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Forms Mode
**********

Forms mode is an Emacs major mode for working with simple textual data
bases in a forms-oriented manner.  In Forms mode, the information in
these files is presented in an Emacs window in a user-defined format,
one record at a time.  The user can view records or modify their
contents.

   Forms mode is not a simple major mode, but requires two files to do
its job: a control file and a data file.  The data file holds the
actual data to be presented.  The control file describes how to present
it.

   This file documents Forms mode, a form-editing major mode for GNU
Emacs.

   Copyright (C) 1989, 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007,
2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Forms Example::               An example: editing the password data base.
* Entering and Exiting Forms Mode::
                                How to visit a file in Forms mode.
* Forms Commands::              Special commands to use while in Forms mode.
* Data File Format::            How to format the data file.
* Control File Format::         How to control forms mode.
* Format Description::          How to define the forms layout.
* Modifying Forms Contents::    How to modify.
* Miscellaneous::               Forms mode messages and other remarks.
* Error Messages::              List of error messages forms mode can produce.
* Long Example::                A more complex control file example.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Credits::                     Thanks everyone.
* Index::                       Index to this manual.

File: forms,  Node: Forms Example,  Next: Entering and Exiting Forms Mode,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Forms Example
***************

Let's illustrate Forms mode with an example.  Suppose you are looking at
the `/etc/passwd' file, and the screen looks like this:

     ====== /etc/passwd ======

     User : root   Uid: 0   Gid: 1

     Name : Super User

     Home : /

     Shell: /bin/sh

   As you can see, the familiar fields from the entry for the super user
are all there, but instead of being colon-separated on one single line,
they make up a forms.

   The contents of the forms consist of the contents of the fields of
the record (e.g. `root', `0', `1', `Super User') interspersed with
normal text (e.g `User : ', `Uid: ').

   If you modify the contents of the fields, Forms mode will analyze
your changes and update the file appropriately.  You cannot modify the
interspersed explanatory text (unless you go to some trouble about it),
because that is marked read-only (*note Text Properties: (elisp)Text
Properties.).

   The Forms mode control file specifies the relationship between the
format of `/etc/passwd' and what appears on the screen in Forms mode.
*Note Control File Format::.

File: forms,  Node: Entering and Exiting Forms Mode,  Next: Forms Commands,  Prev: Forms Example,  Up: Top

2 Entering and Exiting Forms Mode
*********************************

`M-x forms-find-file <RET> CONTROL-FILE <RET>'
     Visit a database using Forms mode.  Specify the name of the
     *control file*, not the data file!

`M-x forms-find-file-other-window <RET> CONTROL-FILE <RET>'
     Similar, but displays the file in another window.

   The command `forms-find-file' evaluates the file CONTROL-FILE, and
also visits it in Forms mode.  What you see in its buffer is not the
contents of this file, but rather a single record of the corresponding
data file that is visited in its own buffer.  So there are two buffers
involved in Forms mode: the "forms buffer" that is initially used to
visit the control file and that shows the records being browsed, and
the "data buffer" that holds the data file being visited.  The latter
buffer is normally not visible.

   Initially, the first record is displayed in the forms buffer.  The
mode line displays the major mode name `Forms', followed by the minor
mode `View' if the data base is read-only.  The number of the current
record (N) and the total number of records in the file(T) are shown in
the mode line as `N/T'.  For example:

     --%%-Emacs: passwd-demo          (Forms View 1/54)----All-------

   If the buffer is not read-only, you may change the buffer to modify
the fields in the record.  When you move to a different record, the
contents of the buffer are parsed using the specifications in
`forms-format-list', and the data file is updated.  If the record has
fields that aren't included in the display, they are not changed.

   Entering Forms mode runs the normal hook `forms-mode-hooks' to
perform user-defined customization.

   To save any modified data, you can use `C-x C-s'
(`forms-save-buffer').  This does not save the forms buffer (which would
be rather useless), but instead saves the buffer visiting the data file.

   To terminate Forms mode, you can use `C-x C-s' (`forms-save-buffer')
and then kill the forms buffer.  However, the data buffer will still
remain.  If this is not desired, you have to kill this buffer too.

File: forms,  Node: Forms Commands,  Next: Data File Format,  Prev: Entering and Exiting Forms Mode,  Up: Top

3 Forms Commands
****************

The commands of Forms mode belong to the `C-c' prefix, with one
exception: <TAB>, which moves to the next field.  Forms mode uses
different key maps for normal mode and read-only mode.  In read-only
Forms mode, you can access most of the commands without the `C-c'
prefix, but you must type ordinary letters instead of control
characters; for example, type `n' instead of `C-c C-n'.

   If your Emacs has been built with X-toolkit support, Forms mode will
provide its own menu with a number of Forms mode commands.

`C-c C-n'
     Show the next record (`forms-next-record').  With a numeric
     argument N, show the Nth next record.

`C-c C-p'
     Show the previous record (`forms-prev-record').  With a numeric
     argument N, show the Nth previous record.

`C-c C-l'
     Jump to a record by number (`forms-jump-record').   Specify the
     record number with a numeric argument.

`C-c <'
     Jump to the first record (`forms-first-record').

`C-c >'
     Jump to the last record (`forms-last-record').  This command also
     recalculates the number of records in the data file.

`<TAB>'
`C-c <TAB>'
     Jump to the next field in the current record (`forms-next-field').
     With a numeric argument N, jump forward N fields.  If this command
     would move past the last field, it wraps around to the first field.

`C-c C-q'
     Toggles read-only mode (`forms-toggle-read-only').  In read-only
     Forms mode, you cannot edit the fields; most Forms mode commands
     can be accessed without the prefix `C-c' if you use the normal
     letter instead (for example, type `n' instead of `C-c C-n').  In
     edit mode, you can edit the fields and thus change the contents of
     the data base; you must begin Forms mode commands with `C-c'.
     Switching to edit mode is allowed only if you have write access to
     the data file.

`C-c C-o'
     Create a new record and insert it before the current record
     (`forms-insert-record').  It starts out with empty (or default)
     contents for its fields; you can then edit the fields.  With a
     numeric argument, the new record is created _after_ the current
     one.  See also `forms-modified-record-filter' in *note Modifying
     Forms Contents::.

`C-c C-k'
     Delete the current record (`forms-delete-record').  You are
     prompted for confirmation before the record is deleted unless a
     numeric argument has been provided.

`C-c C-s REGEXP <RET>'
     Search forward for REGEXP in all records following this one
     (`forms-search-forward').  If found, this record is shown.  If you
     give an empty argument, the previous regexp is used again.

`C-c C-r REGEXP <RET>'
     Search backward for REGEXP in all records following this one
     (`forms-search-backward').  If found, this record is shown.  If
     you give an empty argument, the previous regexp is used again.

`M-x forms-prev-field'
     Similar to `forms-next-field' but moves backwards.

`M-x forms-save-buffer'
`C-x C-s'
     Forms mode replacement for `save-buffer'. When executed in the
     forms buffer it will save the contents of the (modified) data
     buffer instead. In Forms mode this function will be bound to `C-x
     C-s'.

`M-x forms-print'
     This command can be used to make a formatted print of the contents
     of the data file.


   In addition the command `M-x revert-buffer' is useful in Forms mode
just as in other modes.

   The following function key definitions are set up in Forms mode
(whether read-only or not):

`next'
     forms-next-record

`prior'
     forms-prev-record

`begin'
     forms-first-record

`end'
     forms-last-record

`S-Tab'
     forms-prev-field

File: forms,  Node: Data File Format,  Next: Control File Format,  Prev: Forms Commands,  Up: Top

4 Data File Format
******************

Files for use with Forms mode are very simple--each "record" (usually
one line) forms the contents of one form.  Each record consists of a
number of "fields", which are separated by the value of the string
`forms-field-sep', which is `"\t"' (a Tab) by default.

   If the format of the data file is not suitable enough you can define
the filter functions `forms-read-file-filter' and
`forms-write-file-filter'. `forms-read-file-filter' is called when the
data file is read from disk into the data buffer. It operates on the
data buffer, ignoring read-only protections. When the data file is
saved to disk `forms-write-file-filter' is called to cancel the effects
of `forms-read-file-filter'. After being saved,
`forms-read-file-filter' is called again to prepare the data buffer for
further processing.

   Fields may contain text which shows up in the forms in multiple
lines.  These lines are separated in the field using a "pseudo-newline"
character which is defined by the value of the string
`forms-multi-line'.  Its default value is `"\^k"' (a Control-K
character).  If it is set to `nil', multiple line fields are prohibited.

   If the data file does not exist, it is automatically created.

File: forms,  Node: Control File Format,  Next: Format Description,  Prev: Data File Format,  Up: Top

5 Control File Format
*********************

The Forms mode "control file" serves two purposes.  First, it names the
data file to use, and defines its format and properties.  Second, the
Emacs buffer it occupies is used by Forms mode to display the forms.

   The contents of the control file are evaluated as a Lisp program.  It
should set the following Lisp variables to suitable values:

`forms-file'
     This variable specifies the name of the data file.  Example:

          (setq forms-file "my/data-file")

     If the control file doesn't set `forms-file', Forms mode reports
     an error.

`forms-format-list'
     This variable describes the way the fields of the record are
     formatted on the screen.  For details, see *note Format
     Description::.

`forms-number-of-fields'
     This variable holds the number of fields in each record of the data
     file.  Example:

          (setq forms-number-of-fields 10)

   If the control file does not set `forms-format-list' a default
format is used.  In this situation, Forms mode will deduce the number of
fields from the data file providing this file exists and
`forms-number-of-records' has not been set in the control file.

   The control file can optionally set the following additional Forms
mode variables.  Most of them have default values that are good for most
applications.

`forms-field-sep'
     This variable may be used to designate the string which separates
     the fields in the records of the data file.  If not set, it
     defaults to the string `"\t"' (a Tab character).  Example:

          (setq forms-field-sep "\t")

`forms-read-only'
     If the value is non-`nil', the data file is treated read-only.
     (Forms mode also treats the data file as read-only if you don't
     have access to write it.)  Example:

          (set forms-read-only t)

`forms-multi-line'
     This variable specifies the "pseudo newline" separator that allows
     multi-line fields.  This separator goes between the "lines" within
     a field--thus, the field doesn't really contain multiple lines,
     but it appears that way when displayed in Forms mode.  If the
     value is `nil', multi-line text fields are prohibited.  The pseudo
     newline must not be a character contained in `forms-field-sep'.

     The default value is `"\^k"', the character Control-K.  Example:

          (setq forms-multi-line "\^k")

`forms-read-file-filter'
     This variable holds the name of a function to be called after the
     data file has been read in. This can be used to transform the
     contents of the data file into a format more suitable for forms
     processing.  If it is `nil', no function is called.  For example,
     to maintain a gzipped database:

          (defun gzip-read-file-filter ()
            (shell-command-on-region (point-min) (point-max)
                                     "gzip -d" t t))
          (setq forms-read-file-filter 'gzip-read-file-filter)

`forms-write-file-filter'
     This variable holds the name of a function to be called before
     writing out the contents of the data file.  This can be used to
     undo the effects of `forms-read-file-filter'.  If it is `nil', no
     function is called.  Example:

          (defun gzip-write-file-filter ()
            (make-variable-buffer-local 'require-final-newline)
            (setq require-final-newline nil)
            (shell-command-on-region (point-min) (point-max)
                                     "gzip" t t))
          (setq forms-write-file-filter 'gzip-write-file-filter)

`forms-new-record-filter'
     This variable holds a function to be called whenever a new record
     is created to supply default values for fields.  If it is `nil',
     no function is called.  *Note Modifying Forms Contents::, for
     details.

`forms-modified-record-filter'
     This variable holds a function to be called whenever a record is
     modified, just before updating the Forms data file.  If it is
     `nil', no function is called.  *Note Modifying Forms Contents::,
     for details.

`forms-insert-after'
     If this variable is not `nil', new records are created _after_ the
     current record. Also, upon visiting a file, the initial position
     will be at the last record instead of the first one.

`forms-check-number-of-fields'
     Normally each record is checked to contain the correct number of
     fields.  Under certain circumstances, this can be undesirable.  If
     this variable is set to `nil', these checks will be bypassed.

File: forms,  Node: Format Description,  Next: Modifying Forms Contents,  Prev: Control File Format,  Up: Top

6 The Format Description
************************

The variable `forms-format-list' specifies the format of the data in
the data file, and how to convert the data for display in Forms mode.
Its value must be a list of Forms mode "formatting elements", each of
which can be a string, a number, a Lisp list, or a Lisp symbol that
evaluates to one of those.  The formatting elements are processed in the
order they appear in the list.

STRING
     A string formatting element is inserted in the forms "as is," as
     text that the user cannot alter.

NUMBER
     A number element selects a field of the record.  The contents of
     this field are inserted in the display at this point.  Field
     numbers count starting from 1 (one).

LIST
     A formatting element that is a list specifies a function call.
     This function is called every time a record is displayed, and its
     result, which must be a string, is inserted in the display text.
     The function should do nothing but returning a string.

     The function you call can access the fields of the record as a
     list in the variable `forms-fields'.

SYMBOL
     A symbol used as a formatting element should evaluate to a string,
     number, or list; the value is interpreted as a formatting element,
     as described above.

   If a record does not contain the number of fields as specified in
`forms-number-of-fields', a warning message will be printed.  Excess
fields are ignored, missing fields are set to empty.

   The control file which displays `/etc/passwd' file as demonstrated
in the beginning of this manual might look as follows:

     ;; This demo visits `/etc/passwd'.

     (setq forms-file "/etc/passwd")
     (setq forms-number-of-fields 7)
     (setq forms-read-only t)                 ; to make sure
     (setq forms-field-sep ":")
     ;; Don't allow multi-line fields.
     (setq forms-multi-line nil)

     (setq forms-format-list
           (list
            "====== /etc/passwd ======\n\n"
            "User : "    1
            "   Uid: "   3
            "   Gid: "   4
            "\n\n"
            "Name : "    5
            "\n\n"
            "Home : "    6
            "\n\n"
            "Shell: "    7
            "\n"))

   When you construct the value of  `forms-format-list', you should
usually either quote the whole value, like this,

     (setq forms-format-list
          '(
            "====== " forms-file " ======\n\n"
            "User : "    1
            (make-string 20 ?-)
            ...
           ))

or quote the elements which are lists, like this:

     (setq forms-format-list
           (list
            "====== " forms-file " ======\n\n"
            "User : "    1
            '(make-string 20 ?-)
            ...
           ))

   Forms mode validates the contents of `forms-format-list' when you
visit a database.  If there are errors, processing is aborted with an
error message which includes a descriptive text.  *Note Error
Messages::, for a detailed list of error messages.

   If no `forms-format-list' is specified, Forms mode will supply a
default format list.  This list contains the name of the file being
visited, and a simple label for each field indicating the field number.

File: forms,  Node: Modifying Forms Contents,  Next: Miscellaneous,  Prev: Format Description,  Up: Top

7 Modifying The Forms Contents
******************************

If `forms-read-only' is `nil', the user can modify the fields and
records of the database.

   All normal editing commands are available for editing the contents
of the displayed record.  You cannot delete or modify the fixed,
explanatory text that comes from string formatting elements, but you
can modify the actual field contents.

   If the variable `forms-modified-record-filter' is non-`nil', it is
called as a function before the new data is written to the data file.
The function receives one argument, a vector that contains the contents
of the fields of the record.

   The function can refer to fields with `aref' and modify them with
`aset'.  The first field has number 1 (one); thus, element 0 of the
vector is not used.  The function should return the same vector it was
passed; the (possibly modified) contents of the vector determine what is
actually written in the file.  Here is an example:

     (defun my-modified-record-filter (record)
       ;; Modify second field.
       (aset record 2 (current-time-string))
       ;; Return the field vector.
       record)

     (setq forms-modified-record-filter 'my-modified-record-filter)

   If the variable `forms-new-record-filter' is non-`nil', its value is
a function to be called to fill in default values for the fields of a
new record.  The function is passed a vector of empty strings, one for
each field; it should return the same vector, with the desired field
values stored in it.  Fields are numbered starting from 1 (one).
Example:

     (defun my-new-record-filter (fields)
       (aset fields 5 (login-name))
       (aset fields 1 (current-time-string))
       fields)

     (setq forms-new-record-filter 'my-new-record-filter)

File: forms,  Node: Miscellaneous,  Next: Error Messages,  Prev: Modifying Forms Contents,  Up: Top

8 Miscellaneous
***************

The global variable `forms-version' holds the version information of
the Forms mode software.

   It is very convenient to use symbolic names for the fields in a
record.  The function `forms-enumerate' provides an elegant means to
define a series of variables whose values are consecutive integers.  The
function returns the highest number used, so it can be used to set
`forms-number-of-fields' also.  For example:

     (setq forms-number-of-fields
           (forms-enumerate
            '(field1 field2 field3 ...)))

   This sets `field1' to 1, `field2' to 2, and so on.

   Care has been taken to keep the Forms mode variables buffer-local,
so it is possible to visit multiple files in Forms mode simultaneously,
even if they have different properties.

   If you have visited the control file in normal fashion with
`find-file' or a like command, you can switch to Forms mode with the
command `M-x forms-mode'.  If you put `-*- forms -*-' in the first line
of the control file, then visiting it enables Forms mode automatically.
But this makes it hard to edit the control file itself, so you'd better
think twice before using this.

   The default format for the data file, using `"\t"' to separate
fields and `"\^k"' to separate lines within a field, matches the file
format of some popular database programs, e.g. FileMaker.  So
`forms-mode' can decrease the need to use proprietary software.

File: forms,  Node: Error Messages,  Next: Long Example,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Top

9 Error Messages
****************

This section describes all error messages which can be generated by
forms mode.  Error messages that result from parsing the control file
all start with the text `Forms control file error'.  Messages generated
while analyzing the definition of `forms-format-list' start with `Forms
format error'.

`Forms control file error: `forms-file' has not been set'
     The variable `forms-file' was not set by the control file.

`Forms control file error: `forms-number-of-fields' has not been set'
     The variable `forms-number-of-fields' was not set by the control
     file.

`Forms control file error: `forms-number-of-fields' must be a number > 0'
     The variable `forms-number-of-fields' did not contain a positive
     number.

`Forms control file error: `forms-field-sep' is not a string'
`Forms control file error: `forms-multi-line' must be nil or a one-character string'
     The variable `forms-multi-line' was set to something other than
     `nil' or a single-character string.

`Forms control file error: `forms-multi-line' is equal to 'forms-field-sep''
     The variable `forms-multi-line' may not be equal to
     `forms-field-sep' for this would make it impossible to distinguish
     fields and the lines in the fields.

`Forms control file error: `forms-new-record-filter' is not a function'
`Forms control file error: `forms-modified-record-filter' is not a function'
     The variable has been set to something else than a function.

`Forms control file error: `forms-format-list' is not a list'
     The variable `forms-format-list' was not set to a Lisp list by the
     control file.

`Forms format error: field number XX out of range 1..NN'
     A field number was supplied in `forms-format-list' with a value of
     XX, which was not greater than zero and smaller than or equal to
     the number of fields in the forms, NN.

`Forms format error: FUN is not a function'
     The first element of a list which is an element of
     `forms-format-list' was not a valid Lisp function.

`Forms format error: invalid element XX'
     A list element was supplied in `forms-format-list' which was not a
     string, number or list.

`Warning: this record has XX fields instead of YY'
     The number of fields in this record in the data file did not match
     `forms-number-of-fields'.  Missing fields will be made empty.

`Multi-line fields in this record - update refused!'
     The current record contains newline characters, hence can not be
     written back to the data file, for it would corrupt it.  Probably
     you inserted a newline in a field, while `forms-multi-line' was
     `nil'.

`Field separator occurs in record - update refused!'
     The current record contains the field separator string inside one
     of the fields. It can not be written back to the data file, for it
     would corrupt it. Probably you inserted the field separator string
     in a field.

`Record number XX out of range 1..YY'
     A jump was made to non-existing record XX.  YY denotes the number
     of records in the file.

`Stuck at record XX'
     An internal error prevented a specific record from being retrieved.

`No write access to `"'FILE`"''
     An attempt was made to enable edit mode on a file that has been
     write protected.

`Search failed: REGEXP'
     The REGEXP could not be found in the data file. Forward searching
     is done from the current location until the end of the file, then
     retrying from the beginning of the file until the current location.
     Backward searching is done from the current location until the
     beginning of the file, then retrying from the end of the file
     until the current location.

`Wrapped'
     A search completed successfully after wrapping around.

`Warning: number of records changed to NN'
     Forms mode's idea of the number of records has been adjusted to the
     number of records actually present in the data file.

`Problem saving buffers?'
     An error occurred while saving the data file buffer. Most likely,
     Emacs did ask to confirm deleting the buffer because it had been
     modified, and you said `no'.

File: forms,  Node: Long Example,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Error Messages,  Up: Top

10 Long Example
***************

The following example exploits most of the features of Forms mode.
This example is included in the distribution as file `forms-d2.el'.

     ;; demo2 -- demo forms-mode     -*- emacs-lisp -*-

     ;; This sample forms exploit most of the features of forms mode.

     ;; Set the name of the data file.
     (setq forms-file "forms-d2.dat")

     ;; Use `forms-enumerate' to set field names and number thereof.
     (setq forms-number-of-fields
           (forms-enumerate
            '(arch-newsgroup                 ; 1
              arch-volume                    ; 2
              arch-issue                     ; and ...
              arch-article                   ; ... so
              arch-shortname                 ; ... ... on
              arch-parts
              arch-from
              arch-longname
              arch-keywords
              arch-date
              arch-remarks)))

     ;; The following functions are used by this form for layout purposes.
     ;;
     (defun arch-tocol (target &optional fill)
       "Produces a string to skip to column TARGET.
     Prepends newline if needed.
     The optional FILL should be a character, used to fill to the column."
       (if (null fill)
           (setq fill ? ))
       (if (< target (current-column))
           (concat "\n" (make-string target fill))
         (make-string (- target (current-column)) fill)))
     ;;
     (defun arch-rj (target field &optional fill)
       "Produces a string to skip to column TARGET\
      minus the width of field FIELD.
     Prepends newline if needed.
     The optional FILL should be a character,
     used to fill to the column."
       (arch-tocol (- target (length (nth field forms-fields))) fill))

     ;; Record filters.
     ;;
     (defun new-record-filter (the-record)
       "Form a new record with some defaults."
       (aset the-record arch-from (user-full-name))
       (aset the-record arch-date (current-time-string))
       the-record)                           ; return it
     (setq forms-new-record-filter 'new-record-filter)

     ;; The format list.
     (setq forms-format-list
          (list
            "====== Public Domain Software Archive ======\n\n"
            arch-shortname
            " - "                    arch-longname
            "\n\n"
            "Article: "              arch-newsgroup
            "/"                      arch-article
            " "
            '(arch-tocol 40)
            "Issue: "                arch-issue
            " "
            '(arch-rj 73 10)
            "Date: "                 arch-date
            "\n\n"
            "Submitted by: "         arch-from
            "\n"
            '(arch-tocol 79 ?-)
            "\n"
            "Keywords: "             arch-keywords
            "\n\n"
            "Parts: "                arch-parts
            "\n\n====== Remarks ======\n\n"
            arch-remarks
          ))

     ;; That's all, folks!

File: forms,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Credits,  Prev: Long Example,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

 11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.


ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: forms,  Node: Credits,  Next: Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

11 Credits
**********

Bug fixes and other useful suggestions were supplied by Harald
Hanche-Olsen (`hancheATimf.no'), `cwittyATportia.edu',
Jonathan I. Kamens, Per Cederqvist  (`cederATsignum.se'), Michael Lipka
(`lipkaATlip.de'), Andy Piper (`ajpATeng.uk'), Frederic
Pierresteguy  (`F.PierresteguyATfrcl.fr'), Ignatios Souvatzis and
Richard Stallman (`rmsATgnu.org').

   This documentation was slightly inspired by the documentation of
"rolo mode" by Paul Davis at Schlumberger Cambridge Research
(`davis%scrsu1%sdr.slb.comATrelay.net').

   None of this would have been possible without GNU Emacs of the Free
Software Foundation.  Thanks, Richard!

File: forms,  Node: Index,  Prev: Credits,  Up: Top

Index
*****

[index]
* Menu:

* begin:                                 Forms Commands.      (line 101)
* C-c <:                                 Forms Commands.      (line  28)
* C-c >:                                 Forms Commands.      (line  31)
* C-c C-k:                               Forms Commands.      (line  59)
* C-c C-l:                               Forms Commands.      (line  24)
* C-c C-n:                               Forms Commands.      (line  16)
* C-c C-o:                               Forms Commands.      (line  51)
* C-c C-p:                               Forms Commands.      (line  20)
* C-c C-q:                               Forms Commands.      (line  41)
* C-c C-r REGEXP <RET>:                  Forms Commands.      (line  69)
* C-c C-s REGEXP <RET>:                  Forms Commands.      (line  64)
* C-c TAB:                               Forms Commands.      (line  36)
* C-x C-s:                               Forms Commands.      (line  78)
* control file:                          Control File Format. (line   6)
* end:                                   Forms Commands.      (line 104)
* field:                                 Data File Format.    (line   6)
* forms-check-number-of-fields:          Control File Format. (line 109)
* forms-delete-record:                   Forms Commands.      (line  59)
* forms-enumerate:                       Miscellaneous.       (line   9)
* forms-field-sep <1>:                   Control File Format. (line  41)
* forms-field-sep:                       Data File Format.    (line   6)
* forms-fields:                          Format Description.  (line  28)
* forms-file:                            Control File Format. (line  13)
* forms-find-file:                       Entering and Exiting Forms Mode.
                                                              (line   6)
* forms-find-file-other-window:          Entering and Exiting Forms Mode.
                                                              (line  10)
* forms-first-record:                    Forms Commands.      (line  28)
* forms-format-list <1>:                 Format Description.  (line   6)
* forms-format-list:                     Control File Format. (line  21)
* forms-insert-after:                    Control File Format. (line 104)
* forms-insert-record:                   Forms Commands.      (line  51)
* forms-jump-record:                     Forms Commands.      (line  24)
* forms-last-record:                     Forms Commands.      (line  31)
* forms-mode:                            Miscellaneous.       (line  25)
* forms-mode-hooks:                      Entering and Exiting Forms Mode.
                                                              (line  36)
* forms-modified-record-filter:          Control File Format. (line  98)
* forms-multi-line <1>:                  Control File Format. (line  55)
* forms-multi-line:                      Data File Format.    (line  21)
* forms-new-record-filter:               Control File Format. (line  92)
* forms-next-field:                      Forms Commands.      (line  35)
* forms-next-record:                     Forms Commands.      (line  16)
* forms-number-of-fields:                Control File Format. (line  26)
* forms-prev-field:                      Forms Commands.      (line  74)
* forms-prev-record:                     Forms Commands.      (line  20)
* forms-print:                           Forms Commands.      (line  84)
* forms-read-file-filter <1>:            Control File Format. (line  67)
* forms-read-file-filter:                Data File Format.    (line  11)
* forms-read-only:                       Control File Format. (line  48)
* forms-save-buffer:                     Forms Commands.      (line  77)
* forms-search-backward:                 Forms Commands.      (line  69)
* forms-search-forward:                  Forms Commands.      (line  64)
* forms-toggle-read-only:                Forms Commands.      (line  41)
* forms-version:                         Miscellaneous.       (line   6)
* forms-write-file-filter <1>:           Control File Format. (line  79)
* forms-write-file-filter:               Data File Format.    (line  11)
* next:                                  Forms Commands.      (line  95)
* prior:                                 Forms Commands.      (line  98)
* pseudo-newline:                        Data File Format.    (line  21)
* record:                                Data File Format.    (line   6)
* S-Tab:                                 Forms Commands.      (line 107)
* TAB:                                   Forms Commands.      (line  35)