to `g77' itself, but require much more work on `libg2c'.

   `g77' doesn't support `FORM='PRINT'' or an equivalent to translate
the traditional `carriage control' characters in column 1 of output to
use backspaces, carriage returns and the like.  However programs exist
to translate them in output files (or standard output).  These are
typically called either `fpr' or `asa'.  You can get a version of `asa'
from `ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/devel/lang/fortran' for GNU
systems which will probably build easily on other systems.
Alternatively, `fpr' is in BSD distributions in various archive sites.

File: g77.info,  Node: ENCODE and DECODE,  Next: AUTOMATIC Statement,  Prev: OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.22 `ENCODE' and `DECODE'
-----------------------------

`g77' doesn't support `ENCODE' or `DECODE'.

   These statements are best replaced by READ and WRITE statements
involving internal files (CHARACTER variables and arrays).

   For example, replace a code fragment like

           INTEGER*1 LINE(80)
     ...
           DECODE (80, 9000, LINE) A, B, C
     ...
     9000  FORMAT (1X, 3(F10.5))

with:

           CHARACTER*80 LINE
     ...
           READ (UNIT=LINE, FMT=9000) A, B, C
     ...
     9000  FORMAT (1X, 3(F10.5))

   Similarly, replace a code fragment like

           INTEGER*1 LINE(80)
     ...
           ENCODE (80, 9000, LINE) A, B, C
     ...
     9000  FORMAT (1X, 'OUTPUT IS ', 3(F10.5))

with:

           CHARACTER*80 LINE
     ...
           WRITE (UNIT=LINE, FMT=9000) A, B, C
     ...
     9000  FORMAT (1X, 'OUTPUT IS ', 3(F10.5))

   It is entirely possible that `ENCODE' and `DECODE' will be supported
by a future version of `g77'.

File: g77.info,  Node: AUTOMATIC Statement,  Next: Suppressing Space Padding,  Prev: ENCODE and DECODE,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.23 `AUTOMATIC' Statement
-----------------------------

`g77' doesn't support the `AUTOMATIC' statement that `f2c' does.

   `AUTOMATIC' would identify a variable or array as not being
`SAVE''d, which is normally the default, but which would be especially
useful for code that, _generally_, needed to be compiled with the
`-fno-automatic' option.

   `AUTOMATIC' also would serve as a hint to the compiler that placing
the variable or array--even a very large array-on the stack is
acceptable.

   `AUTOMATIC' would not, by itself, designate the containing procedure
as recursive.

   `AUTOMATIC' should work syntactically like `SAVE', in that
`AUTOMATIC' with no variables listed should apply to all pertinent
variables and arrays (which would not include common blocks or their
members).

   Variables and arrays denoted as `AUTOMATIC' would not be permitted
to be initialized via `DATA' or other specification of any initial
values, requiring explicit initialization, such as via assignment
statements.

   Perhaps `UNSAVE' and `STATIC', as strict semantic opposites to
`SAVE' and `AUTOMATIC', should be provided as well.

File: g77.info,  Node: Suppressing Space Padding,  Next: Fortran Preprocessor,  Prev: AUTOMATIC Statement,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.24 Suppressing Space Padding of Source Lines
-------------------------------------------------

`g77' should offer VXT-Fortran-style suppression of virtual spaces at
the end of a source line if an appropriate command-line option is
specified.

   This affects cases where a character constant is continued onto the
next line in a fixed-form source file, as in the following example:

     10    PRINT *,'HOW MANY
          1 SPACES?'

`g77', and many other compilers, virtually extend the continued line
through column 72 with spaces that become part of the character
constant, but Digital Fortran normally didn't, leaving only one space
between `MANY' and `SPACES?' in the output of the above statement.

   Fairly recently, at least one version of Digital Fortran was
enhanced to provide the other behavior when a command-line option is
specified, apparently due to demand from readers of the USENET group
`comp.lang.fortran' to offer conformance to this widespread practice in
the industry.  `g77' should return the favor by offering conformance to
Digital's approach to handling the above example.

File: g77.info,  Node: Fortran Preprocessor,  Next: Bit Operations on Floating-point Data,  Prev: Suppressing Space Padding,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.25 Fortran Preprocessor
----------------------------

`g77' should offer a preprocessor designed specifically for Fortran to
replace `cpp -traditional'.  There are several out there worth
evaluating, at least.

   Such a preprocessor would recognize Hollerith constants, properly
parse comments and character constants, and so on.  It might also
recognize, process, and thus preprocess files included via the
`INCLUDE' directive.

File: g77.info,  Node: Bit Operations on Floating-point Data,  Next: Really Ugly Character Assignments,  Prev: Fortran Preprocessor,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.26 Bit Operations on Floating-point Data
---------------------------------------------

`g77' does not allow `REAL' and other non-integral types for arguments
to intrinsics like `And', `Or', and `Shift'.

   For example, this program is rejected by `g77', because the
intrinsic `Iand' does not accept `REAL' arguments:

     DATA A/7.54/, B/9.112/
     PRINT *, IAND(A, B)
     END

File: g77.info,  Node: Really Ugly Character Assignments,  Next: POSIX Standard,  Prev: Bit Operations on Floating-point Data,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.27 Really Ugly Character Assignments
-----------------------------------------

An option such as `-fugly-char' should be provided to allow

     REAL*8 A1
     DATA A1 / '12345678' /

   and:

     REAL*8 A1
     A1 = 'ABCDEFGH'

File: g77.info,  Node: POSIX Standard,  Next: Floating-point Exception Handling,  Prev: Really Ugly Character Assignments,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.28 `POSIX' Standard
------------------------

`g77' should support the POSIX standard for Fortran.

File: g77.info,  Node: Floating-point Exception Handling,  Next: Nonportable Conversions,  Prev: POSIX Standard,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.29 Floating-point Exception Handling
-----------------------------------------

The `gcc' backend and, consequently, `g77', currently provides no
general control over whether or not floating-point exceptions are
trapped or ignored.  (Ignoring them typically results in NaN values
being propagated in systems that conform to IEEE 754.)  The behavior is
normally inherited from the system-dependent startup code, though some
targets, such as the Alpha, have code generation options which change
the behavior.

   Most systems provide some C-callable mechanism to change this; this
can be invoked at startup using `gcc''s `constructor' attribute.  For
example, just compiling and linking the following C code with your
program will turn on exception trapping for the "common" exceptions on
a GNU system using glibc 2.2 or newer:

     #define _GNU_SOURCE 1
     #include <fenv.h>
     static void __attribute__ ((constructor))
     trapfpe ()
     {
       /* Enable some exceptions.  At startup all exceptions are masked.  */

       feenableexcept (FE_INVALID|FE_DIVBYZERO|FE_OVERFLOW);
     }

   Assuming the above source is in file `trapfpe.c', then compile this
routine as follows:
     gcc -c trapfpe.c
   and subsequently use it by adding `trapfpe.o' to the `g77' command
line when linking.

File: g77.info,  Node: Nonportable Conversions,  Next: Large Automatic Arrays,  Prev: Floating-point Exception Handling,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.30 Nonportable Conversions
-------------------------------

`g77' doesn't accept some particularly nonportable, silent data-type
conversions such as `LOGICAL' to `REAL' (as in `A=.FALSE.', where `A'
is type `REAL'), that other compilers might quietly accept.

   Some of these conversions are accepted by `g77' when the
`-fugly-logint' option is specified.  Perhaps it should accept more or
all of them.

File: g77.info,  Node: Large Automatic Arrays,  Next: Support for Threads,  Prev: Nonportable Conversions,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.31 Large Automatic Arrays
------------------------------

Currently, automatic arrays always are allocated on the stack.  For
situations where the stack cannot be made large enough, `g77' should
offer a compiler option that specifies allocation of automatic arrays
in heap storage.

File: g77.info,  Node: Support for Threads,  Next: Increasing Precision/Range,  Prev: Large Automatic Arrays,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.32 Support for Threads
---------------------------

Neither the code produced by `g77' nor the `libg2c' library are
thread-safe, nor does `g77' have support for parallel processing (other
than the instruction-level parallelism available on some processors).
A package such as PVM might help here.

File: g77.info,  Node: Increasing Precision/Range,  Next: Enabling Debug Lines,  Prev: Support for Threads,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.7 Increasing Precision/Range
---------------------------------

Some compilers, such as `f2c', have an option (`-r8', `-qrealsize=8' or
similar) that provides automatic treatment of `REAL' entities such that
they have twice the storage size, and a corresponding increase in the
range and precision, of what would normally be the `REAL(KIND=1)'
(default `REAL') type.  (This affects `COMPLEX' the same way.)

   They also typically offer another option (`-i8') to increase
`INTEGER' entities so they are twice as large (with roughly twice as
much range).

   (There are potential pitfalls in using these options.)

   `g77' does not yet offer any option that performs these kinds of
transformations.  Part of the problem is the lack of detailed
specifications regarding exactly how these options affect the
interpretation of constants, intrinsics, and so on.

   Until `g77' addresses this need, programmers could improve the
portability of their code by modifying it to not require compile-time
options to produce correct results.  Some free tools are available
which may help, specifically in Toolpack (which one would expect to be
sound) and the `fortran' section of the Netlib repository.

   Use of preprocessors can provide a fairly portable means to work
around the lack of widely portable methods in the Fortran language
itself (though increasing acceptance of Fortran 90 would alleviate this
problem).

File: g77.info,  Node: Enabling Debug Lines,  Next: Better Warnings,  Prev: Increasing Precision/Range,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.33 Enabling Debug Lines
----------------------------

An option such as `-fdebug-lines' should be provided to turn fixed-form
lines beginning with `D' to be treated as if they began with a space,
instead of as if they began with a `C' (as comment lines).

File: g77.info,  Node: Better Warnings,  Next: Gracefully Handle Sensible Bad Code,  Prev: Enabling Debug Lines,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.34 Better Warnings
-----------------------

Because of how `g77' generates code via the back end, it doesn't always
provide warnings the user wants.  Consider:

     PROGRAM X
     PRINT *, A
     END

   Currently, the above is not flagged as a case of using an
uninitialized variable, because `g77' generates a run-time library call
that looks, to the GBE, like it might actually _modify_ `A' at run time.
(And, in fact, depending on the previous run-time library call, it
would!)

   Fixing this requires one of the following:

   * Switch to new library, `libg77', that provides a more "clean"
     interface, vis-a-vis input, output, and modified arguments, so the
     GBE can tell what's going on.

     This would provide a pretty big performance improvement, at least
     theoretically, and, ultimately, in practice, for some types of
     code.

   * Have `g77' pass a pointer to a temporary containing a copy of `A',
     instead of to `A' itself.  The GBE would then complain about the
     copy operation involving a potentially uninitialized variable.

     This might also provide a performance boost for some code, because
     `A' might then end up living in a register, which could help with
     inner loops.

   * Have `g77' use a GBE construct similar to `ADDR_EXPR' but with
     extra information on the fact that the item pointed to won't be
     modified (a la `const' in C).

     Probably the best solution for now, but not quite trivial to
     implement in the general case.

File: g77.info,  Node: Gracefully Handle Sensible Bad Code,  Next: Non-standard Conversions,  Prev: Better Warnings,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.35 Gracefully Handle Sensible Bad Code
-------------------------------------------

`g77' generally should continue processing for warnings and recoverable
(user) errors whenever possible--that is, it shouldn't gratuitously
make bad or useless code.

   For example:

     INTRINSIC ZABS
     CALL FOO(ZABS)
     END

When compiling the above with `-ff2c-intrinsics-disable', `g77' should
indeed complain about passing `ZABS', but it still should compile,
instead of rejecting the entire `CALL' statement.  (Some of this is
related to improving the compiler internals to improve how statements
are analyzed.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Non-standard Conversions,  Next: Non-standard Intrinsics,  Prev: Gracefully Handle Sensible Bad Code,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.36 Non-standard Conversions
--------------------------------

`-Wconversion' and related should flag places where non-standard
conversions are found.  Perhaps much of this would be part of `-Wugly*'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Non-standard Intrinsics,  Next: Modifying DO Variable,  Prev: Non-standard Conversions,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.37 Non-standard Intrinsics
-------------------------------

`g77' needs a new option, like `-Wintrinsics', to warn about use of
non-standard intrinsics without explicit `INTRINSIC' statements for
them.  This would help find code that might fail silently when ported
to another compiler.

File: g77.info,  Node: Modifying DO Variable,  Next: Better Pedantic Compilation,  Prev: Non-standard Intrinsics,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.38 Modifying `DO' Variable
-------------------------------

`g77' should warn about modifying `DO' variables via `EQUIVALENCE'.
(The internal information gathered to produce this warning might also
be useful in setting the internal "doiter" flag for a variable or even
array reference within a loop, since that might produce faster code
someday.)

   For example, this code is invalid, so `g77' should warn about the
invalid assignment to `NOTHER':

     EQUIVALENCE (I, NOTHER)
     DO I = 1, 100
        IF (I.EQ. 10) NOTHER = 20
     END DO

File: g77.info,  Node: Better Pedantic Compilation,  Next: Warn About Implicit Conversions,  Prev: Modifying DO Variable,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.39 Better Pedantic Compilation
-----------------------------------

`g77' needs to support `-fpedantic' more thoroughly, and use it only to
generate warnings instead of rejecting constructs outright.  Have it
warn: if a variable that dimensions an array is not a dummy or placed
explicitly in `COMMON' (F77 does not allow it to be placed in `COMMON'
via `EQUIVALENCE'); if specification statements follow
statement-function-definition statements; about all sorts of syntactic
extensions.

File: g77.info,  Node: Warn About Implicit Conversions,  Next: Invalid Use of Hollerith Constant,  Prev: Better Pedantic Compilation,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.40 Warn About Implicit Conversions
---------------------------------------

`g77' needs a `-Wpromotions' option to warn if source code appears to
expect automatic, silent, and somewhat dangerous compiler-assisted
conversion of `REAL(KIND=1)' constants to `REAL(KIND=2)' based on
context.

   For example, it would warn about cases like this:

     DOUBLE PRECISION FOO
     PARAMETER (TZPHI = 9.435784839284958)
     FOO = TZPHI * 3D0

File: g77.info,  Node: Invalid Use of Hollerith Constant,  Next: Dummy Array Without Dimensioning Dummy,  Prev: Warn About Implicit Conversions,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.41 Invalid Use of Hollerith Constant
-----------------------------------------

`g77' should disallow statements like `RETURN 2HAB', which are invalid
in both source forms (unlike `RETURN (2HAB)', which probably still
makes no sense but at least can be reliably parsed).  Fixed-form
processing rejects it, but not free-form, except in a way that is a bit
difficult to understand.

File: g77.info,  Node: Dummy Array Without Dimensioning Dummy,  Next: Invalid FORMAT Specifiers,  Prev: Invalid Use of Hollerith Constant,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.42 Dummy Array Without Dimensioning Dummy
----------------------------------------------

`g77' should complain when a list of dummy arguments containing an
adjustable dummy array does not also contain every variable listed in
the dimension list of the adjustable array.

   Currently, `g77' does complain about a variable that dimensions an
array but doesn't appear in any dummy list or `COMMON' area, but this
needs to be extended to catch cases where it doesn't appear in every
dummy list that also lists any arrays it dimensions.

   For example, `g77' should warn about the entry point `ALT' below,
since it includes `ARRAY' but not `ISIZE' in its list of arguments:

     SUBROUTINE PRIMARY(ARRAY, ISIZE)
     REAL ARRAY(ISIZE)
     ENTRY ALT(ARRAY)

File: g77.info,  Node: Invalid FORMAT Specifiers,  Next: Ambiguous Dialects,  Prev: Dummy Array Without Dimensioning Dummy,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.43 Invalid FORMAT Specifiers
---------------------------------

`g77' should check `FORMAT' specifiers for validity as it does `FORMAT'
statements.

   For example, a diagnostic would be produced for:

     PRINT 'HI THERE!'  !User meant PRINT *, 'HI THERE!'

File: g77.info,  Node: Ambiguous Dialects,  Next: Unused Labels,  Prev: Invalid FORMAT Specifiers,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.44 Ambiguous Dialects
--------------------------

`g77' needs a set of options such as `-Wugly*', `-Wautomatic', `-Wvxt',
`-Wf90', and so on.  These would warn about places in the user's source
where ambiguities are found, helpful in resolving ambiguities in the
program's dialect or dialects.

File: g77.info,  Node: Unused Labels,  Next: Informational Messages,  Prev: Ambiguous Dialects,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.45 Unused Labels
---------------------

`g77' should warn about unused labels when `-Wunused' is in effect.

File: g77.info,  Node: Informational Messages,  Next: Uninitialized Variables at Run Time,  Prev: Unused Labels,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.46 Informational Messages
------------------------------

`g77' needs an option to suppress information messages (notes).  `-w'
does this but also suppresses warnings.  The default should be to
suppress info messages.

   Perhaps info messages should simply be eliminated.

File: g77.info,  Node: Uninitialized Variables at Run Time,  Next: Portable Unformatted Files,  Prev: Informational Messages,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.47 Uninitialized Variables at Run Time
-------------------------------------------

`g77' needs an option to initialize everything (not otherwise
explicitly initialized) to "weird" (machine-dependent) values, e.g.
NaNs, bad (non-`NULL') pointers, and largest-magnitude integers, would
help track down references to some kinds of uninitialized variables at
run time.

   Note that use of the options `-O -Wuninitialized' can catch many
such bugs at compile time.

File: g77.info,  Node: Portable Unformatted Files,  Next: Better List-directed I/O,  Prev: Uninitialized Variables at Run Time,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.48 Portable Unformatted Files
----------------------------------

`g77' has no facility for exchanging unformatted files with systems
using different number formats--even differing only in endianness (byte
order)--or written by other compilers.  Some compilers provide
facilities at least for doing byte-swapping during unformatted I/O.

   It is unrealistic to expect to cope with exchanging unformatted files
with arbitrary other compiler runtimes, but the `g77' runtime should at
least be able to read files written by `g77' on systems with different
number formats, particularly if they differ only in byte order.

   In case you do need to write a program to translate to or from `g77'
(`libf2c') unformatted files, they are written as follows:
Sequential
     Unformatted sequential records consist of
       1. A number giving the length of the record contents;

       2. the length of record contents again (for backspace).

     The record length is of C type `long'; this means that it is 8
     bytes on 64-bit systems such as Alpha GNU/Linux and 4 bytes on
     other systems, such as x86 GNU/Linux.  Consequently such files
     cannot be exchanged between 64-bit and 32-bit systems, even with
     the same basic number format.

Direct access
     Unformatted direct access files form a byte stream of length
     RECORDS*RECL bytes, where RECORDS is the maximum record number
     (`REC=RECORDS') written and RECL is the record length in bytes
     specified in the `OPEN' statement (`RECL=RECL').  Data appear in
     the records as determined by the relevant `WRITE' statement.
     Dummy records with arbitrary contents appear in the file in place
     of records which haven't been written.

   Thus for exchanging a sequential or direct access unformatted file
between big- and little-endian 32-bit systems using IEEE 754 floating
point it would be sufficient to reverse the bytes in consecutive words
in the file if, and _only_ if, only `REAL*4', `COMPLEX', `INTEGER*4'
and/or `LOGICAL*4' data have been written to it by `g77'.

   If necessary, it is possible to do byte-oriented i/o with `g77''s
`FGETC' and `FPUTC' intrinsics.  Byte-swapping can be done in Fortran
by equivalencing larger sized variables to an `INTEGER*1' array or a
set of scalars.

   If you need to exchange binary data between arbitrary system and
compiler variations, we recommend using a portable binary format with
Fortran bindings, such as NCSA's HDF (`http://hdf.ncsa.uiuc.edu/') or
PACT's PDB(1) (`http://www.llnl.gov/def_sci/pact/pact_homepage.html').
(Unlike, say, CDF or XDR, HDF-like systems write in the native number
formats and only incur overhead when they are read on a system with a
different format.)  A future `g77' runtime library should use such
techniques.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) No, not _that_ one.

File: g77.info,  Node: Better List-directed I/O,  Next: Default to Console I/O,  Prev: Portable Unformatted Files,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.49 Better List-directed I/O
--------------------------------

Values output using list-directed I/O (`PRINT *, R, D') should be
written with a field width, precision, and so on appropriate for the
type (precision) of each value.

   (Currently, no distinction is made between single-precision and
double-precision values by `libf2c'.)

   It is likely this item will require the `libg77' project to be
undertaken.

   In the meantime, use of formatted I/O is recommended.  While it
might be of little consolation, `g77' does support
`FORMAT(F<WIDTH>.4)', for example, as long as `WIDTH' is defined as a
named constant (via `PARAMETER').  That at least allows some
compile-time specification of the precision of a data type, perhaps
controlled by preprocessing directives.

File: g77.info,  Node: Default to Console I/O,  Next: Labels Visible to Debugger,  Prev: Better List-directed I/O,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.50 Default to Console I/O
------------------------------

The default I/O units, specified by `READ FMT', `READ (UNIT=*)', `WRITE
(UNIT=*)', and `PRINT FMT', should not be units 5 (input) and 6
(output), but, rather, unit numbers not normally available for use in
statements such as `OPEN' and `CLOSE'.

   Changing this would allow a program to connect units 5 and 6 to
files via `OPEN', but still use `READ (UNIT=*)' and `PRINT' to do I/O
to the "console".

   This change probably requires the `libg77' project.

File: g77.info,  Node: Labels Visible to Debugger,  Prev: Default to Console I/O,  Up: Missing Features

15.3.51 Labels Visible to Debugger
----------------------------------

`g77' should output debugging information for statements labels, for
use by debuggers that know how to support them.  Same with weirder
things like construct names.  It is not yet known if any debug formats
or debuggers support these.

File: g77.info,  Node: Disappointments,  Next: Non-bugs,  Prev: Missing Features,  Up: Trouble

15.4 Disappointments and Misunderstandings
==========================================

These problems are perhaps regrettable, but we don't know any practical
way around them for now.

* Menu:

* Mangling of Names::                       `SUBROUTINE FOO' is given
                                              external name `foo_'.
* Multiple Definitions of External Names::  No doing both `COMMON /FOO/'
                                              and `SUBROUTINE FOO'.
* Limitation on Implicit Declarations::     No `IMPLICIT CHARACTER*(*)'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Mangling of Names,  Next: Multiple Definitions of External Names,  Up: Disappointments

15.4.1 Mangling of Names in Source Code
---------------------------------------

The current external-interface design, which includes naming of
external procedures, COMMON blocks, and the library interface, has
various usability problems, including things like adding underscores
where not really necessary (and preventing easier inter-language
operability) and yet not providing complete namespace freedom for user
C code linked with Fortran apps (due to the naming of functions in the
library, among other things).

   Project GNU should at least get all this "right" for systems it
fully controls, such as the Hurd, and provide defaults and options for
compatibility with existing systems and interoperability with popular
existing compilers.

File: g77.info,  Node: Multiple Definitions of External Names,  Next: Limitation on Implicit Declarations,  Prev: Mangling of Names,  Up: Disappointments

15.4.2 Multiple Definitions of External Names
---------------------------------------------

`g77' doesn't allow a common block and an external procedure or `BLOCK
DATA' to have the same name.  Some systems allow this, but `g77' does
not, to be compatible with `f2c'.

   `g77' could special-case the way it handles `BLOCK DATA', since it
is not compatible with `f2c' in this particular area (necessarily,
since `g77' offers an important feature here), but it is likely that
such special-casing would be very annoying to people with programs that
use `EXTERNAL FOO', with no other mention of `FOO' in the same program
unit, to refer to external procedures, since the result would be that
`g77' would treat these references as requests to force-load BLOCK DATA
program units.

   In that case, if `g77' modified names of `BLOCK DATA' so they could
have the same names as `COMMON', users would find that their programs
wouldn't link because the `FOO' procedure didn't have its name
translated the same way.

   (Strictly speaking, `g77' could emit a
null-but-externally-satisfying definition of `FOO' with its name
transformed as if it had been a `BLOCK DATA', but that probably invites
more trouble than it's worth.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Limitation on Implicit Declarations,  Prev: Multiple Definitions of External Names,  Up: Disappointments

15.4.3 Limitation on Implicit Declarations
------------------------------------------

`g77' disallows `IMPLICIT CHARACTER*(*)'.  This is not
standard-conforming.

File: g77.info,  Node: Non-bugs,  Next: Warnings and Errors,  Prev: Disappointments,  Up: Trouble

15.5 Certain Changes We Don't Want to Make
==========================================

This section lists changes that people frequently request, but which we
do not make because we think GNU Fortran is better without them.

* Menu:

* Backslash in Constants::           Why `'\\'' is a constant that
                                       is one, not two, characters long.
* Initializing Before Specifying::   Why `DATA VAR/1/' can't precede
                                       `COMMON VAR'.
* Context-Sensitive Intrinsicness::  Why `CALL SQRT' won't work.
* Context-Sensitive Constants::      Why `9.435784839284958' is a
                                       single-precision constant,
                                       and might be interpreted as
                                       `9.435785' or similar.
* Equivalence Versus Equality::      Why `.TRUE. .EQ. .TRUE.' won't work.
* Order of Side Effects::            Why `J = IFUNC() - IFUNC()' might
                                       not behave as expected.

File: g77.info,  Node: Backslash in Constants,  Next: Initializing Before Specifying,  Up: Non-bugs

15.5.1 Backslash in Constants
-----------------------------

In the opinion of many experienced Fortran users, `-fno-backslash'
should be the default, not `-fbackslash', as currently set by `g77'.

   First of all, you can always specify `-fno-backslash' to turn off
this processing.

   Despite not being within the spirit (though apparently within the
letter) of the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard, `g77' defaults to
`-fbackslash' because that is what most UNIX `f77' commands default to,
and apparently lots of code depends on this feature.

   This is a particularly troubling issue.  The use of a C construct in
the midst of Fortran code is bad enough, worse when it makes existing
Fortran programs stop working (as happens when programs written for
non-UNIX systems are ported to UNIX systems with compilers that provide
the `-fbackslash' feature as the default--sometimes with no option to
turn it off).

   The author of GNU Fortran wished, for reasons of linguistic purity,
to make `-fno-backslash' the default for GNU Fortran and thus require
users of UNIX `f77' and `f2c' to specify `-fbackslash' to get the UNIX
behavior.

   However, the realization that `g77' is intended as a replacement for
_UNIX_ `f77', caused the author to choose to make `g77' as compatible
with `f77' as feasible, which meant making `-fbackslash' the default.

   The primary focus on compatibility is at the source-code level, and
the question became "What will users expect a replacement for `f77' to
do, by default?"  Although at least one UNIX `f77' does not provide
`-fbackslash' as a default, it appears that the majority of them do,
which suggests that the majority of code that is compiled by UNIX `f77'
compilers expects `-fbackslash' to be the default.

   It is probably the case that more code exists that would _not_ work
with `-fbackslash' in force than code that requires it be in force.

   However, most of _that_ code is not being compiled with `f77', and
when it is, new build procedures (shell scripts, makefiles, and so on)
must be set up anyway so that they work under UNIX.  That makes a much
more natural and safe opportunity for non-UNIX users to adapt their
build procedures for `g77''s default of `-fbackslash' than would exist
for the majority of UNIX `f77' users who would have to modify existing,
working build procedures to explicitly specify `-fbackslash' if that was
not the default.

   One suggestion has been to configure the default for `-fbackslash'
(and perhaps other options as well) based on the configuration of `g77'.

   This is technically quite straightforward, but will be avoided even
in cases where not configuring defaults to be dependent on a particular
configuration greatly inconveniences some users of legacy code.

   Many users appreciate the GNU compilers because they provide an
environment that is uniform across machines.  These users would be
inconvenienced if the compiler treated things like the format of the
source code differently on certain machines.

   Occasionally users write programs intended only for a particular
machine type.  On these occasions, the users would benefit if the GNU
Fortran compiler were to support by default the same dialect as the
other compilers on that machine.  But such applications are rare.  And
users writing a program to run on more than one type of machine cannot
possibly benefit from this kind of compatibility.  (This is consistent
with the design goals for `gcc'.  To change them for `g77', you must
first change them for `gcc'.  Do not ask the maintainers of `g77' to do
this for you, or to disassociate `g77' from the widely understood, if
not widely agreed-upon, goals for GNU compilers in general.)

   This is why GNU Fortran does and will treat backslashes in the same
fashion on all types of machines (by default).  *Note Direction of
Language Development::, for more information on this overall philosophy
guiding the development of the GNU Fortran language.

   Of course, users strongly concerned about portability should indicate
explicitly in their build procedures which options are expected by
their source code, or write source code that has as few such
expectations as possible.

   For example, avoid writing code that depends on backslash (`\')
being interpreted either way in particular, such as by starting a
program unit with:

     CHARACTER BACKSL
     PARAMETER (BACKSL = '\\')

Then, use concatenation of `BACKSL' anyplace a backslash is desired.
In this way, users can write programs which have the same meaning in
many Fortran dialects.

   (However, this technique does not work for Hollerith constants--which
is just as well, since the only generally portable uses for Hollerith
constants are in places where character constants can and should be
used instead, for readability.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Initializing Before Specifying,  Next: Context-Sensitive Intrinsicness,  Prev: Backslash in Constants,  Up: Non-bugs

15.5.2 Initializing Before Specifying
-------------------------------------

`g77' does not allow `DATA VAR/1/' to appear in the source code before
`COMMON VAR', `DIMENSION VAR(10)', `INTEGER VAR', and so on.  In
general, `g77' requires initialization of a variable or array to be
specified _after_ all other specifications of attributes (type, size,
placement, and so on) of that variable or array are specified (though
_confirmation_ of data type is permitted).

   It is _possible_ `g77' will someday allow all of this, even though
it is not allowed by the FORTRAN 77 standard.

   Then again, maybe it is better to have `g77' always require
placement of `DATA' so that it can possibly immediately write constants
to the output file, thus saving time and space.

   That is, `DATA A/1000000*1/' should perhaps always be immediately
writable to canonical assembler, unless it's already known to be in a
`COMMON' area following as-yet-uninitialized stuff, and to do this it
cannot be followed by `COMMON A'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Context-Sensitive Intrinsicness,  Next: Context-Sensitive Constants,  Prev: Initializing Before Specifying,  Up: Non-bugs

15.5.3 Context-Sensitive Intrinsicness
--------------------------------------

`g77' treats procedure references to _possible_ intrinsic names as
always enabling their intrinsic nature, regardless of whether the
_form_ of the reference is valid for that intrinsic.

   For example, `CALL SQRT' is interpreted by `g77' as an invalid
reference to the `SQRT' intrinsic function, because the reference is a
subroutine invocation.

   First, `g77' recognizes the statement `CALL SQRT' as a reference to
a _procedure_ named `SQRT', not to a _variable_ with that name (as it
would for a statement such as `V = SQRT').

   Next, `g77' establishes that, in the program unit being compiled,
`SQRT' is an intrinsic--not a subroutine that happens to have the same
name as an intrinsic (as would be the case if, for example, `EXTERNAL
SQRT' was present).

   Finally, `g77' recognizes that the _form_ of the reference is
invalid for that particular intrinsic.  That is, it recognizes that it
is invalid for an intrinsic _function_, such as `SQRT', to be invoked as
a _subroutine_.

   At that point, `g77' issues a diagnostic.

   Some users claim that it is "obvious" that `CALL SQRT' references an
external subroutine of their own, not an intrinsic function.

   However, `g77' knows about intrinsic subroutines, not just
functions, and is able to support both having the same names, for
example.

   As a result of this, `g77' rejects calls to intrinsics that are not
subroutines, and function invocations of intrinsics that are not
functions, just as it (and most compilers) rejects invocations of
intrinsics with the wrong number (or types) of arguments.

   So, use the `EXTERNAL SQRT' statement in a program unit that calls a
user-written subroutine named `SQRT'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Context-Sensitive Constants,  Next: Equivalence Versus Equality,  Prev: Context-Sensitive Intrinsicness,  Up: Non-bugs

15.5.4 Context-Sensitive Constants
----------------------------------

`g77' does not use context to determine the types of constants or named
constants (`PARAMETER'), except for (non-standard) typeless constants
such as `'123'O'.

   For example, consider the following statement:

     PRINT *, 9.435784839284958 * 2D0

`g77' will interpret the (truncated) constant `9.435784839284958' as a
`REAL(KIND=1)', not `REAL(KIND=2)', constant, because the suffix `D0'
is not specified.

   As a result, the output of the above statement when compiled by
`g77' will appear to have "less precision" than when compiled by other
compilers.

   In these and other cases, some compilers detect the fact that a
single-precision constant is used in a double-precision context and
therefore interpret the single-precision constant as if it was
_explicitly_ specified as a double-precision constant.  (This has the
effect of appending _decimal_, not _binary_, zeros to the fractional
part of the number--producing different computational results.)

   The reason this misfeature is dangerous is that a slight, apparently
innocuous change to the source code can change the computational
results.  Consider:

     REAL ALMOST, CLOSE
     DOUBLE PRECISION FIVE
     PARAMETER (ALMOST = 5.000000000001)
     FIVE = 5
     CLOSE = 5.000000000001
     PRINT *, 5.000000000001 - FIVE
     PRINT *, ALMOST - FIVE
     PRINT *, CLOSE - FIVE
     END

Running the above program should result in the same value being printed
three times.  With `g77' as the compiler, it does.

   However, compiled by many other compilers, running the above program
would print two or three distinct values, because in two or three of
the statements, the constant `5.000000000001', which on most systems is
exactly equal to `5.' when interpreted as a single-precision constant,
is instead interpreted as a double-precision constant, preserving the
represented precision.  However, this "clever" promotion of type does
not extend to variables or, in some compilers, to named constants.

   Since programmers often are encouraged to replace manifest constants
or permanently-assigned variables with named constants (`PARAMETER' in
Fortran), and might need to replace some constants with variables
having the same values for pertinent portions of code, it is important
that compilers treat code so modified in the same way so that the
results of such programs are the same.  `g77' helps in this regard by
treating constants just the same as variables in terms of determining
their types in a context-independent way.

   Still, there is a lot of existing Fortran code that has been written
to depend on the way other compilers freely interpret constants' types
based on context, so anything `g77' can do to help flag cases of this
in such code could be very helpful.

File: g77.info,  Node: Equivalence Versus Equality,  Next: Order of Side Effects,  Prev: Context-Sensitive Constants,  Up: Non-bugs

15.5.5 Equivalence Versus Equality
----------------------------------

Use of `.EQ.' and `.NE.' on `LOGICAL' operands is not supported, except
via `-fugly-logint', which is not recommended except for legacy code
(where the behavior expected by the _code_ is assumed).

   Legacy code should be changed, as resources permit, to use `.EQV.'
and `.NEQV.' instead, as these are permitted by the various Fortran
standards.

   New code should never be written expecting `.EQ.' or `.NE.' to work
if either of its operands is `LOGICAL'.

   The problem with supporting this "feature" is that there is unlikely
to be consensus on how it works, as illustrated by the following sample
program:

     LOGICAL L,M,N
     DATA L,M,N /3*.FALSE./
     IF (L.AND.M.EQ.N) PRINT *,'L.AND.M.EQ.N'
     END

   The issue raised by the above sample program is: what is the
precedence of `.EQ.' (and `.NE.') when applied to `LOGICAL' operands?

   Some programmers will argue that it is the same as the precedence
for `.EQ.' when applied to numeric (such as `INTEGER') operands.  By
this interpretation, the subexpression `M.EQ.N' must be evaluated first
in the above program, resulting in a program that, when run, does not
execute the `PRINT' statement.

   Other programmers will argue that the precedence is the same as the
precedence for `.EQV.', which is restricted by the standards to
`LOGICAL' operands.  By this interpretation, the subexpression
`L.AND.M' must be evaluated first, resulting in a program that _does_
execute the `PRINT' statement.

   Assigning arbitrary semantic interpretations to syntactic expressions
that might legitimately have more than one "obvious" interpretation is
generally unwise.

   The creators of the various Fortran standards have done a good job
in this case, requiring a distinct set of operators (which have their
own distinct precedence) to compare `LOGICAL' operands.  This
requirement results in expression syntax with more certain precedence
(without requiring substantial context), making it easier for
programmers to read existing code.  `g77' will avoid muddying up
elements of the Fortran language that were well-designed in the first
place.

   (Ask C programmers about the precedence of expressions such as `(a)
& (b)' and `(a) - (b)'--they cannot even tell you, without knowing more
context, whether the `&' and `-' operators are infix (binary) or unary!)

   Most dangerous of all is the fact that, even assuming consensus on
its meaning, an expression like `L.AND.M.EQ.N', if it is the result of
a typographical error, doesn't _look_ like it has such a typo.  Even
experienced Fortran programmers would not likely notice that
`L.AND.M.EQV.N' was, in fact, intended.

   So, this is a prime example of a circumstance in which a quality
compiler diagnoses the code, instead of leaving it up to someone
debugging it to know to turn on special compiler options that might
diagnose it.

File: g77.info,  Node: Order of Side Effects,  Prev: Equivalence Versus Equality,  Up: Non-bugs

15.5.6 Order of Side Effects
----------------------------

`g77' does not necessarily produce code that, when run, performs side
effects (such as those performed by function invocations) in the same
order as in some other compiler--or even in the same order as another
version, port, or invocation (using different command-line options) of
`g77'.

   It is never safe to depend on the order of evaluation of side
effects.  For example, an expression like this may very well behave
differently from one compiler to another:

     J = IFUNC() - IFUNC()

There is no guarantee that `IFUNC' will be evaluated in any particular
order.  Either invocation might happen first.  If `IFUNC' returns 5 the
first time it is invoked, and returns 12 the second time, `J' might end
up with the value `7', or it might end up with `-7'.

   Generally, in Fortran, procedures with side-effects intended to be
visible to the caller are best designed as _subroutines_, not functions.
Examples of such side-effects include:

   * The generation of random numbers that are intended to influence
     return values.

   * Performing I/O (other than internal I/O to local variables).

   * Updating information in common blocks.

   An example of a side-effect that is not intended to be visible to
the caller is a function that maintains a cache of recently calculated
results, intended solely to speed repeated invocations of the function
with identical arguments.  Such a function can be safely used in
expressions, because if the compiler optimizes away one or more calls
to the function, operation of the program is unaffected (aside from
being speeded up).

File: g77.info,  Node: Warnings and Errors,  Prev: Non-bugs,  Up: Trouble

15.6 Warning Messages and Error Messages
========================================

The GNU compiler can produce two kinds of diagnostics: errors and
warnings.  Each kind has a different purpose:

     _Errors_ report problems that make it impossible to compile your
     program.  GNU Fortran reports errors with the source file name,
     line number, and column within the line where the problem is
     apparent.

     _Warnings_ report other unusual conditions in your code that
     _might_ indicate a problem, although compilation can (and does)
     proceed.  Warning messages also report the source file name, line
     number, and column information, but include the text `warning:' to
     distinguish them from error messages.

   Warnings might indicate danger points where you should check to make
sure that your program really does what you intend; or the use of
obsolete features; or the use of nonstandard features of GNU Fortran.
Many warnings are issued only if you ask for them, with one of the `-W'
options (for instance, `-Wall' requests a variety of useful warnings).

   _Note:_ Currently, the text of the line and a pointer to the column
is printed in most `g77' diagnostics.

   *Note Options to Request or Suppress Warnings: Warning Options, for
more detail on these and related command-line options.

File: g77.info,  Node: Open Questions,  Next: Bugs,  Prev: Trouble,  Up: Top

16 Open Questions
*****************

Please consider offering useful answers to these questions!

   * `LOC()' and other intrinsics are probably somewhat misclassified.
     Is the a need for more precise classification of intrinsics, and
     if so, what are the appropriate groupings?  Is there a need to
     individually enable/disable/delete/hide intrinsics from the
     command line?

File: g77.info,  Node: Bugs,  Next: Service,  Prev: Open Questions,  Up: Top

17 Reporting Bugs
*****************

Your bug reports play an essential role in making GNU Fortran reliable.

   When you encounter a problem, the first thing to do is to see if it
is already known.  *Note Trouble::.  If it isn't known, then you should
report the problem.

* Menu:

* Criteria: Bug Criteria.    Have you really found a bug?
* Reporting: Bug Reporting.  How to report a bug effectively.

   *Note Known Causes of Trouble with GNU Fortran: Trouble, for
information on problems we already know about.

   *Note How To Get Help with GNU Fortran: Service, for information on
where to ask for help.

File: g77.info,  Node: Bug Criteria,  Next: Bug Reporting,  Up: Bugs

17.1 Have You Found a Bug?
==========================

If you are not sure whether you have found a bug, here are some
guidelines:

   * If the compiler gets a fatal signal, for any input whatever, that
     is a compiler bug.  Reliable compilers never crash--they just
     remain obsolete.

   * If the compiler produces invalid assembly code, for any input
     whatever, that is a compiler bug, unless the compiler reports
     errors (not just warnings) which would ordinarily prevent the
     assembler from being run.

   * If the compiler produces valid assembly code that does not
     correctly execute the input source code, that is a compiler bug.

     However, you must double-check to make sure, because you might
     have run into an incompatibility between GNU Fortran and
     traditional Fortran.  These incompatibilities might be considered
     bugs, but they are inescapable consequences of valuable features.

     Or you might have a program whose behavior is undefined, which
     happened by chance to give the desired results with another
     Fortran compiler.  It is best to check the relevant Fortran
     standard thoroughly if it is possible that the program indeed does
     something undefined.

     After you have localized the error to a single source line, it
     should be easy to check for these things.  If your program is
     correct and well defined, you have found a compiler bug.

     It might help if, in your submission, you identified the specific
     language in the relevant Fortran standard that specifies the
     desired behavior, if it isn't likely to be obvious and agreed-upon
     by all Fortran users.

   * If the compiler produces an error message for valid input, that is
     a compiler bug.

   * If the compiler does not produce an error message for invalid
     input, that is a compiler bug.  However, you should note that your
     idea of "invalid input" might be someone else's idea of "an
     extension" or "support for traditional practice".

   * If you are an experienced user of Fortran compilers, your
     suggestions for improvement of GNU Fortran are welcome in any case.

   Many, perhaps most, bug reports against `g77' turn out to be bugs in
the user's code.  While we find such bug reports educational, they
sometimes take a considerable amount of time to track down or at least
respond to--time we could be spending making `g77', not some user's
code, better.

   Some steps you can take to verify that the bug is not certainly in
the code you're compiling with `g77':

   * Compile your code using the `g77' options `-W -Wall -O'.  These
     options enable many useful warning; the `-O' option enables flow
     analysis that enables the uninitialized-variable warning.

     If you investigate the warnings and find evidence of possible bugs
     in your code, fix them first and retry `g77'.

   * Compile your code using the `g77' options `-finit-local-zero',
     `-fno-automatic', `-ffloat-store', and various combinations
     thereof.

     If your code works with any of these combinations, that is not
     proof that the bug isn't in `g77'--a `g77' bug exposed by your
     code might simply be avoided, or have a different, more subtle
     effect, when different options are used--but it can be a strong
     indicator that your code is making unwarranted assumptions about
     the Fortran dialect and/or underlying machine it is being compiled
     and run on.

     *Note Overly Convenient Command-Line Options: Overly Convenient
     Options, for information on the `-fno-automatic' and
     `-finit-local-zero' options and how to convert their use into
     selective changes in your own code.

   * Validate your code with `ftnchek' or a similar code-checking tool.
     `ftnchek' can be found at `ftp://ftp.netlib.org/fortran' or
     `ftp://ftp.dsm.fordham.edu'.

     Here are some sample `Makefile' rules using `ftnchek' "project"
     files to do cross-file checking and `sfmakedepend' (from
     `ftp://ahab.rutgers.edu/pub/perl/sfmakedepend') to maintain
     dependencies automatically.  These assume the use of GNU `make'.

          # Dummy suffix for ftnchek targets:
          .SUFFIXES: .chek
          .PHONY: chekall

          # How to compile .f files (for implicit rule):
          FC = g77
          # Assume `include' directory:
          FFLAGS = -Iinclude -g -O -Wall

          # Flags for ftnchek:
          CHEK1 = -array=0 -include=includes -noarray
          CHEK2 = -nonovice -usage=1 -notruncation
          CHEKFLAGS = $(CHEK1) $(CHEK2)

          # Run ftnchek with all the .prj files except the one corresponding
          # to the target's root:
          %.chek : %.f ; \
            ftnchek $(filter-out $*.prj,$(PRJS)) $(CHEKFLAGS) \
              -noextern -library $<

          # Derive a project file from a source file:
          %.prj : %.f ; \
            ftnchek $(CHEKFLAGS) -noextern -project -library $<

          # The list of objects is assumed to be in variable OBJS.
          # Sources corresponding to the objects:
          SRCS = $(OBJS:%.o=%.f)
          # ftnchek project files:
          PRJS = $(OBJS:%.o=%.prj)

          # Build the program
          prog: $(OBJS) ; \
            $(FC) -o $ $(OBJS)

          chekall: $(PRJS) ; \
            ftnchek $(CHEKFLAGS) $(PRJS)

          prjs: $(PRJS)

          # For Emacs M-x find-tag:
          TAGS: $(SRCS) ; \
            etags $(SRCS)

          # Rebuild dependencies:
          depend: ; \
            sfmakedepend -I $(PLTLIBDIR) -I includes -a prj $(SRCS1)

   * Try your code out using other Fortran compilers, such as `f2c'.
     If it does not work on at least one other compiler (assuming the
     compiler supports the features the code needs), that is a strong
     indicator of a bug in the code.

     However, even if your code works on many compilers _except_ `g77',
     that does _not_ mean the bug is in `g77'.  It might mean the bug
     is in your code, and that `g77' simply exposes it more readily
     than other compilers.

File: g77.info,  Node: Bug Reporting,  Prev: Bug Criteria,  Up: Bugs

17.2 How to Report Bugs
=======================

Bugs should be reported to our bug database.  Please refer to
`http://gcc.gnu.org/bugs.html' for up-to-date instructions how to
submit bug reports.  Copies of this file in HTML (`bugs.html') and
plain text (`BUGS') are also part of GCC releases.

File: g77.info,  Node: Service,  Next: Adding Options,  Prev: Bugs,  Up: Top

18 How To Get Help with GNU Fortran
***********************************

If you need help installing, using or changing GNU Fortran, there are
two ways to find it:

   * Look in the service directory for someone who might help you for a
     fee.  The service directory is found in the file named `SERVICE'
     in the GCC distribution.

   * Send a message to <gcc-helpATgcc.org>.

File: g77.info,  Node: Adding Options,  Next: Projects,  Prev: Service,  Up: Top

19 Adding Options
*****************

To add a new command-line option to `g77', first decide what kind of
option you wish to add.  Search the `g77' and `gcc' documentation for
one or more options that is most closely like the one you want to add
(in terms of what kind of effect it has, and so on) to help clarify its
nature.

   * _Fortran options_ are options that apply only when compiling
     Fortran programs.  They are accepted by `g77' and `gcc', but they
     apply only when compiling Fortran programs.

   * _Compiler options_ are options that apply when compiling most any
     kind of program.

   _Fortran options_ are listed in the file `gcc/gcc/f/lang-options.h',
which is used during the build of `gcc' to build a list of all options
that are accepted by at least one language's compiler.  This list goes
into the `documented_lang_options' array in `gcc/toplev.c', which uses
this array to determine whether a particular option should be offered
to the linked-in front end for processing by calling
`lang_option_decode', which, for `g77', is in `gcc/gcc/f/com.c' and just
calls `ffe_decode_option'.

   If the linked-in front end "rejects" a particular option passed to
it, `toplev.c' just ignores the option, because _some_ language's
compiler is willing to accept it.

   This allows commands like `gcc -fno-asm foo.c bar.f' to work, even
though Fortran compilation does not currently support the `-fno-asm'
option; even though the `f771' version of `lang_decode_option' rejects
`-fno-asm', `toplev.c' doesn't produce a diagnostic because some other
language (C) does accept it.

   This also means that commands like `g77 -fno-asm foo.f' yield no
diagnostics, despite the fact that no phase of the command was able to
recognize and process `-fno-asm'--perhaps a warning about this would be
helpful if it were possible.

   Code that processes Fortran options is found in `gcc/gcc/f/top.c',
function `ffe_decode_option'.  This code needs to check positive and
negative forms of each option.

   The defaults for Fortran options are set in their global
definitions, also found in `gcc/gcc/f/top.c'.  Many of these defaults
are actually macros defined in `gcc/gcc/f/target.h', since they might be
machine-specific.  However, since, in practice, GNU compilers should
behave the same way on all configurations (especially when it comes to
language constructs), the practice of setting defaults in `target.h' is
likely to be deprecated and, ultimately, stopped in future versions of
`g77'.

   Accessor macros for Fortran options, used by code in the `g77' FFE,
are defined in `gcc/gcc/f/top.h'.

   _Compiler options_ are listed in `gcc/toplev.c' in the array
`f_options'.  An option not listed in `lang_options' is looked up in
`f_options' and handled from there.

   The defaults for compiler options are set in the global definitions
for the corresponding variables, some of which are in `gcc/toplev.c'.

   You can set different defaults for _Fortran-oriented_ or
_Fortran-reticent_ compiler options by changing the source code of
`g77' and rebuilding.  How to do this depends on the version of `g77':

`G77 0.5.24 (EGCS 1.1)'
`G77 0.5.25 (EGCS 1.2 - which became GCC 2.95)'
     Change the `lang_init_options' routine in `gcc/gcc/f/com.c'.

     (Note that these versions of `g77' perform internal consistency
     checking automatically when the `-fversion' option is specified.)

`G77 0.5.23'
`G77 0.5.24 (EGCS 1.0)'
     Change the way `f771' handles the `-fset-g77-defaults' option,
     which is always provided as the first option when called by `g77'
     or `gcc'.

     This code is in `ffe_decode_options' in `gcc/gcc/f/top.c'.  Have
     it change just the variables that you want to default to a
     different setting for Fortran compiles compared to compiles of
     other languages.

     The `-fset-g77-defaults' option is passed to `f771' automatically
     because of the specification information kept in
     `gcc/gcc/f/lang-specs.h'.  This file tells the `gcc' command how
     to recognize, in this case, Fortran source files (those to be
     preprocessed, and those that are not), and further, how to invoke
     the appropriate programs (including `f771') to process those
     source files.

     It is in `gcc/gcc/f/lang-specs.h' that `-fset-g77-defaults',
     `-fversion', and other options are passed, as appropriate, even
     when the user has not explicitly specified them.  Other "internal"
     options such as `-quiet' also are passed via this mechanism.

File: g77.info,  Node: Projects,  Next: Front End,  Prev: Adding Options,  Up: Top

20 Projects
***********

If you want to contribute to `g77' by doing research, design,
specification, documentation, coding, or testing, the following
information should give you some ideas.

* Menu:

* Efficiency::               Make `g77' itself compile code faster.
* Better Optimization::      Teach `g77' to generate faster code.
* Simplify Porting::         Make `g77' easier to configure, build,
                             and install.
* More Extensions::          Features many users won't know to ask for.
* Machine Model::            `g77' should better leverage `gcc'.
* Internals Documentation::  Make maintenance easier.
* Internals Improvements::   Make internals more robust.
* Better Diagnostics::       Make using `g77' on new code easier.

File: g77.info,  Node: Efficiency,  Next: Better Optimization,  Up: Projects

20.1 Improve Efficiency
=======================

Don't bother doing any performance analysis until most of the following
items are taken care of, because there's no question they represent
serious space/time problems, although some of them show up only given
certain kinds of (popular) input.

   * Improve `malloc' package and its uses to specify more info about
     memory pools and, where feasible, use obstacks to implement them.

   * Skip over uninitialized portions of aggregate areas (arrays,
     `COMMON' areas, `EQUIVALENCE' areas) so zeros need not be output.
     This would reduce memory usage for large initialized aggregate
     areas, even ones with only one initialized element.

     As of version 0.5.18, a portion of this item has already been
     accomplished.

   * Prescan the statement (in `sta.c') so that the nature of the
     statement is determined as much as possible by looking entirely at
     its form, and not looking at any context (previous statements,
     including types of symbols).  This would allow ripping out of the
     statement-confirmation, symbol retraction/confirmation, and
     diagnostic inhibition mechanisms.  Plus, it would result in
     much-improved diagnostics.  For example, `CALL
     some-intrinsic(...)', where the intrinsic is not a subroutine
     intrinsic, would result actual error instead of the
     unimplemented-statement catch-all.

   * Throughout `g77', don't pass line/column pairs where a simple
     `ffewhere' type, which points to the error as much as is desired
     by the configuration, will do, and don't pass `ffelexToken' types
     where a simple `ffewhere' type will do.  Then, allow new default
     configuration of `ffewhere' such that the source line text is not
     preserved, and leave it to things like Emacs' next-error function
     to point to them (now that `next-error' supports column, or,
     perhaps, character-offset, numbers).  The change in calling
     sequences should improve performance somewhat, as should not
     having to save source lines.  (Whether this whole item will
     improve performance is questionable, but it should improve
     maintainability.)

   * Handle `DATA (A(I),I=1,1000000)/1000000*2/' more efficiently,
     especially as regards the assembly output.  Some of this might
     require improving the back end, but lots of improvement in
     space/time required in `g77' itself can be fairly easily obtained
     without touching the back end.  Maybe type-conversion, where
     necessary, can be speeded up as well in cases like the one shown
     (converting the `2' into `2.').

   * If analysis shows it to be worthwhile, optimize `lex.c'.

   * Consider redesigning `lex.c' to not need any feedback during
     tokenization, by keeping track of enough parse state on its own.

File: g77.info,  Node: Better Optimization,  Next: Simplify Porting,  Prev: Efficiency,  Up: Projects

20.2 Better Optimization
========================

Much of this work should be put off until after `g77' has all the
features necessary for its widespread acceptance as a useful F77
compiler.  However, perhaps this work can be done in parallel during
the feature-adding work.

   * Do the equivalent of the trick of putting `extern inline' in front
     of every function definition in `libg2c' and #include'ing the
     resulting file in `f2c'+`gcc'--that is, inline all
     run-time-library functions that are at all worth inlining.  (Some
     of this has already been done, such as for integral
     exponentiation.)

   * When doing `CHAR_VAR = CHAR_FUNC(...)', and it's clear that types
     line up and `CHAR_VAR' is addressable or not a `VAR_DECL', make
     `CHAR_VAR', not a temporary, be the receiver for `CHAR_FUNC'.
     (This is now done for `COMPLEX' variables.)

   * Design and implement Fortran-specific optimizations that don't
     really belong in the back end, or where the front end needs to
     give the back end more info than it currently does.

   * Design and implement a new run-time library interface, with the
     code going into `libgcc' so no special linking is required to link
     Fortran programs using standard language features.  This library
     would speed up lots of things, from I/O (using precompiled formats,
     doing just one, or, at most, very few, calls for arrays or array
     sections, and so on) to general computing (array/section
     implementations of various intrinsics, implementation of commonly
     performed loops that aren't likely to be optimally compiled
     otherwise, etc.).

     Among the important things the library would do are:

        * Be a one-stop-shop-type library, hence shareable and usable
          by all, in that what are now library-build-time options in
          `libg2c' would be moved at least to the `g77' compile phase,
          if not to finer grains (such as choosing how list-directed
          I/O formatting is done by default at `OPEN' time, for
          preconnected units via options or even statements in the main
          program unit, maybe even on a per-I/O basis with appropriate
          pragma-like devices).

   * Probably requiring the new library design, change interface to
     normally have `COMPLEX' functions return their values in the way
     `gcc' would if they were declared `__complex__ float', rather than
     using the mechanism currently used by `CHARACTER' functions
     (whereby the functions are compiled as returning void and their
     first arg is a pointer to where to store the result).  (Don't
     append underscores to external names for `COMPLEX' functions in
     some cases once `g77' uses `gcc' rather than `f2c' calling
     conventions.)

   * Do something useful with `doiter' references where possible.  For
     example, `CALL FOO(I)' cannot modify `I' if within a `DO' loop
     that uses `I' as the iteration variable, and the back end might
     find that info useful in determining whether it needs to read `I'
     back into a register after the call.  (It normally has to do that,
     unless it knows `FOO' never modifies its passed-by-reference
     argument, which is rarely the case for Fortran-77 code.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Simplify Porting,  Next: More Extensions,  Prev: Better Optimization,  Up: Projects

20.3 Simplify Porting
=====================

Making `g77' easier to configure, port, build, and install, either as a
single-system compiler or as a cross-compiler, would be very useful.

   * A new library (replacing `libg2c') should improve portability as
     well as produce more optimal code.  Further, `g77' and the new
     library should conspire to simplify naming of externals, such as
     by removing unnecessarily added underscores, and to
     reduce/eliminate the possibility of naming conflicts, while making
     debugger more straightforward.

     Also, it should make multi-language applications more feasible,
     such as by providing Fortran intrinsics that get Fortran unit
     numbers given C `FILE *' descriptors.

   * Possibly related to a new library, `g77' should produce the
     equivalent of a `gcc' `main(argc, argv)' function when it compiles
     a main program unit, instead of compiling something that must be
     called by a library implementation of `main()'.

     This would do many useful things such as provide more flexibility
     in terms of setting up exception handling, not requiring
     programmers to start their debugging sessions with `breakpoint
     MAIN__' followed by `run', and so on.

   * The GBE needs to understand the difference between alignment
     requirements and desires.  For example, on Intel x86 machines,
     `g77' currently imposes overly strict alignment requirements, due
     to the back end, but it would be useful for Fortran and C
     programmers to be able to override these _recommendations_ as long
     as they don't violate the actual processor _requirements_.

File: g77.info,  Node: More Extensions,  Next: Machine Model,  Prev: Simplify Porting,  Up: Projects

20.4 More Extensions
====================

These extensions are not the sort of things users ask for "by name",
but they might improve the usability of `g77', and Fortran in general,
in the long run.  Some of these items really pertain to improving `g77'
internals so that some popular extensions can be more easily supported.

   * Look through all the documentation on the GNU Fortran language,
     dialects, compiler, missing features, bugs, and so on.  Many
     mentions of incomplete or missing features are sprinkled
     throughout.  It is not worth repeating them here.

   * Consider adding a `NUMERIC' type to designate typeless numeric
     constants, named and unnamed.  The idea is to provide a
     forward-looking, effective replacement for things like the
     old-style `PARAMETER' statement when people really need
     typelessness in a maintainable, portable, clearly documented way.
     Maybe `TYPELESS' would include `CHARACTER', `POINTER', and
     whatever else might come along.  (This is not really a call for
     polymorphism per se, just an ability to express limited, syntactic
     polymorphism.)

   * Support `OPEN(...,KEY=(...),...)'.

   * Support arbitrary file unit numbers, instead of limiting them to 0
     through `MXUNIT-1'.  (This is a `libg2c' issue.)

   * `OPEN(NOSPANBLOCKS,...)' is treated as
     `OPEN(UNIT=NOSPANBLOCKS,...)', so a later `UNIT=' in the first
     example is invalid.  Make sure this is what users of this feature
     would expect.

   * Currently `g77' disallows `READ(1'10)' since it is an obnoxious
     syntax, but supporting it might be pretty easy if needed.  More
     details are needed, such as whether general expressions separated
     by an apostrophe are supported, or maybe the record number can be
     a general expression, and so on.

   * Support `STRUCTURE', `UNION', `MAP', and `RECORD' fully.
     Currently there is no support at all for `%FILL' in `STRUCTURE'
     and related syntax, whereas the rest of the stuff has at least
     some parsing support.  This requires either major changes to
     `libg2c' or its replacement.

   * F90 and `g77' probably disagree about label scoping relative to
     `INTERFACE' and `END INTERFACE', and their contained procedure
     interface bodies (blocks?).

   * `ENTRY' doesn't support F90 `RESULT()' yet, since that was added
     after S8.112.

   * Empty-statement handling (10 ;;CONTINUE;;) probably isn't
     consistent with the final form of the standard (it was vague at
     S8.112).

   * It seems to be an "open" question whether a file, immediately
     after being `OPEN'ed,is positioned at the beginning, the end, or
     wherever--it might be nice to offer an option of opening to
     "undefined" status, requiring an explicit absolute-positioning
     operation to be performed before any other (besides `CLOSE') to
     assist in making applications port to systems (some IBM?) that
     `OPEN' to the end of a file or some such thing.

File: g77.info,  Node: Machine Model,  Next: Internals Documentation,  Prev: More Extensions,  Up: Projects

20.5 Machine Model
==================

This items pertain to generalizing `g77''s view of the machine model to
more fully accept whatever the GBE provides it via its configuration.

   * Switch to using `REAL_VALUE_TYPE' to represent floating-point
     constants exclusively so the target float format need not be
     required.  This means changing the way `g77' handles
     initialization of aggregate areas having more than one type, such
     as `REAL' and `INTEGER', because currently it initializes them as
     if they were arrays of `char' and uses the bit patterns of the
     constants of the various types in them to determine what to stuff
     in elements of the arrays.

   * Rely more and more on back-end info and capabilities, especially
     in the area of constants (where having the `g77' front-end's IL
     just store the appropriate tree nodes containing constants might
     be best).

   * Suite of C and Fortran programs that a user/administrator can run
     on a machine to help determine the configuration for `g77' before
     building and help determine if the compiler works (especially with
     whatever libraries are installed) after building.

File: g77.info,  Node: Internals Documentation,  Next: Internals Improvements,  Prev: Machine Model,  Up: Projects

20.6 Internals Documentation
============================

Better info on how `g77' works and how to port it is needed.

   *Note Front End::, which contains some information on `g77'
internals.

File: g77.info,  Node: Internals Improvements,  Next: Better Diagnostics,  Prev: Internals Documentation,  Up: Projects

20.7 Internals Improvements
===========================

Some more items that would make `g77' more reliable and easier to
maintain:

   * Generally make expression handling focus more on critical syntax
     stuff, leaving semantics to callers.  For example, anything a
     caller can check, semantically, let it do so, rather than having
     `expr.c' do it.  (Exceptions might include things like diagnosing
     `FOO(I--K:)=BAR' where `FOO' is a `PARAMETER'--if it seems
     important to preserve the left-to-right-in-source order of
     production of diagnostics.)

   * Come up with better naming conventions for `-D' to establish
     requirements to achieve desired implementation dialect via
     `proj.h'.

   * Clean up used tokens and `ffewhere's in `ffeglobal_terminate_1'.

   * Replace `sta.c' `outpooldisp' mechanism with `malloc_pool_use'.

   * Check for `opANY' in more places in `com.c', `std.c', and `ste.c',
     and get rid of the `opCONVERT(opANY)' kludge (after determining if
     there is indeed no real need for it).

   * Utility to read and check `bad.def' messages and their references
     in the code, to make sure calls are consistent with message
     templates.

   * Search and fix `&ffe...' and similar so that `ffe...ptr...' macros
     are available instead (a good argument for wishing this could have
     written all this stuff in C++, perhaps).  On the other hand, it's
     questionable whether this sort of improvement is really necessary,
     given the availability of tools such as Emacs and Perl, which make
     finding any address-taking of structure members easy enough?

   * Some modules truly export the member names of their structures
     (and the structures themselves), maybe fix this, and fix other
     modules that just appear to as well (by appending `_', though it'd
     be ugly and probably not worth the time).

   * Implement C macros `RETURNS(value)' and `SETS(something,value)' in
     `proj.h' and use them throughout `g77' source code (especially in
     the definitions of access macros in `.h' files) so they can be
     tailored to catch code writing into a `RETURNS()' or reading from
     a `SETS()'.

   * Decorate throughout with `const' and other such stuff.

   * All F90 notational derivations in the source code are still based
     on the S8.112 version of the draft standard.  Probably should
     update to the official standard, or put documentation of the rules
     as used in the code...uh...in the code.

   * Some `ffebld_new' calls (those outside of `ffeexpr.c' or inside
     but invoked via paths not involving `ffeexpr_lhs' or
     `ffeexpr_rhs') might be creating things in improper pools, leading
     to such things staying around too long or (doubtful, but possible
     and dangerous) not long enough.

   * Some `ffebld_list_new' (or whatever) calls might not be matched by
     `ffebld_list_bottom' (or whatever) calls, which might someday
     matter.  (It definitely is not a problem just yet.)

   * Probably not doing clean things when we fail to `EQUIVALENCE'
     something due to alignment/mismatch or other problems--they end up
     without `ffestorag' objects, so maybe the backend (and other parts
     of the front end) can notice that and handle like an `opANY' (do
     what it wants, just don't complain or crash).  Most of this seems
     to have been addressed by now, but a code review wouldn't hurt.

File: g77.info,  Node: Better Diagnostics,  Prev: Internals Improvements,  Up: Projects

20.8 Better Diagnostics
=======================

These are things users might not ask about, or that need to be looked
into, before worrying about.  Also here are items that involve reducing
unnecessary diagnostic clutter.

   * When `FUNCTION' and `ENTRY' point types disagree (`CHARACTER'
     lengths, type classes, and so on), `ANY'-ize the offending `ENTRY'
     point and any _new_ dummies it specifies.

   * Speed up and improve error handling for data when repeat-count is
     specified.  For example, don't output 20 unnecessary messages
     after the first necessary one for:

          INTEGER X(20)
          CONTINUE
          DATA (X(I), J= 1, 20) /20*5/
          END

     (The `CONTINUE' statement ensures the `DATA' statement is
     processed in the context of executable, not specification,
     statements.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Front End,  Next: Diagnostics,  Prev: Projects,  Up: Top

21 Front End
************

This chapter describes some aspects of the design and implementation of
the `g77' front end.

   To find about things that are "To Be Determined" or "To Be Done",
search for the string TBD.  If you want to help by working on one or
more of these items, email <gccATgcc.org>.  If you're planning to do
more than just research issues and offer comments, see
`http://gcc.gnu.org/contribute.html' for steps you might need to take
first.

* Menu:

* Overview of Sources::
* Overview of Translation Process::
* Philosophy of Code Generation::
* Two-pass Design::
* Challenges Posed::
* Transforming Statements::
* Transforming Expressions::
* Internal Naming Conventions::

File: g77.info,  Node: Overview of Sources,  Next: Overview of Translation Process,  Up: Front End

21.1 Overview of Sources
========================

The current directory layout includes the following:

`SRCDIR/gcc/'
     Non-g77 files in gcc

`SRCDIR/gcc/f/'
     GNU Fortran front end sources

`SRCDIR/libf2c/'
     `libg2c' configuration and `g2c.h' file generation

`SRCDIR/libf2c/libF77/'
     General support and math portion of `libg2c'

`SRCDIR/libf2c/libI77/'
     I/O portion of `libg2c'

`SRCDIR/libf2c/libU77/'
     Additional interfaces to Unix `libc' for `libg2c'

   Components of note in `g77' are described below.

   `f/' as a whole contains the source for `g77', while `libf2c/'
contains a portion of the separate program `f2c'.  Note that the
`libf2c' code is not part of the program `g77', just distributed with
it.

   `f/' contains text files that document the Fortran compiler, source
files for the GNU Fortran Front End (FFE), and some other stuff.  The
`g77' compiler code is placed in `f/' because it, along with its
contents, is designed to be a subdirectory of a `gcc' source directory,
`gcc/', which is structured so that language-specific front ends can be
"dropped in" as subdirectories.  The C++ front end (`g++'), is an
example of this--it resides in the `cp/' subdirectory.  Note that the C
front end (also referred to as `gcc') is an exception to this, as its
source files reside in the `gcc/' directory itself.

   `libf2c/' contains the run-time libraries for the `f2c' program,
also used by `g77'.  These libraries normally referred to collectively
as `libf2c'.  When built as part of `g77', `libf2c' is installed under
the name `libg2c' to avoid conflict with any existing version of
`libf2c', and thus is often referred to as `libg2c' when the `g77'
version is specifically being referred to.

   The `netlib' version of `libf2c/' contains two distinct libraries,
`libF77' and `libI77', each in their own subdirectories.  In `g77',
this distinction is not made, beyond maintaining the subdirectory
structure in the source-code tree.

   `libf2c/' is not part of the program `g77', just distributed with it.
It contains files not present in the official (`netlib') version of
`libf2c', and also contains some minor changes made from `libf2c', to
fix some bugs, and to facilitate automatic configuration, building, and
installation of `libf2c' (as `libg2c') for use by `g77' users.  See
`libf2c/README' for more information, including licensing conditions
governing distribution of programs containing code from `libg2c'.

   `libg2c', `g77''s version of `libf2c', adds Dave Love's
implementation of `libU77', in the `libf2c/libU77/' directory.  This
library is distributed under the GNU Library General Public License
(LGPL)--see the file `libf2c/libU77/COPYING.LIB' for more information,
as this license governs distribution conditions for programs containing
code from this portion of the library.

   Files of note in `f/' and `libf2c/' are described below:

`f/BUGS'
     Lists some important bugs known to be in g77.  Or use Info (or GNU
     Emacs Info mode) to read the "Actual Bugs" node of the `g77'
     documentation:

          info -f f/g77.info -n "Actual Bugs"

`f/ChangeLog'
     Lists recent changes to `g77' internals.

`libf2c/ChangeLog'
     Lists recent changes to `libg2c' internals.

`f/NEWS'
     Contains the per-release changes.  These include the user-visible
     changes described in the node "Changes" in the `g77'
     documentation, plus internal changes of import.  Or use:

          info -f f/g77.info -n News

`f/g77.info*'
     The `g77' documentation, in Info format, produced by building
     `g77'.

     All users of `g77' (not just installers) should read this, using
     the `more' command if neither the `info' command, nor GNU Emacs
     (with its Info mode), are available, or if users aren't yet
     accustomed to using these tools.  All of these files are readable
     as "plain text" files, though they're easier to navigate using
     Info readers such as `info' and GNU Emacs Info mode.

   If you want to explore the FFE code, which lives entirely in `f/',
here are a few clues.  The file `g77spec.c' contains the `g77'-specific
source code for the `g77' command only--this just forms a variant of the
`gcc' command, so, just as the `gcc' command itself does not contain
the C front end, the `g77' command does not contain the Fortran front
end (FFE).  The FFE code ends up in an executable named `f771', which
does the actual compiling, so it contains the FFE plus the `gcc' back
end (GBE), the latter to do most of the optimization, and the code
generation.

   The file `parse.c' is the source file for `yyparse()', which is
invoked by the GBE to start the compilation process, for `f771'.

   The file `top.c' contains the top-level FFE function `ffe_file' and
it (along with top.h) define all `ffe_[a-z].*', `ffe[A-Z].*', and
`FFE_[A-Za-z].*' symbols.

   The file `fini.c' is a `main()' program that is used when building
the FFE to generate C header and source files for recognizing keywords.
The files `malloc.c' and `malloc.h' comprise a memory manager that
defines all `malloc_[a-z].*', `malloc[A-Z].*', and `MALLOC_[A-Za-z].*'
symbols.

   All other modules named XYZ are comprised of all files named
`XYZ*.EXT' and define all `ffeXYZ_[a-z].*', `ffeXYZ[A-Z].*', and
`FFEXYZ_[A-Za-z].*' symbols.  If you understand all this,
congratulations--it's easier for me to remember how it works than to
type in these regular expressions.  But it does make it easy to find
where a symbol is defined.  For example, the symbol
`ffexyz_set_something' would be defined in `xyz.h' and implemented
there (if it's a macro) or in `xyz.c'.

   The "porting" files of note currently are:

`proj.h'
     This defines the "language" used by all the other source files,
     the language being Standard C plus some useful things like
     `ARRAY_SIZE' and such.

`target.c'
`target.h'
     These describe the target machine in terms of what data types are
     supported, how they are denoted (to what C type does an
     `INTEGER*8' map, for example), how to convert between them, and so
     on.  Over time, versions of `g77' rely less on this file and more
     on run-time configuration based on GBE info in `com.c'.

`com.c'
`com.h'
     These are the primary interface to the GBE.

`ste.c'
`ste.h'
     This contains code for implementing recognized executable
     statements in the GBE.

`src.c'
`src.h'
     These contain information on the format(s) of source files (such
     as whether they are never to be processed as case-insensitive with
     regard to Fortran keywords).

   If you want to debug the `f771' executable, for example if it
crashes, note that the global variables `lineno' and `input_filename'
are usually set to reflect the current line being read by the lexer
during the first-pass analysis of a program unit and to reflect the
current line being processed during the second-pass compilation of a
program unit.

   If an invocation of the function `ffestd_exec_end' is on the stack,
the compiler is in the second pass, otherwise it is in the first.

   (This information might help you reduce a test case and/or work
around a bug in `g77' until a fix is available.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Overview of Translation Process,  Next: Philosophy of Code Generation,  Prev: Overview of Sources,  Up: Front End

21.2 Overview of Translation Process
====================================

The order of phases translating source code to the form accepted by the
GBE is:

  1. Stripping punched-card sources (`g77stripcard.c')

  2. Lexing (`lex.c')

  3. Stand-alone statement identification (`sta.c')

  4. INCLUDE handling (`sti.c')

  5. Order-dependent statement identification (`stq.c')

  6. Parsing (`stb.c' and `expr.c')

  7. Constructing (`stc.c')

  8. Collecting (`std.c')

  9. Expanding (`ste.c')

   To get a rough idea of how a particularly twisted Fortran statement
gets treated by the passes, consider:

           FORMAT(I2 4H)=(J/
          &   I3)

   The job of `lex.c' is to know enough about Fortran syntax rules to
break the statement up into distinct lexemes without requiring any
feedback from subsequent phases:

     `FORMAT'
     `('
     `I24H'
     `)'
     `='
     `('
     `J'
     `/'
     `I3'
     `)'

   The job of `sta.c' is to figure out the kind of statement, or, at
least, statement form, that sequence of lexemes represent.

   The sooner it can do this (in terms of using the smallest number of
lexemes, starting with the first for each statement), the better,
because that leaves diagnostics for problems beyond the recognition of
the statement form to subsequent phases, which can usually better
describe the nature of the problem.

   In this case, the `=' at "level zero" (not nested within parentheses)
tells `sta.c' that this is an _assignment-form_, not `FORMAT',
statement.

   An assignment-form statement might be a statement-function
definition or an executable assignment statement.

   To make that determination, `sta.c' looks at the first two lexemes.

   Since the second lexeme is `(', the first must represent an array
for this to be an assignment statement, else it's a statement function.

   Either way, `sta.c' hands off the statement to `stq.c' (via `sti.c',
which expands INCLUDE files).  `stq.c' figures out what a statement
that is, on its own, ambiguous, must actually be based on the context
established by previous statements.

   So, `stq.c' watches the statement stream for executable statements,
END statements, and so on, so it knows whether `A(B)=C' is (intended
as) a statement-function definition or an assignment statement.

   After establishing the context-aware statement info, `stq.c' passes
the original sample statement on to `stb.c' (either its
statement-function parser or its assignment-statement parser).

   `stb.c' forms a statement-specific record containing the pertinent
information.  That information includes a source expression and, for an
assignment statement, a destination expression.  Expressions are parsed
by `expr.c'.

   This record is passed to `stc.c', which copes with the implications
of the statement within the context established by previous statements.

   For example, if it's the first statement in the file or after an
`END' statement, `stc.c' recognizes that, first of all, a main program
unit is now being lexed (and tells that to `std.c' before telling it
about the current statement).

   `stc.c' attaches whatever information it can, usually derived from
the context established by the preceding statements, and passes the
information to `std.c'.

   `std.c' saves this information away, since the GBE cannot cope with
information that might be incomplete at this stage.

   For example, `I3' might later be determined to be an argument to an
alternate `ENTRY' point.

   When `std.c' is told about the end of an external (top-level)
program unit, it passes all the information it has saved away on
statements in that program unit to `ste.c'.

   `ste.c' "expands" each statement, in sequence, by constructing the
appropriate GBE information and calling the appropriate GBE routines.

   Details on the transformational phases follow.  Keep in mind that
Fortran numbering is used, so the first character on a line is column 1,
decimal numbering is used, and so on.

* Menu:

* g77stripcard::
* lex.c::
* sta.c::
* sti.c::
* stq.c::
* stb.c::
* expr.c::
* stc.c::
* std.c::
* ste.c::

* Gotchas (Transforming)::
* TBD (Transforming)::

File: g77.info,  Node: g77stripcard,  Next: lex.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.1 g77stripcard
-------------------

The `g77stripcard' program handles removing content beyond column 72
(adjustable via a command-line option), optionally warning about that
content being something other than trailing whitespace or Fortran
commentary.

   This program is needed because `lex.c' doesn't pay attention to
maximum line lengths at all, to make it easier to maintain, as well as
faster (for sources that don't depend on the maximum column length
vis-a-vis trailing non-blank non-commentary content).

   Just how this program will be run--whether automatically for old
source (perhaps as the default for `.f' files?)--is not yet determined.

   In the meantime, it might as well be implemented as a typical UNIX
pipe.

   It should accept a `-fline-length-N' option, with the default line
length set to 72.

   When the text it strips off the end of a line is not blank (not
spaces and tabs), it should insert an additional comment line
(beginning with `!', so it works for both fixed-form and free-form
files) containing the text, following the stripped line.  The inserted
comment should have a prefix of some kind, TBD, that distinguishes the
comment as representing stripped text.  Users could use that to `sed'
out such lines, if they wished--it seems silly to provide a
command-line option to delete information when it can be so easily
filtered out by another program.

   (This inserted comment should be designed to "fit in" well with
whatever the Fortran community is using these days for preprocessor,
translator, and other such products, like OpenMP.  What that's all
about, and how `g77' can elegantly fit its special comment conventions
into it all, is TBD as well.  We don't want to reinvent the wheel here,
but if there turn out to be too many conflicting conventions, we might
have to invent one that looks nothing like the others, but which offers
their host products a better infrastructure in which to fit and coexist
peacefully.)

   `g77stripcard' probably shouldn't do any tab expansion or other
fancy stuff.  People can use `expand' or other pre-filtering if they
like.  The idea here is to keep each stage quite simple, while providing
excellent performance for "normal" code.

   (Code with junk beyond column 73 is not really "normal", as it comes
from a card-punch heritage, and will be increasingly hard for
tomorrow's Fortran programmers to read.)

File: g77.info,  Node: lex.c,  Next: sta.c,  Prev: g77stripcard,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.2 lex.c
------------

To help make the lexer simple, fast, and easy to maintain, while also
having `g77' generally encourage Fortran programmers to write simple,
maintainable, portable code by maximizing the performance of compiling
that kind of code:

   * There'll be just one lexer, for both fixed-form and free-form
     source.

   * It'll care about the form only when handling the first 7 columns of
     text, stuff like spaces between strings of alphanumerics, and how
     lines are continued.

     Some other distinctions will be handled by subsequent phases, so
     at least one of them will have to know which form is involved.

     For example, `I = 2 . 4' is acceptable in fixed form, and works in
     free form as well given the implementation `g77' presently uses.
     But the standard requires a diagnostic for it in free form, so the
     parser has to be able to recognize that the lexemes aren't
     contiguous (information the lexer _does_ have to provide) and that
     free-form source is being parsed, so it can provide the diagnostic.

     The `g77' lexer doesn't try to gather `2 . 4' into a single lexeme.
     Otherwise, it'd have to know a whole lot more about how to parse
     Fortran, or subsequent phases (mainly parsing) would have two
     paths through lots of critical code--one to handle the lexeme `2',
     `.', and `4' in sequence, another to handle the lexeme `2.4'.

   * It won't worry about line lengths (beyond the first 7 columns for
     fixed-form source).

     That is, once it starts parsing the "statement" part of a line
     (column 7 for fixed-form, column 1 for free-form), it'll keep
     going until it finds a newline, rather than ignoring everything
     past a particular column (72 or 132).

     The implication here is that there shouldn't _be_ anything past
     that last column, other than whitespace or commentary, because
     users using typical editors (or viewing output as typically
     printed) won't necessarily know just where the last column is.

     Code that has "garbage" beyond the last column (almost certainly
     only fixed-form code with a punched-card legacy, such as code
     using columns 73-80 for "sequence numbers") will have to be run
     through `g77stripcard' first.

     Also, keeping track of the maximum column position while also
     watching out for the end of a line _and_ while reading from a file
     just makes things slower.  Since a file must be read, and watching
     for the end of the line is necessary (unless the typical input
     file was preprocessed to include the necessary number of trailing
     spaces), dropping the tracking of the maximum column position is
     the only way to reduce the complexity of the pertinent code while
     maintaining high performance.

   * ASCII encoding is assumed for the input file.

     Code written in other character sets will have to be converted
     first.

   * Tabs (ASCII code 9) will be converted to spaces via the
     straightforward approach.

     Specifically, a tab is converted to between one and eight spaces
     as necessary to reach column N, where dividing `(N - 1)' by eight
     results in a remainder of zero.

     That saves having to pass most source files through `expand'.

   * Linefeeds (ASCII code 10) mark the ends of lines.

   * A carriage return (ASCII code 13) is accept if it immediately
     precedes a linefeed, in which case it is ignored.

     Otherwise, it is rejected (with a diagnostic).

   * Any other characters other than the above that are not part of the
     GNU Fortran Character Set (*note Character Set::) are rejected
     with a diagnostic.

     This includes backspaces, form feeds, and the like.

     (It might make sense to allow a form feed in column 1 as long as
     that's the only character on a line.  It certainly wouldn't seem
     to cost much in terms of performance.)

   * The end of the input stream (EOF) ends the current line.

   * The distinction between uppercase and lowercase letters will be
     preserved.

     It will be up to subsequent phases to decide to fold case.

     Current plans are to permit any casing for Fortran (reserved)
     keywords while preserving casing for user-defined names.  (This
     might not be made the default for `.f' files, though.)

     Preserving case seems necessary to provide more direct access to
     facilities outside of `g77', such as to C or Pascal code.

     Names of intrinsics will probably be matchable in any case,

     (How `external SiN; r = sin(x)' would be handled is TBD.  I think
     old `g77' might already handle that pretty elegantly, but whether
     we can cope with allowing the same fragment to reference a
     _different_ procedure, even with the same interface, via `s =
     SiN(r)', needs to be determined.  If it can't, we need to make
     sure that when code introduces a user-defined name, any intrinsic
     matching that name using a case-insensitive comparison is "turned
     off".)

   * Backslashes in `CHARACTER' and Hollerith constants are not allowed.

     This avoids the confusion introduced by some Fortran compiler
     vendors providing C-like interpretation of backslashes, while
     others provide straight-through interpretation.

     Some kind of lexical construct (TBD) will be provided to allow
     flagging of a `CHARACTER' (but probably not a Hollerith) constant
     that permits backslashes.  It'll necessarily be a prefix, such as:

          PRINT *, C'This line has a backspace \b here.'
          PRINT *, F'This line has a straight backslash \ here.'

     Further, command-line options might be provided to specify that
     one prefix or the other is to be assumed as the default for
     `CHARACTER' constants.

     However, it seems more helpful for `g77' to provide a program that
     converts prefix all constants (or just those containing
     backslashes) with the desired designation, so printouts of code
     can be read without knowing the compile-time options used when
     compiling it.

     If such a program is provided (let's name it `g77slash' for now),
     then a command-line option to `g77' should not be provided.
     (Though, given that it'll be easy to implement, it might be hard
     to resist user requests for it "to compile faster than if we have
     to invoke another filter".)

     This program would take a command-line option to specify the
     default interpretation of slashes, affecting which prefix it uses
     for constants.

     `g77slash' probably should automatically convert Hollerith
     constants that contain slashes to the appropriate `CHARACTER'
     constants.  Then `g77' wouldn't have to define a prefix syntax for
     Hollerith constants specifying whether they want C-style or
     straight-through backslashes.

   * To allow for form-neutral INCLUDE files without requiring them to
     be preprocessed, the fixed-form lexer should offer an extension
     (if possible) allowing a trailing `&' to be ignored, especially if
     after column 72, as it would be using the traditional Unix Fortran
     source model (which ignores _everything_ after column 72).

   The above implements nearly exactly what is specified by *note
Character Set::, and *note Lines::, except it also provides automatic
conversion of tabs and ignoring of newline-related carriage returns, as
well as accommodating form-neutral INCLUDE files.

   It also implements the "pure visual" model, by which is meant that a
user viewing his code in a typical text editor (assuming it's not
preprocessed via `g77stripcard' or similar) doesn't need any special
knowledge of whether spaces on the screen are really tabs, whether
lines end immediately after the last visible non-space character or
after a number of spaces and tabs that follow it, or whether the last
line in the file is ended by a newline.

   Most editors don't make these distinctions, the ANSI FORTRAN 77
standard doesn't require them to, and it permits a standard-conforming
compiler to define a method for transforming source code to "standard
form" however it wants.

   So, GNU Fortran defines it such that users have the best chance of
having the code be interpreted the way it looks on the screen of the
typical editor.

   (Fancy editors should _never_ be required to correctly read code
written in classic two-dimensional-plaintext form.  By correct reading
I mean ability to read it, book-like, without mistaking text ignored by
the compiler for program code and vice versa, and without having to
count beyond the first several columns.  The vague meaning of ASCII
TAB, among other things, complicates this somewhat, but as long as
"everyone", including the editor, other tools, and printer, agrees
about the every-eighth-column convention, the GNU Fortran "pure visual"
model meets these requirements.  Any language or user-visible source
form requiring special tagging of tabs, the ends of lines after
spaces/tabs, and so on, fails to meet this fairly straightforward
specification.  Fortunately, Fortran _itself_ does not mandate such a
failure, though most vendor-supplied defaults for their Fortran
compilers _do_ fail to meet this specification for readability.)

   Further, this model provides a clean interface to whatever
preprocessors or code-generators are used to produce input to this
phase of `g77'.  Mainly, they need not worry about long lines.

File: g77.info,  Node: sta.c,  Next: sti.c,  Prev: lex.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.3 sta.c
------------

File: g77.info,  Node: sti.c,  Next: stq.c,  Prev: sta.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.4 sti.c
------------

File: g77.info,  Node: stq.c,  Next: stb.c,  Prev: sti.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.5 stq.c
------------

File: g77.info,  Node: stb.c,  Next: expr.c,  Prev: stq.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.6 stb.c
------------

File: g77.info,  Node: expr.c,  Next: stc.c,  Prev: stb.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.7 expr.c
-------------

File: g77.info,  Node: stc.c,  Next: std.c,  Prev: expr.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.8 stc.c
------------

File: g77.info,  Node: std.c,  Next: ste.c,  Prev: stc.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.9 std.c
------------

File: g77.info,  Node: ste.c,  Next: Gotchas (Transforming),  Prev: std.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.10 ste.c
-------------

File: g77.info,  Node: Gotchas (Transforming),  Next: TBD (Transforming),  Prev: ste.c,  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.11 Gotchas (Transforming)
------------------------------

This section is not about transforming "gotchas" into something else.
It is about the weirder aspects of transforming Fortran, however that's
defined, into a more modern, canonical form.

21.2.11.1 Multi-character Lexemes
.................................

Each lexeme carries with it a pointer to where it appears in the source.

   To provide the ability for diagnostics to point to column numbers,
in addition to line numbers and names, lexemes that represent more than
one (significant) character in the source code need, generally, to
provide pointers to where each _character_ appears in the source.

   This provides the ability to properly identify the precise location
of the problem in code like

     SUBROUTINE X
     END
     BLOCK DATA X
     END

   which, in fixed-form source, would result in single lexemes
consisting of the strings `SUBROUTINEX' and `BLOCKDATAX'.  (The problem
is that `X' is defined twice, so a pointer to the `X' in the second
definition, as well as a follow-up pointer to the corresponding pointer
in the first, would be preferable to pointing to the beginnings of the
statements.)

   This need also arises when parsing (and diagnosing) `FORMAT'
statements.

   Further, it arises when diagnosing `FMT=' specifiers that contain
constants (or partial constants, or even propagated constants!)  in I/O
statements, as in:

     PRINT '(I2, 3HAB)', J

   (A pointer to the beginning of the prematurely-terminated Hollerith
constant, and/or to the close parenthese, is preferable to a pointer to
the open-parenthese or the apostrophe that precedes it.)

   Multi-character lexemes, which would seem to naturally include at
least digit strings, alphanumeric strings, `CHARACTER' constants, and
Hollerith constants, therefore need to provide location information on
each character.  (Maybe Hollerith constants don't, but it's unnecessary
to except them.)

   The question then arises, what about _other_ multi-character lexemes,
such as `**' and `//', and Fortran 90's `(/', `/)', `::', and so on?

   Turns out there's a need to identify the location of the second
character of these two-character lexemes.  For example, in `I(/J) = K',
the slash needs to be diagnosed as the problem, not the open parenthese.
Similarly, it is preferable to diagnose the second slash in `I = J //
K' rather than the first, given the implicit typing rules, which would
result in the compiler disallowing the attempted concatenation of two
integers.  (Though, since that's more of a semantic issue, it's not
_that_ much preferable.)

   Even sequences that could be parsed as digit strings could use
location info, for example, to diagnose the `9' in the octal constant
`O'129''.  (This probably will be parsed as a character string, to be
consistent with the parsing of `Z'129A''.)

   To avoid the hassle of recording the location of the second
character, while also preserving the general rule that each significant
character is distinctly pointed to by the lexeme that contains it, it's
best to simply not have any fixed-size lexemes larger than one
character.

   This new design is expected to make checking for two `*' lexemes in
a row much easier than the old design, so this is not much of a
sacrifice.  It probably makes the lexer much easier to implement than
it makes the parser harder.

21.2.11.2 Space-padding Lexemes
...............................

Certain lexemes need to be padded with virtual spaces when the end of
the line (or file) is encountered.

   This is necessary in fixed form, to handle lines that don't extend
to column 72, assuming that's the line length in effect.

21.2.11.3 Bizarre Free-form Hollerith Constants
...............................................

Last I checked, the Fortran 90 standard actually required the compiler
to silently accept something like

     FORMAT ( 1 2   Htwelve chars )

   as a valid `FORMAT' statement specifying a twelve-character
Hollerith constant.

   The implication here is that, since the new lexer is a zero-feedback
one, it won't know that the special case of a `FORMAT' statement being
parsed requires apparently distinct lexemes `1' and `2' to be treated as
a single lexeme.

   (This is a horrible misfeature of the Fortran 90 language.  It's one
of many such misfeatures that almost make me want to not support them,
and forge ahead with designing a new "GNU Fortran" language that has
the features, but not the misfeatures, of Fortran 90, and provide
utility programs to do the conversion automatically.)

   So, the lexer must gather distinct chunks of decimal strings into a
single lexeme in contexts where a single decimal lexeme might start a
Hollerith constant.

   (Which probably means it might as well do that all the time for all
multi-character lexemes, even in free-form mode, leaving it to
subsequent phases to pull them apart as they see fit.)

   Compare the treatment of this to how

     CHARACTER * 4 5 HEY

   and

     CHARACTER * 12 HEY

   must be treated--the former must be diagnosed, due to the separation
between lexemes, the latter must be accepted as a proper declaration.

21.2.11.4 Hollerith Constants
.............................

Recognizing a Hollerith constant--specifically, that an `H' or `h'
after a digit string begins such a constant--requires some knowledge of
context.

   Hollerith constants (such as `2HAB') can appear after:

   * `('

   * `,'

   * `='

   * `+', `-', `/'

   * `*', except as noted below

   Hollerith constants don't appear after:

   * `CHARACTER*', which can be treated generally as any `*' that is
     the second lexeme of a statement

21.2.11.5 Confusing Function Keyword
....................................

While

     REAL FUNCTION FOO ()

   must be a `FUNCTION' statement and

     REAL FUNCTION FOO (5)

   must be a type-definition statement,

     REAL FUNCTION FOO (NAMES)

   where NAMES is a comma-separated list of names, can be one or the
other.

   The only way to disambiguate that statement (short of mandating
free-form source or a short maximum length for name for external
procedures) is based on the context of the statement.

   In particular, the statement is known to be within an
already-started program unit (but not at the outer level of the
`CONTAINS' block), it is a type-declaration statement.

   Otherwise, the statement is a `FUNCTION' statement, in that it
begins a function program unit (external, or, within `CONTAINS',
nested).

21.2.11.6 Weird READ
....................

The statement

     READ (N)

   is equivalent to either

     READ (UNIT=(N))

   or

     READ (FMT=(N))

   depending on which would be valid in context.

   Specifically, if `N' is type `INTEGER', `READ (FMT=(N))' would not
be valid, because parentheses may not be used around `N', whereas they
may around it in `READ (UNIT=(N))'.

   Further, if `N' is type `CHARACTER', the opposite is true--`READ
(UNIT=(N))' is not valid, but `READ (FMT=(N))' is.

   Strictly speaking, if anything follows

     READ (N)

   in the statement, whether the first lexeme after the close
parenthese is a comma could be used to disambiguate the two cases,
without looking at the type of `N', because the comma is required for
the `READ (FMT=(N))' interpretation and disallowed for the `READ
(UNIT=(N))' interpretation.

   However, in practice, many Fortran compilers allow the comma for the
`READ (UNIT=(N))' interpretation anyway (in that they generally allow a
leading comma before an I/O list in an I/O statement), and much code
takes advantage of this allowance.

   (This is quite a reasonable allowance, since the juxtaposition of a
comma-separated list immediately after an I/O control-specification
list, which is also comma-separated, without an intervening comma,
looks sufficiently "wrong" to programmers that they can't resist the
itch to insert the comma.  `READ (I, J), K, L' simply looks cleaner than
`READ (I, J) K, L'.)

   So, type-based disambiguation is needed unless strict adherence to
the standard is always assumed, and we're not going to assume that.

File: g77.info,  Node: TBD (Transforming),  Prev: Gotchas (Transforming),  Up: Overview of Translation Process

21.2.12 TBD (Transforming)
--------------------------

Continue researching gotchas, designing the transformational process,
and implementing it.

   Specific issues to resolve:

   * Just where should (if it was implemented) `USE' processing take
     place?

     This gets into the whole issue of how `g77' should handle the
     concept of modules.  I think GNAT already takes on this issue, but
     don't know more than that.  Jim Giles has written extensively on
     `comp.lang.fortran' about his opinions on module handling, as have
     others.  Jim's views should be taken into account.

     Actually, Richard M. Stallman (RMS) also has written up some
     guidelines for implementing such things, but I'm not sure where I
     read them.  Perhaps the old <gcc2ATcygnus.com> list.

     If someone could dig references to these up and get them to me,
     that would be much appreciated!  Even though modules are not on
     the short-term list for implementation, it'd be helpful to know
     _now_ how to avoid making them harder to implement them _later_.

   * Should the `g77' command become just a script that invokes all the
     various preprocessing that might be needed, thus making it seem
     slower than necessary for legacy code that people are unwilling to
     convert, or should we provide a separate script for that, thus
     encouraging people to convert their code once and for all?

     At least, a separate script to behave as old `g77' did, perhaps
     named `g77old', might ease the transition, as might a
     corresponding one that converts source codes named `g77oldnew'.

     These scripts would take all the pertinent options `g77' used to
     take and run the appropriate filters, passing the results to `g77'
     or just making new sources out of them (in a subdirectory, leaving
     the user to do the dirty deed of moving or copying them over the
     old sources).

   * Do other Fortran compilers provide a prefix syntax to govern the
     treatment of backslashes in `CHARACTER' (or Hollerith) constants?

     Knowing what other compilers provide would help.

   * Is it okay to drop support for the `-fintrin-case-initcap',
     `-fmatch-case-initcap', `-fsymbol-case-initcap', and
     `-fcase-initcap' options?

     I've asked <info-gnu-fortranATgnu.org> for input on this.  Not
     having to support these makes it easier to write the new front end,
     and might also avoid complicated its design.

     The consensus to date (1999-11-17) has been to drop this support.
     Can't recall anybody saying they're using it, in fact.

File: g77.info,  Node: Philosophy of Code Generation,  Next: Two-pass Design,  Prev: Overview of Translation Process,  Up: Front End

21.3 Philosophy of Code Generation
==================================

Don't poke the bear.

   The `g77' front end generates code via the `gcc' back end.

   The `gcc' back end (GBE) is a large, complex labyrinth of intricate
code written in a combination of the C language and specialized
languages internal to `gcc'.

   While the _code_ that implements the GBE is written in a combination
of languages, the GBE itself is, to the front end for a language like
Fortran, best viewed as a _compiler_ that compiles its own, unique,
language.

   The GBE's "source", then, is written in this language, which
consists primarily of a combination of calls to GBE functions and
"tree" nodes (which are, themselves, created by calling GBE functions).

   So, the `g77' generates code by, in effect, translating the Fortran
code it reads into a form "written" in the "language" of the `gcc' back
end.

   This language will heretofore be referred to as "GBEL", for GNU Back
End Language.

   GBEL is an evolving language, not fully specified in any published
form as of this writing.  It offers many facilities, but its "core"
facilities are those that corresponding most directly to those needed
to support `gcc' (compiling code written in GNU C).

   The `g77' Fortran Front End (FFE) is designed and implemented to
navigate the currents and eddies of ongoing GBEL and `gcc' development
while also delivering on the potential of an integrated FFE (as
compared to using a converter like `f2c' and feeding the output into
`gcc').

   Goals of the FFE's code-generation strategy include:

   * High likelihood of generation of correct code, or, failing that,
     producing a fatal diagnostic or crashing.

   * Generation of highly optimized code, as directed by the user via
     GBE-specific (versus `g77'-specific) constructs, such as
     command-line options.

   * Fast overall (FFE plus GBE) compilation.

   * Preservation of source-level debugging information.

   The strategies historically, and currently, used by the FFE to
achieve these goals include:

   * Use of GBEL constructs that most faithfully encapsulate the
     semantics of Fortran.

   * Avoidance of GBEL constructs that are so rarely used, or limited
     to use in specialized situations not related to Fortran, that
     their reliability and performance has not yet been established as
     sufficient for use by the FFE.

   * Flexible design, to readily accommodate changes to specific
     code-generation strategies, perhaps governed by command-line
     options.

   "Don't poke the bear" somewhat summarizes the above strategies.  The
GBE is the bear.  The FFE is designed and implemented to avoid poking it
in ways that are likely to just annoy it.  The FFE usually either
tackles it head-on, or avoids treating it in ways dissimilar to how the
`gcc' front end treats it.

   For example, the FFE uses the native array facility in the back end
instead of the lower-level pointer-arithmetic facility used by `gcc'
when compiling `f2c' output).  Theoretically, this presents more
opportunities for optimization, faster compile times, and the
production of more faithful debugging information.  These benefits were
not, however, immediately realized, mainly because `gcc' itself makes
little or no use of the native array facility.

   Complex arithmetic is a case study of the evolution of this strategy.
When originally implemented, the GBEL had just evolved its own native
complex-arithmetic facility, so the FFE took advantage of that.

   When porting `g77' to 64-bit systems, it was discovered that the GBE
didn't really implement its native complex-arithmetic facility properly.

   The short-term solution was to rewrite the FFE to instead use the
lower-level facilities that'd be used by `gcc'-compiled code (assuming
that code, itself, didn't use the native complex type provided, as an
extension, by `gcc'), since these were known to work, and, in any case,
if shown to not work, would likely be rapidly fixed (since they'd
likely not work for vanilla C code in similar circumstances).

   However, the rewrite accommodated the original, native approach as
well by offering a command-line option to select it over the emulated
approach.  This allowed users, and especially GBE maintainers, to try
out fixes to complex-arithmetic support in the GBE while `g77'
continued to default to compiling more code correctly, albeit producing
(typically) slower executables.

   As of April 1999, it appeared that the last few bugs in the GBE's
support of its native complex-arithmetic facility were worked out.  The
FFE was changed back to default to using that native facility, leaving
emulation as an option.

   Later during the release cycle (which was called EGCS 1.2, but soon
became GCC 2.95), bugs in the native facility were found.  Reactions
among various people included "the last thing we should do is change
the default back", "we must change the default back", and "let's figure
out whether we can narrow down the bugs to few enough cases to allow
the now-months-long-tested default to remain the same".  The latter
viewpoint won that particular time.  The bugs exposed other concerns
regarding ABI compliance when the ABI specified treatment of complex
data as different from treatment of what Fortran and GNU C consider the
equivalent aggregation (structure) of real (or float) pairs.

   Other Fortran constructs--arrays, character strings, complex
division, `COMMON' and `EQUIVALENCE' aggregates, and so on--involve
issues similar to those pertaining to complex arithmetic.

   So, it is possible that the history of how the FFE handled complex
arithmetic will be repeated, probably in modified form (and hopefully
over shorter timeframes), for some of these other facilities.

File: g77.info,  Node: Two-pass Design,  Next: Challenges Posed,  Prev: Philosophy of Code Generation,  Up: Front End

21.4 Two-pass Design
====================

The FFE does not tell the GBE anything about a program unit until after
the last statement in that unit has been parsed.  (A program unit is a
Fortran concept that corresponds, in the C world, mostly closely to
functions definitions in ISO C.  That is, a program unit in Fortran is
like a top-level function in C.  Nested functions, found among the
extensions offered by GNU C, correspond roughly to Fortran's statement
functions.)

   So, while parsing the code in a program unit, the FFE saves up all
the information on statements, expressions, names, and so on, until it
has seen the last statement.

   At that point, the FFE revisits the saved information (in what
amounts to a second "pass" over the program unit) to perform the actual
translation of the program unit into GBEL, ultimating in the generation
of assembly code for it.

   Some lookahead is performed during this second pass, so the FFE
could be viewed as a "two-plus-pass" design.

* Menu:

* Two-pass Code::
* Why Two Passes::

File: g77.info,  Node: Two-pass Code,  Next: Why Two Passes,  Up: Two-pass Design

21.4.1 Two-pass Code
--------------------

Most of the code that turns the first pass (parsing) into a second pass
for code generation is in `gcc/gcc/f/std.c'.

   It has external functions, called mainly by siblings in
`gcc/gcc/f/stc.c', that record the information on statements and
expressions in the order they are seen in the source code.  These
functions save that information.

   It also has an external function that revisits that information,
calling the siblings in `gcc/gcc/f/ste.c', which handles the actual
code generation (by generating GBEL code, that is, by calling GBE
routines to represent and specify expressions, statements, and so on).

File: g77.info,  Node: Why Two Passes,  Prev: Two-pass Code,  Up: Two-pass Design

21.4.2 Why Two Passes
---------------------

The need for two passes was not immediately evident during the design
and implementation of the code in the FFE that was to produce GBEL.
Only after a few kludges, to handle things like incorrectly-guessed
`ASSIGN' label nature, had been implemented, did enough evidence pile
up to make it clear that `std.c' had to be introduced to intercept,
save, then revisit as part of a second pass, the digested contents of a
program unit.

   Other such missteps have occurred during the evolution of the FFE,
because of the different goals of the FFE and the GBE.

   Because the GBE's original, and still primary, goal was to directly
support the GNU C language, the GBEL, and the GBE itself, requires more
complexity on the part of most front ends than it requires of `gcc''s.

   For example, the GBEL offers an interface that permits the `gcc'
front end to implement most, or all, of the language features it
supports, without the front end having to make use of non-user-defined
variables.  (It's almost certainly the case that all of K&R C, and
probably ANSI C as well, is handled by the `gcc' front end without
declaring such variables.)

   The FFE, on the other hand, must resort to a variety of "tricks" to
achieve its goals.

   Consider the following C code:

     int
     foo (int a, int b)
     {
       int c = 0;

       if ((c = bar (c)) == 0)
         goto done;

       quux (c << 1);

     done:
       return c;
     }

   Note what kinds of objects are declared, or defined, before their
use, and before any actual code generation involving them would
normally take place:

   * Return type of function

   * Entry point(s) of function

   * Dummy arguments

   * Variables

   * Initial values for variables

   Whereas, the following items can, and do, suddenly appear "out of
the blue" in C:

   * Label references

   * Function references

   Not surprisingly, the GBE faithfully permits the latter set of items
to be "discovered" partway through GBEL "programs", just as they are
permitted to in C.

   Yet, the GBE has tended, at least in the past, to be reticent to
fully support similar "late" discovery of items in the former set.

   This makes Fortran a poor fit for the "safe" subset of GBEL.
Consider:

           FUNCTION X (A, ARRAY, ID1)
           CHARACTER*(*) A
           DOUBLE PRECISION X, Y, Z, TMP, EE, PI
           REAL ARRAY(ID1*ID2)
           COMMON ID2
           EXTERNAL FRED

           ASSIGN 100 TO J
           CALL FOO (I)
           IF (I .EQ. 0) PRINT *, A(0)
           GOTO 200

           ENTRY Y (Z)
           ASSIGN 101 TO J
     200   PRINT *, A(1)
           READ *, TMP
           GOTO J
     100   X = TMP * EE
           RETURN
     101   Y = TMP * PI
           CALL FRED
           DATA EE, PI /2.71D0, 3.14D0/
           END

   Here are some observations about the above code, which, while
somewhat contrived, conforms to the FORTRAN 77 and Fortran 90 standards:

   * The return type of function `X' is not known until the `DOUBLE
     PRECISION' line has been parsed.

   * Whether `A' is a function or a variable is not known until the
     `PRINT *, A(0)' statement has been parsed.

   * The bounds of the array of argument `ARRAY' depend on a
     computation involving the subsequent argument `ID1' and the
     blank-common member `ID2'.

   * Whether `Y' and `Z' are local variables, additional function entry
     points, or dummy arguments to additional entry points is not known
     until the `ENTRY' statement is parsed.

   * Similarly, whether `TMP' is a local variable is not known until
     the `READ *, TMP' statement is parsed.

   * The initial values for `EE' and `PI' are not known until after the
     `DATA' statement is parsed.

   * Whether `FRED' is a function returning type `REAL' or a subroutine
     (which can be thought of as returning type `void' _or_, to support
     alternate returns in a simple way, type `int') is not known until
     the `CALL FRED' statement is parsed.

   * Whether `100' is a `FORMAT' label or the label of an executable
     statement is not known until the `X =' statement is parsed.
     (These two types of labels get _very_ different treatment,
     especially when `ASSIGN''ed.)

   * That `J' is a local variable is not known until the first `ASSIGN'
     statement is parsed.  (This happens _after_ executable code has
     been seen.)

   Very few of these "discoveries" can be accommodated by the GBE as it
has evolved over the years.  The GBEL doesn't support several of them,
and those it might appear to support don't always work properly,
especially in combination with other GBEL and GBE features, as
implemented in the GBE.

   (Had the GBE and its GBEL originally evolved to support `g77', the
shoe would be on the other foot, so to speak--most, if not all, of the
above would be directly supported by the GBEL, and a few C constructs
would probably not, as they are in reality, be supported.  Both this
mythical, and today's real, GBE caters to its GBEL by, sometimes,
scrambling around, cleaning up after itself--after discovering that
assumptions it made earlier during code generation are incorrect.
That's not a great design, since it indicates significant code paths
that might be rarely tested but used in some key production
environments.)

   So, the FFE handles these discrepancies--between the order in which
it discovers facts about the code it is compiling, and the order in
which the GBEL and GBE support such discoveries--by performing what
amounts to two passes over each program unit.

   (A few ambiguities can remain at that point, such as whether, given
`EXTERNAL BAZ' and no other reference to `BAZ' in the program unit, it
is a subroutine, a function, or a block-data--which, in C-speak,
governs its declared return type.  Fortunately, these distinctions are
easily finessed for the procedure, library, and object-file interfaces
supported by `g77'.)

File: g77.info,  Node: Challenges Posed,  Next: Transforming Statements,  Prev: Two-pass Design,  Up: Front End

21.5 Challenges Posed
=====================

Consider the following Fortran code, which uses various extensions
(including some to Fortran 90):

     SUBROUTINE X(A)
     CHARACTER*(*) A
     COMPLEX CFUNC
     INTEGER*2 CLOCKS(200)
     INTEGER IFUNC

     CALL SYSTEM_CLOCK (CLOCKS (IFUNC (CFUNC ('('//A//')'))))

   The above poses the following challenges to any Fortran compiler
that uses run-time interfaces, and a run-time library, roughly similar
to those used by `g77':

   * Assuming the library routine that supports `SYSTEM_CLOCK' expects
     to set an `INTEGER*4' variable via its `COUNT' argument, the
     compiler must make available to it a temporary variable of that
     type.

   * Further, after the `SYSTEM_CLOCK' library routine returns, the
     compiler must ensure that the temporary variable it wrote is
     copied into the appropriate element of the `CLOCKS' array.  (This
     assumes the compiler doesn't just reject the code, which it should
     if it is compiling under some kind of a "strict" option.)

   * To determine the correct index into the `CLOCKS' array, (putting
     aside the fact that the index, in this particular case, need not
     be computed until after the `SYSTEM_CLOCK' library routine
     returns), the compiler must ensure that the `IFUNC' function is
     called.

     That requires evaluating its argument, which requires, for `g77'
     (assuming `-ff2c' is in force), reserving a temporary variable of
     type `COMPLEX' for use as a repository for the return value being
     computed by `CFUNC'.

   * Before invoking `CFUNC', is argument must be evaluated, which
     requires allocating, at run time, a temporary large enough to hold
     the result of the concatenation, as well as actually performing
     the concatenation.

   * The large temporary needed during invocation of `CFUNC' should,
     ideally, be deallocated (or, at least, left to the GBE to dispose
     of, as it sees fit) as soon as `CFUNC' returns, which means before
     `IFUNC' is called (as it might need a lot of dynamically allocated
     memory).

   `g77' currently doesn't support all of the above, but, so that it
might someday, it has evolved to handle at least some of the above
requirements.

   Meeting the above requirements is made more challenging by
conforming to the requirements of the GBEL/GBE combination.

File: g77.info,  Node: Transforming Statements,  Next: Transforming Expressions,  Prev: Challenges Posed,  Up: Front End

21.6 Transforming Statements
============================

Most Fortran statements are given their own block, and, for temporary
variables they might need, their own scope.  (A block is what
distinguishes `{ foo (); }' from just `foo ();' in C.  A scope is
included with every such block, providing a distinct name space for
local variables.)

   Label definitions for the statement precede this block, so `10 PRINT
*, I' is handled more like `fl10: { ... }' than `{ fl10: ... }' (where
`fl10' is just a notation meaning "Fortran Label 10" for the purposes
of this document).

* Menu:

* Statements Needing Temporaries::
* Transforming DO WHILE::
* Transforming Iterative DO::
* Transforming Block IF::
* Transforming SELECT CASE::

File: g77.info,  Node: Statements Needing Temporaries,  Next: Transforming DO WHILE,  Up: Transforming Statements

21.6.1 Statements Needing Temporaries
-------------------------------------

Any temporaries needed during, but not beyond, execution of a Fortran
statement, are made local to the scope of that statement's block.

   This allows the GBE to share storage for these temporaries among the
various statements without the FFE having to manage that itself.

   (The GBE could, of course, decide to optimize management of these
temporaries.  For example, it could, theoretically, schedule some of
the computations involving these temporaries to occur in parallel.
More practically, it might leave the storage for some temporaries
"live" beyond their scopes, to reduce the number of manipulations of
the stack pointer at run time.)

   Temporaries needed across distinct statement boundaries usually are
associated with Fortran blocks (such as `DO'/`END DO').  (Also, there
might be temporaries not associated with blocks at all--these would be
in the scope of the entire program unit.)

   Each Fortran block _should_ get its own block/scope in the GBE.
This is best, because it allows temporaries to be more naturally
handled.  However, it might pose problems when handling labels (in
particular, when they're the targets of `GOTO's outside the Fortran
block), and generally just hassling with replicating parts of the `gcc'
front end (because the FFE needs to support an arbitrary number of
nested back-end blocks if each Fortran block gets one).

   So, there might still be a need for top-level temporaries, whose
"owning" scope is that of the containing procedure.

   Also, there seems to be problems declaring new variables after
generating code (within a block) in the back end, leading to, e.g.,
`label not defined before binding contour' or similar messages, when
compiling with `-fstack-check' or when compiling for certain targets.

   Because of that, and because sometimes these temporaries are not
discovered until in the middle of of generating code for an expression
statement (as in the case of the optimization for `X**I'), it seems
best to always pre-scan all the expressions that'll be expanded for a
block before generating any of the code for that block.

   This pre-scan then handles discovering and declaring, to the back
end, the temporaries needed for that block.

   It's also important to treat distinct items in an I/O list as
distinct statements deserving their own blocks.  That's because there's
a requirement that each I/O item be fully processed before the next one,
which matters in cases like `READ (*,*), I, A(I)'--the element of `A'
read in the second item _must_ be determined from the value of `I' read
in the first item.

File: g77.info,  Node: Transforming DO WHILE,  Next: Transforming Iterative DO,  Prev: Statements Needing Temporaries,  Up: Transforming Statements

21.6.2 Transforming DO WHILE
----------------------------

`DO WHILE(expr)' _must_ be implemented so that temporaries needed to
evaluate `expr' are generated just for the test, each time.

   Consider how `DO WHILE (A//B .NE. 'END'); ...; END DO' is
transformed:

     for (;;)
       {
         int temp0;

         {
           char temp1[large];

           libg77_catenate (temp1, a, b);
           temp0 = libg77_ne (temp1, 'END');
         }

         if (! temp0)
           break;

         ...
       }

   In this case, it seems like a time/space tradeoff between allocating
and deallocating `temp1' for each iteration and allocating it just once
for the entire loop.

   However, if `temp1' is allocated just once for the entire loop, it
could be the wrong size for subsequent iterations of that loop in cases
like `DO WHILE (A(I:J)//B .NE. 'END')', because the body of the loop
might modify `I' or `J'.

   So, the above implementation is used, though a more optimal one can
be used in specific circumstances.

File: g77.info,  Node: Transforming Iterative DO,  Next: Transforming Block IF,  Prev: Transforming DO WHILE,  Up: Transforming Statements

21.6.3 Transforming Iterative DO
--------------------------------

An iterative `DO' loop (one that specifies an iteration variable) is
required by the Fortran standards to be implemented as though an
iteration count is computed before entering the loop body, and that
iteration count used to determine the number of times the loop body is
to be performed (assuming the loop isn't cut short via `GOTO' or
`EXIT').

   The FFE handles this by allocating a temporary variable to contain
the computed number of iterations.  Since this variable must be in a
scope that includes the entire loop, a GBEL block is created for that
loop, and the variable declared as belonging to the scope of that block.

File: g77.info,  Node: Transforming Block IF,  Next: Transforming SELECT CASE,  Prev: Transforming Iterative DO,  Up: Transforming Statements

21.6.4 Transforming Block IF
----------------------------

Consider:

     SUBROUTINE X(A,B,C)
     CHARACTER*(*) A, B, C
     LOGICAL LFUNC

     IF (LFUNC (A//B)) THEN
       CALL SUBR1
     ELSE IF (LFUNC (A//C)) THEN
       CALL SUBR2
     ELSE
       CALL SUBR3
     END

   The arguments to the two calls to `LFUNC' require dynamic allocation
(at run time), but are not required during execution of the `CALL'
statements.

   So, the scopes of those temporaries must be within blocks inside the
block corresponding to the Fortran `IF' block.

   This cannot be represented "naturally" in vanilla C, nor in GBEL.
The `if', `elseif', `else', and `endif' constructs provided by both
languages must, for a given `if' block, share the same C/GBE block.

   Therefore, any temporaries needed during evaluation of `expr' while
executing `ELSE IF(expr)' must either have been predeclared at the top
of the corresponding `IF' block, or declared within a new block for
that `ELSE IF'--a block that, since it cannot contain the `else' or
`else if' itself (due to the above requirement), actually implements
the rest of the `IF' block's `ELSE IF' and `ELSE' statements within an
inner block.

   The FFE takes the latter approach.

File: g77.info,  Node: Transforming SELECT CASE,  Prev: Transforming Block IF,  Up: Transforming Statements

21.6.5 Transforming SELECT CASE
-------------------------------

`SELECT CASE' poses a few interesting problems for code generation, if
efficiency and frugal stack management are important.

   Consider `SELECT CASE (I('PREFIX'//A))', where `A' is
`CHARACTER*(*)'.  In a case like this--basically, in any case where
largish temporaries are needed to evaluate the expression--those
temporaries should not be "live" during execution of any of the `CASE'
blocks.

   So, evaluation of the expression is best done within its own block,
which in turn is within the `SELECT CASE' block itself (which contains
the code for the CASE blocks as well, though each within their own
block).

   Otherwise, we'd have the rough equivalent of this pseudo-code:

     {
       char temp[large];

       libg77_catenate (temp, 'prefix', a);

       switch (i (temp))
         {
         case 0:
           ...
         }
     }

   And that would leave temp[large] in scope during the CASE blocks
(although a clever back end *could* see that it isn't referenced in
them, and thus free that temp before executing the blocks).

   So this approach is used instead:

     {
       int temp0;

       {
         char temp1[large];

         libg77_catenate (temp1, 'prefix', a);
         temp0 = i (temp1);
       }

       switch (temp0)
         {
         case 0:
           ...
         }
     }

   Note how `temp1' goes out of scope before starting the switch, thus
making it easy for a back end to free it.

   The problem _that_ solution has, however, is with `SELECT
CASE('prefix'//A)' (which is currently not supported).

   Unless the GBEL is extended to support arbitrarily long character
strings in its `case' facility, the FFE has to implement `SELECT CASE'
on `CHARACTER' (probably excepting `CHARACTER*1') using a cascade of
`if', `elseif', `else', and `endif' constructs in GBEL.

   To prevent the (potentially large) temporary, needed to hold the
selected expression itself (`'prefix'//A'), from being in scope during
execution of the `CASE' blocks, two approaches are available:

   * Pre-evaluate all the `CASE' tests, producing an integer ordinal
     that is used, a la `temp0' in the earlier example, as if `SELECT
     CASE(temp0)' had been written.

     Each corresponding `CASE' is replaced with `CASE(I)', where I is
     the ordinal for that case, determined while, or before, generating
     the cascade of `if'-related constructs to cope with `CHARACTER'
     selection.

   * Make `temp0' above just large enough to hold the longest `CASE'
     string that'll actually be compared against the expression (in
     this case, `'prefix'//A').

     Since that length must be constant (because `CASE' expressions are
     all constant), it won't be so large, and, further, `temp1' need
     not be dynamically allocated, since normal `CHARACTER' assignment
     can be used into the fixed-length `temp0'.

   Both of these solutions require `SELECT CASE' implementation to be
changed so all the corresponding `CASE' statements are seen during the
actual code generation for `SELECT CASE'.

File: g77.info,  Node: Transforming Expressions,  Next: Internal Naming Conventions,  Prev: Transforming Statements,  Up: Front End

21.7 Transforming Expressions
=============================

The interactions between statements, expressions, and subexpressions at
program run time can be viewed as:

     ACTION(EXPR)

   Here, ACTION is the series of steps performed to effect the
statement, and EXPR is the expression whose value is used by ACTION.

   Expanding the above shows a typical order of events at run time:

     Evaluate EXPR
     Perform ACTION, using result of evaluation of EXPR
     Clean up after evaluating EXPR

   So, if evaluating EXPR requires allocating memory, that memory can
be freed before performing ACTION only if it is not needed to hold the
result of evaluating EXPR.  Otherwise, it must be freed no sooner than
after ACTION has been performed.

   The above are recursive definitions, in the sense that they apply to
subexpressions of EXPR.

   That is, evaluating EXPR involves evaluating all of its
subexpressions, performing the ACTION that computes the result value of
EXPR, then cleaning up after evaluating those subexpressions.

   The recursive nature of this evaluation is implemented via
recursive-descent transformation of the top-level statements, their
expressions, _their_ subexpressions, and so on.

   However, that recursive-descent transformation is, due to the nature
of the GBEL, focused primarily on generating a _single_ stream of code
to be executed at run time.

   Yet, from the above, it's clear that multiple streams of code must
effectively be simultaneously generated during the recursive-descent
analysis of statements.

   The primary stream implements the primary ACTION items, while at
least two other streams implement the evaluation and clean-up items.

   Requirements imposed by expressions include:

   * Whether the caller needs to have a temporary ready to hold the
     value of the expression.

   * Other stuff???

File: g77.info,  Node: Internal Naming Conventions,  Prev: Transforming Expressions,  Up: Front End

21.8 Internal Naming Conventions
================================

Names exported by FFE modules have the following (regular-expression)
forms.  Note that all names beginning `ffeMOD' or `FFEMOD', where MOD
is lowercase or uppercase alphanumerics, respectively, are exported by
the module `ffeMOD', with the source code doing the exporting in
`MOD.h'.  (Usually, the source code for the implementation is in
`MOD.c'.)

   Identifiers that don't fit the following forms are not considered
exported, even if they are according to the C language.  (For example,
they might be made available to other modules solely for use within
expansions of exported macros, not for use within any source code in
those other modules.)

`ffeMOD'
     The single typedef exported by the module.

`FFEUMOD_[A-Z][A-Z0-9_]*'
     (Where UMOD is the uppercase for of MOD.)

     A `#define' or `enum' constant of the type `ffeMOD'.

`ffeMOD[A-Z][A-Z][a-z0-9]*'
     A typedef exported by the module.

     The portion of the identifier after `ffeMOD' is referred to as
     `ctype', a capitalized (mixed-case) form of `type'.

`FFEUMOD_TYPE[A-Z][A-Z0-9_]*[A-Z0-9]?'
     (Where UMOD is the uppercase for of MOD.)

     A `#define' or `enum' constant of the type `ffeMODTYPE', where
     TYPE is the lowercase form of CTYPE in an exported typedef.

`ffeMOD_VALUE'
     A function that does or returns something, as described by VALUE
     (see below).

`ffeMOD_VALUE_INPUT'
     A function that does or returns something based primarily on the
     thing described by INPUT (see below).

   Below are names used for VALUE and INPUT, along with their
definitions.

`col'
     A column number within a line (first column is number 1).

`file'
     An encapsulation of a file's name.

`find'
     Looks up an instance of some type that matches specified criteria,
     and returns that, even if it has to create a new instance or crash
     trying to find it (as appropriate).

`initialize'
     Initializes, usually a module.  No type.

`int'
     A generic integer of type `int'.

`is'
     A generic integer that contains a true (nonzero) or false (zero)
     value.

`len'
     A generic integer that contains the length of something.

`line'
     A line number within a source file, or a global line number.

`lookup'
     Looks up an instance of some type that matches specified criteria,
     and returns that, or returns nil.

`name'
     A `text' that points to a name of something.

`new'
     Makes a new instance of the indicated type.  Might return an
     existing one if appropriate--if so, similar to `find' without
     crashing.

`pt'
     Pointer to a particular character (line, column pairs) in the
     input file (source code being compiled).

`run'
     Performs some herculean task.  No type.

`terminate'
     Terminates, usually a module.  No type.

`text'
     A `char *' that points to generic text.

File: g77.info,  Node: Diagnostics,  Next: Keyword Index,  Prev: Front End,  Up: Top

22 Diagnostics
**************

Some diagnostics produced by `g77' require sufficient explanation that
the explanations are given below, and the diagnostics themselves
identify the appropriate explanation.

   Identification uses the GNU Info format--specifically, the `info'
command that displays the explanation is given within square brackets
in the diagnostic.  For example:

     foo.f:5: Invalid statement [info -f g77 M FOOEY]

   More details about the above diagnostic is found in the `g77' Info
documentation, menu item `M', submenu item `FOOEY', which is displayed
by typing the UNIX command `info -f g77 M FOOEY'.

   Other Info readers, such as EMACS, may be just as easily used to
display the pertinent node.  In the above example, `g77' is the Info
document name, `M' is the top-level menu item to select, and, in that
node (named `Diagnostics', the name of this chapter, which is the very
text you're reading now), `FOOEY' is the menu item to select.

* Menu:

* CMPAMBIG::    Ambiguous use of intrinsic.
* EXPIMP::      Intrinsic used explicitly and implicitly.
* INTGLOB::     Intrinsic also used as name of global.
* LEX::         Various lexer messages
* GLOBALS::     Disagreements about globals.
* LINKFAIL::    When linking `f771' fails.
* Y2KBAD::      Use of non-Y2K-compliant intrinsic.

File: g77.info,  Node: CMPAMBIG,  Next: EXPIMP,  Up: Diagnostics

22.1 `CMPAMBIG'
===============


     Ambiguous use of intrinsic INTRINSIC ...

   The type of the argument to the invocation of the INTRINSIC
intrinsic is a `COMPLEX' type other than `COMPLEX(KIND=1)'.  Typically,
it is `COMPLEX(KIND=2)', also known as `DOUBLE COMPLEX'.

   The interpretation of this invocation depends on the particular
dialect of Fortran for which the code was written.  Some dialects
convert the real part of the argument to `REAL(KIND=1)', thus losing
precision; other dialects, and Fortran 90, do no such conversion.

   So, GNU Fortran rejects such invocations except under certain
circumstances, to avoid making an incorrect assumption that results in
generating the wrong code.

   To determine the dialect of the program unit, perhaps even whether
that particular invocation is properly coded, determine how the result
of the intrinsic is used.

   The result of INTRINSIC is expected (by the original programmer) to
be `REAL(KIND=1)' (the non-Fortran-90 interpretation) if:

   * It is passed as an argument to a procedure that explicitly or
     implicitly declares that argument `REAL(KIND=1)'.

     For example, a procedure with no `DOUBLE PRECISION' or `IMPLICIT
     DOUBLE PRECISION' statement specifying the dummy argument
     corresponding to an actual argument of `REAL(Z)', where `Z' is
     declared `DOUBLE COMPLEX', strongly suggests that the programmer
     expected `REAL(Z)' to return `REAL(KIND=1)' instead of
     `REAL(KIND=2)'.

   * It is used in a context that would otherwise not include any
     `REAL(KIND=2)' but where treating the INTRINSIC invocation as
     `REAL(KIND=2)' would result in unnecessary promotions and
     (typically) more expensive operations on the wider type.

     For example:

          DOUBLE COMPLEX Z
          ...
          R(1) = T * REAL(Z)

     The above example suggests the programmer expected the real part
     of `Z' to be converted to `REAL(KIND=1)' before being multiplied
     by `T' (presumed, along with `R' above, to be type `REAL(KIND=1)').

     Otherwise, the conversion would have to be delayed until after the
     multiplication, requiring not only an extra conversion (of `T' to
     `REAL(KIND=2)'), but a (typically) more expensive multiplication
     (a double-precision multiplication instead of a single-precision
     one).

   The result of INTRINSIC is expected (by the original programmer) to
be `REAL(KIND=2)' (the Fortran 90 interpretation) if:

   * It is passed as an argument to a procedure that explicitly or
     implicitly declares that argument `REAL(KIND=2)'.

     For example, a procedure specifying a `DOUBLE PRECISION' dummy
     argument corresponding to an actual argument of `REAL(Z)', where
     `Z' is declared `DOUBLE COMPLEX', strongly suggests that the
     programmer expected `REAL(Z)' to return `REAL(KIND=2)' instead of
     `REAL(KIND=1)'.

   * It is used in an expression context that includes other
     `REAL(KIND=2)' operands, or is assigned to a `REAL(KIND=2)'
     variable or array element.

     For example:

          DOUBLE COMPLEX Z
          DOUBLE PRECISION R, T
          ...
          R(1) = T * REAL(Z)

     The above example suggests the programmer expected the real part
     of `Z' to _not_ be converted to `REAL(KIND=1)' by the `REAL()'
     intrinsic.

     Otherwise, the conversion would have to be immediately followed by
     a conversion back to `REAL(KIND=2)', losing the original, full
     precision of the real part of `Z', before being multiplied by `T'.

   Once you have determined whether a particular invocation of INTRINSIC
expects the Fortran 90 interpretation, you can:

   * Change it to `DBLE(EXPR)' (if INTRINSIC is `REAL') or
     `DIMAG(EXPR)' (if INTRINSIC is `AIMAG') if it expected the Fortran
     90 interpretation.

     This assumes EXPR is `COMPLEX(KIND=2)'--if it is some other type,
     such as `COMPLEX*32', you should use the appropriate intrinsic,
     such as the one to convert to `REAL*16' (perhaps `DBLEQ()' in
     place of `DBLE()', and `QIMAG()' in place of `DIMAG()').

   * Change it to `REAL(INTRINSIC(EXPR))', otherwise.  This converts to
     `REAL(KIND=1)' in all working Fortran compilers.

   If you don't want to change the code, and you are certain that all
ambiguous invocations of INTRINSIC in the source file have the same
expectation regarding interpretation, you can:

   * Compile with the `g77' option `-ff90', to enable the Fortran 90
     interpretation.

   * Compile with the `g77' options `-fno-f90 -fugly-complex', to
     enable the non-Fortran-90 interpretations.

   *Note REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex::, for more information on this
issue.

   Note: If the above suggestions don't produce enough evidence as to
whether a particular program expects the Fortran 90 interpretation of
this ambiguous invocation of INTRINSIC, there is one more thing you can
try.

   If you have access to most or all the compilers used on the program
to create successfully tested and deployed executables, read the
documentation for, and _also_ test out, each compiler to determine how
it treats the INTRINSIC intrinsic in this case.  (If all the compilers
don't agree on an interpretation, there might be lurking bugs in the
deployed versions of the program.)

   The following sample program might help:

           PROGRAM JCB003
     C
     C Written by James Craig Burley 1997-02-23.
     C
     C Determine how compilers handle non-standard REAL
     C and AIMAG on DOUBLE COMPLEX operands.
     C
           DOUBLE COMPLEX Z
           REAL R
           Z = (3.3D0, 4.4D0)
           R = Z
           CALL DUMDUM(Z, R)
           R = REAL(Z) - R
           IF (R .NE. 0.) PRINT *, 'REAL() is Fortran 90'
           IF (R .EQ. 0.) PRINT *, 'REAL() is not Fortran 90'
           R = 4.4D0
           CALL DUMDUM(Z, R)
           R = AIMAG(Z) - R
           IF (R .NE. 0.) PRINT *, 'AIMAG() is Fortran 90'
           IF (R .EQ. 0.) PRINT *, 'AIMAG() is not Fortran 90'
           END
     C
     C Just to make sure compiler doesn't use naive flow
     C analysis to optimize away careful work above,
     C which might invalidate results....
     C
           SUBROUTINE DUMDUM(Z, R)
           DOUBLE COMPLEX Z
           REAL R
           END

   If the above program prints contradictory results on a particular
compiler, run away!

File: g77.info,  Node: EXPIMP,  Next: INTGLOB,  Prev: CMPAMBIG,  Up: Diagnostics

22.2 `EXPIMP'
=============


     Intrinsic INTRINSIC referenced ...

   The INTRINSIC is explicitly declared in one program unit in the
source file and implicitly used as an intrinsic in another program unit
in the same source file.

   This diagnostic is designed to catch cases where a program might
depend on using the name INTRINSIC as an intrinsic in one program unit
and as a global name (such as the name of a subroutine or function) in
another, but `g77' recognizes the name as an intrinsic in both cases.

   After verifying that the program unit making implicit use of the
intrinsic is indeed written expecting the intrinsic, add an `INTRINSIC
INTRINSIC' statement to that program unit to prevent this warning.

   This and related warnings are disabled by using the `-Wno-globals'
option when compiling.

   Note that this warning is not issued for standard intrinsics.
Standard intrinsics include those described in the FORTRAN 77 standard
and, if `-ff90' is specified, those described in the Fortran 90
standard.  Such intrinsics are not as likely to be confused with user
procedures as intrinsics provided as extensions to the standard by
`g77'.

File: g77.info,  Node: INTGLOB,  Next: LEX,  Prev: EXPIMP,  Up: Diagnostics

22.3 `INTGLOB'
==============


     Same name `INTRINSIC' given ...

   The name INTRINSIC is used for a global entity (a common block or a
program unit) in one program unit and implicitly used as an intrinsic
in another program unit.

   This diagnostic is designed to catch cases where a program intends
to use a name entirely as a global name, but `g77' recognizes the name
as an intrinsic in the program unit that references the name, a
situation that would likely produce incorrect code.

   For example:

     INTEGER FUNCTION TIME()
     ...
     END
     ...
     PROGRAM SAMP
     INTEGER TIME
     PRINT *, 'Time is ', TIME()
     END

   The above example defines a program unit named `TIME', but the
reference to `TIME' in the main program unit `SAMP' is normally treated
by `g77' as a reference to the intrinsic `TIME()' (unless a
command-line option that prevents such treatment has been specified).

   As a result, the program `SAMP' will _not_ invoke the `TIME'
function in the same source file.

   Since `g77' recognizes `libU77' procedures as intrinsics, and since
some existing code uses the same names for its own procedures as used
by some `libU77' procedures, this situation is expected to arise often
enough to make this sort of warning worth issuing.

   After verifying that the program unit making implicit use of the
intrinsic is indeed written expecting the intrinsic, add an `INTRINSIC
INTRINSIC' statement to that program unit to prevent this warning.

   Or, if you believe the program unit is designed to invoke the
program-defined procedure instead of the intrinsic (as recognized by
`g77'), add an `EXTERNAL INTRINSIC' statement to the program unit that
references the name to prevent this warning.

   This and related warnings are disabled by using the `-Wno-globals'
option when compiling.

   Note that this warning is not issued for standard intrinsics.
Standard intrinsics include those described in the FORTRAN 77 standard
and, if `-ff90' is specified, those described in the Fortran 90
standard.  Such intrinsics are not as likely to be confused with user
procedures as intrinsics provided as extensions to the standard by
`g77'.

File: g77.info,  Node: LEX,  Next: GLOBALS,  Prev: INTGLOB,  Up: Diagnostics

22.4 `LEX'
==========


     Unrecognized character ...
     Invalid first character ...
     Line too long ...
     Non-numeric character ...
     Continuation indicator ...
     Label at ... invalid with continuation line indicator ...
     Character constant ...
     Continuation line ...
     Statement at ... begins with invalid token

   Although the diagnostics identify specific problems, they can be
produced when general problems such as the following occur:

   * The source file contains something other than Fortran code.

     If the code in the file does not look like many of the examples
     elsewhere in this document, it might not be Fortran code.  (Note
     that Fortran code often is written in lower case letters, while
     the examples in this document use upper case letters, for
     stylistic reasons.)

     For example, if the file contains lots of strange-looking
     characters, it might be APL source code; if it contains lots of
     parentheses, it might be Lisp source code; if it contains lots of
     bugs, it might be C++ source code.

   * The source file contains free-form Fortran code, but `-ffree-form'
     was not specified on the command line to compile it.

     Free form is a newer form for Fortran code.  The older, classic
     form is called fixed form.

     Fixed-form code is visually fairly distinctive, because numerical
     labels and comments are all that appear in the first five columns
     of a line, the sixth column is reserved to denote continuation
     lines, and actual statements start at or beyond column 7.  Spaces
     generally are not significant, so if you see statements such as
     `REALX,Y' and `DO10I=1,100', you are looking at fixed-form code.  Comment
     lines are indicated by the letter `C' or the symbol `*' in column
     1.  (Some code uses `!' or `/*' to begin in-line comments, which
     many compilers support.)

     Free-form code is distinguished from fixed-form source primarily
     by the fact that statements may start anywhere.  (If lots of
     statements start in columns 1 through 6, that's a strong indicator
     of free-form source.)  Consecutive keywords must be separated by
     spaces, so `REALX,Y' is not valid, while `REAL X,Y' is.  There are
     no comment lines per se, but `!' starts a comment anywhere in a
     line (other than within a character or Hollerith constant).

     *Note Source Form::, for more information.

   * The source file is in fixed form and has been edited without
     sensitivity to the column requirements.

     Statements in fixed-form code must be entirely contained within
     columns 7 through 72 on a given line.  Starting them "early" is
     more likely to result in diagnostics than finishing them "late",
     though both kinds of errors are often caught at compile time.

     For example, if the following code fragment is edited by following
     the commented instructions literally, the result, shown afterward,
     would produce a diagnostic when compiled:

          C On XYZZY systems, remove "C" on next line:
          C     CALL XYZZY_RESET

     The result of editing the above line might be:

          C On XYZZY systems, remove "C" on next line:
               CALL XYZZY_RESET

     However, that leaves the first `C' in the `CALL' statement in
     column 6, making it a comment line, which is not really what the
     author intended, and which is likely to result in one of the
     above-listed diagnostics.

     _Replacing_ the `C' in column 1 with a space is the proper change
     to make, to ensure the `CALL' keyword starts in or after column 7.

     Another common mistake like this is to forget that fixed-form
     source lines are significant through only column 72, and that,
     normally, any text beyond column 72 is ignored or is diagnosed at
     compile time.

     *Note Source Form::, for more information.

   * The source file requires preprocessing, and the preprocessing is
     not being specified at compile time.

     A source file containing lines beginning with `#define',
     `#include', `#if', and so on is likely one that requires
     preprocessing.

     If the file's suffix is `.f', `.for', or `.FOR', the file normally
     will be compiled _without_ preprocessing by `g77'.

     Change the file's suffix from `.f' to `.F' (or, on systems with
     case-insensitive file names, to `.fpp' or `.FPP'), from `.for' to
     `.fpp', or from `.FOR' to `.FPP'.  `g77' compiles files with such
     names _with_ preprocessing.

     Or, learn how to use `gcc''s `-x' option to specify the language
     `f77-cpp-input' for Fortran files that require preprocessing.
     *Note Options Controlling the Kind of Output: (gcc)Overall Options.

   * The source file is preprocessed, and the results of preprocessing
     result in syntactic errors that are not necessarily obvious to
     someone examining the source file itself.

     Examples of errors resulting from preprocessor macro expansion
     include exceeding the line-length limit, improperly starting,
     terminating, or incorporating the apostrophe or double-quote in a
     character constant, improperly forming a Hollerith constant, and
     so on.

     *Note Options Controlling the Kind of Output: Overall Options, for
     suggestions about how to use, and not use, preprocessing for
     Fortran code.

File: g77.info,  Node: GLOBALS,  Next: LINKFAIL,  Prev: LEX,  Up: Diagnostics

22.5 `GLOBALS'
==============


     Global name NAME defined at ... already defined...
     Global name NAME at ... has different type...
     Too many arguments passed to NAME at ...
     Too few arguments passed to NAME at ...
     Argument #N of NAME is ...

   These messages all identify disagreements about the global procedure
named NAME among different program units (usually including NAME
itself).

   Whether a particular disagreement is reported as a warning or an
error can depend on the relative order of the disagreeing portions of
the source file.

   Disagreements between a procedure invocation and the _subsequent_
procedure itself are, usually, diagnosed as errors when the procedure
itself _precedes_ the invocation.  Other disagreements are diagnosed
via warnings.

   This distinction, between warnings and errors, is due primarily to
the present tendency of the `gcc' back end to inline only those
procedure invocations that are _preceded_ by the corresponding
procedure definitions.  If the `gcc' back end is changed to inline
"forward references", in which invocations precede definitions, the
`g77' front end will be changed to treat both orderings as errors,
accordingly.

   The sorts of disagreements that are diagnosed by `g77' include
whether a procedure is a subroutine or function; if it is a function,
the type of the return value of the procedure; the number of arguments
the procedure accepts; and the type of each argument.

   Disagreements regarding global names among program units in a
Fortran program _should_ be fixed in the code itself.  However, if that
is not immediately practical, and the code has been working for some
time, it is possible it will work when compiled with the `-fno-globals'
option.

   The `-fno-globals' option causes these diagnostics to all be warnings
and disables all inlining of references to global procedures (to avoid
subsequent compiler crashes and bad-code generation).  Use of the
`-Wno-globals' option as well as `-fno-globals' suppresses all of these
diagnostics.  (`-Wno-globals' by itself disables only the warnings, not
the errors.)

   After using `-fno-globals' to work around these problems, it is wise
to stop using that option and address them by fixing the Fortran code,
because such problems, while they might not actually result in bugs on
some systems, indicate that the code is not as portable as it could be.
In particular, the code might appear to work on a particular system,
but have bugs that affect the reliability of the data without
exhibiting any other outward manifestations of the bugs.

File: g77.info,  Node: LINKFAIL,  Next: Y2KBAD,  Prev: GLOBALS,  Up: Diagnostics

22.6 `LINKFAIL'
===============

On AIX 4.1, `g77' might not build with the native (non-GNU) tools due
to a linker bug in coping with the `-bbigtoc' option which leads to a
`Relocation overflow' error.  The GNU linker is not recommended on
current AIX versions, though; it was developed under a now-unsupported
version.  This bug is said to be fixed by `update PTF U455193 for APAR
IX75823'.

   Compiling with `-mminimal-toc' might solve this problem, e.g. by
adding
     BOOT_CFLAGS='-mminimal-toc -O2 -g'
   to the `make bootstrap' command line.

File: g77.info,  Node: Y2KBAD,  Prev: LINKFAIL,  Up: Diagnostics

22.7 `Y2KBAD'
=============


     Intrinsic `NAME', invoked at (^), known to be non-Y2K-compliant...

   This diagnostic indicates that the specific intrinsic invoked by the
name NAME is known to have an interface that is not Year-2000 (Y2K)
compliant.

   *Note Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems::.

File: g77.info,  Node: Keyword Index,  Prev: Diagnostics,  Up: Top

Keyword Index
*************

[index]
* Menu:

* ! <1>:                                 LEX.                 (line  46)
* ! <2>:                                 Exclamation Point.   (line   6)
* ! <3>:                                 Trailing Comment.    (line   6)
* ! <4>:                                 Character Set.       (line  17)
* !:                                     Statements Comments Lines.
                                                              (line   8)
* ":                                     Character Set.       (line  19)
* # <1>:                                 Cpp-style directives.
                                                              (line   6)
* #:                                     Character Set.       (line  25)
* #define:                               Overall Options.     (line  56)
* #if:                                   Overall Options.     (line  56)
* #include:                              Overall Options.     (line  56)
* $:                                     Dollar Signs.        (line   6)
* %:                                     Character Set.       (line  29)
* %DESCR() construct:                    %DESCR().            (line   6)
* %LOC() construct:                      %LOC().              (line   6)
* %REF() construct:                      %REF().              (line   6)
* %VAL() construct:                      %VAL().              (line   6)
* &:                                     Character Set.       (line  27)
* *:                                     LEX.                 (line  44)
* *N notation <1>:                       Compiler Types.      (line  95)
* *N notation:                           Star Notation.       (line   6)
* --driver option <1>:                   Changes.             (line 430)
* --driver option:                       News.                (line 668)
* -falias-check option <1>:              Aliasing Assumed To Work.
                                                              (line   6)
* -falias-check option:                  Code Gen Options.    (line 197)
* -fargument-alias option <1>:           Aliasing Assumed To Work.
                                                              (line   6)
* -fargument-alias option:               Code Gen Options.    (line 197)
* -fargument-noalias option <1>:         Aliasing Assumed To Work.
                                                              (line   6)
* -fargument-noalias option:             Code Gen Options.    (line 197)
* -fbadu77-intrinsics-delete option:     Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 243)
* -fbadu77-intrinsics-disable option:    Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 246)
* -fbadu77-intrinsics-enable option:     Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 248)
* -fbadu77-intrinsics-hide option:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 244)
* -fbounds-check option:                 Code Gen Options.    (line 262)
* -fcaller-saves option:                 Optimize Options.    (line 109)
* -fcase-initcap option:                 Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 222)
* -fcase-lower option:                   Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 232)
* -fcase-preserve option:                Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 236)
* -fcase-strict-lower option:            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 217)
* -fcase-strict-upper option:            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 212)
* -fcase-upper option:                   Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 228)
* -fdelayed-branch option:               Optimize Options.    (line 103)
* -fdollar-ok option:                    Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  37)
* -femulate-complex option:              Code Gen Options.    (line 170)
* -fexpensive-optimizations option:      Optimize Options.    (line 101)
* -ff2c-intrinsics-delete option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 254)
* -ff2c-intrinsics-disable option:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 257)
* -ff2c-intrinsics-enable option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 259)
* -ff2c-intrinsics-hide option:          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 255)
* -ff2c-library option:                  Code Gen Options.    (line  63)
* -ff66 option:                          Shorthand Options.   (line  34)
* -ff77 option:                          Shorthand Options.   (line  45)
* -ff90:                                 Fortran 90 Features. (line  11)
* -ff90 option:                          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  15)
* -ff90-intrinsics-delete option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 265)
* -ff90-intrinsics-disable option:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 268)
* -ff90-intrinsics-enable option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 270)
* -ff90-intrinsics-hide option:          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 266)
* -ffast-math option:                    Optimize Options.    (line  71)
* -ffinite-math-only option:             Optimize Options.    (line  81)
* -ffixed-line-length-N option:          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 318)
* -fflatten-arrays option:               Code Gen Options.    (line 254)
* -ffloat-store option:                  Optimize Options.    (line  39)
* -fforce-addr option:                   Optimize Options.    (line  61)
* -fforce-mem option:                    Optimize Options.    (line  60)
* -ffortran-bounds-check option:         Code Gen Options.    (line 262)
* -ffree-form:                           Fortran 90 Features. (line  10)
* -ffree-form option:                    Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line   9)
* -fgnu-intrinsics-delete option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 276)
* -fgnu-intrinsics-disable option:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 279)
* -fgnu-intrinsics-enable option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 281)
* -fgnu-intrinsics-hide option:          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 277)
* -fGROUP-intrinsics-hide option:        Overly Convenient Options.
                                                              (line  63)
* -finit-local-zero option <1>:          Overly Convenient Options.
                                                              (line  16)
* -finit-local-zero option:              Code Gen Options.    (line  20)
* -fintrin-case-any option:              Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 178)
* -fintrin-case-initcap option:          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 173)
* -fintrin-case-lower option:            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 176)
* -fintrin-case-upper option:            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 174)
* -fmatch-case-any option:               Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 188)
* -fmatch-case-initcap option:           Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 183)
* -fmatch-case-lower option:             Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 186)
* -fmatch-case-upper option:             Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 184)
* -fmil-intrinsics-delete option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 287)
* -fmil-intrinsics-disable option:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 290)
* -fmil-intrinsics-enable option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 292)
* -fmil-intrinsics-hide option:          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 288)
* -fno-argument-noalias-global option <1>: Aliasing Assumed To Work.
                                                              (line   6)
* -fno-argument-noalias-global option:   Code Gen Options.    (line 197)
* -fno-automatic option <1>:             Overly Convenient Options.
                                                              (line  32)
* -fno-automatic option:                 Code Gen Options.    (line  14)
* -fno-backslash option:                 Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  40)
* -fno-common option:                    Code Gen Options.    (line 332)
* -fno-f2c option <1>:                   Avoid f2c Compatibility.
                                                              (line   6)
* -fno-f2c option:                       Code Gen Options.    (line  29)
* -fno-f77 option:                       Shorthand Options.   (line  54)
* -fno-fixed-form option:                Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line   9)
* -fno-globals option:                   Code Gen Options.    (line 223)
* -fno-ident option:                     Code Gen Options.    (line 145)
* -fno-inline option:                    Optimize Options.    (line  65)
* -fno-move-all-movables option:         Optimize Options.    (line 134)
* -fno-reduce-all-givs option:           Optimize Options.    (line 136)
* -fno-rerun-loop-opt option:            Optimize Options.    (line 138)
* -fno-second-underscore:                f2c Skeletons and Prototypes.
                                                              (line   6)
* -fno-second-underscore option <1>:     Names.               (line  23)
* -fno-second-underscore option:         Code Gen Options.    (line 135)
* -fno-silent option:                    Overall Options.     (line 134)
* -fno-trapping-math option:             Optimize Options.    (line  91)
* -fno-ugly option:                      Shorthand Options.   (line  24)
* -fno-ugly-args option:                 Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  59)
* -fno-ugly-init option:                 Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 108)
* -fno-underscoring option <1>:          Names.               (line  23)
* -fno-underscoring option:              Code Gen Options.    (line  73)
* -fonetrip option:                      Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 127)
* -fpack-struct option:                  Code Gen Options.    (line 336)
* -fpcc-struct-return option:            Code Gen Options.    (line 321)
* -fpedantic option:                     Warning Options.     (line  44)
* -fPIC option:                          News.                (line 854)
* -freg-struct-return option:            Code Gen Options.    (line 322)
* -frerun-cse-after-loop option:         Optimize Options.    (line 100)
* -fschedule-insns option:               Optimize Options.    (line 105)
* -fschedule-insns2 option:              Optimize Options.    (line 107)
* -fset-g77-defaults option:             Overall Options.     (line 111)
* -fshort-double option:                 Code Gen Options.    (line 328)
* -fsource-case-lower option:            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 194)
* -fsource-case-preserve option:         Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 196)
* -fsource-case-upper option:            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 193)
* -fstrength-reduce option:              Optimize Options.    (line  97)
* -fsymbol-case-any option:              Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 207)
* -fsymbol-case-initcap option:          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 202)
* -fsymbol-case-lower option:            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 205)
* -fsymbol-case-upper option:            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 203)
* -fsyntax-only option:                  Warning Options.     (line  20)
* -ftypeless-boz option:                 Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 153)
* -fugly option:                         Shorthand Options.   (line   9)
* -fugly-assign option:                  Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  65)
* -fugly-assumed option:                 Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  72)
* -fugly-comma option:                   Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  82)
* -fugly-complex option:                 Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  99)
* -fugly-logint option:                  Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 118)
* -funix-intrinsics-delete option:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 298)
* -funix-intrinsics-disable option:      Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 301)
* -funix-intrinsics-enable option:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 303)
* -funix-intrinsics-hide option:         Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 299)
* -funroll-all-loops option:             Optimize Options.    (line 127)
* -funroll-loops option:                 Optimize Options.    (line 113)
* -funsafe-math-optimizations option:    Optimize Options.    (line  77)
* -fversion option:                      Overall Options.     (line  99)
* -fvxt option:                          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  26)
* -fvxt-intrinsics-delete option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 308)
* -fvxt-intrinsics-disable option:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 311)
* -fvxt-intrinsics-enable option:        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 313)
* -fvxt-intrinsics-hide option:          Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 309)
* -fzeros option:                        Code Gen Options.    (line 148)
* -g option:                             Debugging Options.   (line   9)
* -I- option:                            Directory Options.   (line  14)
* -i8:                                   Increasing Precision/Range.
                                                              (line   6)
* -Idir option:                          Directory Options.   (line  15)
* -malign-double <1>:                    Changes.             (line 282)
* -malign-double:                        News.                (line 364)
* -malign-double option <1>:             Aligned Data.        (line  59)
* -malign-double option:                 Optimize Options.    (line  16)
* -Nl option:                            Compiler Limits.     (line  10)
* -Nx option:                            Compiler Limits.     (line  10)
* -O2:                                   News.                (line 560)
* -pedantic option:                      Warning Options.     (line  24)
* -pedantic-errors option:               Warning Options.     (line  40)
* -qrealsize=8:                          Increasing Precision/Range.
                                                              (line   6)
* -r8:                                   Increasing Precision/Range.
                                                              (line   6)
* -u option:                             Warning Options.     (line  61)
* -v option:                             G77 and GCC.         (line  27)
* -W option:                             Warning Options.     (line 185)
* -w option:                             Warning Options.     (line  47)
* -Waggregate-return option:             Warning Options.     (line 226)
* -Wall option:                          Warning Options.     (line 114)
* -Wcomment option:                      Warning Options.     (line 205)
* -Wconversion option:                   Warning Options.     (line 224)
* -Werror option:                        Warning Options.     (line 182)
* -Wformat option:                       Warning Options.     (line 206)
* -Wid-clash-LEN option:                 Warning Options.     (line 220)
* -Wimplicit option:                     Warning Options.     (line  60)
* -Wlarger-than-LEN option:              Warning Options.     (line 222)
* -Wno-globals option:                   Warning Options.     (line  50)
* -Wparentheses option:                  Warning Options.     (line 208)
* -Wredundant-decls option:              Warning Options.     (line 228)
* -Wshadow option:                       Warning Options.     (line 218)
* -Wsurprising option:                   Warning Options.     (line 124)
* -Wswitch option:                       Warning Options.     (line 210)
* -Wswitch-default option:               Warning Options.     (line 212)
* -Wswitch-enum option:                  Warning Options.     (line 214)
* -Wtraditional option:                  Warning Options.     (line 216)
* -Wuninitialized option:                Warning Options.     (line  69)
* -Wunused option:                       Warning Options.     (line  66)
* -x f77-cpp-input option:               LEX.                 (line 109)
* .EQV., with integer operands:          Equivalence Versus Equality.
                                                              (line   6)
* .F filename suffix:                    Overall Options.     (line  33)
* .f filename suffix:                    Overall Options.     (line  20)
* .FOR filename suffix:                  Overall Options.     (line  20)
* .for filename suffix:                  Overall Options.     (line  20)
* .FPP filename suffix:                  Overall Options.     (line  33)
* .fpp filename suffix:                  Overall Options.     (line  33)
* .gdbinit:                              Main Program Unit.   (line  33)
* .r filename suffix:                    Overall Options.     (line  45)
* /* <1>:                                Trailing Comment.    (line   6)
* /*:                                    Overall Options.     (line  90)
* /WARNINGS=DECLARATIONS switch:         Warning Options.     (line  61)
* 80-bit spills:                         Floating-point Errors.
                                                              (line 113)
* ; <1>:                                 Character Set.       (line  15)
* ;:                                     Statements Comments Lines.
                                                              (line  23)
* <:                                     Character Set.       (line  33)
* <> edit descriptor:                    I/O.                 (line   9)
* >:                                     Character Set.       (line  35)
* ?:                                     Character Set.       (line  23)
* \:                                     Character Set.       (line  21)
* _:                                     Character Set.       (line  31)
* Abort intrinsic:                       Abort Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* Abs intrinsic:                         Abs Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* ACCEPT statement:                      TYPE and ACCEPT I/O Statements.
                                                              (line   6)
* Access intrinsic:                      Access Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* AChar intrinsic:                       AChar Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* ACos intrinsic:                        ACos Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* ACosD intrinsic:                       ACosD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* adding options:                        Adding Options.      (line   6)
* adjustable arrays:                     Adjustable Arrays.   (line   6)
* AdjustL intrinsic:                     AdjustL Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* AdjustR intrinsic:                     AdjustR Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* AImag intrinsic <1>:                   AImag Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* AImag intrinsic:                       REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex.
                                                              (line   6)
* AIMax0 intrinsic:                      AIMax0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* AIMin0 intrinsic:                      AIMin0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* AInt intrinsic:                        AInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* AJMax0 intrinsic:                      AJMax0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* AJMin0 intrinsic:                      AJMin0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* Alarm intrinsic:                       Alarm Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* aliasing <1>:                          Known Bugs.          (line 133)
* aliasing:                              Aliasing Assumed To Work.
                                                              (line   6)
* aligned data:                          Aligned Data.        (line   6)
* aligned stack:                         Aligned Data.        (line   6)
* alignment <1>:                         Aligned Data.        (line   6)
* alignment <2>:                         Changes.             (line 282)
* alignment:                             News.                (line 364)
* All intrinsic:                         All Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* all warnings:                          Warning Options.     (line 115)
* Allocated intrinsic:                   Allocated Intrinsic. (line   6)
* ALog intrinsic:                        ALog Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* ALog10 intrinsic:                      ALog10 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* Alpha, support:                        Known Bugs.          (line 117)
* alternate entry points:                Alternate Entry Points.
                                                              (line   6)
* alternate returns:                     Alternate Returns.   (line   6)
* ALWAYS_FLUSH:                          Output Assumed To Flush.
                                                              (line   6)
* AMax0 intrinsic:                       AMax0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* AMax1 intrinsic:                       AMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* AMin0 intrinsic:                       AMin0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* AMin1 intrinsic:                       AMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* AMod intrinsic:                        AMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* ampersand:                             Character Set.       (line  27)
* ampersand continuation line:           Ampersands.          (line   6)
* And intrinsic <1>:                     Bit Operations on Floating-point Data.
                                                              (line   6)
* And intrinsic:                         And Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* ANInt intrinsic:                       ANInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* ANS carriage control:                  OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords.
                                                              (line  10)
* ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard:              Language.            (line   6)
* ANSI FORTRAN 77 support:               Standard Support.    (line   6)
* anti-aliasing:                         Aliasing Assumed To Work.
                                                              (line   6)
* Any intrinsic:                         Any Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* arguments, null:                       Ugly Null Arguments. (line   6)
* arguments, omitting:                   Ugly Null Arguments. (line  11)
* arguments, unused <1>:                 Unused Arguments.    (line   6)
* arguments, unused:                     Warning Options.     (line 192)
* array bounds checking:                 Code Gen Options.    (line 264)
* array bounds, adjustable:              Array Bounds Expressions.
                                                              (line   6)
* array elements, in adjustable array bounds: Array Bounds Expressions.
                                                              (line   6)
* array ordering:                        Arrays.              (line   6)
* array performance:                     Code Gen Options.    (line 255)
* array size:                            Array Size.          (line   6)
* arrays:                                Arrays.              (line   6)
* arrays, adjustable:                    Adjustable Arrays.   (line   6)
* arrays, assumed-size:                  Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays.
                                                              (line   6)
* arrays, automatic <1>:                 Large Automatic Arrays.
                                                              (line   6)
* arrays, automatic <2>:                 Stack Overflow.      (line  41)
* arrays, automatic <3>:                 Overly Convenient Options.
                                                              (line  53)
* arrays, automatic:                     Adjustable Arrays.   (line   6)
* arrays, dimensioning <1>:              Adjustable Arrays.   (line   6)
* arrays, dimensioning:                  Array Size.          (line  22)
* arrays, flattening:                    Code Gen Options.    (line 255)
* as command:                            What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  93)
* ASin intrinsic:                        ASin Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* ASinD intrinsic:                       ASinD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* assembler:                             What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  93)
* assembly code:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  93)
* assembly code, invalid:                Bug Criteria.        (line  13)
* ASSIGN statement <1>:                  Assigned Statement Labels.
                                                              (line   6)
* ASSIGN statement:                      Ugly Assigned Labels.
                                                              (line   6)
* assigned labels:                       Ugly Assigned Labels.
                                                              (line   6)
* assigned statement labels:             Assigned Statement Labels.
                                                              (line   6)
* Associated intrinsic:                  Associated Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* association, storage:                  Aliasing Assumed To Work.
                                                              (line   6)
* assumed-size arrays:                   Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays.
                                                              (line   6)
* asterisk:                              LEX.                 (line  44)
* ATan intrinsic:                        ATan Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* ATan2 intrinsic:                       ATan2 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* ATan2D intrinsic:                      ATan2D Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* ATanD intrinsic:                       ATanD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* automatic arrays <1>:                  Large Automatic Arrays.
                                                              (line   6)
* automatic arrays <2>:                  Stack Overflow.      (line  41)
* automatic arrays <3>:                  Overly Convenient Options.
                                                              (line  53)
* automatic arrays:                      Adjustable Arrays.   (line   6)
* AUTOMATIC statement:                   AUTOMATIC Statement. (line   6)
* automatic variables:                   AUTOMATIC Statement. (line   6)
* back end, gcc <1>:                     Philosophy of Code Generation.
                                                              (line  10)
* back end, gcc:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 165)
* backslash <1>:                         Backslash in Constants.
                                                              (line   6)
* backslash <2>:                         Character Set.       (line  21)
* backslash:                             Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  41)
* badu77 intrinsics:                     Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 250)
* badu77 intrinsics group:               Intrinsic Groups.    (line  69)
* basic concepts:                        What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line   6)
* Bear-poking:                           Philosophy of Code Generation.
                                                              (line  69)
* beginners:                             Getting Started.     (line   6)
* BesJ0 intrinsic:                       BesJ0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* BesJ1 intrinsic:                       BesJ1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* BesJN intrinsic:                       BesJN Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* BesY0 intrinsic:                       BesY0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* BesY1 intrinsic:                       BesY1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* BesYN intrinsic:                       BesYN Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* binary data:                           Portable Unformatted Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* Bit_Size intrinsic:                    Bit_Size Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* BITest intrinsic:                      BITest Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* BJTest intrinsic:                      BJTest Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* blank <1>:                             Lines.               (line  37)
* blank:                                 Character Set.       (line  40)
* block data:                            Multiple Definitions of External Names.
                                                              (line   6)
* block data and libraries:              Block Data and Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* BLOCK DATA statement <1>:              Multiple Definitions of External Names.
                                                              (line   6)
* BLOCK DATA statement:                  Block Data and Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* bounds checking:                       Code Gen Options.    (line 264)
* BTest intrinsic:                       BTest Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* bug criteria:                          Bug Criteria.        (line   6)
* bugs:                                  Bugs.                (line   6)
* bugs, finding:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  33)
* bugs, known:                           Trouble.             (line   6)
* bus error <1>:                         Strange Behavior at Run Time.
                                                              (line   6)
* bus error:                             NeXTStep Problems.   (line   6)
* but-bugs:                              But-bugs.            (line   6)
* byte ordering:                         Portable Unformatted Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* C library:                             Strange Behavior at Run Time.
                                                              (line  42)
* C preprocessor:                        Overall Options.     (line  33)
* C routines calling Fortran:            Debugging and Interfacing.
                                                              (line   6)
* C++:                                   C++ Considerations.  (line   6)
* C++, linking with:                     Interoperating with C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* C, linking with:                       Interoperating with C and C++.
                                                              (line   6)
* CAbs intrinsic:                        CAbs Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* calling C routines:                    Debugging and Interfacing.
                                                              (line   6)
* card image:                            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 323)
* carriage control:                      OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords.
                                                              (line  10)
* carriage returns:                      Carriage Returns.    (line   6)
* case sensitivity:                      Case Sensitivity.    (line   6)
* cc1 program:                           What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 106)
* cc1plus program:                       What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 111)
* CCos intrinsic:                        CCos Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* CDAbs intrinsic:                       CDAbs Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* CDCos intrinsic:                       CDCos Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* CDExp intrinsic:                       CDExp Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* CDLog intrinsic:                       CDLog Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* CDSin intrinsic:                       CDSin Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* CDSqRt intrinsic:                      CDSqRt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* Ceiling intrinsic:                     Ceiling Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* CExp intrinsic:                        CExp Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* cfortran.h:                            C Interfacing Tools. (line   6)
* changes, user-visible:                 Changes.             (line   6)
* Char intrinsic:                        Char Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* character assignments:                 Fortran 90 Features. (line  19)
* character constants <1>:               Character and Hollerith Constants.
                                                              (line   6)
* character constants <2>:               Ugly Conversion of Initializers.
                                                              (line  20)
* character constants <3>:               Double Quote Meaning.
                                                              (line   6)
* character constants:                   Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  41)
* character set:                         Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  38)
* CHARACTER*(*):                         Arbitrary Concatenation.
                                                              (line   6)
* CHARACTER, null:                       Character Type.      (line  14)
* character-variable length:             Character-variable Length.
                                                              (line   6)
* characters:                            Character Set.       (line   6)
* characters, comma:                     Ugly Null Arguments. (line   6)
* characters, comment <1>:               LEX.                 (line  46)
* characters, comment <2>:               Exclamation Point.   (line   6)
* characters, comment <3>:               Trailing Comment.    (line   6)
* characters, comment:                   Statements Comments Lines.
                                                              (line   8)
* characters, continuation <1>:          LEX.                 (line  39)
* characters, continuation <2>:          Exclamation Point.   (line   6)
* characters, continuation:              Statements Comments Lines.
                                                              (line   8)
* ChDir intrinsic <1>:                   ChDir Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* ChDir intrinsic:                       ChDir Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* checking subscripts:                   Code Gen Options.    (line 264)
* checking substrings:                   Code Gen Options.    (line 264)
* checks, of internal consistency:       Overall Options.     (line  99)
* ChMod intrinsic <1>:                   ChMod Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* ChMod intrinsic:                       ChMod Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* CLog intrinsic:                        CLog Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* close angle:                           Character Set.       (line  35)
* close bracket:                         Character Set.       (line  35)
* CLOSE statement:                       OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords.
                                                              (line   6)
* Cmplx intrinsic <1>:                   Cmplx Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* Cmplx intrinsic:                       CMPLX() of DOUBLE PRECISION.
                                                              (line   6)
* code generation, conventions:          Code Gen Options.    (line   6)
* code generation, improving:            Better Optimization. (line   6)
* code generator <1>:                    Philosophy of Code Generation.
                                                              (line  10)
* code generator:                        What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 165)
* code, assembly:                        What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  93)
* code, displaying main source:          Known Bugs.          (line  93)
* code, in-line:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 147)
* code, legacy:                          Collected Fortran Wisdom.
                                                              (line   6)
* code, machine:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  24)
* code, source <1>:                      Case Sensitivity.    (line   6)
* code, source <2>:                      Source Form.         (line   6)
* code, source <3>:                      Lines.               (line   6)
* code, source:                          What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  20)
* code, user:                            Cannot Link Fortran Programs.
                                                              (line   6)
* code, writing:                         Collected Fortran Wisdom.
                                                              (line   6)
* column-major ordering:                 Arrays.              (line   6)
* columns 73 through 80:                 Better Source Model. (line  28)
* comma, trailing:                       Ugly Null Arguments. (line   6)
* command options:                       Invoking G77.        (line   6)
* commands, as:                          What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  93)
* commands, g77 <1>:                     G77 and GCC.         (line  21)
* commands, g77:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  78)
* commands, gcc <1>:                     G77 and GCC.         (line   6)
* commands, gcc:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  72)
* commands, gdb:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  33)
* commands, ld:                          What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  37)
* comment <1>:                           LEX.                 (line  46)
* comment <2>:                           Trailing Comment.    (line   6)
* comment:                               Statements Comments Lines.
                                                              (line   8)
* comment character:                     Exclamation Point.   (line   6)
* comment line, debug <1>:               Enabling Debug Lines.
                                                              (line   6)
* comment line, debug:                   Debug Line.          (line   6)
* common blocks <1>:                     Mangling of Names.   (line   6)
* common blocks <2>:                     Known Bugs.          (line 122)
* common blocks:                         Common Blocks.       (line   6)
* common blocks, large:                  Large Common Blocks. (line   6)
* COMMON layout:                         Aligned Data.        (line  20)
* COMMON statement <1>:                  Multiple Definitions of External Names.
                                                              (line   6)
* COMMON statement:                      Common Blocks.       (line   6)
* comparing logical expressions:         Equivalence Versus Equality.
                                                              (line   6)
* compatibility, f2c <1>:                Avoid f2c Compatibility.
                                                              (line   6)
* compatibility, f2c <2>:                Block Data and Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* compatibility, f2c <3>:                Code Gen Options.    (line  30)
* compatibility, f2c <4>:                Shorthand Options.   (line  46)
* compatibility, f2c:                    Overall Options.     (line 134)
* compatibility, f77:                    Shorthand Options.   (line  46)
* compatibility, FORTRAN 66 <1>:         Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 128)
* compatibility, FORTRAN 66:             Shorthand Options.   (line  35)
* compatibility, FORTRAN 77:             Standard Support.    (line   6)
* compatibility, Fortran 90:             Fortran 90.          (line   6)
* compilation, in-line <1>:              GLOBALS.             (line  26)
* compilation, in-line <2>:              Code Gen Options.    (line 224)
* compilation, in-line:                  Optimize Options.    (line  66)
* compilation, pedantic:                 Pedantic Compilation.
                                                              (line   6)
* compilation, status:                   Overall Options.     (line 134)
* compiler bugs, reporting:              Bug Reporting.       (line   6)
* compiler limits:                       Compiler Limits.     (line   6)
* compiler memory usage:                 Known Bugs.          (line  45)
* compiler speed:                        Known Bugs.          (line  45)
* compilers:                             What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  17)
* compiling programs:                    G77 and GCC.         (line   6)
* Complex intrinsic:                     Complex Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* COMPLEX intrinsics:                    Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 283)
* complex performance:                   Known Bugs.          (line 133)
* COMPLEX statement:                     Complex Variables.   (line   6)
* complex values:                        Ugly Complex Part Extraction.
                                                              (line   6)
* complex variables:                     Complex Variables.   (line   6)
* COMPLEX(KIND=1) type:                  Compiler Types.      (line  88)
* COMPLEX(KIND=2) type:                  Compiler Types.      (line  92)
* components of g77:                     What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  70)
* concatenation:                         Arbitrary Concatenation.
                                                              (line   6)
* concepts, basic:                       What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line   6)
* conformance, IEEE 754 <1>:             Floating-point precision.
                                                              (line   6)
* conformance, IEEE 754:                 Optimize Options.    (line  40)
* Conjg intrinsic:                       Conjg Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* consistency checks:                    Overall Options.     (line  99)
* constants <1>:                         Compiler Constants.  (line   6)
* constants:                             Constants.           (line   6)
* constants, character <1>:              Character and Hollerith Constants.
                                                              (line   6)
* constants, character <2>:              Ugly Conversion of Initializers.
                                                              (line  20)
* constants, character:                  Double Quote Meaning.
                                                              (line   6)
* constants, context-sensitive:          Context-Sensitive Constants.
                                                              (line   6)
* constants, Hollerith <1>:              Character and Hollerith Constants.
                                                              (line   6)
* constants, Hollerith <2>:              Ugly Conversion of Initializers.
                                                              (line   8)
* constants, Hollerith:                  Ugly Implicit Argument Conversion.
                                                              (line   6)
* constants, integer:                    Known Bugs.          (line  32)
* constants, octal:                      Double Quote Meaning.
                                                              (line   6)
* constants, prefix-radix:               Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 153)
* constants, types:                      Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 153)
* construct names:                       Construct Names.     (line   6)
* context-sensitive constants:           Context-Sensitive Constants.
                                                              (line   6)
* context-sensitive intrinsics:          Context-Sensitive Intrinsicness.
                                                              (line   6)
* continuation character <1>:            LEX.                 (line  39)
* continuation character <2>:            Exclamation Point.   (line   6)
* continuation character:                Statements Comments Lines.
                                                              (line   8)
* continuation line, ampersand:          Ampersands.          (line   6)
* continuation line, number of:          Continuation Line.   (line   6)
* contributors:                          Contributors.        (line   6)
* conversions, nonportable:              Nonportable Conversions.
                                                              (line   6)
* core dump:                             Bug Criteria.        (line   9)
* Cos intrinsic:                         Cos Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* CosD intrinsic:                        CosD Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* CosH intrinsic:                        CosH Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* Count intrinsic:                       Count Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* cpp preprocessor:                      Overall Options.     (line  33)
* cpp program <1>:                       LEX.                 (line 109)
* cpp program <2>:                       Preprocessor Options.
                                                              (line   6)
* cpp program <3>:                       Overall Options.     (line  33)
* cpp program:                           What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 106)
* CPU_Time intrinsic:                    CPU_Time Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* Cray pointers:                         POINTER Statements.  (line   6)
* credits:                               Contributors.        (line   6)
* CShift intrinsic:                      CShift Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* CSin intrinsic:                        CSin Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* CSqRt intrinsic:                       CSqRt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* CTime intrinsic <1>:                   CTime Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* CTime intrinsic:                       CTime Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* CYCLE statement:                       CYCLE and EXIT.      (line   6)
* DAbs intrinsic:                        DAbs Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DACos intrinsic:                       DACos Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DACosD intrinsic:                      DACosD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DASin intrinsic:                       DASin Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DASinD intrinsic:                      DASinD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DATA statement <1>:                    Known Bugs.          (line  45)
* DATA statement:                        Code Gen Options.    (line  21)
* data types:                            Compiler Types.      (line   6)
* data, aligned:                         Aligned Data.        (line   6)
* data, overwritten:                     Strange Behavior at Run Time.
                                                              (line   6)
* DATan intrinsic:                       DATan Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DATan2 intrinsic:                      DATan2 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DATan2D intrinsic:                     DATan2D Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* DATanD intrinsic:                      DATanD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* Date intrinsic:                        Date Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* Date_and_Time intrinsic:               Date_and_Time Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* date_y2kbuggy_0:                       Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems.
                                                              (line  28)
* DbesJ0 intrinsic:                      DbesJ0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DbesJ1 intrinsic:                      DbesJ1 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DbesJN intrinsic:                      DbesJN Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DbesY0 intrinsic:                      DbesY0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DbesY1 intrinsic:                      DbesY1 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DbesYN intrinsic:                      DbesYN Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* Dble intrinsic:                        Dble Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DbleQ intrinsic:                       DbleQ Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DCmplx intrinsic:                      DCmplx Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DConjg intrinsic:                      DConjg Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DCos intrinsic:                        DCos Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DCosD intrinsic:                       DCosD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DCosH intrinsic:                       DCosH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DDiM intrinsic:                        DDiM Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* debug line <1>:                        Enabling Debug Lines.
                                                              (line   6)
* debug line:                            Debug Line.          (line   6)
* debugger <1>:                          Known Bugs.          (line 102)
* debugger:                              What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  33)
* debugging <1>:                         Names.               (line  36)
* debugging <2>:                         Main Program Unit.   (line  33)
* debugging:                             Debugging and Interfacing.
                                                              (line   6)
* debugging information options:         Debugging Options.   (line   6)
* debugging main source code:            Known Bugs.          (line  93)
* DECODE statement:                      ENCODE and DECODE.   (line   6)
* deleted intrinsics:                    Intrinsic Groups.    (line  10)
* DErF intrinsic:                        DErF Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DErFC intrinsic:                       DErFC Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DExp intrinsic:                        DExp Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DFloat intrinsic:                      DFloat Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DFlotI intrinsic:                      DFlotI Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DFlotJ intrinsic:                      DFlotJ Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* diagnostics:                           Diagnostics.         (line   6)
* diagnostics, incorrect:                What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  51)
* dialect options:                       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line   6)
* Digital Fortran features:              Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 283)
* Digits intrinsic:                      Digits Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DiM intrinsic:                         DiM Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* DImag intrinsic:                       DImag Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DIMENSION statement <1>:               Array Bounds Expressions.
                                                              (line   6)
* DIMENSION statement <2>:               Adjustable Arrays.   (line   6)
* DIMENSION statement:                   Arrays.              (line   6)
* DIMENSION X(1):                        Ugly Assumed-Size Arrays.
                                                              (line   6)
* dimensioning arrays:                   Adjustable Arrays.   (line   6)
* DInt intrinsic:                        DInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* direction of language development:     Direction of Language Development.
                                                              (line   6)
* directive, INCLUDE <1>:                Directory Options.   (line  10)
* directive, INCLUDE:                    Preprocessor Options.
                                                              (line  12)
* directory, options:                    Directory Options.   (line   6)
* directory, search paths for inclusion: Directory Options.   (line  17)
* disabled intrinsics:                   Intrinsic Groups.    (line  13)
* disk full:                             Output Assumed To Flush.
                                                              (line   6)
* displaying main source code:           Known Bugs.          (line  93)
* disposition of files:                  OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords.
                                                              (line   6)
* distensions:                           Distensions.         (line   6)
* DLog intrinsic:                        DLog Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DLog10 intrinsic:                      DLog10 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* DMax1 intrinsic:                       DMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DMin1 intrinsic:                       DMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DMod intrinsic:                        DMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DNInt intrinsic:                       DNInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DNRM2:                                 News.                (line 560)
* DO:                                    DO WHILE.            (line   6)
* DO loops, one-trip:                    Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 128)
* DO loops, zero-trip:                   Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 128)
* DO statement <1>:                      Loops.               (line   6)
* DO statement:                          Warning Options.     (line 171)
* DO WHILE <1>:                          DO WHILE.            (line   6)
* DO WHILE:                              Optimize Options.    (line 127)
* dollar sign <1>:                       Dollar Signs.        (line   6)
* dollar sign <2>:                       I/O.                 (line   6)
* dollar sign:                           Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  38)
* Dot_Product intrinsic:                 Dot_Product Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* DOUBLE COMPLEX:                        DOUBLE COMPLEX.      (line   6)
* DOUBLE COMPLEX type:                   Compiler Types.      (line 103)
* DOUBLE PRECISION type:                 Compiler Types.      (line 100)
* double quote:                          Character Set.       (line  19)
* double quoted character constants <1>: Fortran 90 Features. (line  23)
* double quoted character constants:     Character Type.      (line   8)
* double quotes:                         Double Quote Meaning.
                                                              (line   6)
* double-precision performance <1>:      Changes.             (line 282)
* double-precision performance:          News.                (line 364)
* DProd intrinsic:                       DProd Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DReal intrinsic:                       DReal Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* driver, gcc command as:                What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 106)
* DSign intrinsic:                       DSign Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DSin intrinsic:                        DSin Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DSinD intrinsic:                       DSinD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DSinH intrinsic:                       DSinH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DSqRt intrinsic:                       DSqRt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DTan intrinsic:                        DTan Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* DTanD intrinsic:                       DTanD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DTanH intrinsic:                       DTanH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* DTime intrinsic <1>:                   DTime Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* DTime intrinsic:                       DTime Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* dummies, unused:                       Warning Options.     (line 192)
* edit descriptor, <>:                   I/O.                 (line   9)
* edit descriptor, O:                    I/O.                 (line  16)
* edit descriptor, Q:                    Q Edit Descriptor.   (line   6)
* edit descriptor, Z <1>:                Fortran 90 Features. (line  68)
* edit descriptor, Z:                    I/O.                 (line  16)
* effecting IMPLICIT NONE:               Warning Options.     (line  61)
* efficiency:                            Efficiency.          (line   6)
* ELF support:                           News.                (line 854)
* empty CHARACTER strings:               Character Type.      (line  14)
* enabled intrinsics:                    Intrinsic Groups.    (line  23)
* ENCODE statement:                      ENCODE and DECODE.   (line   6)
* END DO:                                END DO.              (line   6)
* entry points:                          Alternate Entry Points.
                                                              (line   6)
* ENTRY statement:                       Alternate Entry Points.
                                                              (line   6)
* environment variables:                 Environment Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* EOShift intrinsic:                     EOShift Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* Epsilon intrinsic:                     Epsilon Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* equivalence areas <1>:                 Known Bugs.          (line 122)
* equivalence areas:                     Local Equivalence Areas.
                                                              (line   6)
* EQUIVALENCE statement:                 Local Equivalence Areas.
                                                              (line   6)
* ErF intrinsic:                         ErF Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* ErFC intrinsic:                        ErFC Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* error messages <1>:                    Warnings and Errors. (line   6)
* error messages:                        Run-time Library Errors.
                                                              (line   6)
* error messages, incorrect:             What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  51)
* error values:                          Run-time Library Errors.
                                                              (line   6)
* errors, linker:                        Large Common Blocks. (line   6)
* ETime intrinsic <1>:                   ETime Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* ETime intrinsic:                       ETime Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* exceptions, floating-point:            Floating-point Exception Handling.
                                                              (line   6)
* exclamation point <1>:                 LEX.                 (line  46)
* exclamation point <2>:                 Exclamation Point.   (line   6)
* exclamation point <3>:                 Trailing Comment.    (line   6)
* exclamation point <4>:                 Character Set.       (line  17)
* exclamation point:                     Statements Comments Lines.
                                                              (line   8)
* executable file:                       What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 106)
* Exit intrinsic:                        Exit Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* EXIT statement:                        CYCLE and EXIT.      (line   6)
* Exp intrinsic:                         Exp Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* Exponent intrinsic:                    Exponent Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* extended-source option:                Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 323)
* extensions, file name:                 Overall Options.     (line  13)
* extensions, from Fortran 90:           Fortran 90 Features. (line   6)
* extensions, more:                      More Extensions.     (line   6)
* extensions, VXT:                       VXT Fortran.         (line   6)
* external names:                        Mangling of Names.   (line   6)
* extra warnings:                        Warning Options.     (line 186)
* f2c:                                   Increasing Precision/Range.
                                                              (line   6)
* f2c compatibility <1>:                 Avoid f2c Compatibility.
                                                              (line   6)
* f2c compatibility <2>:                 Block Data and Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* f2c compatibility <3>:                 Debugging and Interfacing.
                                                              (line   6)
* f2c compatibility <4>:                 Code Gen Options.    (line  30)
* f2c compatibility <5>:                 Shorthand Options.   (line  46)
* f2c compatibility:                     Overall Options.     (line 134)
* f2c intrinsics:                        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 261)
* f2c intrinsics group:                  Intrinsic Groups.    (line  77)
* f77 compatibility:                     Shorthand Options.   (line  46)
* f77 support:                           Backslash in Constants.
                                                              (line   6)
* f771, program:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  93)
* f90 intrinsics group:                  Intrinsic Groups.    (line  80)
* fatal signal:                          Bug Criteria.        (line   9)
* FDate intrinsic <1>:                   FDate Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* FDate intrinsic:                       FDate Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* FDL, GNU Free Documentation License:   GNU Free Documentation License.
                                                              (line   6)
* features, language:                    Direction of Language Development.
                                                              (line   6)
* features, ugly <1>:                    Distensions.         (line   6)
* features, ugly:                        Shorthand Options.   (line  10)
* FFE <1>:                               Front End.           (line   6)
* FFE:                                   What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 172)
* fflush():                              Output Assumed To Flush.
                                                              (line   6)
* FGet intrinsic <1>:                    FGet Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* FGet intrinsic:                        FGet Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* FGetC intrinsic <1>:                   FGetC Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* FGetC intrinsic:                       FGetC Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* file format not recognized:            What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 120)
* file formats:                          Portable Unformatted Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* file name extension:                   Overall Options.     (line  13)
* file name suffix:                      Overall Options.     (line  13)
* file type:                             Overall Options.     (line  13)
* file, source <1>:                      Source Form.         (line   6)
* file, source <2>:                      Lines.               (line   6)
* file, source:                          What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  20)
* files, executable:                     What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 106)
* fixed form <1>:                        Source Form.         (line   6)
* fixed form <2>:                        Lines.               (line   6)
* fixed form:                            Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line   9)
* Float intrinsic:                       Float Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* FloatI intrinsic:                      FloatI Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* floating-point errors:                 Floating-point Errors.
                                                              (line   6)
* floating-point, errors:                Inconsistent Calling Sequences.
                                                              (line   6)
* floating-point, exceptions:            Floating-point Exception Handling.
                                                              (line   6)
* floating-point, precision <1>:         Floating-point precision.
                                                              (line   6)
* floating-point, precision:             Optimize Options.    (line  40)
* FloatJ intrinsic:                      FloatJ Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* Floor intrinsic:                       Floor Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* Flush intrinsic:                       Flush Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* flushing output:                       Output Assumed To Flush.
                                                              (line   6)
* FNum intrinsic:                        FNum Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* FORM='PRINT':                          OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords.
                                                              (line  10)
* FORMAT descriptors <1>:                Fortran 90 Features. (line  68)
* FORMAT descriptors:                    I/O.                 (line  16)
* FORMAT statement <1>:                  Q Edit Descriptor.   (line   6)
* FORMAT statement:                      Expressions in FORMAT Statements.
                                                              (line   6)
* FORTRAN 66 <1>:                        Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 128)
* FORTRAN 66:                            Shorthand Options.   (line  35)
* FORTRAN 77 compatibility:              Standard Support.    (line   6)
* Fortran 90:                            Fortran 90 Features. (line   6)
* Fortran 90, compatibility:             Fortran 90.          (line   6)
* Fortran 90, features:                  Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line   9)
* Fortran 90, intrinsics:                Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 272)
* Fortran 90, support:                   Fortran 90 Support.  (line   6)
* Fortran preprocessor:                  Overall Options.     (line  33)
* forward references:                    GLOBALS.             (line  26)
* FPE handling:                          Floating-point Exception Handling.
                                                              (line   6)
* FPut intrinsic <1>:                    FPut Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* FPut intrinsic:                        FPut Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* FPutC intrinsic <1>:                   FPutC Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* FPutC intrinsic:                       FPutC Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* Fraction intrinsic:                    Fraction Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* free form <1>:                         Source Form.         (line   6)
* free form <2>:                         Lines.               (line   6)
* free form:                             Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line   9)
* front end, g77 <1>:                    Front End.           (line   6)
* front end, g77:                        What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 172)
* FSeek intrinsic:                       FSeek Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* FSF, funding the:                      Funding GNU Fortran. (line  17)
* FStat intrinsic <1>:                   FStat Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* FStat intrinsic:                       FStat Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* FTell intrinsic <1>:                   FTell Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* FTell intrinsic:                       FTell Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* function references, in adjustable array bounds: Array Bounds Expressions.
                                                              (line   6)
* FUNCTION statement <1>:                Functions.           (line   6)
* FUNCTION statement:                    Procedures.          (line   6)
* functions:                             Functions.           (line   6)
* functions, mistyped:                   Not My Type.         (line   6)
* funding improvements:                  Funding GNU Fortran. (line   6)
* funding the FSF:                       Funding GNU Fortran. (line  17)
* g77 options, --driver <1>:             Changes.             (line 430)
* g77 options, --driver:                 News.                (line 668)
* g77 options, -v:                       G77 and GCC.         (line  27)
* g77, command <1>:                      G77 and GCC.         (line  21)
* g77, command:                          What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  78)
* g77, components of:                    What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  70)
* g77, front end <1>:                    Front End.           (line   6)
* g77, front end:                        What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 172)
* g77, modifying:                        Overall Options.     (line 125)
* G77_date_y2kbuggy_0:                   Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems.
                                                              (line  28)
* G77_vxtidate_y2kbuggy_0:               Year 2000 (Y2K) Problems.
                                                              (line  28)
* GBE <1>:                               Philosophy of Code Generation.
                                                              (line  10)
* GBE:                                   What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 165)
* GBEL:                                  Philosophy of Code Generation.
                                                              (line  27)
* gcc, back end <1>:                     Philosophy of Code Generation.
                                                              (line  10)
* gcc, back end:                         What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 165)
* gcc, command <1>:                      G77 and GCC.         (line   6)
* gcc, command:                          What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  72)
* gcc, command as driver:                What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 106)
* gcc, not recognizing Fortran source:   What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 120)
* gdb, command:                          What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  33)
* gdb, support:                          Debugger Problems.   (line   6)
* generic intrinsics:                    Generics and Specifics.
                                                              (line   6)
* GError intrinsic:                      GError Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* GetArg intrinsic <1>:                  Main Program Unit.   (line  28)
* GetArg intrinsic:                      GetArg Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* GetCWD intrinsic <1>:                  GetCWD Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* GetCWD intrinsic:                      GetCWD Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* GetEnv intrinsic:                      GetEnv Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* GetGId intrinsic:                      GetGId Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* GetLog intrinsic:                      GetLog Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* GetPId intrinsic:                      GetPId Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* getting started:                       Getting Started.     (line   6)
* GetUId intrinsic:                      GetUId Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* global names, warning <1>:             Code Gen Options.    (line 224)
* global names, warning:                 Warning Options.     (line  51)
* GMTime intrinsic:                      GMTime Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* GNU Back End (GBE) <1>:                Philosophy of Code Generation.
                                                              (line  10)
* GNU Back End (GBE):                    What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 165)
* GNU Back End Language (GBEL):          Philosophy of Code Generation.
                                                              (line  27)
* GNU Fortran command options:           Invoking G77.        (line   6)
* GNU Fortran Front End (FFE) <1>:       Front End.           (line   6)
* GNU Fortran Front End (FFE):           What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 172)
* gnu intrinsics group:                  Intrinsic Groups.    (line  73)
* GOTO statement:                        Assigned Statement Labels.
                                                              (line   6)
* groups of intrinsics:                  Intrinsic Groups.    (line   6)
* hardware errors:                       Signal 11 and Friends.
                                                              (line   6)
* hash mark:                             Character Set.       (line  25)
* HDF:                                   Portable Unformatted Files.
                                                              (line  50)
* hidden intrinsics:                     Intrinsic Groups.    (line  18)
* Hollerith constants <1>:               Character and Hollerith Constants.
                                                              (line   6)
* Hollerith constants <2>:               Ugly Conversion of Initializers.
                                                              (line   8)
* Hollerith constants <3>:               Ugly Implicit Argument Conversion.
                                                              (line   6)
* Hollerith constants:                   Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line  41)
* horizontal tab:                        Tabs.                (line   6)
* HostNm intrinsic <1>:                  HostNm Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* HostNm intrinsic:                      HostNm Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* Huge intrinsic:                        Huge Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* I/O, errors:                           Run-time Library Errors.
                                                              (line   6)
* I/O, flushing:                         Output Assumed To Flush.
                                                              (line   6)
* IAbs intrinsic:                        IAbs Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* IAChar intrinsic:                      IAChar Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IAnd intrinsic:                        IAnd Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* IArgC intrinsic <1>:                   Main Program Unit.   (line  28)
* IArgC intrinsic:                       IArgC Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IBClr intrinsic:                       IBClr Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IBits intrinsic:                       IBits Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IBSet intrinsic:                       IBSet Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IChar intrinsic:                       IChar Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IDate intrinsic <1>:                   IDate Intrinsic (VXT).
                                                              (line   6)
* IDate intrinsic:                       IDate Intrinsic (UNIX).
                                                              (line   6)
* IDiM intrinsic:                        IDiM Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* IDInt intrinsic:                       IDInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IDNInt intrinsic:                      IDNInt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IEEE 754 conformance <1>:              Floating-point precision.
                                                              (line   6)
* IEEE 754 conformance:                  Optimize Options.    (line  40)
* IEOr intrinsic:                        IEOr Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* IErrNo intrinsic:                      IErrNo Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IFix intrinsic:                        IFix Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* IIAbs intrinsic:                       IIAbs Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IIAnd intrinsic:                       IIAnd Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IIBClr intrinsic:                      IIBClr Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IIBits intrinsic:                      IIBits Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IIBSet intrinsic:                      IIBSet Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IIDiM intrinsic:                       IIDiM Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IIDInt intrinsic:                      IIDInt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IIDNnt intrinsic:                      IIDNnt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IIEOr intrinsic:                       IIEOr Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IIFix intrinsic:                       IIFix Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IInt intrinsic:                        IInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* IIOr intrinsic:                        IIOr Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* IIQint intrinsic:                      IIQint Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IIQNnt intrinsic:                      IIQNnt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IIShftC intrinsic:                     IIShftC Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* IISign intrinsic:                      IISign Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* illegal unit number:                   Large File Unit Numbers.
                                                              (line   6)
* Imag intrinsic:                        Imag Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* imaginary part <1>:                    Complex Variables.   (line   6)
* imaginary part:                        Ugly Complex Part Extraction.
                                                              (line   6)
* ImagPart intrinsic:                    ImagPart Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* IMax0 intrinsic:                       IMax0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IMax1 intrinsic:                       IMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IMin0 intrinsic:                       IMin0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IMin1 intrinsic:                       IMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IMod intrinsic:                        IMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* IMPLICIT CHARACTER*(*) statement:      Limitation on Implicit Declarations.
                                                              (line   6)
* implicit declaration, warning:         Warning Options.     (line  61)
* IMPLICIT NONE, similar effect:         Warning Options.     (line  61)
* implicit typing:                       Not My Type.         (line   6)
* improvements, funding:                 Funding GNU Fortran. (line   6)
* in-line code <1>:                      GLOBALS.             (line  26)
* in-line code <2>:                      Code Gen Options.    (line 224)
* in-line code <3>:                      Optimize Options.    (line  66)
* in-line code:                          What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line 147)
* INCLUDE directive <1>:                 INCLUDE.             (line   6)
* INCLUDE directive <2>:                 Directory Options.   (line  10)
* INCLUDE directive:                     Preprocessor Options.
                                                              (line  12)
* inclusion, directory search paths for: Directory Options.   (line  17)
* inconsistent floating-point results:   Floating-point Errors.
                                                              (line   6)
* incorrect diagnostics:                 What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  51)
* incorrect error messages:              What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  51)
* incorrect use of language:             What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  47)
* increasing maximum unit number:        Large File Unit Numbers.
                                                              (line   6)
* increasing precision:                  Increasing Precision/Range.
                                                              (line   6)
* increasing range:                      Increasing Precision/Range.
                                                              (line   6)
* Index intrinsic:                       Index Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* indexed (iterative) DO:                Optimize Options.    (line 114)
* infinite spaces printed:               Strange Behavior at Run Time.
                                                              (line  42)
* INInt intrinsic:                       INInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* initialization, bug:                   Known Bugs.          (line  45)
* initialization, of local variables:    Code Gen Options.    (line  21)
* initialization, run-time:              Startup Code.        (line   6)
* initialization, statement placement:   Initializing Before Specifying.
                                                              (line   6)
* INot intrinsic:                        INot Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* INQUIRE statement:                     OPEN CLOSE and INQUIRE Keywords.
                                                              (line   6)
* installation trouble:                  Trouble.             (line   6)
* Int intrinsic:                         Int Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* Int2 intrinsic:                        Int2 Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* Int8 intrinsic:                        Int8 Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* integer constants:                     Known Bugs.          (line  32)
* INTEGER(KIND=1) type:                  Compiler Types.      (line  59)
* INTEGER(KIND=2) type:                  Compiler Types.      (line  67)
* INTEGER(KIND=3) type:                  Compiler Types.      (line  75)
* INTEGER(KIND=6) type:                  Compiler Types.      (line  81)
* INTEGER*2 support:                     Popular Non-standard Types.
                                                              (line   6)
* INTEGER*8 support:                     Full Support for Compiler Types.
                                                              (line   6)
* Intel x86:                             News.                (line 560)
* interfacing:                           Debugging and Interfacing.
                                                              (line   6)
* internal consistency checks:           Overall Options.     (line  99)
* intrinsics, Abort:                     Abort Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Abs:                       Abs Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Access:                    Access Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, AChar:                     AChar Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, ACos:                      ACos Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ACosD:                     ACosD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, AdjustL:                   AdjustL Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, AdjustR:                   AdjustR Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, AImag <1>:                 AImag Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, AImag:                     REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, AIMax0:                    AIMax0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, AIMin0:                    AIMin0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, AInt:                      AInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, AJMax0:                    AJMax0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, AJMin0:                    AJMin0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Alarm:                     Alarm Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, All:                       All Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Allocated:                 Allocated Intrinsic. (line   6)
* intrinsics, ALog:                      ALog Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ALog10:                    ALog10 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, AMax0:                     AMax0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, AMax1:                     AMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, AMin0:                     AMin0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, AMin1:                     AMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, AMod:                      AMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, And <1>:                   Bit Operations on Floating-point Data.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, And:                       And Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, ANInt:                     ANInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Any:                       Any Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, ASin:                      ASin Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ASinD:                     ASinD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Associated:                Associated Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, ATan:                      ATan Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ATan2:                     ATan2 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, ATan2D:                    ATan2D Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, ATanD:                     ATanD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, badu77:                    Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 250)
* intrinsics, BesJ0:                     BesJ0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, BesJ1:                     BesJ1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, BesJN:                     BesJN Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, BesY0:                     BesY0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, BesY1:                     BesY1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, BesYN:                     BesYN Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Bit_Size:                  Bit_Size Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* intrinsics, BITest:                    BITest Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, BJTest:                    BJTest Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, BTest:                     BTest Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, CAbs:                      CAbs Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, CCos:                      CCos Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, CDAbs:                     CDAbs Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, CDCos:                     CDCos Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, CDExp:                     CDExp Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, CDLog:                     CDLog Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, CDSin:                     CDSin Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, CDSqRt:                    CDSqRt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Ceiling:                   Ceiling Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, CExp:                      CExp Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Char:                      Char Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ChDir <1>:                 ChDir Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, ChDir:                     ChDir Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, ChMod <1>:                 ChMod Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, ChMod:                     ChMod Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, CLog:                      CLog Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Cmplx <1>:                 Cmplx Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Cmplx:                     CMPLX() of DOUBLE PRECISION.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Complex:                   Complex Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, COMPLEX:                   Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 283)
* intrinsics, Conjg:                     Conjg Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, context-sensitive:         Context-Sensitive Intrinsicness.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Cos:                       Cos Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, CosD:                      CosD Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, CosH:                      CosH Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Count:                     Count Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, CPU_Time:                  CPU_Time Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* intrinsics, CShift:                    CShift Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, CSin:                      CSin Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, CSqRt:                     CSqRt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, CTime <1>:                 CTime Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, CTime:                     CTime Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, DAbs:                      DAbs Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DACos:                     DACos Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DACosD:                    DACosD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DASin:                     DASin Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DASinD:                    DASinD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DATan:                     DATan Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DATan2:                    DATan2 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DATan2D:                   DATan2D Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, DATanD:                    DATanD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Date:                      Date Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Date_and_Time:             Date_and_Time Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, DbesJ0:                    DbesJ0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DbesJ1:                    DbesJ1 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DbesJN:                    DbesJN Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DbesY0:                    DbesY0 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DbesY1:                    DbesY1 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DbesYN:                    DbesYN Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Dble:                      Dble Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DbleQ:                     DbleQ Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DCmplx:                    DCmplx Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DConjg:                    DConjg Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DCos:                      DCos Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DCosD:                     DCosD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DCosH:                     DCosH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DDiM:                      DDiM Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, deleted:                   Intrinsic Groups.    (line  10)
* intrinsics, DErF:                      DErF Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DErFC:                     DErFC Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DExp:                      DExp Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DFloat:                    DFloat Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DFlotI:                    DFlotI Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DFlotJ:                    DFlotJ Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Digits:                    Digits Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DiM:                       DiM Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, DImag:                     DImag Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DInt:                      DInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, disabled:                  Intrinsic Groups.    (line  13)
* intrinsics, DLog:                      DLog Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DLog10:                    DLog10 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, DMax1:                     DMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DMin1:                     DMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DMod:                      DMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DNInt:                     DNInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Dot_Product:               Dot_Product Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, DProd:                     DProd Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DReal:                     DReal Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DSign:                     DSign Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DSin:                      DSin Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DSinD:                     DSinD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DSinH:                     DSinH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DSqRt:                     DSqRt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DTan:                      DTan Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, DTanD:                     DTanD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DTanH:                     DTanH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, DTime <1>:                 DTime Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, DTime:                     DTime Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, enabled:                   Intrinsic Groups.    (line  23)
* intrinsics, EOShift:                   EOShift Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, Epsilon:                   Epsilon Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, ErF:                       ErF Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, ErFC:                      ErFC Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ETime <1>:                 ETime Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, ETime:                     ETime Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Exit:                      Exit Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Exp:                       Exp Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Exponent:                  Exponent Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* intrinsics, f2c:                       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 261)
* intrinsics, FDate <1>:                 FDate Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FDate:                     FDate Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FGet <1>:                  FGet Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FGet:                      FGet Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FGetC <1>:                 FGetC Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FGetC:                     FGetC Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Float:                     Float Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, FloatI:                    FloatI Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, FloatJ:                    FloatJ Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Floor:                     Floor Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Flush:                     Flush Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, FNum:                      FNum Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Fortran 90:                Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 272)
* intrinsics, FPut <1>:                  FPut Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FPut:                      FPut Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FPutC <1>:                 FPutC Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FPutC:                     FPutC Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Fraction:                  Fraction Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* intrinsics, FSeek:                     FSeek Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, FStat <1>:                 FStat Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FStat:                     FStat Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FTell <1>:                 FTell Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, FTell:                     FTell Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, generic:                   Generics and Specifics.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, GError:                    GError Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, GetArg <1>:                Main Program Unit.   (line  28)
* intrinsics, GetArg:                    GetArg Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, GetCWD <1>:                GetCWD Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, GetCWD:                    GetCWD Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, GetEnv:                    GetEnv Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, GetGId:                    GetGId Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, GetLog:                    GetLog Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, GetPId:                    GetPId Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, GetUId:                    GetUId Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, GMTime:                    GMTime Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, groups:                    Intrinsic Groups.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, groups of:                 Intrinsic Groups.    (line  69)
* intrinsics, hidden:                    Intrinsic Groups.    (line  18)
* intrinsics, HostNm <1>:                HostNm Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, HostNm:                    HostNm Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Huge:                      Huge Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IAbs:                      IAbs Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IAChar:                    IAChar Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IAnd:                      IAnd Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IArgC <1>:                 Main Program Unit.   (line  28)
* intrinsics, IArgC:                     IArgC Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IBClr:                     IBClr Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IBits:                     IBits Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IBSet:                     IBSet Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IChar:                     IChar Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IDate <1>:                 IDate Intrinsic (VXT).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, IDate:                     IDate Intrinsic (UNIX).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, IDiM:                      IDiM Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IDInt:                     IDInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IDNInt:                    IDNInt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IEOr:                      IEOr Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IErrNo:                    IErrNo Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IFix:                      IFix Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIAbs:                     IIAbs Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIAnd:                     IIAnd Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIBClr:                    IIBClr Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIBits:                    IIBits Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIBSet:                    IIBSet Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIDiM:                     IIDiM Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIDInt:                    IIDInt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIDNnt:                    IIDNnt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIEOr:                     IIEOr Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIFix:                     IIFix Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IInt:                      IInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIOr:                      IIOr Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIQint:                    IIQint Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIQNnt:                    IIQNnt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IIShftC:                   IIShftC Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, IISign:                    IISign Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Imag:                      Imag Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ImagPart:                  ImagPart Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* intrinsics, IMax0:                     IMax0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IMax1:                     IMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IMin0:                     IMin0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IMin1:                     IMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IMod:                      IMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Index:                     Index Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, INInt:                     INInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, INot:                      INot Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Int:                       Int Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Int2:                      Int2 Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Int8:                      Int8 Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, IOr:                       IOr Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, IRand:                     IRand Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IsaTty:                    IsaTty Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, IShft:                     IShft Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IShftC:                    IShftC Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, ISign:                     ISign Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, ITime:                     ITime Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, IZExt:                     IZExt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIAbs:                     JIAbs Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIAnd:                     JIAnd Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIBClr:                    JIBClr Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIBits:                    JIBits Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIBSet:                    JIBSet Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIDiM:                     JIDiM Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIDInt:                    JIDInt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIDNnt:                    JIDNnt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIEOr:                     JIEOr Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIFix:                     JIFix Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JInt:                      JInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIOr:                      JIOr Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIQint:                    JIQint Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIQNnt:                    JIQNnt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIShft:                    JIShft Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JIShftC:                   JIShftC Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, JISign:                    JISign Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, JMax0:                     JMax0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JMax1:                     JMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JMin0:                     JMin0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JMin1:                     JMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JMod:                      JMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, JNInt:                     JNInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, JNot:                      JNot Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, JZExt:                     JZExt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Kill <1>:                  Kill Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Kill:                      Kill Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Kind:                      Kind Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, LBound:                    LBound Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Len:                       Len Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Len_Trim:                  Len_Trim Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* intrinsics, LGe:                       LGe Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, LGt:                       LGt Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Link <1>:                  Link Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Link:                      Link Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, LLe:                       LLe Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, LLt:                       LLt Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, LnBlnk:                    LnBlnk Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Loc:                       Loc Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Log:                       Log Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Log10:                     Log10 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Logical:                   Logical Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, Long:                      Long Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, LShift:                    LShift Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, LStat <1>:                 LStat Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, LStat:                     LStat Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, LTime:                     LTime Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, MatMul:                    MatMul Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Max:                       Max Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Max0:                      Max0 Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Max1:                      Max1 Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, MaxExponent:               MaxExponent Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, MaxLoc:                    MaxLoc Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, MaxVal:                    MaxVal Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, MClock:                    MClock Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, MClock8:                   MClock8 Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, Merge:                     Merge Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, MIL-STD 1753:              Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 294)
* intrinsics, Min:                       Min Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Min0:                      Min0 Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Min1:                      Min1 Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, MinExponent:               MinExponent Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, MinLoc:                    MinLoc Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, MinVal:                    MinVal Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Mod:                       Mod Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Modulo:                    Modulo Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, MvBits:                    MvBits Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Nearest:                   Nearest Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, NInt:                      NInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Not:                       Not Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, Or <1>:                    Bit Operations on Floating-point Data.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Or:                        Or Intrinsic.        (line   6)
* intrinsics, others:                    Other Intrinsics.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Pack:                      Pack Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, PError:                    PError Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Precision:                 Precision Intrinsic. (line   6)
* intrinsics, Present:                   Present Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, Product:                   Product Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, QAbs:                      QAbs Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QACos:                     QACos Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QACosD:                    QACosD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, QASin:                     QASin Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QASinD:                    QASinD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, QATan:                     QATan Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QATan2:                    QATan2 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, QATan2D:                   QATan2D Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, QATanD:                    QATanD Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, QCos:                      QCos Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QCosD:                     QCosD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QCosH:                     QCosH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QDiM:                      QDiM Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QExp:                      QExp Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QExt:                      QExt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QExtD:                     QExtD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QFloat:                    QFloat Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, QInt:                      QInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QLog:                      QLog Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QLog10:                    QLog10 Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, QMax1:                     QMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QMin1:                     QMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QMod:                      QMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QNInt:                     QNInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QSin:                      QSin Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QSinD:                     QSinD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QSinH:                     QSinH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QSqRt:                     QSqRt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QTan:                      QTan Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, QTanD:                     QTanD Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, QTanH:                     QTanH Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Radix:                     Radix Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Rand:                      Rand Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Random_Number:             Random_Number Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Random_Seed:               Random_Seed Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Range:                     Range Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Real <1>:                  Real Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Real:                      REAL() and AIMAG() of Complex.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, RealPart:                  RealPart Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* intrinsics, Rename <1>:                Rename Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Rename:                    Rename Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Repeat:                    Repeat Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Reshape:                   Reshape Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, RRSpacing:                 RRSpacing Intrinsic. (line   6)
* intrinsics, RShift:                    RShift Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Scale:                     Scale Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Scan:                      Scan Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Secnds:                    Secnds Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Second <1>:                Second Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Second:                    Second Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Selected_Int_Kind:         Selected_Int_Kind Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Selected_Real_Kind:        Selected_Real_Kind Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Set_Exponent:              Set_Exponent Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Shape:                     Shape Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Shift:                     Bit Operations on Floating-point Data.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Short:                     Short Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Sign:                      Sign Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Signal <1>:                Signal Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Signal:                    Signal Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Sin:                       Sin Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, SinD:                      SinD Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, SinH:                      SinH Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Sleep:                     Sleep Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Sngl:                      Sngl Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, SnglQ:                     SnglQ Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Spacing:                   Spacing Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* intrinsics, Spread:                    Spread Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, SqRt:                      SqRt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, SRand:                     SRand Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Stat <1>:                  Stat Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Stat:                      Stat Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Sum:                       Sum Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, SymLnk <1>:                SymLnk Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, SymLnk:                    SymLnk Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, System <1>:                System Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, System:                    System Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, System_Clock:              System_Clock Intrinsic.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, table of:                  Table of Intrinsic Functions.
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Tan:                       Tan Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, TanD:                      TanD Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, TanH:                      TanH Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Time <1>:                  Time Intrinsic (VXT).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Time:                      Time Intrinsic (UNIX).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Time8:                     Time8 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* intrinsics, Tiny:                      Tiny Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, Transfer:                  Transfer Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* intrinsics, Transpose:                 Transpose Intrinsic. (line   6)
* intrinsics, Trim:                      Trim Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, TtyNam <1>:                TtyNam Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, TtyNam:                    TtyNam Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, UBound:                    UBound Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, UMask <1>:                 UMask Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, UMask:                     UMask Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, UNIX:                      Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 305)
* intrinsics, Unlink <1>:                Unlink Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Unlink:                    Unlink Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* intrinsics, Unpack:                    Unpack Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, Verify:                    Verify Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* intrinsics, VXT:                       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 315)
* intrinsics, XOr:                       XOr Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* intrinsics, ZAbs:                      ZAbs Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ZCos:                      ZCos Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ZExp:                      ZExp Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ZExt:                      ZExt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ZLog:                      ZLog Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ZSin:                      ZSin Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* intrinsics, ZSqRt:                     ZSqRt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* Introduction:                          Top.                 (line   6)
* invalid assembly code:                 Bug Criteria.        (line  13)
* invalid input:                         Bug Criteria.        (line  44)
* IOr intrinsic:                         IOr Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* IOSTAT=:                               Run-time Library Errors.
                                                              (line   6)
* IRand intrinsic:                       IRand Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IsaTty intrinsic:                      IsaTty Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* IShft intrinsic:                       IShft Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* IShftC intrinsic:                      IShftC Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* ISign intrinsic:                       ISign Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* iterative DO:                          Optimize Options.    (line 114)
* ITime intrinsic:                       ITime Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* ix86 floating-point:                   Floating-point precision.
                                                              (line   6)
* ix86 FPU stack:                        Inconsistent Calling Sequences.
                                                              (line   6)
* IZExt intrinsic:                       IZExt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JCB002 program:                        Generics and Specifics.
                                                              (line  60)
* JCB003 program:                        CMPAMBIG.            (line 133)
* JIAbs intrinsic:                       JIAbs Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JIAnd intrinsic:                       JIAnd Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JIBClr intrinsic:                      JIBClr Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JIBits intrinsic:                      JIBits Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JIBSet intrinsic:                      JIBSet Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JIDiM intrinsic:                       JIDiM Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JIDInt intrinsic:                      JIDInt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JIDNnt intrinsic:                      JIDNnt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JIEOr intrinsic:                       JIEOr Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JIFix intrinsic:                       JIFix Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JInt intrinsic:                        JInt Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* JIOr intrinsic:                        JIOr Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* JIQint intrinsic:                      JIQint Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JIQNnt intrinsic:                      JIQNnt Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JIShft intrinsic:                      JIShft Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JIShftC intrinsic:                     JIShftC Intrinsic.   (line   6)
* JISign intrinsic:                      JISign Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* JMax0 intrinsic:                       JMax0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JMax1 intrinsic:                       JMax1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JMin0 intrinsic:                       JMin0 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JMin1 intrinsic:                       JMin1 Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JMod intrinsic:                        JMod Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* JNInt intrinsic:                       JNInt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* JNot intrinsic:                        JNot Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* JZExt intrinsic:                       JZExt Intrinsic.     (line   6)
* keywords, RECURSIVE:                   RECURSIVE Keyword.   (line   6)
* Kill intrinsic <1>:                    Kill Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line   6)
* Kill intrinsic:                        Kill Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line   6)
* Kind intrinsic:                        Kind Intrinsic.      (line   6)
* KIND= notation:                        Kind Notation.       (line   6)
* known causes of trouble:               Trouble.             (line   6)
* lack of recursion:                     RECURSIVE Keyword.   (line   6)
* language, dialect options:             Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line   6)
* language, features:                    Direction of Language Development.
                                                              (line   6)
* language, incorrect use of:            What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  47)
* large aggregate areas:                 Known Bugs.          (line  45)
* large common blocks:                   Large Common Blocks. (line   6)
* layout of COMMON blocks:               Aligned Data.        (line  20)
* LBound intrinsic:                      LBound Intrinsic.    (line   6)
* ld command:                            What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  37)
* ld, can't find _main:                  Cannot Link Fortran Programs.
                                                              (line  19)
* ld, can't find strange names:          Cannot Link Fortran Programs.
                                                              (line   6)
* ld, error linking user code:           Cannot Link Fortran Programs.
                                                              (line   6)
* ld, errors:                            Large Common Blocks. (line   6)
* left angle:                            Character Set.       (line  33)
* left bracket:                          Character Set.       (line  33)
* legacy code:                           Collected Fortran Wisdom.
                                                              (line   6)
* Len intrinsic:                         Len Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* Len_Trim intrinsic:                    Len_Trim Intrinsic.  (line   6)
* length of source lines:                Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 319)
* letters, lowercase:                    Case Sensitivity.    (line   6)
* letters, uppercase:                    Case Sensitivity.    (line   6)
* LGe intrinsic:                         LGe Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* LGt intrinsic:                         LGt Intrinsic.       (line   6)
* libc, non-ANSI or non-default:         Strange Behavior at Run Time.
                                                              (line  42)
* libf2c library:                        What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  81)
* libg2c library:                        What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  81)
* libraries:                             What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  37)
* libraries, containing BLOCK DATA:      Block Data and Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* libraries, libf2c:                     What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  81)
* libraries, libg2c:                     What is GNU Fortran?.
                                                              (line  81)
* limits, array dimensions:              Compiler Limits.     (line  18)
* limits, array size:                    Array Size.          (line   6)
* limits, compiler:                      Compiler Limits.     (line   6)
* limits, continuation lines <1>:        Compiler Limits.     (line  10)
* limits, continuation lines:            Continuation Line.   (line   6)
* limits, lengths of names <1>:          Compiler Limits.     (line  10)
* limits, lengths of names:              Syntactic Items.     (line   8)
* limits, lengths of source lines:       Fortran Dialect Options.
                                                              (line 319)
* limits, multi-dimension arrays:        Array Size.          (line  22)
* limits, on character-variable length:  Character-variable Length.
                                                              (line   6)
* limits, rank:                          Compiler Limits.     (line  18)
* limits, run-time library:              Run-time Environment Limits.
                                                              (line   6)
* limits, timings <1>:                   Secnds Intrinsic.    (line  19)
* limits, timings <2>:                   DTime Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line  25)
* limits, timings <3>:                   Time8 Intrinsic.     (line  19)
* limits, timings <4>:                   Time Intrinsic (UNIX).
                                                              (line  19)
* limits, timings <5>:                   System_Clock Intrinsic.
                                                              (line  25)
* limits, timings <6>:                   Second Intrinsic (subroutine).
                                                              (line  18)
* limits, timings <7>:                   Second Intrinsic (function).
                                                              (line  18)
* limits, timings <8>:                   MClock8 Intrinsic.   (line  18)
* limits, timings <9>:                   MClock Intrinsic.    (line  18)
* limits, timings <10>:                  ETime Intrinsic (function).