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File: flymake,  Node: Top,  Next: Overview of Flymake,  Up: (dir)

GNU Flymake

This manual is for GNU Flymake (version 0.3, April 2004), which is a
universal on-the-fly syntax checker for GNU Emacs.

   Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software
Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Overview of Flymake::
* Installing Flymake::
* Using Flymake::
* Configuring Flymake::
* Flymake Implementation::
* GNU Free Documentation License::
* Index::

File: flymake,  Node: Overview of Flymake,  Next: Installing Flymake,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Overview

Flymake is a universal on-the-fly syntax checker implemented as an
Emacs minor mode. Flymake runs the pre-configured syntax check tool
(compiler for C++ files, `perl' for perl files, etc.) in the
background, passing it a temporary copy of the current buffer, and
parses the output for known error/warning message patterns. Flymake
then highlights erroneous lines (i.e. lines for which at least one
error or warning has been reported by the syntax check tool), and
displays an overall buffer status in the mode line. Status information
displayed by Flymake contains total number of errors and warnings
reported for the buffer during the last syntax check.

   `flymake-goto-next-error' and `flymake-goto-prev-error' functions
allow for easy navigation to the next/previous erroneous line,

   Calling `flymake-display-err-menu-for-current-line' will popup a
menu containing error messages reported by the syntax check tool for
the current line. Errors/warnings belonging to another file, such as a
`.h' header file included by a `.c' file, are shown in the current
buffer as belonging to the first line. Menu items for such messages
also contain a filename and a line number. Selecting such a menu item
will automatically open the file and jump to the line with error.

   Syntax check is done 'on-the-fly'. It is started whenever

   * buffer is loaded

   * a newline character is added to the buffer

   * some changes were made to the buffer more than `0.5' seconds ago
     (the delay is configurable).

   Flymake is a universal syntax checker in the sense that it's easily
extended to support new syntax check tools and error message patterns.
*Note Configuring Flymake::.

File: flymake,  Node: Installing Flymake,  Next: Using Flymake,  Prev: Overview of Flymake,  Up: Top

2 Installing

Flymake is packaged in a single file, `flymake.el'.

   To install/update Flymake, place `flymake.el' to a directory
somewhere on Emacs load path. You might also want to byte-compile
`flymake.el' to improve performance.

   Also, place the following line in the `.emacs' file.

     (require 'flymake)

   You might also map the most frequently used Flymake functions, such
as `flymake-goto-next-error', to some keyboard shortcuts:

     (global-set-key [f3] 'flymake-display-err-menu-for-current-line)
     (global-set-key [f4] 'flymake-goto-next-error)

File: flymake,  Node: Using Flymake,  Next: Configuring Flymake,  Prev: Installing Flymake,  Up: Top

3 Using Flymake

* Menu:

* Flymake mode::
* Running the syntax check::
* Navigating to error lines::
* Viewing error messages::
* Syntax check statuses::
* Troubleshooting::

File: flymake,  Node: Flymake mode,  Next: Running the syntax check,  Up: Using Flymake

3.1 Flymake mode

Flymake is an Emacs minor mode. To use Flymake, you must first activate
`flymake-mode' by using the `flymake-mode' function.

   Instead of manually activating `flymake-mode', you can configure
Flymake to automatically enable `flymake-mode' upon opening any file
for which syntax check is possible. To do so, place the following line
in `.emacs':

     (add-hook 'find-file-hook 'flymake-find-file-hook)

File: flymake,  Node: Running the syntax check,  Next: Navigating to error lines,  Prev: Flymake mode,  Up: Using Flymake

3.2 Running the syntax check

When `flymake-mode' is active, syntax check is started automatically on
any of the three conditions mentioned above. Syntax check can also be
started manually by using the
`flymake-start-syntax-check-for-current-buffer' function. This can be
used, for example, when changes were made to some other buffer
affecting the current buffer.

File: flymake,  Node: Navigating to error lines,  Next: Viewing error messages,  Prev: Running the syntax check,  Up: Using Flymake

3.3 Navigating to error lines

After syntax check is completed, lines for which at least one error or
warning has been reported are highlighted, and total number of errors
and warning is shown in the mode line. Use the following functions to
navigate the highlighted lines.

`flymake-goto-next-error'Moves point to the next erroneous line, if any.
`flymake-goto-prev-error'Moves point to the previous erroneous line.

   These functions treat erroneous lines as a linked list. Therefore,
`flymake-goto-next-error' will go to the first erroneous line when
invoked in the end of the buffer.

File: flymake,  Node: Viewing error messages,  Next: Syntax check statuses,  Prev: Navigating to error lines,  Up: Using Flymake

3.4 Viewing error messages

To view error messages belonging to the current line, use the
`flymake-display-err-menu-for-current-line' function. If there's at
least one error or warning reported for the current line, this function
will display a popup menu with error/warning texts.  Selecting the menu
item whose error belongs to another file brings forward that file with
the help of the `flymake-goto-file-and-line' function.

File: flymake,  Node: Syntax check statuses,  Next: Troubleshooting,  Prev: Viewing error messages,  Up: Using Flymake

3.5 Syntax check statuses

After syntax check is finished, its status is displayed in the mode
line.  The following statuses are defined.

Flymake* or        Flymake is currently running. For the second case,
Flymake:E/W*       E/W contains the       error and warning count for
                   the previous run.
Flymake            Syntax check is not running. Usually this means
                   syntax check was       successfully passed (no
                   errors, no warnings). Other possibilities are:
                   syntax check was killed as a result of executing
                   `flymake-compile', or syntax check cannot start as
                   compilation       is currently in progress.
Flymake:E/W        Number of errors/warnings found by the syntax check
Flymake:!          Flymake was unable to find master file for the
                   current buffer.

   The following errors cause a warning message and switch flymake mode
OFF for the buffer.

CFGERR             Syntax check process returned nonzero exit code, but
                   no       errors/warnings were reported. This
                   indicates a possible configuration       error (for
                   example, no suitable error message patterns for the
                      syntax check tool).
NOMASTER           Flymake was unable to find master file for the
                   current buffer.
NOMK               Flymake was unable to find a suitable buildfile for
                   the current buffer.
PROCERR            Flymake was unable to launch a syntax check process.

File: flymake,  Node: Troubleshooting,  Prev: Syntax check statuses,  Up: Using Flymake

3.6 Troubleshooting

Flymake uses a simple logging facility for indicating important points
in the control flow. The logging facility sends logging messages to the
`*Messages*' buffer. The information logged can be used for resolving
various problems related to Flymake.

   Logging output is controlled by the `flymake-log-level' variable.
`3' is the  most verbose level, and `-1' switches logging off.

File: flymake,  Node: Configuring Flymake,  Next: Flymake Implementation,  Prev: Using Flymake,  Up: Top

4 Configuring and Extending Flymake

* Menu:

* Customizable variables::
* Adding support for a new syntax check tool::

   Flymake was designed to be easily extended for supporting new syntax
check tools and error message patterns.

File: flymake,  Node: Customizable variables,  Next: Adding support for a new syntax check tool,  Up: Configuring Flymake

4.1 Customizable variables

This section summarizes variables used for Flymake configuration.

     Controls logging output, see *note Troubleshooting::.

     A list of `(filename-regexp, init-function, cleanup-function
     getfname-function)' for configuring syntax check tools. *Note
     Adding support for a new syntax check tool::.

     A list of directories (relative paths) for searching a buildfile.
     *Note Locating the buildfile::.

     A list of directories for searching a master file. *Note Locating
     a master file::.

     A function used for obtaining a list of project include dirs (C/C++
     specific). *Note Getting the include directories::.

     Used when looking for a master file. *Note Locating a master

     Patterns for error/warning messages in the form `(regexp file-idx
     line-idx col-idx err-text-idx)'. *Note Parsing the output::.

     A flag indicating whether compilation and syntax check of the same
     file cannot be run simultaneously.

     If any changes are made to the buffer, syntax check is
     automatically started after `flymake-no-changes-timeout' seconds.

     A boolean flag indicating whether Flymake will show message boxes
     for non-recoverable errors. If `flymake-gui-warnings-enabled' is
     `nil', these errors will only be logged to the `*Messages*' buffer.

     A boolean flag indicating whether to start syntax check after a
     newline character is added to the buffer.

     A custom face for highlighting lines for which at least one error
     has been reported.

     A custom face for highlighting lines for which at least one warning
     and no errors have been reported.

File: flymake,  Node: Adding support for a new syntax check tool,  Prev: Customizable variables,  Up: Configuring Flymake

4.2 Adding support for a new syntax check tool

* Menu:

* Example -- Configuring a tool called directly::
* Example -- Configuring a tool called via make::

   Syntax check tools are configured using the
`flymake-allowed-file-name-masks' list. Each item of this list has the
following format:

     (filename-regexp, init-function, cleanup-function, getfname-function)

     This field is used as a key for locating init/cleanup/getfname
     functions for the buffer.  Items in
     `flymake-allowed-file-name-masks' are searched sequentially. The
     first item with `filename-regexp' matching buffer filename is
     selected. If no match is found, `flymake-mode' is switched off.

     `init-function' is required to initialize the syntax check,
     usually by creating a temporary copy of the buffer contents. The
     function must return `(list cmd-name arg-list)'. If
     `init-function' returns null, syntax check is aborted, by
     `flymake-mode' is not switched off.

     `cleanup-function' is called after the syntax check process is
     complete and should take care of proper deinitialization, which is
     usually deleting a temporary copy created by the `init-function'.

     This function is used for translating filenames reported by the
     syntax check tool into "real" filenames. Filenames reported by the
     tool will be different from the real ones, as actually the tool
     works with the temporary copy.  In most cases, the default
     implementation provided by Flymake, `flymake-get-real-file-name',
     can be used as `getfname-function'.

   To add support for a new syntax check tool, write corresponding
`init-function', and, optionally `cleanup-function' and
`getfname-function'.  If the format of error messages reported by the
new tool is not yet supported by Flymake, add a new entry to the
`flymake-err-line-patterns' list.

   The following sections contain some examples of configuring Flymake
support for various syntax check tools.

File: flymake,  Node: Example -- Configuring a tool called directly,  Next: Example -- Configuring a tool called via make,  Up: Adding support for a new syntax check tool

4.2.1 Example - Configuring a tool called directly

In this example, we will add support for `perl' as a syntax check tool.
`perl' supports the `-c' option which does syntax checking.

   First, we write the `init-function':

     (defun flymake-perl-init ()
       (let* ((temp-file (flymake-init-create-temp-buffer-copy
     	 (local-file (file-relative-name
                           (file-name-directory buffer-file-name))))
         (list "perl" (list "-wc " local-file))))

   `flymake-perl-init' creates a temporary copy of the buffer contents
with the help of `flymake-init-create-temp-buffer-copy', and builds an
appropriate command line.

   Next, we add a new entry to the `flymake-allowed-file-name-masks':

     (setq flymake-allowed-file-name-masks
           (cons '(".+\\.pl$"

   Note that we use standard `cleanup-function' and `getfname-function'.

   Finally, we add an entry to `flymake-err-line-patterns':

     (setq flymake-err-line-patterns
           (cons '("\\(.*\\) at \\([^ \n]+\\) line \\([0-9]+\\)[,.\n]"
                   2 3 nil 1)

File: flymake,  Node: Example -- Configuring a tool called via make,  Prev: Example -- Configuring a tool called directly,  Up: Adding support for a new syntax check tool

4.2.2 Example - Configuring a tool called via make

In this example we will add support for C files syntax checked by `gcc'
called via `make'.

   We're not required to write any new functions, as Flymake already has
functions for `make'. We just add a new entry to the

     (setq flymake-allowed-file-name-masks
           (cons '(".+\\.c$"

   `flymake-simple-make-init' builds the following `make' command line:

     (list "make"
           (list "-s" "-C"
                 (concat "CHK_SOURCES=" source)

   `base-dir' is a directory containing `Makefile', see *note Locating
the buildfile::.

   Thus, `Makefile' must contain the `check-syntax' target. In our case
this target might look like this:

	gcc -o nul -S ${CHK_SOURCES}

   The format of error messages reported by `gcc' is already supported
by Flymake, so we don't have to add a new entry to

File: flymake,  Node: Flymake Implementation,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Configuring Flymake,  Up: Top

5 Flymake Implementation

* Menu:

* Determining whether syntax check is possible::
* Making a temporary copy::
* Locating a master file::
* Getting the include directories::
* Locating the buildfile::
* Starting the syntax check process::
* Parsing the output::
* Highlighting erroneous lines::
* Interaction with other modes::

   Syntax check is started by calling
`flymake-start-syntax-check-for-current-buffer'.  Flymake first
determines whether it is able to do syntax check. It then saves a copy
of the buffer in a temporary file in the buffer's directory (or in the
system temp directory - for java files), creates a syntax check command
and launches a process with this command. The output is parsed using a
list of error message patterns, and error information (file name, line
number, type and text) is saved. After the process has finished,
Flymake highlights erroneous lines in the buffer using the accumulated
error information.

File: flymake,  Node: Determining whether syntax check is possible,  Next: Making a temporary copy,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.1 Determining whether syntax check is possible

Syntax check is considered possible if there's an entry in
`flymake-allowed-file-name-masks' matching buffer's filename and its
`init-function' returns non-`nil' value.

   Two syntax check modes are distinguished:

  1. Buffer can be syntax checked in a standalone fashion, that is, the
     file (its temporary copy, in fact) can be passed over to the
     compiler to do the syntax check. Examples are C/C++ (.c, .cpp) and
     Java (.java) sources.

  2. Buffer can be syntax checked, but additional file, called master
     file, is required to perform this operation. A master file is a
     file that includes the current file, so that running a syntax
     check tool on it will also check syntax in the current file.
     Examples are C/C++ (.h, .hpp) headers.

   These modes are handled inside init/cleanup/getfname functions, see
*note Adding support for a new syntax check tool::.

   Flymake contains implementations of all functionality required to
support different syntax check modes described above (making temporary
copies, finding master files, etc.), as well as some tool-specific
(routines for `make', `Ant', etc.) code.

File: flymake,  Node: Making a temporary copy,  Next: Locating a master file,  Prev: Determining whether syntax check is possible,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.2 Making a temporary copy

After the possibility of the syntax check has been determined, a
temporary copy of the current buffer is made so that the most recent
unsaved changes could be seen by the syntax check tool. Making a copy
is quite straightforward in a standalone case (mode `1'), as it's just
saving buffer contents to a temporary file.

   Things get trickier, however, when master file is involved, as it
requires to

   * locate a master file

   * patch it to include the current file using its new (temporary)

   Locating a master file is discussed in the following section.

   Patching just changes all appropriate lines of the master file so
that they use the new (temporary) name of the current file. For
example, suppose current file name is `file.h', the master file is
`file.cpp', and it includes current file via `#include "file.h"'.
Current file's copy is saved to file `file_flymake.h', so the include
line must be changed to `#include "file_flymake.h"'. Finally, patched
master file is saved to `file_flymake_master.cpp', and the last one is
passed to the syntax check tool.

File: flymake,  Node: Locating a master file,  Next: Getting the include directories,  Prev: Making a temporary copy,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.3 Locating a master file

Master file is located in two steps.

   First, a list of possible master files is built. A simple name
matching is used to find the files. For a C++ header `file.h', Flymake
searches for all `.cpp' files in the directories whose relative paths
are stored in a customizable variable `flymake-master-file-dirs', which
usually contains something like `("." "./src")'. No more than
`flymake-master-file-count-limit' entries is added to the master file
list. The list is then sorted to move files with names `file.cpp' to
the top.

   Next, each master file in a list is checked to contain the
appropriate include directives. No more than `flymake-check-file-limit'
of each file are parsed.

   For `file.h', the include directives to look for are `#include
"file.h"', `#include "../file.h"', etc. Each include is checked against
a list of include directories (see *note Getting the include
directories::) to be sure it points to the correct `file.h'.

   First matching master file found stops the search. The master file
is then patched and saved to disk. In case no master file is found,
syntax check is aborted, and corresponding status (!) is reported in
the mode line.

File: flymake,  Node: Getting the include directories,  Next: Locating the buildfile,  Prev: Locating a master file,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.4 Getting the include directories

Two sets of include directories are distinguished: system include
directories and project include directories. The former is just the
contents of the `INCLUDE' environment variable. The latter is not so
easy to obtain, and the way it can be obtained can vary greatly for
different projects.  Therefore, a customizable variable
`flymake-get-project-include-dirs-function' is used to provide the way
to implement the desired behavior.

   The default implementation, `flymake-get-project-include-dirs-imp',
uses a `make' call. This requires a correct base directory, that is, a
directory containing a correct `Makefile', to be determined.

   As obtaining the project include directories might be a costly
operation, its return value is cached in the hash table. The cache is
cleared in the beginning of every syntax check attempt.

File: flymake,  Node: Locating the buildfile,  Next: Starting the syntax check process,  Prev: Getting the include directories,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.5 Locating the buildfile

Flymake can be configured to use different tools for performing syntax
checks. For example, it can use direct compiler call to syntax check a
perl script or a call to `make' for a more complicated case of a
`C/C++' source. The general idea is that simple files, like perl
scripts and html pages, can be checked by directly invoking a
corresponding tool. Files that are usually more complex and generally
used as part of larger projects, might require non-trivial options to
be passed to the syntax check tool, like include directories for C++.
The latter files are syntax checked using some build tool, like `make'
or `Ant'.

   All `make' configuration data is usually stored in a file called
`Makefile'. To allow for future extensions, flymake uses a notion of
buildfile to reference the 'project configuration' file.

   Special function, `flymake-find-buildfile' is provided for locating
buildfiles.  Searching for a buildfile is done in a manner similar to
that of searching for possible master files. A customizable variable
`flymake-buildfile-dirs' holds a list of relative paths to the
buildfile. They are checked sequentially until a buildfile is found. In
case there's no build file, syntax check is aborted.

   Buildfile values are also cached.

File: flymake,  Node: Starting the syntax check process,  Next: Parsing the output,  Prev: Locating the buildfile,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.6 Starting the syntax check process

The command line (command name and the list of arguments) for launching
a process is returned by the initialization function. Flymake then just
calls `start-process' to start an asynchronous process and configures
process filter and sentinel which is used for processing the output of
the syntax check tool.

File: flymake,  Node: Parsing the output,  Next: Highlighting erroneous lines,  Prev: Starting the syntax check process,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.7 Parsing the output

The output generated by the syntax check tool is parsed in the process
filter/sentinel using the error message patterns stored in the
`flymake-err-line-patterns' variable. This variable contains a list of
items of the form `(regexp file-idx line-idx err-text-idx)', used to
determine whether a particular line is an error message and extract
file name, line number and error text, respectively. Error type
(error/warning) is also guessed by matching error text with the
'`^[wW]arning'' pattern. Anything that was not classified as a warning
is considered an error. Type is then used to sort error menu items,
which shows error messages first.

   Flymake is also able to interpret error message patterns missing
err-text-idx information. This is done by merely taking the rest of the
matched line (`(substring line (match-end 0))') as error text. This
trick allows to make use of a huge collection of error message line
patterns from `compile.el'. All these error patterns are appended to
the end of `flymake-err-line-patterns'.

   The error information obtained is saved in a buffer local variable.
The buffer for which the process output belongs is determined from the
process-id->buffer mapping updated after every process launch/exit.

File: flymake,  Node: Highlighting erroneous lines,  Next: Interaction with other modes,  Prev: Parsing the output,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.8 Highlighting erroneous lines

Highlighting is implemented with overlays and happens in the process
sentinel, after calling the cleanup function. Two customizable faces
are used: `flymake-errline' and `flymake-warnline'.  Errors belonging
outside the current buffer are considered to belong to line 1 of the
current buffer.

File: flymake,  Node: Interaction with other modes,  Prev: Highlighting erroneous lines,  Up: Flymake Implementation

5.9 Interaction with other modes

The only mode flymake currently knows about is `compile'.

   Flymake can be configured to not start syntax check if it thinks the
compilation is in progress. The check is made by the
`flymake-compilation-is-running', which tests the
`compilation-in-progress' variable. The reason why this might be useful
is saving CPU time in case both syntax check and compilation are very
CPU intensive. The original reason for adding this feature, though, was
working around a locking problem with MS Visual C++ compiler.

   Flymake also provides an alternative command for starting
compilation, `flymake-compile':

     (defun flymake-compile ()
       "Kill all flymake syntax checks then start compilation."
       (call-interactively 'compile))

   It just kills all the active syntax check processes before calling

File: flymake,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Index,  Prev: Flymake Implementation,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.


     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.


     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.


     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.


     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."


     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.


     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.


     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.


     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: flymake,  Node: Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top


* Menu:

* Adding support for a new syntax check tool: Adding support for a new syntax check tool.
                                                                (line 6)
* Adding support for C (gcc+make):       Example -- Configuring a tool called via make.
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* Adding support for perl:               Example -- Configuring a tool called directly.
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* buildfile, locating:                   Locating the buildfile.
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* Configuring and Extending Flymake:     Configuring Flymake.   (line 6)
* Customizable variables:                Customizable variables.
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* Erroneous lines, faces:                Highlighting erroneous lines.
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* flymake-mode:                          Flymake mode.          (line 6)
* Implementation details:                Flymake Implementation.
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* Include directories (C/C++ specific):  Getting the include directories.
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* Installing Flymake:                    Installing Flymake.    (line 6)
* Interaction with compile mode:         Interaction with other modes.
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* Interaction with other modes:          Interaction with other modes.
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* Locating the buildfile:                Locating the buildfile.
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* Logging:                               Troubleshooting.       (line 6)
* Makefile, locating:                    Locating the buildfile.
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* Manually starting the syntax check:    Running the syntax check.
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* Master file <1>:                       Locating a master file.
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* Master file <2>:                       Making a temporary copy.
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* Master file:                           Determining whether syntax check is possible.
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* Navigating to error lines:             Navigating to error lines.
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* Overview of Flymake:                   Overview of Flymake.   (line 6)
* Parsing the output:                    Parsing the output.    (line 6)
* Syntax check models:                   Determining whether syntax check is possible.
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* Syntax check process:                  Starting the syntax check process.
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* Syntax check statuses:                 Syntax check statuses. (line 6)
* Temporary copy of the buffer:          Making a temporary copy.
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* Troubleshooting:                       Troubleshooting.       (line 6)
* Using Flymake:                         Using Flymake.         (line 6)
* Viewing error messages:                Viewing error messages.
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