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Eshell is a shell-like command interpretor implemented in Emacs Lisp.
It invokes no external processes except for those requested by the
user.  It is intended to be a functional replacement for command shells
such as `bash', `zsh', `rc', or `4dos'; since Emacs itself is capable of
handling the sort of tasks accomplished by those tools.

   This manual is for Eshell, the Emacs shell.

   Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007,
2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* What is Eshell?::             A brief introduction to the Emacs Shell.
* Command basics::              The basics of command usage.
* Commands::
* Arguments::
* Input/Output::
* Process control::
* Extension modules::
* Extras and Goodies::
* Bugs and ideas::              Known problems, and future ideas.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Concept Index::
* Function and Variable Index::
* Key Index::

File: eshell,  Node: What is Eshell?,  Next: Command basics,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 What is Eshell?

Eshell is a "command shell" written in Emacs Lisp.  Everything it does,
it uses Emacs' facilities to do.  This means that Eshell is as portable
as Emacs itself.  It also means that cooperation with Lisp code is
natural and seamless.

   What is a command shell?  To properly understand the role of a shell,
it's necessary to visualize what a computer does for you.  Basically, a
computer is a tool; in order to use that tool, you must tell it what to
do--or give it "commands."  These commands take many forms, such as
clicking with a mouse on certain parts of the screen.  But that is only
one form of command input.

   By far the most versatile way to express what you want the computer
to do is by using an abbreviated language called "script".  In script,
instead of telling the computer, "list my files, please", one writes a
standard abbreviated command word--`ls'.  Typing `ls' in a command
shell is a script way of telling the computer to list your files.(1)

   The real flexibility of this approach is apparent only when you
realize that there are many, many different ways to list files.
Perhaps you want them sorted by name, sorted by date, in reverse order,
or grouped by type.  Most graphical browsers have simple ways to
express this.  But what about showing only a few files, or only files
that meet a certain criteria?  In very complex and specific situations,
the request becomes too difficult to express using a mouse or pointing
device.  It is just these kinds of requests that are easily solved
using a command shell.

   For example, what if you want to list every Word file on your hard
drive, larger than 100 kilobytes in size, and which hasn't been looked
at in over six months?  That is a good candidate list for deletion, when
you go to clean up your hard drive.  But have you ever tried asking your
computer for such a list?  There is no way to do it!  At least, not
without using a command shell.

   The role of a command shell is to give you more control over what
your computer does for you.  Not everyone needs this amount of control,
and it does come at a cost: Learning the necessary script commands to
express what you want done.  A complicated query, such as the example
above, takes time to learn.  But if you find yourself using your
computer frequently enough, it is more than worthwhile in the long run.
Any tool you use often deserves the time spent learning to master it.

* Menu:

* Contributors to Eshell::      People who have helped out!

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This is comparable to viewing the contents of a folder using a
graphical display.

   (2) For the understandably curious, here is what that command looks
like: But don't let it fool you; once you know what's going on, it's
easier than it looks: `ls -lt **/*.doc(Lk+50aM+5)'.

File: eshell,  Node: Contributors to Eshell,  Up: What is Eshell?

1.1 Contributors to Eshell

Contributions to Eshell are welcome.  I have limited time to work on
this project, but I will gladly add any code you contribute to me to
this package.

   The following persons have made contributions to Eshell.

   * Eli Zaretskii made it possible for Eshell to run without requiring
     asynchronous subprocess support.  This is important for MS-DOS,
     which does not have such support.

   * Miles Bader contributed many fixes during the port to Emacs 21.

   * Stefan Monnier fixed the things which bothered him, which of
     course made things better for all.

   * Gerd Moellmann also helped to contribute bug fixes during the
     initial integration with Emacs 21.

   * Alex Schroeder contributed code for interactively querying the user
     before overwriting files.

   * Sudish Joseph helped with some XEmacs compatibility issues.

   Apart from these, a lot of people have sent suggestions, ideas,
requests, bug reports and encouragement.  Thanks a lot!  Without you
there would be no new releases of Eshell.

File: eshell,  Node: Command basics,  Next: Commands,  Prev: What is Eshell?,  Up: Top

2 Basic overview

A command shell is a means of entering verbally-formed commands.  This
is really all that it does, and every feature described in this manual
is a means to that end.  Therefore, it's important to take firm hold on
exactly what a command is, and how it fits in the overall picture of

* Menu:

* Commands verbs::              Commands always begin with a verb.
* Command arguments::           Some verbs require arguments.

File: eshell,  Node: Commands verbs,  Next: Command arguments,  Up: Command basics

2.1 Commands verbs

Commands are expressed using "script", a special shorthand language
computers can understand with no trouble.  Script is an extremely simple
language; oddly enough, this is what makes it look so complicated!
Whereas normal languages use a variety of embellishments, the form of a
script command is always:


   The verb expresses what you want your computer to do.  There are a
fixed number of verbs, although this number is usually quite large.  On
the author's computer, it reaches almost 1400 in number.  But of course,
only a handful of these are really necessary.

   Sometimes, the verb is all that's written.  A verb is always a single
word, usually related to the task it performs.  `reboot' is a good
example.  Entering that on GNU/Linux will reboot the computer--assuming
you have sufficient privileges.

   Other verbs require more information.  These are usually very capable
verbs, and must be told specifically what to do.  The extra information
is given in the form of "arguments".  For example, the `echo' verb
prints back whatever arguments you type.  It requires these arguments
to know what to echo.  A proper use of `echo' looks like this:

     echo This is an example of using echo!

   This script command causes the computer to echo back: "This is an
example of using echo!"

   Although command verbs are always simple words, like `reboot' or
`echo', arguments may have a wide variety of forms.  There are textual
arguments, numerical arguments--even Lisp arguments.  Distinguishing
these different types of arguments requires special typing, for the
computer to know exactly what you mean.

File: eshell,  Node: Command arguments,  Prev: Commands verbs,  Up: Command basics

2.2 Command arguments

Eshell recognizes several different kinds of command arguments:

  1. Strings (also called textual arguments)

  2. Numbers (floating point or integer)

  3. Lisp lists

  4. Lisp symbols

  5. Emacs buffers

  6. Emacs process handles

   Most users need to worry only about the first two.  The third, Lisp
lists, occur very frequently, but almost always behind the scenes.

   Strings are the most common type of argument, and consist of nearly
any character.  Special characters--those used by Eshell
specifically--must be preceded by a backslash (`\').  When in doubt, it
is safe to add backslashes anywhere and everywhere.

   Here is a more complicated `echo' example:

     echo A\ Multi-word\ Argument\ With\ A\ \$\ dollar

   Beyond this, things get a bit more complicated.  While not beyond the
reach of someone wishing to learn, it is definitely beyond the scope of
this manual to present it all in a simplistic manner.  Get comfortable
with Eshell as a basic command invocation tool, and learn more about the
commands on your system; then come back when it all sits more familiarly
on your mind.  Have fun!

File: eshell,  Node: Commands,  Next: Arguments,  Prev: Command basics,  Up: Top

3 Commands

* Menu:

* Invocation::
* Completion::
* Aliases::
* History::
* Scripts::
* Built-ins::

   Essentially, a command shell is all about invoking commands--and
everything that entails.  So understanding how Eshell invokes commands
is the key to comprehending how it all works.

File: eshell,  Node: Invocation,  Next: Completion,  Up: Commands

3.1 Invocation

Unlike regular system shells, Eshell never invokes kernel functions
directly, such as `exec(3)'.  Instead, it uses the Lisp functions
available in the Emacs Lisp library.  It does this by transforming the
command you specify into a callable Lisp form.(1)

   This transformation, from the string of text typed at the command
prompt, to the ultimate invocation of either a Lisp function or external
command, follows these steps:

  1. Parse the command string into separate arguments.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) To see the Lisp form that will be invoked, type:
`eshell-parse-command "echo hello"'

File: eshell,  Node: Completion,  Next: Aliases,  Prev: Invocation,  Up: Commands

3.2 Completion

File: eshell,  Node: Aliases,  Next: History,  Prev: Completion,  Up: Commands

3.3 Aliases

File: eshell,  Node: History,  Next: Scripts,  Prev: Aliases,  Up: Commands

3.4 History

Eshell knows a few built-in variables:

     This variable always contains the current working directory.

     This variable always contains the previous working directory (the
     current working directory from before the last `cd' command).

File: eshell,  Node: Scripts,  Next: Built-ins,  Prev: History,  Up: Commands

3.5 Scripts

File: eshell,  Node: Built-ins,  Prev: Scripts,  Up: Commands

3.6 Built-in commands

Here is a list of built-in commands that Eshell knows about:

     This command changes the current working directory.  Usually, it is
     invoked as `cd foo' where `foo' is the new working directory.  But
     `cd' knows about a few special arguments:

     When it receives no argument at all, it changes to the home

     Giving the command `cd -' changes back to the previous working
     directory (this is the same as `cd $-').

     The command `cd =' shows the directory stack.  Each line is

     With `cd =foo', Eshell searches the directory stack for a
     directory matching the regular expression `foo' and changes to
     that directory.

     With `cd -42', you can access the directory stack by number.

File: eshell,  Node: Arguments,  Next: Input/Output,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Top

4 Arguments

* Menu:

* The Parser::
* Variables::
* Substitution::
* Globbing::
* Predicates::

File: eshell,  Node: The Parser,  Next: Variables,  Up: Arguments

4.1 The Parser

File: eshell,  Node: Variables,  Next: Substitution,  Prev: The Parser,  Up: Arguments

4.2 Variables

File: eshell,  Node: Substitution,  Next: Globbing,  Prev: Variables,  Up: Arguments

4.3 Substitution

File: eshell,  Node: Globbing,  Next: Predicates,  Prev: Substitution,  Up: Arguments

4.4 Globbing

File: eshell,  Node: Predicates,  Prev: Globbing,  Up: Arguments

4.5 Predicates

File: eshell,  Node: Input/Output,  Next: Process control,  Prev: Arguments,  Up: Top

5 Input/Output

File: eshell,  Node: Process control,  Next: Extension modules,  Prev: Input/Output,  Up: Top

6 Process control

File: eshell,  Node: Extension modules,  Next: Extras and Goodies,  Prev: Process control,  Up: Top

7 Extension modules

* Menu:

* Writing a module::
* Module testing::
* Directory handling::
* Key rebinding::
* Smart scrolling::
* Terminal emulation::
* Built-in UNIX commands::

File: eshell,  Node: Writing a module,  Next: Module testing,  Up: Extension modules

7.1 Writing a module

File: eshell,  Node: Module testing,  Next: Directory handling,  Prev: Writing a module,  Up: Extension modules

7.2 Module testing

File: eshell,  Node: Directory handling,  Next: Key rebinding,  Prev: Module testing,  Up: Extension modules

7.3 Directory handling

File: eshell,  Node: Key rebinding,  Next: Smart scrolling,  Prev: Directory handling,  Up: Extension modules

7.4 Key rebinding

File: eshell,  Node: Smart scrolling,  Next: Terminal emulation,  Prev: Key rebinding,  Up: Extension modules

7.5 Smart scrolling

File: eshell,  Node: Terminal emulation,  Next: Built-in UNIX commands,  Prev: Smart scrolling,  Up: Extension modules

7.6 Terminal emulation

File: eshell,  Node: Built-in UNIX commands,  Prev: Terminal emulation,  Up: Extension modules

7.7 Built-in UNIX commands

File: eshell,  Node: Extras and Goodies,  Next: Bugs and ideas,  Prev: Extension modules,  Up: Top

8 Extras and Goodies

File: eshell,  Node: Bugs and ideas,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Extras and Goodies,  Up: Top

9 Bugs and ideas

If you find a bug or misfeature, don't hesitate to let me know!  Send
email to <>.  Feature requests should also be sent there.
I prefer discussing one thing at a time.  If you find several unrelated
bugs, please report them separately.

   If you have ideas for improvements, or if you have written some
extensions to this package, I would like to hear from you.  I hope you
find this package useful!

* Menu:

* Known problems::

File: eshell,  Node: Known problems,  Up: Bugs and ideas

9.1 Known problems

Below is complete list of known problems with Eshell version 2.4.2,
which is the version included with Emacs 22.

Documentation incomplete

Differentiate between aliases and functions
     Allow for a bash-compatible syntax, such as:

          alias arg=blah
          function arg () { blah $* }

`for i in 1 2 3 { grep -q a b && *echo has it } | wc -l' outputs result after prompt
     In fact, piping to a process from a looping construct doesn't work
     in general.  If I change the call to `eshell-copy-handles' in
     `eshell-rewrite-for-command' to use `eshell-protect', it seems to
     work, but the output occurs after the prompt is displayed.  The
     whole structured command thing is too complicated at present.

Error with `bc' in `eshell-test'
     On some XEmacs system, the subprocess interaction test fails
     inexplicably, although `bc' works fine at the command prompt.

Eshell does not delete `*Help*' buffers in XEmacs 21.1.8+
     In XEmacs 21.1.8, the `*Help*' buffer has been renamed such that
     multiple instances of the `*Help*' buffer can exist.

Pcomplete sometimes gets stuck
     You press <TAB>, but no completions appear, even though the
     directory has matching files.  This behavior is rare.

`grep python $<rpm -qa>' doesn't work, but using `*grep' does
     This happens because the `grep' Lisp function returns immediately,
     and then the asynchronous `grep' process expects to examine the
     temporary file, which has since been deleted.

Problem with C-r repeating text
     If the text _before point_ reads "./run", and you type `C-r r u
     n', it will repeat the line for every character typed.

Backspace doesn't scroll back after continuing (in smart mode)
     Hitting space during a process invocation, such as `make', will
     cause it to track the bottom of the output; but backspace no longer
     scrolls back.

It's not possible to fully `unload-feature' Eshell

Menu support was removed, but never put back

Using C-p and C-n with rebind gets into a locked state
     This happened a few times in Emacs 21, but has been unreproducible

If an interactive process is currently running, `M-!' doesn't work

Use a timer instead of `sleep-for' when killing child processes

Piping to a Lisp function is not supported
     Make it so that the Lisp command on the right of the pipe is
     repeatedly called with the input strings as arguments.  This will
     require changing `eshell-do-pipeline' to handle non-process

Input redirection is not supported
     See the above entry.

Problem running `less' without arguments on Windows
     The result in the Eshell buffer is:

          Spawning child process: invalid argument

     Also a new `less' buffer was created with nothing in it...
     (presumably this holds the output of `less').

     If `less.exe' is invoked from the Eshell command line, the
     expected output is written to the buffer.

     Note that this happens on NT-Emacs 20.6.1 on Windows 2000. The
     term.el package and the supplied shell both use the `cmdproxy'
     program for running shells.

Implement `-r', `-n' and `-s' switches for `cp'

Make `M-5 M-x eshell' switch to "*eshell<5>*", creating if need be

`mv DIR FILE.tar' does not remove directories
     This is because the tar option -remove-files doesn't do so.
     Should it be Eshell's job?

Bind `standard-output' and `standard-error'
     This would be so that if a Lisp function calls `print', everything
     will happen as it should (albeit slowly).

When an extension module fails to load, `cd /' gives a Lisp error

If a globbing pattern returns one match, should it be a list?

Make sure syntax table is correct in Eshell mode
     So that `M-DEL' acts in a predictable manner, etc.

Allow all Eshell buffers to share the same history and list-dir

There is a problem with script commands that output to `/dev/null'
     If a script file, somewhere in the middle, uses `> /dev/null',
     output from all subsequent commands is swallowed.

Split up parsing of text after `$' in `esh-var.el'
     Make it similar to the way that `esh-arg.el' is structured.  Then
     add parsing of `$[?\n]'.

After pressing `M-RET', redisplay before running the next command

Argument predicates and modifiers should work anywhere in a path
          /usr/local/src/editors/vim $ vi **/CVS(/)/Root(.)
          Invalid regexp: "Unmatched ( or \\("

     With `zsh', the glob above expands to all files named `Root' in
     directories named `CVS'.

Typing `echo ${locate locate}/bin<TAB>' results in a Lisp error
     Perhaps it should interpolate all permutations, and make that the
     globbing result, since otherwise hitting return here will result in
     "(list of filenames)/bin", which is never valuable.  Thus, one
     could `cat' only C backup files by using `ls ${identity *.c}~'.
     In that case, having an alias command name `glob' for `identity'
     would be useful.

Once symbolic mode is supported for `umask', implement `chmod' in Lisp

Create `eshell-expand-file-name'
     This would use a data table to transform things such as `~+',
     `...', etc.

Abstract `em-smart.el' into `smart-scroll.el'
     It only really needs: to be hooked onto the output filter and the
     pre-command hook, and to have the input-end and input-start
     markers.  And to know whether the last output group was

Allow for fully persisting the state of Eshell
     This would include: variables, history, buffer, input, dir stack,

Implement D as an argument predicate
     It means that files beginning with a dot should be included in the
     glob match.

A comma in a predicate list should mean OR
     At the moment, this is not supported.

Error if a glob doesn't expand due to a predicate
     An error should be generated only if `eshell-error-if-no-glob' is

`(+ RET SPC TAB' does not cause `indent-according-to-mode' to occur

Create `eshell-auto-accumulate-list'
     This is a list of commands for which, if the user presses `RET',
     the text is staged as the next Eshell command, rather than being
     sent to the current interactive process.

Display file and line number if an error occurs in a script

`wait' doesn't work with process ids at the moment

Enable the direct-to-process input code in `em-term.el'

Problem with repeating `echo ${find /tmp}'
     With smart display active, if `RET' is held down, after a while it
     can't keep up anymore and starts outputting blank lines.  It only
     happens if an asynchronous process is involved...

     I think the problem is that `eshell-send-input' is resetting the
     input target location, so that if the asynchronous process is not
     done by the time the next `RET' is received, the input processor
     thinks that the input is meant for the process; which, when smart
     display is enabled, will be the text of the last command line!
     That is a bug in itself.

     In holding down `RET' while an asynchronous process is running,
     there will be a point in between termination of the process, and
     the running of `eshell-post-command-hook', which would cause
     `eshell-send-input' to call `eshell-copy-old-input', and then
     process that text as a command to be run after the process.
     Perhaps there should be a way of killing pending input between the
     death of the process, and the `post-command-hook'.

Allow for a more aggressive smart display mode
     Perhaps toggled by a command, that makes each output block a smart
     display block.

Create more meta variables

          The reason for the failure of the last disk command, or the
          text of the last Lisp error.

          A special associate array, which can take references of the
          form `$=[REGEXP]'.  It indexes into the directory ring.

Eshell scripts can't execute in the background

Support zsh's "Parameter Expansion" syntax, i.e. `${NAME:-VAL}'

Write an `info' alias that can take arguments
     So that the user can enter `info chmod', for example.

Create a mode `eshell-browse'
     It would treat the Eshell buffer as a outline.  Collapsing the
     outline hides all of the output text.  Collapsing again would show
     only the first command run in each directory

Allow other revisions of a file to be referenced using `file{rev}'
     This would be expanded by `eshell-expand-file-name' (see above).

Print "You have new mail" when the "Mail" icon is turned on

Implement `M-|' for Eshell

Implement input redirection
     If it's a Lisp function, input redirection implies `xargs' (in a
     way...).  If input redirection is added, also update the
     `file-name-quote-list', and the delimiter list.

Allow `#<WORD ARG>' as a generic syntax
     With the handling of _word_ specified by an `eshell-special-alist'.

In `eshell-veal-using-options', allow a `:complete' tag
     It would be used to provide completion rules for that command.
     Then the macro will automagically define the completion function.

For `eshell-command-on-region', apply redirections to the result
     So that `+ > 'blah' would cause the result of the `+' (using input
     from the current region) to be inserting into the symbol `blah'.

     If an external command is being invoked, the input is sent as
     standard input, as if a `cat <region> |' had been invoked.

     If a Lisp command, or an alias, is invoked, then if the line has no
     newline characters, it is divided by whitespace and passed as
     arguments to the Lisp function.  Otherwise, it is divided at the
     newline characters.  Thus, invoking `+' on a series of numbers
     will add them; `min' would display the smallest figure, etc.

Write `eshell-script-mode' as a minor mode
     It would provide syntax, abbrev, highlighting and indenting
     support like `emacs-lisp-mode' and `shell-mode'.

In the history mechanism, finish the `bash'-style support
     This means `!n', `!#', `!:%', and `!:1-' as separate from `!:1*'.

Support the -n command line option for `history'

Implement `fc' in Lisp

Specifying a frame as a redirection target should imply the currently active window's buffer

Implement `>FUNC-OR-FUNC-LIST'
     This would allow for an "output translators", that take a function
     to modify output with, and a target.  Devise a syntax that works
     well with pipes, and can accommodate multiple functions (i.e.,
     `>'(upcase regexp-quote)' or `>'upcase').

Allow Eshell to read/write to/from standard input and output
     This would be optional, rather than always using the Eshell buffer.
     This would allow it to be run from the command line (perhaps).

Write a `help' command
     It would call subcommands with `--help', or `-h' or `/?', as

Implement `stty' in Lisp

Support `rc''s matching operator, e.g. `~ (LIST) REGEXP'

Implement `bg' and `fg' as editors of `eshell-process-list'
     Using `bg' on a process that is already in the background does
     nothing.  Specifying redirection targets replaces (or adds) to the
     list current being used.

Have `jobs' print only the processes for the current shell

How can Eshell learn if a background process has requested input?

Support `2>&1' and `>&' and `2>' and `|&'
     The syntax table for parsing these should be customizable, such
     that the user could change it to use rc syntax: `>[2=1]'.

Allow `$_[-1]', which would indicate the last element of the array

Make `$x[*]' equal to listing out the full contents of `x'
     Return them as a list, so that `$_[*]' is all the arguments of the
     last command.

Copy ANSI code handling from `term.el' into `em-term.el'
     Make it possible for the user to send char-by-char to the
     underlying process.  Ultimately, I should be able to move away
     from using term.el altogether, since everything but the ANSI code
     handling is already part of Eshell.  Then, things would work
     correctly on MS-Windows as well (which doesn't have `/bin/sh',
     although `term.el' tries to use it).

Make the shell spawning commands be visual
     That is, make (`su', `bash', `telnet', `rlogin', `rsh', etc.) be
     part of `eshell-visual-commands'.  The only exception is if the
     shell is being used to invoke a single command.  Then, the
     behavior should be based on what that command is.

Create a smart viewing command named `open'
     This would search for some way to open its argument (similar to
     opening a file in the Windows Explorer).

Alias `read' to be the same as `open', only read-only

Write a `tail' command which uses `view-file'
     It would move point to the end of the buffer, and then turns on
     auto-revert mode in that buffer at frequent intervals--and a
     `head' alias which assumes an upper limit of
     `eshell-maximum-line-length' characters per line.

Make `dgrep' load `dired', mark everything, then invoke `dired-do-search'

Write mesh.c
     This would run Emacs with the appropriate arguments to invoke
     Eshell only.  That way, it could be listed as a login shell.

Use an intangible `PS2' string for multi-line input prompts

Auto-detect when a command is visual, by checking `TERMCAP' usage

The first keypress after `M-x watson' triggers `eshell-send-input'

Make `/' electric
     So that it automatically expands and corrects pathnames.  Or make
     pathname completion for Pcomplete auto-expand `/u/i/std<TAB>' to

Write the `pushd' stack to disk along with `last-dir-ring'

Add options to `eshell/cat' which would allow it to sort and uniq

Implement `wc' in Lisp
     Add support for counting sentences, paragraphs, pages, etc.

Once piping is added, implement `sort' and `uniq' in Lisp

Implement `touch' in Lisp

Implement `comm' in Lisp

Implement an `epatch' command in Lisp
     This would call `ediff-patch-file', or `ediff-patch-buffer',
     depending on its argument.

Have an option such that `ls -l' generates a dired buffer

Write a version of `xargs' based on command rewriting
     That is, `find X | xargs Y' would be indicated using `Y ${find
     X}'.  Maybe `eshell-do-pipelines' could be changed to perform this
     on-thy-fly rewriting.

Write an alias for `less' that brings up a `view-mode' buffer
     Such that the user can press <SPC> and <DEL>, and then <q> to
     return to Eshell.  It would be equivalent to: `X > #<buffer Y>;
     view-buffer #<buffer Y>'.

Make `eshell-mode' as much a full citizen as `shell-mode'
     Everywhere in Emacs where `shell-mode' is specially noticed, add
     `eshell-mode' there.

Permit the umask to be selectively set on a `cp' target

Problem using `M-x eshell' after using `eshell-command'
     If the first thing that I do after entering Emacs is to run
     `eshell-command' and invoke `ls', and then use `M-x eshell', it
     doesn't display anything.

`M-RET' during a long command (using smart display) doesn't work
     Since it keeps the cursor up where the command was invoked.

File: eshell,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Concept Index,  Prev: Bugs and ideas,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.


     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.


     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.


     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.


     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."


     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.


     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.


     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.


     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: eshell,  Node: Concept Index,  Next: Function and Variable Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Concept Index

* Menu:

* author, how to reach:                  Bugs and ideas.        (line 6)
* authors:                               Contributors to Eshell.
                                                                (line 6)
* bugs, how to report them:              Bugs and ideas.        (line 6)
* bugs, known:                           Known problems.        (line 6)
* contributors:                          Contributors to Eshell.
                                                                (line 6)
* email to the author:                   Bugs and ideas.        (line 6)
* Eshell, what it is:                    What is Eshell?.       (line 6)
* FAQ:                                   Bugs and ideas.        (line 6)
* known bugs:                            Known problems.        (line 6)
* problems, list of common:              Bugs and ideas.        (line 6)
* reporting bugs and ideas:              Bugs and ideas.        (line 6)
* what is Eshell?:                       What is Eshell?.       (line 6)

File: eshell,  Node: Function and Variable Index,  Next: Key Index,  Prev: Concept Index,  Up: Top

Function and Variable Index

* Menu:

* $+:                                    History.              (line  9)
* $-:                                    History.              (line 12)
* cd:                                    Built-ins.            (line  9)

File: eshell,  Node: Key Index,  Prev: Function and Variable Index,  Up: Top

Key Index

* Menu: