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The Emacs Editor

Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor.  This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and
some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version

   To learn more about the Info documentation system, type `h', to
visit a programmed instruction sequence for the Info commands.

   For information on extending Emacs, see *note Emacs Lisp: (elisp)Top.

   This is the Sixteenth edition of the `GNU Emacs Manual',
updated for Emacs version 23.1.

   Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998,
1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free
Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being "The GNU Manifesto,"
     "Distribution" and "GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE," with the
     Front-Cover texts being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover
     Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the
     section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License."

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Distrib::	        How to get the latest Emacs distribution.
* Intro::	        An introduction to Emacs concepts.
* Glossary::	        Terms used in this manual.

Indexes (each index contains a large menu)
* Key Index::	        An item for each standard Emacs key sequence.
* Option Index::        An item for every command-line option.
* Command Index::       An item for each command name.
* Variable Index::      An item for each documented variable.
* Concept Index::       An item for each concept.

* Acknowledgments::     Major contributors to GNU Emacs.

Important General Concepts
* Screen::	        How to interpret what you see on the screen.
* User Input::	        Kinds of input events (characters, buttons,
                          function keys).
* Keys::	        Key sequences: what you type to request one
                          editing action.
* Commands::	        Named functions run by key sequences to do editing.
* Entering Emacs::      Starting Emacs from the shell.
* Exiting::	        Stopping or killing Emacs.

Fundamental Editing Commands
* Basic::	        The most basic editing commands.
* Minibuffer::	        Entering arguments that are prompted for.
* M-x::		        Invoking commands by their names.
* Help::	        Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.

Important Text-Changing Commands
* Mark::	        The mark: how to delimit a ``region'' of text.
* Killing::	        Killing (cutting) text.
* Yanking::	        Recovering killed text.  Moving text. (Pasting.)
* Accumulating Text::   Other ways of copying text.
* Rectangles::	        Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen.
* CUA Bindings::        Using C-x, C-c, C-v for copy
                          and paste, with enhanced rectangle support.
* Registers::	        Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
* Display::	        Controlling what text is displayed.
* Search::	        Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
* Fixit::	        Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
* Keyboard Macros::	A keyboard macro records a sequence of
			  keystrokes to be replayed with a single command.

Major Structures of Emacs
* Files::	        All about handling files.
* Buffers::	        Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
* Windows::	        Viewing two pieces of text at once.
* Frames::	        Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows.
* International::       Using non-ASCII character sets.

Advanced Features
* Major Modes::	        Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode...
* Indentation::	        Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
* Text::	        Commands and modes for editing English.
* Programs::	        Commands and modes for editing programs.
* Building::	        Compiling, running and debugging programs.
* Maintaining::         Features for maintaining large programs.
* Abbrevs::	        How to define text abbreviations to reduce
			  the number of characters you must type.

* Picture Mode::        Editing pictures made up of characters using
                          the quarter-plane screen model.
* Sending Mail::        Sending mail in Emacs.
* Rmail::	        Reading mail in Emacs.
* Dired::	        You can ``edit'' a directory to manage files in it.
* Calendar/Diary::      The calendar and diary facilities.
* Document View::       Viewing PDF, PS and DVI files.
* Gnus::	        How to read netnews with Emacs.
* Shell::	        Executing shell commands from Emacs.
* Emacs Server::        Using Emacs as an editing server for `mail', etc.
* Printing::	        Printing hardcopies of buffers or regions.
* Sorting::	        Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs.
* Narrowing::	        Restricting display and editing to a portion
		          of the buffer.
* Two-Column::	        Splitting apart columns to edit them
		          in side-by-side windows.
* Editing Binary Files::Using Hexl mode to edit binary files.
* Saving Emacs Sessions:: Saving Emacs state from one session to the next.
* Recursive Edit::      A command can allow you to do editing
			  "within the command".  This is called a
			  "recursive editing level".
* Emulation::	        Emulating some other editors with Emacs.
* Hyperlinking::        Following links in buffers.
* Dissociated Press::   Dissociating text for fun.
* Amusements::	        Various games and hacks.
* Customization::       Modifying the behavior of Emacs.

Recovery from Problems
* Quitting::	        Quitting and aborting.
* Lossage::	        What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning.
* Bugs::	        How and when to report a bug.
* Contributing::        How to contribute improvements to Emacs.
* Service::	        How to get help for your own Emacs needs.

* Copying::	        The GNU General Public License gives you permission
			  to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms;
			  it also explains that there is no warranty.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Emacs Invocation::    Hairy startup options.
* X Resources::         X resources for customizing Emacs.
* Antinews::	        Information about Emacs version 22.
* Mac OS / GNUstep::    Using Emacs under Mac OS and GNUstep.
* Microsoft Windows::   Using Emacs on Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS.
* Manifesto::	        What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

The Organization of the Screen

* Point::	        The place in the text where editing commands operate.
* Echo Area::           Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
* Mode Line::	        Interpreting the mode line.
* Menu Bar::            How to use the menu bar.

Basic Editing Commands

* Inserting Text::      Inserting text by simply typing it.
* Moving Point::        Moving the cursor to the place where you want to
                        change something.
* Erasing::	        Deleting and killing text.
* Basic Undo::	        Undoing recent changes in the text.
* Basic Files::         Visiting, creating, and saving files.
* Basic Help::          Asking what a character does.
* Blank Lines::	        Making and deleting blank lines.
* Continuation Lines::  How Emacs displays lines too wide for the screen.
* Position Info::       What page, line, row, or column is point on?
* Arguments::	        Numeric arguments for repeating a command N times.
* Repeating::           Repeating the previous command quickly.

The Minibuffer

* Minibuffer File::     Entering file names with the minibuffer.
* Minibuffer Edit::     How to edit in the minibuffer.
* Completion::		An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
* Minibuffer History::	Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
* Repetition::		Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.
* Passwords::           Entering passwords in the echo area.


* Completion Example::  Examples of using completion.
* Completion Commands:: A list of completion commands.
* Strict Completion::   Different types of completion.
* Completion Options::  Options for completion.


* Help Summary::	Brief list of all Help commands.
* Key Help::		Asking what a key does in Emacs.
* Name Help::		Asking about a command, variable or function name.
* Apropos::		Asking what pertains to a given topic.
* Help Mode::           Special features of Help mode and Help buffers.
* Library Keywords::	Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
* Language Help::       Help relating to international language support.
* Misc Help::		Other help commands.
* Help Files::          Commands to display pre-written help files.
* Help Echo::           Help on active text and tooltips (`balloon help').

The Mark and the Region

* Setting Mark::	Commands to set the mark.
* Marking Objects::	Commands to put region around textual units.
* Using Region::	Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
* Mark Ring::   	Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
* Global Mark Ring::    Previous mark positions in various buffers.
* Shift Selection::     Using shifted cursor motion keys.
* Persistent Mark::	Keeping the mark active all the time.

Killing and Moving Text

* Deletion::		Commands for deleting small amounts of text and
			  blank areas.
* Killing by Lines::	How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
* Other Kill Commands:: Commands to kill large regions of text and
			  syntactic units such as words and sentences.


* Kill Ring::		Where killed text is stored.  Basic yanking.
* Appending Kills::	Several kills in a row all yank together.
* Earlier Kills::	Yanking something killed some time ago.


* RegPos::      	Saving positions in registers.
* RegText::     	Saving text in registers.
* RegRect::     	Saving rectangles in registers.
* RegConfig::           Saving window configurations in registers.
* RegNumbers::          Numbers in registers.
* RegFiles::    	File names in registers.
* Bookmarks::           Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.

Controlling the Display

* Scrolling::	           Commands to move text up and down in a window.
* Auto Scrolling::         Redisplay scrolls text automatically when needed.
* Horizontal Scrolling::   Moving text left and right in a window.
* Follow Mode::            Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
* Faces::	           How to change the display style using faces.
* Standard Faces::         Emacs' predefined faces.
* Temporary Face Changes:: Commands to temporarily modify the default text face
* Font Lock::              Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
* Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
* Fringes::                Enabling or disabling window fringes.
* Displaying Boundaries::  Displaying top and bottom of the buffer.
* Useless Whitespace::     Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
* Selective Display::      Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
* Optional Mode Line::     Optional mode line display features.
* Text Display::           How text characters are normally displayed.
* Cursor Display::         Features for displaying the cursor.
* Line Truncation::        Truncating lines to fit the screen width instead
                             of continuing them to multiple screen lines.
* Visual Line Mode::       Word wrap and screen line-based editing.
* Display Custom::         Information on variables for customizing display.

Searching and Replacement

* Incremental Search::	   Search happens as you type the string.
* Nonincremental Search::  Specify entire string and then search.
* Word Search::		   Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search::	   Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps::		   Syntax of regular expressions.
* Regexp Backslash::       Regular expression constructs starting with `\'.
* Regexp Example::         A complex regular expression explained.
* Search Case::		   To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace::		   Search, and replace some or all matches.
* Other Repeating Search:: Operating on all matches for some regexp.

Incremental Search

* Basic Isearch::       Basic incremental search commands.
* Repeat Isearch::      Searching for the same string again.
* Error in Isearch::    When your string is not found.
* Special Isearch::     Special input in incremental search.
* Isearch Yank::        Commands that grab text into the search string
                          or else edit the search string.
* Isearch Scroll::      Scrolling during an incremental search.
* Isearch Minibuffer::  Incremental search of the minibuffer history.
* Slow Isearch::        Incremental search features for slow terminals.

Replacement Commands

* Unconditional Replace::  Replacing all matches for a string.
* Regexp Replace::	   Replacing all matches for a regexp.
* Replacement and Case::   How replacements preserve case of letters.
* Query Replace::	   How to use querying.

Commands for Fixing Typos

* Undo::                The Undo commands.
* Transpose::	        Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
* Fixing Case::         Correcting case of last word entered.
* Spelling::	        Apply spelling checker to a word, or a whole file.

Keyboard Macros

* Basic Keyboard Macro::     Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Ring::      Where previous keyboard macros are saved.
* Keyboard Macro Counter::   Inserting incrementing numbers in macros.
* Keyboard Macro Query::     Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
* Save Keyboard Macro::      Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Edit Keyboard Macro::      Editing keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Step-Edit:: Interactively executing and editing a keyboard

File Handling

* File Names::          How to type and edit file-name arguments.
* Visiting::            Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
* Saving::              Saving makes your changes permanent.
* Reverting::           Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
* Autorevert::          Auto Reverting non-file buffers.
* Auto Save::           Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
* File Aliases::        Handling multiple names for one file.
* Directories::         Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
* Comparing Files::     Finding where two files differ.
* Diff Mode::           Mode for editing file differences.
* Misc File Ops::       Other things you can do on files.
* Compressed Files::    Accessing compressed files.
* File Archives::       Operating on tar, zip, jar etc. archive files.
* Remote Files::        Accessing files on other sites.
* Quoted File Names::   Quoting special characters in file names.
* File Name Cache::     Completion against a list of files you often use.
* File Conveniences::   Convenience Features for Finding Files.
* Filesets::            Handling sets of files.

Saving Files

* Save Commands::       Commands for saving files.
* Backup::              How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
* Customize Save::      Customizing the saving of files.
* Interlocking::        How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing
                          of one file by two users.
* File Shadowing::      Copying files to "shadows" automatically.
* Time Stamps::         Emacs can update time stamps on saved files.

Backup Files

* Backup Names::	How backup files are named.
* Backup Deletion::	Emacs deletes excess numbered backups.
* Backup Copying::	Backups can be made by copying or renaming.

Auto Reverting Non-File Buffers

* Auto Reverting the Buffer Menu:: Auto Revert of the Buffer Menu.
* Auto Reverting Dired::           Auto Revert of Dired buffers.
* Supporting additional buffers::  How to add more Auto Revert support.

Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters

* Auto Save Files::     The file where auto-saved changes are
                          actually made until you save the file.
* Auto Save Control::   Controlling when and how often to auto-save.
* Recover::	        Recovering text from auto-save files.

Using Multiple Buffers

* Select Buffer::       Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
* List Buffers::        Getting a list of buffers that exist.
* Misc Buffer::	        Renaming; changing read-onlyness; copying text.
* Kill Buffer::	        Killing buffers you no longer need.
* Several Buffers::     How to go through the list of all buffers
			  and operate variously on several of them.
* Indirect Buffers::    An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.
* Buffer Convenience::  Convenience and customization features for
                          buffer handling.

Convenience Features and Customization of Buffer Handling

* Uniquify::            Making buffer names unique with directory parts.
* Iswitchb::            Switching between buffers with substrings.
* Buffer Menus::        Configurable buffer menu.

Multiple Windows

* Basic Window::        Introduction to Emacs windows.
* Split Window::        New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
* Other Window::        Moving to another window or doing something to it.
* Pop Up Window::       Finding a file or buffer in another window.
* Force Same Window::   Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected
                          window rather than in another window.
* Change Window::       Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
* Window Convenience::  Convenience functions for window handling.

Frames and Graphical Displays

* Cut and Paste::       Mouse commands for cut and paste.
* Mouse References::    Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
* Menu Mouse Clicks::   Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
* Mode Line Mouse::     Mouse clicks on the mode line.
* Creating Frames::     Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
* Frame Commands::      Iconifying, deleting, and switching frames.
* Speedbar::            How to make and use a speedbar frame.
* Multiple Displays::   How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
* Special Buffer Frames::  You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
* Frame Parameters::    Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
* Scroll Bars::	        How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
* Wheeled Mice::        Using mouse wheels for scrolling.
* Drag and Drop::       Using drag and drop to open files and insert text.
* Menu Bars::	        Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
* Tool Bars::           Enabling and disabling the tool bar.
* Dialog Boxes::        Controlling use of dialog boxes.
* Tooltips::            Displaying information at the current mouse position.
* Mouse Avoidance::     Moving the mouse pointer out of the way.
* Non-Window Terminals::  Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
* Text-Only Mouse::     Using the mouse in text-only terminals.

Killing and Yanking on Graphical Displays

* Mouse Commands::      Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse.
* Word and Line Mouse:: Mouse commands for selecting whole words or lines.
* Cut/Paste Other App:: Transfering text between Emacs and other apps.
* Secondary Selection:: Cutting without altering point and mark.
* Clipboard::           Using the clipboard for selections.

International Character Set Support

* International Chars::     Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
* Enabling Multibyte::      Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Language Environments::   Setting things up for the language you use.
* Input Methods::           Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
* Select Input Method::     Specifying your choice of input methods.
* Coding Systems::          Character set conversion when you read and
                              write files, and so on.
* Recognize Coding::        How Emacs figures out which conversion to use.
* Specify Coding::          Specifying a file's coding system explicitly.
* Output Coding::           Choosing coding systems for output.
* Text Coding::             Choosing conversion to use for file text.
* Communication Coding::    Coding systems for interprocess communication.
* File Name Coding::        Coding systems for file _names_.
* Terminal Coding::         Specifying coding systems for converting
                              terminal input and output.
* Fontsets::                Fontsets are collections of fonts
                              that cover the whole spectrum of characters.
* Defining Fontsets::       Defining a new fontset.
* Modifying Fontsets::      Modifying an existing fontset.
* Undisplayable Characters::When characters don't display.
* Unibyte Mode::            You can pick one European character set
                              to use without multibyte characters.
* Charsets::                How Emacs groups its internal character codes.

Major Modes

* Choosing Modes::      How major modes are specified or chosen.


* Indentation Commands::  Various commands and techniques for indentation.
* Tab Stops::		  You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then
			    indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
* Just Spaces::		  You can request indentation using just spaces.

Commands for Human Languages

* Words::	        Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences::	        Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs::	        Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages::	        Moving over pages.
* Filling::	        Filling or justifying text.
* Case::	        Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode::	        The major modes for editing text files.
* Outline Mode::        Editing outlines.
* TeX Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter TeX.
* HTML Mode::           Editing HTML, SGML, and XML files.
* Nroff Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter nroff.
* Formatted Text::      Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.
* Text Based Tables::   Editing text-based tables in WYSIWYG fashion.

Filling Text

* Auto Fill::	        Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
* Fill Commands::       Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
* Fill Prefix::	        Filling paragraphs that are indented
                          or in a comment, etc.
* Adaptive Fill::       How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.
* Refill::              Keeping paragraphs filled.
* Longlines::           Editing text with very long lines.

Outline Mode

* Outline Format::      What the text of an outline looks like.
* Outline Motion::	Special commands for moving through
* Outline Visibility::  Commands to control what is visible.
* Outline Views::       Outlines and multiple views.
* Foldout::             Folding means zooming in on outlines.

TeX Mode

* TeX Editing::         Special commands for editing in TeX mode.
* LaTeX Editing::       Additional commands for LaTeX input files.
* TeX Print::           Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.
* TeX Misc::            Customization of TeX mode, and related features.

Editing Formatted Text

* Requesting Formatted Text::   Entering and exiting Enriched mode.
* Hard and Soft Newlines::      There are two different kinds of newlines.
* Editing Format Info::         How to edit text properties.
* Format Faces::                Bold, italic, underline, etc.
* Format Colors::               Changing the color of text.
* Format Indentation::          Changing the left and right margins.
* Format Justification::        Centering, setting text flush with the
                                  left or right margin, etc.
* Format Properties::           The "special" text properties submenu.
* Forcing Enriched Mode::       How to force use of Enriched mode.

Editing Text-based Tables

* Table Definition::    What is a text based table.
* Table Creation::      How to create a table.
* Table Recognition::   How to activate and deactivate tables.
* Cell Commands::       Cell-oriented commands in a table.
* Cell Justification::  Justifying cell contents.
* Row Commands::        Manipulating rows of table cell.
* Column Commands::     Manipulating columns of table cell.
* Fixed Width Mode::    Fixing cell width.
* Table Conversion::    Converting between plain text and tables.
* Measuring Tables::    Analyzing table dimension.
* Table Misc::          Table miscellany.

Editing Programs

* Program Modes::       Major modes for editing programs.
* Defuns::              Commands to operate on major top-level parts
                          of a program.
* Program Indent::      Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
* Parentheses::         Commands that operate on parentheses.
* Comments::	        Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
* Documentation::       Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
* Hideshow::            Displaying blocks selectively.
* Symbol Completion::   Completion on symbol names of your program or language.
* Glasses::             Making identifiersLikeThis more readable.
* Misc for Programs::   Other Emacs features useful for editing programs.
* C Modes::             Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C,
                          Java, and Pike modes.
* Asm Mode::            Asm mode and its special features.
* Fortran::             Fortran mode and its special features.

Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns

* Left Margin Paren::   An open-paren or similar opening delimiter
                          starts a defun if it is at the left margin.
* Moving by Defuns::    Commands to move over or mark a major definition.
* Imenu::               Making buffer indexes as menus.
* Which Function::      Which Function mode shows which function you are in.

Indentation for Programs

* Basic Indent::	Indenting a single line.
* Multi-line Indent::   Commands to reindent many lines at once.
* Lisp Indent::		Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
* C Indent::		Extra features for indenting C and related modes.
* Custom C Indent::	Controlling indentation style for C and related modes.

Commands for Editing with Parentheses

* Expressions::         Expressions with balanced parentheses.
* Moving by Parens::    Commands for moving up, down and across
                          in the structure of parentheses.
* Matching::	        Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.

Manipulating Comments

* Comment Commands::    Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
* Multi-Line Comments:: Commands for adding and editing multi-line comments.
* Options for Comments::Customizing the comment features.

Documentation Lookup

* Info Lookup::         Looking up library functions and commands
                          in Info files.
* Man Page::            Looking up man pages of library functions and commands.
* Lisp Doc::            Looking up Emacs Lisp functions, etc.

C and Related Modes

* Motion in C::         Commands to move by C statements, etc.
* Electric C::          Colon and other chars can automatically reindent.
* Hungry Delete::       A more powerful DEL command.
* Other C Commands::    Filling comments, viewing expansion of macros,
                          and other neat features.

Fortran Mode

* Fortran Motion::	Moving point by statements or subprograms.
* Fortran Indent::	Indentation commands for Fortran.
* Fortran Comments::	Inserting and aligning comments.
* Fortran Autofill::	Auto fill support for Fortran.
* Fortran Columns::	Measuring columns for valid Fortran.
* Fortran Abbrev::	Built-in abbrevs for Fortran keywords.

Fortran Indentation

* ForIndent Commands::  Commands for indenting and filling Fortran.
* ForIndent Cont::      How continuation lines indent.
* ForIndent Num::       How line numbers auto-indent.
* ForIndent Conv::      Conventions you must obey to avoid trouble.
* ForIndent Vars::      Variables controlling Fortran indent style.

Compiling and Testing Programs

* Compilation::		Compiling programs in languages other
			  than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.).
* Compilation Mode::    The mode for visiting compiler errors.
* Compilation Shell::   Customizing your shell properly
                          for use in the compilation buffer.
* Grep Searching::      Searching with grep.
* Flymake::             Finding syntax errors on the fly.
* Debuggers::		Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs.
* Executing Lisp::	Various modes for editing Lisp programs,
			  with different facilities for running
			  the Lisp programs.
* Lisp Libraries::      Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs.
* Lisp Eval::		Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs.
* Lisp Interaction::    Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer.
* External Lisp::	Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.

Running Debuggers Under Emacs

* Starting GUD::	How to start a debugger subprocess.
* Debugger Operation::	Connection between the debugger and source buffers.
* Commands of GUD::	Key bindings for common commands.
* GUD Customization::	Defining your own commands for GUD.
* GDB Graphical Interface::  An enhanced mode that uses GDB features to
                          implement a graphical debugging environment through

GDB Graphical Interface

* GDB-UI Layout::       Control the number of displayed buffers.
* Source Buffers::      Use the mouse in the fringe/margin to
                          control your program.
* Breakpoints Buffer::  A breakpoint control panel.
* Stack Buffer::        Select a frame from the call stack.
* Other GDB-UI Buffers::Input/output, locals, registers,
                          assembler, threads and memory buffers.
* Watch Expressions::   Monitor variable values in the speedbar.

Maintaining Large Programs

* Version Control::     Using version control systems.
* Change Log::	        Maintaining a change history for your program.
* Tags::	        Go directly to any function in your program in one
			  command.  Tags remembers which file it is in.
* Emerge::              A convenient way of merging two versions of a program.

Version Control

* Introduction to VC::  How version control works in general.
* VC Mode Line::        How the mode line shows version control status.
* Basic VC Editing::    How to edit a file under version control.
* Old Revisions::       Examining and comparing old versions.
* Secondary VC Commands:: The commands used a little less frequently.
* VC Directory Mode::   Listing files managed by version control.
* Branches::            Multiple lines of development.
* Remote Repositories:: Efficient access to remote CVS servers.
* Revision Tags::       Symbolic names for revisions.
* Miscellaneous VC::    Various other commands and features of VC.
* Customizing VC::      Variables that change VC's behavior.

Introduction to Version Control

* Why Version Control?::    Understanding the problems it addresses.
* Version Control Systems:: Supported version control back-end systems.
* VCS Concepts::            Words and concepts related to version control.
* Types of Log File::       The VCS log in contrast to the ChangeLog.

Basic Editing under Version Control

* VC With A Merging VCS::  Without locking: default mode for CVS.
* VC With A Locking VCS::  RCS in its default mode, SCCS, and optionally CVS.
* Advanced C-x v v::       Advanced features available with a prefix argument.
* Log Buffer::             Features available in log entry buffers.

The Secondary Commands of VC

* Registering::         Putting a file under version control.
* VC Status::           Viewing the VC status of files.
* VC Undo::             Canceling changes before or after check-in.

VC Directory Mode

* VC Directory Buffer::   What the buffer looks like and means.
* VC Directory Commands:: Commands to use in a VC directory buffer.

Multiple Branches of a File

* Switching Branches::    How to get to another existing branch.
* Creating Branches::     How to start a new branch.
* Merging::               Transferring changes between branches.
* Multi-User Branching::  Multiple users working at multiple branches
                            in parallel.

Remote Repositories

* Version Backups::       Keeping local copies of repository versions.
* Local Version Control:: Using another version system for local editing.

Revision Tags

* Making Revision Tags::  The tag facilities.
* Revision Tag Caveats::  Things to be careful of when using tags.

Miscellaneous Commands and Features of VC

* Change Logs and VC::    Generating a change log file from log entries.
* Renaming and VC::       A command to rename both the source and master
                            file correctly.
* Version Headers::       Inserting version control headers into working files.

Customizing VC

* General VC Options::    Options that apply to multiple back ends.
* RCS and SCCS::          Options for RCS and SCCS.
* CVS Options::           Options for CVS.

Change Logs

* Change Log Commands:: Commands for editing change log files.
* Format of ChangeLog:: What the change log file looks like.

Tags Tables

* Tag Syntax::		Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
* Create Tags Table::	Creating a tags table with `etags'.
* Etags Regexps::       Create arbitrary tags using regular expressions.
* Select Tags Table::	How to visit a tags table.
* Find Tag::		Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
* Tags Search::		Using a tags table for searching and replacing.
* List Tags::		Listing and finding tags defined in a file.

Merging Files with Emerge

* Overview of Emerge::	How to start Emerge.  Basic concepts.
* Submodes of Emerge::	Fast mode vs. Edit mode.
			  Skip Prefers mode and Auto Advance mode.
* State of Difference::	You do the merge by specifying state A or B
			  for each difference.
* Merge Commands::	Commands for selecting a difference,
			  changing states of differences, etc.
* Exiting Emerge::	What to do when you've finished the merge.
* Combining in Emerge::	    How to keep both alternatives for a difference.
* Fine Points of Emerge::   Miscellaneous issues.


* Abbrev Concepts::     Fundamentals of defined abbrevs.
* Defining Abbrevs::    Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
* Expanding Abbrevs::   Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
* Editing Abbrevs::     Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
* Saving Abbrevs::      Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
* Dynamic Abbrevs::     Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.
* Dabbrev Customization:: What is a word, for dynamic abbrevs.  Case handling.

Editing Pictures

* Basic Picture::         Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
* Insert in Picture::     Controlling direction of cursor motion
                            after "self-inserting" characters.
* Tabs in Picture::       Various features for tab stops and indentation.
* Rectangles in Picture:: Clearing and superimposing rectangles.

Sending Mail

* Mail Format:: 	Format of the mail being composed.
* Mail Headers::        Details of some standard mail header fields.
* Mail Aliases::        Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses.
* Mail Mode::   	Special commands for editing mail being composed.
* Mail Amusements::     Distracting the NSA; adding fortune messages.
* Mail Methods::        Using alternative mail-composition methods.

Mail Mode

* Mail Sending::        Commands to send the message.
* Header Editing::      Commands to move to header fields and edit them.
* Citing Mail::         Copying all or part of a message you are replying to.
* Mail Mode Misc::      Spell checking, signatures, etc.

Reading Mail with Rmail

* Rmail Basics::        Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use.
* Rmail Scrolling::     Scrolling through a message.
* Rmail Motion::        Moving to another message.
* Rmail Deletion::      Deleting and expunging messages.
* Rmail Inbox::         How mail gets into the Rmail file.
* Rmail Files::         Using multiple Rmail files.
* Rmail Output::        Copying message out to files.
* Rmail Labels::        Classifying messages by labeling them.
* Rmail Attributes::    Certain standard labels, called attributes.
* Rmail Reply::         Sending replies to messages you are viewing.
* Rmail Summary::       Summaries show brief info on many messages.
* Rmail Sorting::       Sorting messages in Rmail.
* Rmail Display::       How Rmail displays a message; customization.
* Rmail Coding::        How Rmail handles decoding character sets.
* Rmail Editing::       Editing message text and headers in Rmail.
* Rmail Digest::        Extracting the messages from a digest message.
* Rmail Rot13::         Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code.
* Movemail::            More details of fetching new mail.
* Remote Mailboxes::    Retrieving mail from remote mailboxes.
* Other Mailbox Formats:: Retrieving mail from local mailboxes in
                          various formats.


* Rmail Make Summary::	     Making various sorts of summaries.
* Rmail Summary Edit::	     Manipulating messages from the summary.

Dired, the Directory Editor

* Dired Enter:: 	     How to invoke Dired.
* Dired Navigation::         Special motion commands in the Dired buffer.
* Dired Deletion::           Deleting files with Dired.
* Flagging Many Files::      Flagging files based on their names.
* Dired Visiting::           Other file operations through Dired.
* Marks vs Flags::	     Flagging for deletion vs marking.
* Operating on Files::	     How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc.
			       either one file or several files.
* Shell Commands in Dired::  Running a shell command on the marked files.
* Transforming File Names::  Using patterns to rename multiple files.
* Comparison in Dired::	     Running `diff' by way of Dired.
* Subdirectories in Dired::  Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer.
* Subdir Switches::          Subdirectory switches in Dired.
* Subdirectory Motion::	     Moving across subdirectories, and up and down.
* Hiding Subdirectories::    Making subdirectories visible or invisible.
* Dired Updating::           Discarding lines for files of no interest.
* Dired and Find::	     Using `find' to choose the files for Dired.
* Wdired::                   Operating on files by editing the Dired buffer.
* Image-Dired::              Viewing image thumbnails in Dired.
* Misc Dired Features::      Various other features.

The Calendar and the Diary

* Calendar Motion::     Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
* Scroll Calendar::     Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
* Counting Days::       How many days are there between two dates?
* General Calendar::    Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
* Writing Calendar Files:: Writing calendars to files of various formats.
* Holidays::            Displaying dates of holidays.
* Sunrise/Sunset::      Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
* Lunar Phases::        Displaying phases of the moon.
* Other Calendars::     Converting dates to other calendar systems.
* Diary::               Displaying events from your diary.
* Appointments::	Reminders when it's time to do something.
* Importing Diary::     Converting diary events to/from other formats.
* Daylight Saving::    How to specify when daylight saving time is active.
* Time Intervals::      Keeping track of time intervals.
* Advanced Calendar/Diary Usage:: Advanced Calendar/Diary customization.

Movement in the Calendar

* Calendar Unit Motion::      Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
* Move to Beginning or End::  Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
* Specified Dates::	      Moving to the current date or another
				specific date.

Conversion To and From Other Calendars

* Calendar Systems::	   The calendars Emacs understands
			     (aside from Gregorian).
* To Other Calendar::	   Converting the selected date to various calendars.
* From Other Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
* Mayan Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.

The Diary

* Displaying the Diary::   Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
* Format of Diary File::   Entering events in your diary.
* Date Formats::	   Various ways you can specify dates.
* Adding to Diary::	   Commands to create diary entries.
* Special Diary Entries::  Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.

Customizing the Calendar and Diary

* Calendar Customizing::   Calendar layout and hooks.
* Holiday Customizing::    Defining your own holidays.
* Date Display Format::    Changing the format.
* Time Display Format::    Changing the format.
* Diary Customizing::      Defaults you can set.
* Non-Gregorian Diary::    Diary entries based on other calendars.
* Fancy Diary Display::    Enhancing the diary display, sorting entries,
                             using included diary files.
* Sexp Diary Entries::     Fancy things you can do.

Document Viewing

* Navigation::	Navigation inside DocView buffers.
* Searching::	Searching inside documents.
* Slicing::	Specifying which part of pages should be displayed.
* Conversion::	Influencing and triggering conversion.


* Buffers of Gnus::	The group, summary, and article buffers.
* Gnus Startup::	What you should know about starting Gnus.
* Summary of Gnus::	A short description of the basic Gnus commands.

Running Shell Commands from Emacs

* Single Shell::	How to run one shell command and return.
* Interactive Shell::	Permanent shell taking input via Emacs.
* Shell Mode::		Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell.
* Shell Prompts::       Two ways to recognize shell prompts.
* Shell History::       Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer.
* Directory Tracking::  Keeping track when the subshell changes directory.
* Shell Options::       Options for customizing Shell mode.
* Terminal emulator::   An Emacs window as a terminal emulator.
* Term Mode::           Special Emacs commands used in Term mode.
* Paging in Term::      Paging in the terminal emulator.
* Remote Host::		Connecting to another computer.
* Serial Terminal::     Connecting to a serial port.

Shell Command History

* Shell Ring::           Fetching commands from the history list.
* Shell History Copying::Moving to a command and then copying it.
* History References::   Expanding `!'-style history references.

Using Emacs as a Server

* Invoking emacsclient:: Connecting to the Emacs server.
* emacsclient Options::  Emacs client startup options.

Printing Hard Copies

* PostScript::	         Printing buffers or regions as PostScript.
* PostScript Variables:: Customizing the PostScript printing commands.
* Printing Package::     An optional advanced printing interface.

Hyperlinking and Navigation Features

* Browse-URL::          Following URLs.
* Goto Address mode::   Activating URLs.
* FFAP::                Finding files etc. at point.


* Minor Modes::		Each minor mode is a feature you can turn on
			  independently of any others.
* Easy Customization::  Convenient way to browse and change settings.
* Variables::		Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables
			  to decide what to do; by setting variables,
			  you can control their functioning.
* Key Bindings::	The keymaps say what command each key runs.
			  By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
* Syntax::		The syntax table controls how words and
			  expressions are parsed.
* Init File::		How to write common customizations in the
			  `.emacs' file.

Easy Customization Interface

* Customization Groups::     How settings are classified in a structure.
* Browsing Custom::          Browsing and searching for settings.
* Changing a Variable::      How to edit an option's value and set the option.
* Saving Customizations::    Specifying the file for saving customizations.
* Face Customization::       How to edit the attributes of a face.
* Specific Customization::   Making a customization buffer for specific
                                variables, faces, or groups.
* Custom Themes::            How to define collections of customized options
                                that can be loaded and unloaded together.


* Examining::	        Examining or setting one variable's value.
* Hooks::	        Hook variables let you specify programs for parts
		          of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
* Locals::	        Per-buffer values of variables.
* File Variables::      How files can specify variable values.
* Directory Variables:: How variable values can be specified by directory.

Local Variables in Files

* Specifying File Variables:: Specifying file local variables.
* Safe File Variables::       Making sure file local variables are safe.

Customizing Key Bindings

* Keymaps::             Generalities.  The global keymap.
* Prefix Keymaps::      Keymaps for prefix keys.
* Local Keymaps::       Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
* Minibuffer Maps::     The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
* Rebinding::           How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
* Init Rebinding::      Rebinding keys with your init file, `.emacs'.
* Modifier Keys::       Using modifier keys in key bindings.
* Function Keys::       Rebinding terminal function keys.
* Named ASCII Chars::   Distinguishing <TAB> from C-i, and so on.
* Mouse Buttons::       Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
* Disabling::           Disabling a command means confirmation is required
                          before it can be executed.  This is done to protect
                          beginners from surprises.

The Init File, `~/.emacs'

* Init Syntax::	        Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
* Init Examples::       How to do some things with an init file.
* Terminal Init::       Each terminal type can have an init file.
* Find Init::	        How Emacs finds the init file.
* Init Non-ASCII::      Using non-ASCII characters in an init file.

Dealing with Emacs Trouble

* DEL Does Not Delete:: What to do if <DEL> doesn't delete.
* Stuck Recursive::     `[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
* Screen Garbled::      Garbage on the screen.
* Text Garbled::        Garbage in the text.
* Memory Full::         How to cope when you run out of memory.
* After a Crash::       Recovering editing in an Emacs session that crashed.
* Emergency Escape::    Emergency escape---
                          What to do if Emacs stops responding.
* Total Frustration::   When you are at your wits' end.

Reporting Bugs

* Bug Criteria::        Have you really found a bug?
* Understanding Bug Reporting::	How to report a bug effectively.
* Checklist::		Steps to follow for a good bug report.
* Sending Patches::	How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.

Command Line Arguments for Emacs Invocation

* Action Arguments::	Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
			  and call functions.
* Initial Options::     Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example::     Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments::	Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment::         Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X::           Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X::	        Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors::	        Choosing display colors.
* Window Size X::       Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X::	        Internal and external borders, under X.
* Title X::             Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X::             Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
* Misc X::              Other display options.

Environment Variables

* General Variables::	Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
* Misc Variables::	Certain system-specific variables.
* MS-Windows Registry:: An alternative to the environment on MS-Windows.

X Options and Resources

* Resources::           Using X resources with Emacs (in general).
* Table of Resources::  Table of specific X resources that affect Emacs.
* Face Resources::      X resources for customizing faces.
* Lucid Resources::     X resources for Lucid menus.
* LessTif Resources::   X resources for LessTif and Motif menus.
* GTK resources::       Resources for GTK widgets.

GTK resources

* GTK widget names::      How widgets in GTK are named in general.
* GTK Names in Emacs::    GTK widget names in Emacs.
* GTK styles::            What can be customized in a GTK widget.

Emacs and Mac OS / GNUstep

* Mac / GNUstep Basics::        Basic Emacs usage under GNUstep or Mac OS.
* Mac / GNUstep Customization:: Customizations under GNUstep or Mac OS.
* Mac / GNUstep Events::        How window system events are handled.
* GNUstep Support::             Details on status of GNUstep support.

Emacs and Microsoft Windows/MS-DOS

* Text and Binary::     Text files use CRLF to terminate lines.
* Windows Files::       File-name conventions on Windows.
* ls in Lisp::          Emulation of `ls' for Dired.
* Windows HOME::        Where Emacs looks for your `.emacs'.
* Windows Keyboard::    Windows-specific keyboard features.
* Windows Mouse::       Windows-specific mouse features.
* Windows Processes::   Running subprocesses on Windows.
* Windows Printing::    How to specify the printer on MS-Windows.
* Windows Fonts::       Specifying fonts on MS-Windows.
* Windows Misc::        Miscellaneous Windows features.
* MS-DOS::              Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as "MS-DOG").

Emacs and MS-DOS

* MS-DOS Keyboard::     Keyboard conventions on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Mouse::        Mouse conventions on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Display::      Fonts, frames and display size on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS File Names::   File name conventions on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Printing::     Printing specifics on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS and MULE::     Support for internationalization on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Processes::    Running subprocesses on MS-DOS.

File: emacs,  Node: Distrib,  Next: Intro,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top


GNU Emacs is "free software"; this means that everyone is free to use
it and free to redistribute it on certain conditions.  GNU Emacs is not
in the public domain; it is copyrighted and there are restrictions on
its distribution, but these restrictions are designed to permit
everything that a good cooperating citizen would want to do.  What is
not allowed is to try to prevent others from further sharing any
version of GNU Emacs that they might get from you.  The precise
conditions are found in the GNU General Public License that comes with
Emacs and also appears in this manual(1).  *Note Copying::.

   One way to get a copy of GNU Emacs is from someone else who has it.
You need not ask for our permission to do so, or tell any one else;
just copy it.  If you have access to the Internet, you can get the
latest distribution version of GNU Emacs by anonymous FTP; see
`' on our website for more information.

   You may also receive GNU Emacs when you buy a computer.  Computer
manufacturers are free to distribute copies on the same terms that
apply to everyone else.  These terms require them to give you the full
sources, including whatever changes they may have made, and to permit
you to redistribute the GNU Emacs received from them under the usual
terms of the General Public License.  In other words, the program must
be free for you when you get it, not just free for the manufacturer.

   You can also order copies of GNU Emacs from the Free Software
Foundation.  This is a convenient and reliable way to get a copy; it is
also a good way to help fund our work.  We also sell hardcopy versions
of this manual and `An Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp', by
Robert J. Chassell.  You can visit our online store at
`'.  For further information, write to

     Free Software Foundation
     51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor
     Boston, MA 02110-1301

   The income from sales goes to support the foundation's purpose: the
development of new free software, and improvements to our existing
programs including GNU Emacs.

   If you find GNU Emacs useful, please *send a donation* to the Free
Software Foundation to support our work.  Donations to the Free
Software Foundation are tax deductible in the US.  If you use GNU Emacs
at your workplace, please suggest that the company make a donation.  If
company policy is unsympathetic to the idea of donating to charity, you
might instead suggest ordering a CD-ROM from the Foundation
occasionally, or subscribing to periodic updates.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This manual is itself covered by the GNU Free Documentation
License (see the reverse title page in the printed manual or view the
full source for online formats to see the precise conditions).  This
license is similar in spirit to the General Public License, but is more
suitable for documentation.  *Note GNU Free Documentation License::.

File: emacs,  Node: Intro,  Next: Glossary,  Prev: Distrib,  Up: Top


You are reading about GNU Emacs, the GNU incarnation of the advanced,
self-documenting, customizable, extensible editor Emacs.  (The `G' in
`GNU' is not silent.)

   We call Emacs "advanced" because it can do much more than simple
insertion and deletion of text.  It can control subprocesses, indent
programs automatically, show multiple files at once, and more.  Emacs
editing commands operate in terms of characters, words, lines,
sentences, paragraphs, and pages, as well as expressions and comments
in various programming languages.

   "Self-documenting" means that at any time you can use special
commands, known as "help commands", to find out what your options are,
or to find out what any command does, or to find all the commands that
pertain to a given topic.  *Note Help::.

   "Customizable" means that you can easily alter the behavior of Emacs
commands in simple ways.  For instance, if you use a programming
language in which comments start with `<**' and end with `**>', you can
tell the Emacs comment manipulation commands to use those strings
(*note Comments::).  To take another example, you can rebind the basic
cursor motion commands (up, down, left and right) to any keys on the
keyboard that you find comfortable.  *Note Customization::.

   "Extensible" means that you can go beyond simple customization and
create entirely new commands.  New commands are simply programs written
in the Lisp language, which are run by Emacs's own Lisp interpreter.
Existing commands can even be redefined in the middle of an editing
session, without having to restart Emacs.  Most of the editing commands
in Emacs are written in Lisp; the few exceptions could have been
written in Lisp but use C instead for efficiency.  Writing an extension
is programming, but non-programmers can use it afterwards.  *Note Emacs
Lisp Intro: (eintr)Top, if you want to learn Emacs Lisp programming.

File: emacs,  Node: Glossary,  Next: Key Index,  Prev: Intro,  Up: Top


     An abbrev is a text string which expands into a different text
     string when present in the buffer.  For example, you might define
     a few letters as an abbrev for a long phrase that you want to
     insert frequently.  *Note Abbrevs::.

     Aborting means getting out of a recursive edit (q.v.).  The
     commands `C-]' and `M-x top-level' are used for this.  *Note

     Alt is the name of a modifier bit that a keyboard input character
     may have.  To make a character Alt, type it while holding down the
     <ALT> key.  Such characters are given names that start with `Alt-'
     (usually written `A-' for short).  (Note that many terminals have a
     key labeled <ALT> that is really a <META> key.)  *Note Alt: User

     See `numeric argument.'

ASCII character
     An ASCII character is either an ASCII control character or an
     ASCII printing character.  *Note User Input::.

ASCII control character
     An ASCII control character is the Control version of an upper-case
     letter, or the Control version of one of the characters `@[\]^_?'.

ASCII printing character
     ASCII printing characters include letters, digits, space, and these
     punctuation characters: `!@#$%^& *()_-+=|\~` {}[]:;"' <>,.?/'.

Auto Fill Mode
     Auto Fill mode is a minor mode (q.v.) in which text that you
     insert is automatically broken into lines of a given maximum width.
     *Note Filling::.

Auto Saving
     Auto saving is the practice of periodically saving the contents of
     an Emacs buffer in a specially-named file, so that the information
     will be preserved if the buffer is lost due to a system error or
     user error.  *Note Auto Save::.

     Emacs can automatically load Lisp libraries when a Lisp program
     requests a function from those libraries.  This is called
     `autoloading.'  *Note Lisp Libraries::.

     A backtrace is a trace of a series of function calls showing how a
     program arrived at a certain point.  It is used mainly for finding
     and correcting bugs (q.v.).  Emacs can display a backtrace when it
     signals an error or when you type `C-g' (see `quitting').  *Note

Backup File
     A backup file records the contents that a file had before the
     current editing session.  Emacs makes backup files automatically
     to help you track down or cancel changes you later regret making.
     *Note Backup::.

Balancing Parentheses
     Emacs can balance parentheses (or other matching delimiters) either
     manually or automatically.  You do manual balancing with the
     commands to move over parenthetical groupings (*note Moving by
     Parens::).  Automatic balancing works by blinking or highlighting
     the delimiter that matches the one you just inserted (*note
     Matching Parens: Matching.).

Balanced Expressions
     A balanced expression is a syntactically recognizable expression,
     such as a symbol, number, string constant, block, or parenthesized
     expression in C.  *Note Balanced Expressions: Expressions.

Balloon Help
     See `tooltips.'

Base Buffer
     A base buffer is a buffer whose text is shared by an indirect
     buffer (q.v.).

     To bind a key sequence means to give it a binding (q.v.).  *Note

     A key sequence gets its meaning in Emacs by having a binding,
     which is a command (q.v.), a Lisp function that is run when you
     type that sequence.  *Note Binding: Commands.  Customization often
     involves rebinding a character to a different command function.
     The bindings of all key sequences are recorded in the keymaps
     (q.v.).  *Note Keymaps::.

Blank Lines
     Blank lines are lines that contain only whitespace.  Emacs has
     several commands for operating on the blank lines in the buffer.

     Bookmarks are akin to registers (q.v.) in that they record
     positions in buffers to which you can return later.  Unlike
     registers, bookmarks persist between Emacs sessions.

     A border is a thin space along the edge of the frame, used just for
     spacing, not for displaying anything.  An Emacs frame has an
     ordinary external border, outside of everything including the menu
     bar, plus an internal border that surrounds the text windows,
     their scroll bars and fringes, and separates them from the menu
     bar and tool bar.  You can customize both borders with options and
     resources (*note Borders X::).  Borders are not the same as
     fringes (q.v.).

     The buffer is the basic editing unit; one buffer corresponds to
     one text being edited.  You can have several buffers, but at any
     time you are editing only one, the `current buffer,' though
     several can be visible when you are using multiple windows or
     frames (q.v.).  Most buffers are visiting (q.v.) some file.  *Note

Buffer Selection History
     Emacs keeps a buffer selection history which records how recently
     each Emacs buffer has been selected.  This is used for choosing a
     buffer to select.  *Note Buffers::.

     A bug is an incorrect or unreasonable behavior of a program, or
     inaccurate or confusing documentation.  Emacs developers treat bug
     reports, both in Emacs code and its documentation, very seriously
     and ask you to report any bugs you find.  *Note Bugs::.

Button Down Event
     A button down event is the kind of input event (q.v.) generated
     right away when you press down on a mouse button.  *Note Mouse

By Default
     See `default.'

Byte Compilation
     See `compilation.'

     `C-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for Control.
     *Note C-: User Input.

     `C-M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
     Control-Meta.  If your terminal lacks a real <META> key, you type
     a Control-Meta character by typing <ESC> and then typing the
     corresponding Control character.  *Note C-M-: User Input.

Case Conversion
     Case conversion means changing text from upper case to lower case
     or vice versa.  *Note Case::, for the commands for case conversion.

     Characters form the contents of an Emacs buffer.  Also, key
     sequences (q.v.) are usually made up of characters (though they
     may include other input events as well).  *Note User Input::.

Character Set
     Emacs supports a number of character sets, each of which
     represents a particular alphabet or script.  *Note International::.

Character Terminal
     See `text-only terminal.'

Click Event
     A click event is the kind of input event (q.v.) generated when you
     press a mouse button and release it without moving the mouse.
     *Note Mouse Buttons::.

     A clipboard is a buffer provided by the window system for
     transferring text between applications.  On the X Window system,
     the clipboard is provided in addition to the primary selection
     (q.v.); on MS-Windows and Mac, the clipboard is used _instead_ of
     the primary selection.  *Note Clipboard::.

Coding System
     A coding system is an encoding for representing text characters in
     a file or in a stream of information.  Emacs has the ability to
     convert text to or from a variety of coding systems when reading
     or writing it.  *Note Coding Systems::.

     A command is a Lisp function specially defined to be able to serve
     as a key binding in Emacs.  When you type a key sequence (q.v.),
     its binding (q.v.) is looked up in the relevant keymaps (q.v.) to
     find the command to run.  *Note Commands::.

Command History
     See `minibuffer history.'

Command Name
     A command name is the name of a Lisp symbol which is a command
     (*note Commands::).  You can invoke any command by its name using
     `M-x' (*note M-x: M-x.).

     A comment is text in a program which is intended only for humans
     reading the program, and which is specially marked so that it will
     be ignored when the program is loaded or compiled.  Emacs offers
     special commands for creating, aligning and killing comments.
     *Note Comments::.

Common Lisp
     Common Lisp is a dialect of Lisp (q.v.) much larger and more
     powerful than Emacs Lisp.  Emacs provides a subset of Common Lisp
     in the CL package.  *Note Common Lisp: (cl)Top.

     Compilation is the process of creating an executable program from
     source code.  Emacs has commands for compiling files of Emacs Lisp
     code (*note Byte Compilation: (elisp)Byte Compilation.) and
     programs in C and other languages (*note Compilation::).

Complete Key
     A complete key is a key sequence which fully specifies one action
     to be performed by Emacs.  For example, `X' and `C-f' and `C-x m'
     are complete keys.  Complete keys derive their meanings from being
     bound (q.v.) to commands (q.v.).  Thus, `X' is conventionally
     bound to a command to insert `X' in the buffer; `C-x m' is
     conventionally bound to a command to begin composing a mail
     message.  *Note Keys::.

     Completion is what Emacs does when it automatically expands an
     abbreviation for a name into the entire name.  Completion is done
     for minibuffer (q.v.) arguments when the set of possible valid
     inputs is known; for example, on command names, buffer names, and
     file names.  Completion usually occurs when <TAB>, <SPC> or <RET>
     is typed.  *Note Completion::.

Continuation Line
     When a line of text is longer than the width of the window, it
     normally (but see `Truncation') takes up more than one screen line
     when displayed.  We say that the text line is continued, and all
     screen lines used for it after the first are called continuation
     lines.  *Note Continuation Lines::.  A related Emacs feature is
     `filling' (q.v.).

Control Character
     A control character is a character that you type by holding down
     the <CTRL> key.  Some control characters also have their own keys,
     so that you can type them without using <CTRL>.  For example,
     <RET>, <TAB>, <ESC> and <DEL> are all control characters.  *Note
     User Input::.

     A copyleft is a notice giving the public legal permission to
     redistribute and modify a program or other work of art, but
     requiring modified versions to carry similar permission.
     Copyright is normally used to keep users divided and helpless;
     with copyleft we turn that around to empower users and encourage
     them to cooperate.

     The particular form of copyleft used by the GNU project is called
     the GNU General Public License.  *Note Copying::.

     The <CTRL> or "control" key is what you hold down in order to
     enter a control character (q.v.).  See also ``C-'.'

Current Buffer
     The current buffer in Emacs is the Emacs buffer on which most
     editing commands operate.  You can select any Emacs buffer as the
     current one.  *Note Buffers::.

Current Line
     The current line is the line that point is on (*note Point::).

Current Paragraph
     The current paragraph is the paragraph that point is in.  If point
     is between two paragraphs, the current paragraph is the one that
     follows point.  *Note Paragraphs::.

Current Defun
     The current defun is the defun (q.v.) that point is in.  If point
     is between defuns, the current defun is the one that follows point.
     *Note Defuns::.

     The cursor is the rectangle on the screen which indicates the
     position (called point; q.v.) at which insertion and deletion
     takes place.  The cursor is on or under the character that follows
     point.  Often people speak of `the cursor' when, strictly
     speaking, they mean `point.'  *Note Cursor: Point.

     Customization is making minor changes in the way Emacs works, to
     reflect your preferences or needs.  It is often done by setting
     variables (*note Variables::) or faces (*note Face
     Customization::), or by rebinding key sequences (*note Keymaps::).

Cut and Paste
     See `killing' and `yanking.'

     A daemon is a standard term for a system-level process that runs
     in the background.  Daemons are often started when the system
     first starts up.  When Emacs runs in daemon-mode, it runs in the
     background and does not open a display.  You can then connect to
     it with the `emacsclient' program.  *Note Emacs Server::.

Default Argument
     The default for an argument is the value that will be assumed if
     you do not specify one.  When the minibuffer is used to read an
     argument, the default argument is used if you just type <RET>.
     *Note Minibuffer::.

     A default is the value that is used for a certain purpose if and
     when you do not specify a value to use.

Default Directory
     When you specify a file name that does not start with `/' or `~',
     it is interpreted relative to the current buffer's default
     directory.  (On MS-Windows and MS-DOS, file names which start with
     a drive letter `X:' are treated as absolute, not relative.)  *Note
     Default Directory: Minibuffer File.

     A defun is a major definition at the top level in a program.  The
     name `defun' comes from Lisp, where most such definitions use the
     construct `defun'.  *Note Defuns::.

     <DEL> is a character that runs the command to delete one character
     of text before the cursor.  It is typically either the <DELETE>
     key or the <BACKSPACE> key, whichever one is easy to type.  *Note
     DEL: Erasing.

     Deletion means erasing text without copying it into the kill ring
     (q.v.).  The alternative is killing (q.v.).  *Note Deletion:

Deletion of Files
     Deleting a file means erasing it from the file system.  (Note that
     some systems use the concept of a "trash can", or "recycle bin",
     to allow you to "undelete" files.)  *Note Misc File Ops: Misc File

Deletion of Messages
     Deleting a message (in Rmail, and other mail clients) means
     flagging it to be eliminated from your mail file.  Until you
     expunge (q.v.)  the Rmail file, you can still undelete the
     messages you have deleted.  *Note Rmail Deletion::.

Deletion of Windows
     Deleting a window means eliminating it from the screen.  Other
     windows expand to use up the space.  The text that was in the
     window is not lost, and you can create a new window with the same
     dimensions as the old if you wish.  *Note Windows::.

     File directories are named collections in the file system, within
     which you can place individual files or subdirectories.  They are
     sometimes referred to as "folders."  *Note Directories::.

     Dired is the Emacs facility that displays the contents of a file
     directory and allows you to "edit the directory," performing
     operations on the files in the directory.  *Note Dired::.

Disabled Command
     A disabled command is one that you may not run without special
     confirmation.  The usual reason for disabling a command is that it
     is confusing for beginning users.  *Note Disabling::.

Down Event
     Short for `button down event' (q.v.).

Drag Event
     A drag event is the kind of input event (q.v.) generated when you
     press a mouse button, move the mouse, and then release the button.
     *Note Mouse Buttons::.

Dribble File
     A dribble file is a file into which Emacs writes all the
     characters that you type on the keyboard.  Dribble files can be
     used to make a record for debugging Emacs bugs.  Emacs does not
     make a dribble file unless you tell it to.  *Note Bugs::.

Echo Area
     The echo area is the bottom line of the screen, used for echoing
     the arguments to commands, for asking questions, and showing brief
     messages (including error messages).  The messages are stored in
     the buffer `*Messages*' so you can review them later.  *Note Echo

     Echoing is acknowledging the receipt of input events by displaying
     them (in the echo area).  Emacs never echoes single-character key
     sequences; longer key sequences echo only if you pause while typing

     We say that a character is electric if it is normally
     self-inserting (q.v.), but the current major mode (q.v.) redefines
     it to do something else as well.  For example, some programming
     language major modes define particular delimiter characters to
     reindent the line, or insert one or more newlines in addition to

End Of Line
     End of line is a character or a sequence of characters that
     indicate the end of a text line.  On GNU and Unix systems, this is
     a newline (q.v.), but other systems have other conventions.  *Note
     end-of-line: Coding Systems.  Emacs can recognize several
     end-of-line conventions in files and convert between them.

Environment Variable
     An environment variable is one of a collection of variables stored
     by the operating system, each one having a name and a value.
     Emacs can access environment variables set by its parent shell,
     and it can set variables in the environment it passes to programs
     it invokes.  *Note Environment::.

     See `end of line.'

     An error occurs when an Emacs command cannot execute in the current
     circumstances.  When an error occurs, execution of the command
     stops (unless the command has been programmed to do otherwise) and
     Emacs reports the error by displaying an error message (q.v.).

Error Message
     An error message is output displayed by Emacs when you ask it to do
     something impossible (such as, killing text forward when point is
     at the end of the buffer), or when a command malfunctions in some
     way.  Such messages appear in the echo area, accompanied by a beep.

     <ESC> is a character used as a prefix for typing Meta characters on
     keyboards lacking a <META> key.  Unlike the <META> key (which,
     like the <SHIFT> key, is held down while another character is
     typed), you press the <ESC> key as you would press a letter key,
     and it applies to the next character you type.

     See `balanced expression.'

     Expunging an Rmail, Gnus newsgroup, or Dired buffer is an operation
     that truly discards the messages or files you have previously
     flagged for deletion.

     A face is a style of displaying characters.  It specifies
     attributes such as font family and size, foreground and background
     colors, underline and strike-through, background stipple, etc.
     Emacs provides features to associate specific faces with portions
     of buffer text, in order to display that text as specified by the
     face attributes.  *Note Faces::.

File Locking
     Emacs uses file locking to notice when two different users start
     to edit one file at the same time.  *Note Interlocking::.

File Name
     A file name is a name that refers to a file.  File names may be
     relative or absolute; the meaning of a relative file name depends
     on the current directory, but an absolute file name refers to the
     same file regardless of which directory is current.  On GNU and
     Unix systems, an absolute file name starts with a slash (the root
     directory) or with `~/' or `~USER/' (a home directory).  On
     MS-Windows/MS-DOS, an absolute file name can also start with a
     drive letter and a colon, e.g.  `D:'.

     Some people use the term "pathname" for file names, but we do not;
     we use the word "path" only in the term "search path" (q.v.).

File-Name Component
     A file-name component names a file directly within a particular
     directory.  On GNU and Unix systems, a file name is a sequence of
     file-name components, separated by slashes.  For example, `foo/bar'
     is a file name containing two components, `foo' and `bar'; it
     refers to the file named `bar' in the directory named `foo' in the
     current directory.  MS-DOS/MS-Windows file names can also use
     backslashes to separate components, as in `foo\bar'.

Fill Prefix
     The fill prefix is a string that should be expected at the
     beginning of each line when filling is done.  It is not regarded
     as part of the text to be filled.  *Note Filling::.

     Filling text means adjusting the position of line-breaks to shift
     text between consecutive lines, so that all the lines are
     approximately the same length.  *Note Filling::.  Some other
     editors call this feature `line wrapping.'

Font Lock
     Font Lock is a mode that highlights parts of buffer text in
     different faces, according to the syntax.  For example, all
     comments (q.v.)  might be colored red.  *Note Font Lock::.

     A fontset is a named collection of fonts.  A fontset specification
     lists character sets and which font to use to display each of
     them.  Fontsets make it easy to change several fonts at once by
     specifying the name of a fontset, rather than changing each font
     separately.  *Note Fontsets::.

Formatted Text
     Formatted text is text that displays with formatting information
     while you edit.  Formatting information includes fonts, colors,
     and specified margins.  *Note Formatted Text::.

Formfeed Character
     See `page.'

     A frame is a rectangular cluster of Emacs windows.  Emacs starts
     out with one frame, but you can create more.  You can subdivide
     each frame into Emacs windows (q.v.).  When you are using a window
     system (q.v.), more than one frame can be visible at the same time.
     *Note Frames::.  Some other editors use the term "window" for this,
     but in Emacs a window means something else.

Free Software
     Free software is software that gives you the freedom to share,
     study and modify it.  Emacs is free software, part of the GNU
     project (q.v.), and distributed under a copyleft (q.v.) license
     called the GNU General Public License.  *Note Copying::.

Free Software Foundation
     The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a charitable foundation
     dedicated to promoting the development of free software (q.v.).
     For more information, see the FSF website (

     On a graphical display (q.v.), there's a narrow portion of the
     frame (q.v.) between the text area and the window's border.  These
     `fringes' are used to display symbols that provide information
     about the buffer text (*note Fringes::).  Emacs displays the
     fringe using a special face (q.v.) called `fringe'.  *Note fringe:

     See `Free Software Foundation.'

     FTP is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol.  This is one standard
     method for retrieving remote files (q.v.).

Function Key
     A function key is a key on the keyboard that sends input but does
     not correspond to any character.  *Note Function Keys::.

     Global means "independent of the current environment; in effect
     throughout Emacs."  It is the opposite of local (q.v.).  Particular
     examples of the use of `global' appear below.

Global Abbrev
     A global definition of an abbrev (q.v.) is effective in all major
     modes that do not have local (q.v.) definitions for the same
     abbrev.  *Note Abbrevs::.

Global Keymap
     The global keymap (q.v.) contains key bindings that are in effect
     everywhere, except when overridden by local key bindings in a major
     mode's local keymap (q.v.).  *Note Keymaps::.

Global Mark Ring
     The global mark ring records the series of buffers you have
     recently set a mark (q.v.) in.  In many cases you can use this to
     backtrack through buffers you have been editing, or in which you
     have found tags (see `tags table').  *Note Global Mark Ring::.

Global Substitution
     Global substitution means replacing each occurrence of one string
     by another string throughout a large amount of text.  *Note

Global Variable
     The global value of a variable (q.v.) takes effect in all buffers
     that do not have their own local (q.v.) values for the variable.
     *Note Variables::.

     GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix, and it refers to a
     Unix-compatible operating system which is free software (q.v.).
     *Note Manifesto::.  GNU is normally used with Linux as the kernel
     since Linux works better than the GNU kernel.  For more
     information, see the GNU website (

Graphic Character
     Graphic characters are those assigned pictorial images rather than
     just names.  All the non-Meta (q.v.) characters except for the
     Control (q.v.) characters are graphic characters.  These include
     letters, digits, punctuation, and spaces; they do not include
     <RET> or <ESC>.  In Emacs, typing a graphic character inserts that
     character (in ordinary editing modes).  *Note Inserting Text::.

Graphical Display
     A graphical display is one that can display images and multiple
     fonts.  Usually it also has a window system (q.v.).

     Highlighting text means displaying it with a different foreground
     and/or background color to make it stand out from the rest of the
     text in the buffer.

     Emacs uses highlighting in several ways.  It highlights the region
     whenever it is active (*note Mark::).  Incremental search also
     highlights matches (*note Incremental Search::).  See also `font

     Hardcopy means printed output.  Emacs has various commands for
     printing the contents of Emacs buffers.  *Note Printing::.

     <HELP> is the Emacs name for `C-h' or <F1>.  You can type <HELP>
     at any time to ask what options you have, or to ask what any
     command does.  *Note Help::.

Help Echo
     Help echo is a short message displayed in the echo area (q.v.) when
     the mouse pointer is located on portions of display that require
     some explanations.  Emacs displays help echo for menu items, parts
     of the mode line, tool-bar buttons, etc.  On graphics displays,
     the messages can be displayed as tooltips (q.v.).  *Note

Home Directory
     Your home directory contains your personal files.  On a multi-user
     GNU or Unix system, each user has his or her own home directory.
     When you start a new login session, your home directory is the
     default directory in which to start.  A standard shorthand for
     your home directory is `~'.  Similarly, `~USER' represents the
     home directory of some other user.

     A hook is a list of functions to be called on specific occasions,
     such as saving a buffer in a file, major mode activation, etc.  By
     customizing the various hooks, you can modify Emacs's behavior
     without changing any of its code.  *Note Hooks::.

     Hyper is the name of a modifier bit that a keyboard input
     character may have.  To make a character Hyper, type it while
     holding down the <HYPER> key.  Such characters are given names
     that start with `Hyper-' (usually written `H-' for short).  *Note
     User Input::.

     "Iff" means "if and only if."  This terminology comes from
     mathematics.  Try to avoid using this term in documentation, since
     many are unfamiliar with it and mistake it for a typo.

     An inbox is a file in which mail is delivered by the operating
     system.  Rmail transfers mail from inboxes to Rmail files (q.v.)
     in which the mail is then stored permanently or until explicitly
     deleted.  *Note Rmail Inbox::.

Incremental Search
     Emacs provides an incremental search facility, whereby Emacs begins
     searching for a string as soon as you type the first character.
     As you type more characters, it refines the search.  *Note
     Incremental Search::.

     Indentation means blank space at the beginning of a line.  Most
     programming languages have conventions for using indentation to
     illuminate the structure of the program, and Emacs has special
     commands to adjust indentation.  *Note Indentation::.

Indirect Buffer
     An indirect buffer is a buffer that shares the text of another
     buffer, called its base buffer (q.v.).  *Note Indirect Buffers::.

     Info is the hypertext format used by the GNU project for writing

Input Event
     An input event represents, within Emacs, one action taken by the
     user on the terminal.  Input events include typing characters,
     typing function keys, pressing or releasing mouse buttons, and
     switching between Emacs frames.  *Note User Input::.

Input Method
     An input method is a system for entering non-ASCII text characters
     by typing sequences of ASCII characters (q.v.).  *Note Input

     Insertion means adding text into the buffer, either from the
     keyboard or from some other place in Emacs.

     Interlocking is a feature for warning when you start to alter a
     file that someone else is already editing.  *Note Interlocking:

     See `incremental search.'

     Justification means adding extra spaces within lines of text in
     order to adjust the position of the text edges.  *Note Format

Key Binding
     See `binding.'

Keyboard Macro
     Keyboard macros are a way of defining new Emacs commands from
     sequences of existing ones, with no need to write a Lisp program.
     You can use a macro to record a sequence of commands, then play
     them back as many times as you like.  *Note Keyboard Macros::.

Keyboard Shortcut
     A keyboard shortcut is a key sequence (q.v.) which invokes a
     command.  What some programs call "assigning a keyboard shortcut,"
     Emacs calls "binding a key sequence."  See `binding.'

Key Sequence
     A key sequence (key, for short) is a sequence of input events
     (q.v.)  that are meaningful as a single unit.  If the key sequence
     is enough to specify one action, it is a complete key (q.v.); if
     it is not enough, it is a prefix key (q.v.).  *Note Keys::.

     The keymap is the data structure that records the bindings (q.v.)
     of key sequences to the commands that they run.  For example, the
     global keymap binds the character `C-n' to the command function
     `next-line'.  *Note Keymaps::.

Keyboard Translation Table
     The keyboard translation table is an array that translates the
     character codes that come from the terminal into the character
     codes that make up key sequences.

Kill Ring
     The kill ring is where all text you have killed recently is saved.
     You can reinsert any of the killed text still in the ring; this is
     called yanking (q.v.).  *Note Yanking::.

     Killing means erasing text and saving it on the kill ring so it
     can be yanked (q.v.) later.  Some other systems call this
     "cutting."  Most Emacs commands that erase text perform killing,
     as opposed to deletion (q.v.).  *Note Killing::.

Killing a Job
     Killing a job (such as, an invocation of Emacs) means making it
     cease to exist.  Any data within it, if not saved in a file, is
     lost.  *Note Exiting::.

Language Environment
     Your choice of language environment specifies defaults for the
     input method (q.v.) and coding system (q.v.).  *Note Language
     Environments::.  These defaults are relevant if you edit non-ASCII
     text (*note International::).

Line Wrapping
     See `filling.'

     Lisp is a programming language.  Most of Emacs is written in a
     dialect of Lisp, called Emacs Lisp, which is extended with special
     features that make it especially suitable for text editing tasks.

     A list is, approximately, a text string beginning with an open
     parenthesis and ending with the matching close parenthesis.  In C
     mode and other non-Lisp modes, groupings surrounded by other kinds
     of matched delimiters appropriate to the language, such as braces,
     are also considered lists.  Emacs has special commands for many
     operations on lists.  *Note Moving by Parens::.

     Local means "in effect only in a particular context"; the relevant
     kind of context is a particular function execution, a particular
     buffer, or a particular major mode.  It is the opposite of `global'
     (q.v.).  Specific uses of `local' in Emacs terminology appear

Local Abbrev
     A local abbrev definition is effective only if a particular major
     mode is selected.  In that major mode, it overrides any global
     definition for the same abbrev.  *Note Abbrevs::.

Local Keymap
     A local keymap is used in a particular major mode; the key bindings
     (q.v.) in the current local keymap override global bindings of the
     same key sequences.  *Note Keymaps::.

Local Variable
     A local value of a variable (q.v.) applies to only one buffer.
     *Note Locals::.

     `M-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for <META>, one
     of the modifier keys that can accompany any character.  *Note M-:
     User Input.

     `M-C-' in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
     Control-Meta; it means the same thing as ``C-M-'' (q.v.).

     `M-x' is the key sequence that is used to call an Emacs command by
     name.  This is how you run commands that are not bound to key
     sequences.  *Note M-x: M-x.

     Mail means messages sent from one user to another through the
     computer system, to be read at the recipient's convenience.  Emacs
     has commands for composing and sending mail, and for reading and
     editing the mail you have received.  *Note Sending Mail::.  *Note
     Rmail::, for one way to read mail with Emacs.

Mail Composition Method
     A mail composition method is a program runnable within Emacs for
     editing and sending a mail message.  Emacs lets you select from
     several alternative mail composition methods.  *Note Mail

Major Mode
     The Emacs major modes are a mutually exclusive set of options,
     each of which configures Emacs for editing a certain sort of text.
     Ideally, each programming language has its own major mode.  *Note
     Major Modes::.

     The space between the usable part of a window (including the
     fringe) and the window edge.

     The mark points to a position in the text.  It specifies one end
     of the region (q.v.), point being the other end.  Many commands
     operate on all the text from point to the mark.  Each buffer has
     its own mark.  *Note Mark::.

Mark Ring
     The mark ring is used to hold several recent previous locations of
     the mark, just in case you want to move back to them.  Each buffer
     has its own mark ring; in addition, there is a single global mark
     ring (q.v.).  *Note Mark Ring::.

Menu Bar
     The menu bar is a line at the top of an Emacs frame.  It contains
     words you can click on with the mouse to bring up menus, or you
     can use a keyboard interface to navigate it.  *Note Menu Bars::.

     See `mail.'

     Meta is the name of a modifier bit which you can use in a command
     character.  To enter a meta character, you hold down the <META>
     key while typing the character.  We refer to such characters with
     names that start with `Meta-' (usually written `M-' for short).
     For example, `M-<' is typed by holding down <META> and at the same
     time typing `<' (which itself is done, on most terminals, by
     holding down <SHIFT> and typing `,').  *Note Meta: User Input.

     On some terminals, the <META> key is actually labeled <ALT> or

Meta Character
     A Meta character is one whose character code includes the Meta bit.

     The minibuffer is the window that appears when necessary inside the
     echo area (q.v.), used for reading arguments to commands.  *Note

Minibuffer History
     The minibuffer history records the text you have specified in the
     past for minibuffer arguments, so you can conveniently use the
     same text again.  *Note Minibuffer History::.

Minor Mode
     A minor mode is an optional feature of Emacs which can be switched
     on or off independently of all other features.  Each minor mode
     has a command to turn it on or off.  Some minor modes are global
     (q.v.), and some are local (q.v.).  *Note Minor Modes::.

Minor Mode Keymap
     A minor mode keymap is a keymap that belongs to a minor mode and is
     active when that mode is enabled.  Minor mode keymaps take
     precedence over the buffer's local keymap, just as the local
     keymap takes precedence over the global keymap.  *Note Keymaps::.

Mode Line
     The mode line is the line at the bottom of each window (q.v.),
     giving status information on the buffer displayed in that window.
     *Note Mode Line::.

Modified Buffer
     A buffer (q.v.) is modified if its text has been changed since the
     last time the buffer was saved (or since it was created, if it has
     never been saved).  *Note Saving::.

Moving Text
     Moving text means erasing it from one place and inserting it in
     another.  The usual way to move text is by killing (q.v.) it and
     then yanking (q.v.) it.  *Note Killing::.

     MULE refers to the Emacs features for editing multilingual
     non-ASCII text using multibyte characters (q.v.).  *Note

Multibyte Character
     A multibyte character is a character that takes up several bytes
     in a buffer.  Emacs uses multibyte characters to represent
     non-ASCII text, since the number of non-ASCII characters is much
     more than 256.  *Note International Characters: International

Named Mark
     A named mark is a register (q.v.) in its role of recording a
     location in text so that you can move point to that location.
     *Note Registers::.

     Narrowing means creating a restriction (q.v.) that limits editing
     in the current buffer to only a part of the text.  Text outside
     that part is inaccessible for editing (or viewing) until the
     boundaries are widened again, but it is still there, and saving
     the file saves it all.  *Note Narrowing::.

     Control-J characters in the buffer terminate lines of text and are
     therefore also called newlines.  See `End of Line.'

     `nil' is a value usually interpreted as a logical "false."  Its
     opposite is `t', interpreted as "true."

Numeric Argument
     A numeric argument is a number, specified before a command, to
     change the effect of the command.  Often the numeric argument
     serves as a repeat count.  *Note Arguments::.

Overwrite Mode
     Overwrite mode is a minor mode.  When it is enabled, ordinary text
     characters replace the existing text after point rather than
     pushing it to the right.  *Note Minor Modes::.

     A page is a unit of text, delimited by formfeed characters (ASCII
     control-L, code 014) coming at the beginning of a line.  Some Emacs
     commands are provided for moving over and operating on pages.
     *Note Pages::.

     Paragraphs are the medium-size unit of human-language text.  There
     are special Emacs commands for moving over and operating on
     paragraphs.  *Note Paragraphs::.

     We say that certain Emacs commands parse words or expressions in
     the text being edited.  Really, all they know how to do is find
     the other end of a word or expression.  *Note Syntax::.

     Point is the place in the buffer at which insertion and deletion
     occur.  Point is considered to be between two characters, not at
     one character.  The terminal's cursor (q.v.) indicates the
     location of point.  *Note Point::.

Prefix Argument
     See `numeric argument.'

Prefix Key
     A prefix key is a key sequence (q.v.) whose sole function is to
     introduce a set of longer key sequences.  `C-x' is an example of
     prefix key; any two-character sequence starting with `C-x' is
     therefore a legitimate key sequence.  *Note Keys::.

Primary Rmail File
     Your primary Rmail file is the file named `RMAIL' in your home
     directory.  That's where Rmail stores your incoming mail, unless
     you specify a different file name.  *Note Rmail::.

Primary Selection
     The primary selection is one particular X selection (q.v.); it is
     the selection that most X applications use for transferring text
     to and from other applications.

     The Emacs kill commands set the primary selection and the yank
     command uses the primary selection when appropriate.  *Note

     A prompt is text used to ask you for input.  Displaying a prompt
     is called prompting.  Emacs prompts always appear in the echo area
     (q.v.).  One kind of prompting happens when the minibuffer is used
     to read an argument (*note Minibuffer::); the echoing that happens
     when you pause in the middle of typing a multi-character key
     sequence is also a kind of prompting (*note Echo Area::).

     Query-replace is an interactive string replacement feature
     provided by Emacs.  *Note Query Replace::.

     Quitting means canceling a partially typed command or a running
     command, using `C-g' (or `C-<BREAK>' on MS-DOS).  *Note Quitting::.

     Quoting means depriving a character of its usual special
     significance.  The most common kind of quoting in Emacs is with
     `C-q'.  What constitutes special significance depends on the
     context and on convention.  For example, an "ordinary" character
     as an Emacs command inserts itself; so in this context, a special
     character is any character that does not normally insert itself
     (such as <DEL>, for example), and quoting it makes it insert
     itself as if it were not special.  Not all contexts allow quoting.
     *Note Quoting: Inserting Text.

Quoting File Names
     Quoting a file name turns off the special significance of
     constructs such as `$', `~' and `:'.  *Note Quoted File Names::.

Read-Only Buffer
     A read-only buffer is one whose text you are not allowed to change.
     Normally Emacs makes buffers read-only when they contain text which
     has a special significance to Emacs; for example, Dired buffers.
     Visiting a file that is write-protected also makes a read-only
     buffer.  *Note Buffers::.

     A rectangle consists of the text in a given range of columns on a
     given range of lines.  Normally you specify a rectangle by putting
     point at one corner and putting the mark at the diagonally
     opposite corner.  *Note Rectangles::.

Recursive Editing Level
     A recursive editing level is a state in which part of the
     execution of a command involves asking you to edit some text.
     This text may or may not be the same as the text to which the
     command was applied.  The mode line indicates recursive editing
     levels with square brackets (`[' and `]').  *Note Recursive Edit::.

     Redisplay is the process of correcting the image on the screen to
     correspond to changes that have been made in the text being edited.
     *Note Redisplay: Screen.

     See `regular expression.'

     The region is the text between point (q.v.) and the mark (q.v.).
     Many commands operate on the text of the region.  *Note Region:

     Registers are named slots in which text, buffer positions, or
     rectangles can be saved for later use.  *Note Registers::.  A
     related Emacs feature is `bookmarks' (q.v.).

Regular Expression
     A regular expression is a pattern that can match various text
     strings; for example, `a[0-9]+' matches `a' followed by one or more
     digits.  *Note Regexps::.

Remote File
     A remote file is a file that is stored on a system other than your
     own.  Emacs can access files on other computers provided that they
     are connected to the same network as your machine, and (obviously)
     that you have a supported method to gain access to those files.
     *Note Remote Files::.

Repeat Count
     See `numeric argument.'

     See `global substitution.'

     A buffer's restriction is the amount of text, at the beginning or
     the end of the buffer, that is temporarily inaccessible.  Giving a
     buffer a nonzero amount of restriction is called narrowing (q.v.);
     removing a restriction is called widening (q.v.).  *Note

     <RET> is a character that in Emacs runs the command to insert a
     newline into the text.  It is also used to terminate most arguments
     read in the minibuffer (q.v.).  *Note Return: User Input.

     Reverting means returning to the original state.  Emacs lets you
     revert a buffer by re-reading its file from disk.  *Note

Rmail File
     An Rmail file is a file containing text in the format used by
     Rmail for storing mail.  *Note Rmail::.

     Saving a buffer means copying its text into the file that was
     visited (q.v.) in that buffer.  This is the way text in files
     actually gets changed by your Emacs editing.  *Note Saving::.

Scroll Bar
     A scroll bar is a tall thin hollow box that appears at the side of
     a window.  You can use mouse commands in the scroll bar to scroll
     the window.  The scroll bar feature is supported only under
     windowing systems.  *Note Scroll Bars::.

     Scrolling means shifting the text in the Emacs window so as to see
     a different part of the buffer.  *Note Scrolling::.

     Searching means moving point to the next occurrence of a specified
     string or the next match for a specified regular expression.
     *Note Search::.

Search Path
     A search path is a list of directory names, to be used for
     searching for files for certain purposes.  For example, the
     variable `load-path' holds a search path for finding Lisp library
     files.  *Note Lisp Libraries::.

Secondary Selection
     The secondary selection is one particular X selection (q.v.); some
     X applications can use it for transferring text to and from other
     applications.  Emacs has special mouse commands for transferring
     text using the secondary selection.  *Note Secondary Selection::.

Selected Frame
     The selected frame is the one your input currently operates on.
     *Note Frames::.

Selected Window
     The selected window is the one your input currently operates on.
     *Note Basic Window::.

Selecting a Buffer
     Selecting a buffer means making it the current (q.v.) buffer.
     *Note Select Buffer::.

     Windowing systems allow an application program to specify
     selections whose values are text.  A program can also read the
     selections that other programs have set up.  This is the principal
     way of transferring text between window applications.  Emacs has
     commands to work with the primary (q.v.) selection and the
     secondary (q.v.)  selection, and also with the clipboard (q.v.).

     Self-documentation is the feature of Emacs that can tell you what
     any command does, or give you a list of all commands related to a
     topic you specify.  You ask for self-documentation with the help
     character, `C-h'.  *Note Help::.

Self-Inserting Character
     A character is self-inserting if typing that character inserts that
     character in the buffer.  Ordinary printing and whitespace
     characters are self-inserting in Emacs, except in certain special
     major modes.

     Emacs has commands for moving by or killing by sentences.  *Note

     A sexp (short for "s-expression") is the basic syntactic unit of
     Lisp in its textual form: either a list, or Lisp atom.  Sexps are
     also the balanced expressions (q.v.) of the Lisp language; this is
     why the commands for editing balanced expressions have `sexp' in
     their name.  *Note Sexps: Expressions.

Simultaneous Editing
     Simultaneous editing means two users modifying the same file at
     once.  Simultaneous editing, if not detected, can cause one user
     to lose his or her work.  Emacs detects all cases of simultaneous
     editing, and warns one of the users to investigate.  *Note
     Interlocking: Interlocking.

     <SPC> is the space character, which you enter by pressing the
     space bar.

     The speedbar is a special tall frame that provides fast access to
     Emacs buffers, functions within those buffers, Info nodes, and
     other interesting parts of text within Emacs.  *Note Speedbar::.

Spell Checking
     Spell checking means checking correctness of the written form of
     each one of the words in a text.  Emacs can use various external
     spelling-checker programs to check the spelling of parts of a
     buffer via a convenient user interface.  *Note Spelling::.

     A string is a kind of Lisp data object which contains a sequence of
     characters.  Many Emacs variables are intended to have strings as
     values.  The Lisp syntax for a string consists of the characters
     in the string with a `"' before and another `"' after.  A `"' that
     is part of the string must be written as `\"' and a `\' that is
     part of the string must be written as `\\'.  All other characters,
     including newline, can be included just by writing them inside the
     string; however, backslash sequences as in C, such as `\n' for
     newline or `\241' using an octal character code, are allowed as

String Substitution
     See `global substitution.'

Syntax Highlighting
     See `font lock.'

Syntax Table
     The syntax table tells Emacs which characters are part of a word,
     which characters balance each other like parentheses, etc.  *Note

     Super is the name of a modifier bit that a keyboard input
     character may have.  To make a character Super, type it while
     holding down the <SUPER> key.  Such characters are given names
     that start with `Super-' (usually written `s-' for short).  *Note
     User Input::.

     Suspending Emacs means stopping it temporarily and returning
     control to its parent process, which is usually a shell.  Unlike
     killing a job (q.v.), you can later resume the suspended Emacs job
     without losing your buffers, unsaved edits, undo history, etc.
     *Note Exiting::.

     <TAB> is the tab character.  In Emacs it is typically used for
     indentation or completion.

Tags Table
     A tags table is a file that serves as an index to the function
     definitions in one or more other files.  *Note Tags::.

Termscript File
     A termscript file contains a record of all characters sent by
     Emacs to the terminal.  It is used for tracking down bugs in Emacs
     redisplay.  Emacs does not make a termscript file unless you tell
     it to.  *Note Bugs::.

     `Text' has two meanings (*note Text::):

        * Data consisting of a sequence of characters, as opposed to
          binary numbers, executable programs, and the like.  The basic
          contents of an Emacs buffer (aside from the text properties,
          q.v.) are always text in this sense.

        * Data consisting of written human language (as opposed to
          programs), or following the stylistic conventions of human

Text-only Terminal
     A text-only terminal is a display that is limited to displaying
     text in character units.  Such a terminal cannot control
     individual pixels it displays.  Emacs supports a subset of display
     features on text-only terminals.

Text Properties
     Text properties are annotations recorded for particular characters
     in the buffer.  Images in the buffer are recorded as text
     properties; they also specify formatting information.  *Note
     Editing Format Info::.

Tool Bar
     The tool bar is a line (sometimes multiple lines) of icons at the
     top of an Emacs frame.  Clicking on one of these icons executes a
     command.  You can think of this as a graphical relative of the
     menu bar (q.v.).  *Note Tool Bars::.

     Tooltips are small windows displaying a help echo (q.v.) text,
     which explains parts of the display, lists useful options
     available via mouse clicks, etc.  *Note Tooltips::.

Top Level
     Top level is the normal state of Emacs, in which you are editing
     the text of the file you have visited.  You are at top level
     whenever you are not in a recursive editing level (q.v.) or the
     minibuffer (q.v.), and not in the middle of a command.  You can
     get back to top level by aborting (q.v.) and quitting (q.v.).
     *Note Quitting::.

     Transposing two units of text means putting each one into the place
     formerly occupied by the other.  There are Emacs commands to
     transpose two adjacent characters, words, balanced expressions
     (q.v.) or lines (*note Transpose::).

     Truncating text lines in the display means leaving out any text on
     a line that does not fit within the right margin of the window
     displaying it.  See also `continuation line.'  *Note Truncation:
     Continuation Lines.

     See `text-only terminal.'

     Undoing means making your previous editing go in reverse, bringing
     back the text that existed earlier in the editing session.  *Note

     Unix is a class of multi-user computer operating systems with a
     long history.  There are several implementations today.  The GNU
     project (q.v.) aims to develop a complete Unix-like operating
     system that is free software (q.v.).

User Option
     A user option is a face (q.v.) or a variable (q.v.) that exists so
     that you can customize Emacs by setting it to a new value.  *Note
     Easy Customization::.

     A variable is an object in Lisp that can store an arbitrary value.
     Emacs uses some variables for internal purposes, and has others
     (known as `user options'; q.v.) just so that you can set their
     values to control the behavior of Emacs.  The variables used in
     Emacs that you are likely to be interested in are listed in the
     Variables Index in this manual (*note Variable Index::).  *Note
     Variables::, for information on variables.

Version Control
     Version control systems keep track of multiple versions of a
     source file.  They provide a more powerful alternative to keeping
     backup files (q.v.).  *Note Version Control::.

     Visiting a file means loading its contents into a buffer (q.v.)
     where they can be edited.  *Note Visiting::.

     Whitespace is any run of consecutive formatting characters (space,
     tab, newline, and backspace).

     Widening is removing any restriction (q.v.) on the current buffer;
     it is the opposite of narrowing (q.v.).  *Note Narrowing::.

     Emacs divides a frame (q.v.) into one or more windows, each of
     which can display the contents of one buffer (q.v.) at any time.
     *Note Screen::, for basic information on how Emacs uses the screen.
     *Note Windows::, for commands to control the use of windows.  Some
     other editors use the term "window" for what we call a `frame'
     (q.v.) in Emacs.

Window System
     A window system is software that operates on a graphical display
     (q.v.), to subdivide the screen so that multiple applications can
     have their] own windows at the same time.  All modern operating
     systems include a window system.

Word Abbrev
     See `abbrev.'

Word Search
     Word search is searching for a sequence of words, considering the
     punctuation between them as insignificant.  *Note Word Search::.

     WYSIWYG stands for "What you see is what you get."  Emacs generally
     provides WYSIWYG editing for files of characters; in Enriched mode
     (*note Formatted Text::), it provides WYSIWYG editing for files
     that include text formatting information.

     Yanking means reinserting text previously killed (q.v.).  It can be
     used to undo a mistaken kill, or for copying or moving text.  Some
     other systems call this "pasting."  *Note Yanking::.

File: emacs,  Node: Key Index,  Next: Option Index,  Prev: Glossary,  Up: Top

Key (Character) Index

* Menu:

* ! (Dired):                             Shell Commands in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* " (TeX mode):                          TeX Editing.         (line  25)
* # (Dired):                             Flagging Many Files. (line  30)
* $ (Dired):                             Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  10)
* % & (Dired):                           Flagging Many Files. (line  51)
* % C (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  33)
* % d (Dired):                           Flagging Many Files. (line  57)
* % g (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line 112)
* % H (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  34)
* % l (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  27)
* % m (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line 103)
* % R (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  32)
* % S (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  35)
* % u (Dired):                           Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  21)
* * ! (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  49)
* * % (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line 103)
* * * (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  22)
* * / (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  30)
* * ? (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  54)
* * @ (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  26)
* * c (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  81)
* * C-n (Dired):                         Marks vs Flags.      (line  67)
* * C-p (Dired):                         Marks vs Flags.      (line  72)
* * DEL (Dired):                         Marks vs Flags.      (line  44)
* * m (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  17)
* * s (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  35)
* * t (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  76)
* * u (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  40)
* + (Dired):                             Misc Dired Features. (line   6)
* . (Calendar mode):                     Specified Dates.     (line  37)
* . (Dired):                             Flagging Many Files. (line  38)
* . (Rmail):                             Rmail Scrolling.     (line  27)
* / (Rmail):                             Rmail Scrolling.     (line  27)
* < (Calendar mode):                     Scroll Calendar.     (line  28)
* < (Dired):                             Subdirectory Motion. (line  30)
* < (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  90)
* <TAB> (Help mode):                     Help Mode.           (line  42)
* = (Dired):                             Comparison in Dired. (line  11)
* > (Calendar mode):                     Scroll Calendar.     (line  28)
* > (Dired):                             Subdirectory Motion. (line  35)
* > (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  90)
* ^ (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  45)
* a (Calendar mode):                     Holidays.            (line  50)
* A (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 119)
* a (Rmail):                             Rmail Labels.        (line  34)
* AltGr (MS-Windows):                    Windows Keyboard.    (line 105)
* B (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 114)
* b (Rmail summary):                     Rmail Summary Edit.  (line 102)
* b (Rmail):                             Rmail Basics.        (line  35)
* BS (MS-DOS):                           MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line   6)
* C (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  34)
* c (Rmail):                             Rmail Reply.         (line 106)
* C-/:                                   Undo.                (line  21)
* C-<SPC> C-<SPC>:                       Persistent Mark.     (line  56)
* C-<TAB>:                               File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* C-@:                                   Setting Mark.        (line  28)
* C-\:                                   Select Input Method. (line  28)
* C-]:                                   Quitting.            (line  70)
* C-_:                                   Undo.                (line  21)
* C-_ (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line 120)
* C-a:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* C-a (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  11)
* C-b:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* C-b (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* C-BREAK (MS-DOS):                      MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  12)
* C-c ' (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c . (C mode):                        Custom C Indent.     (line  26)
* C-c . (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c . (Shell mode):                    Shell Ring.          (line  23)
* C-c / (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c / (SGML mode):                     HTML Mode.           (line  60)
* C-c 8 (SGML mode):                     HTML Mode.           (line  65)
* C-c ; (Fortran mode):                  Fortran Comments.    (line  80)
* C-c < (GUD):                           Commands of GUD.     (line  80)
* C-c < (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c <DEL> (C Mode):                    Hungry Delete.       (line  14)
* C-c <DELETE> (C Mode):                 Hungry Delete.       (line  20)
* C-c > (GUD):                           Commands of GUD.     (line  85)
* C-c > (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c ? (SGML mode):                     HTML Mode.           (line  56)
* C-c @ (Outline minor mode):            Outline Mode.        (line  30)
* C-c @ C-h:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-l:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-M-h:                           Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-M-s:                           Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-r:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c @ C-s:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* C-c [ (Enriched mode):                 Format Indentation.  (line  52)
* C-c \ (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c ] (Enriched mode):                 Format Indentation.  (line  52)
* C-c ^ (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c ` (Picture mode):                  Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* C-c C-<DEL> (C Mode):                  Hungry Delete.       (line  14)
* C-c C-<DELETE> (C Mode):               Hungry Delete.       (line  20)
* C-c C-\ (C mode):                      Other C Commands.    (line  57)
* C-c C-\ (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  78)
* C-c C-a (C mode):                      Electric C.          (line  29)
* C-c C-a (F90 mode):                    Fortran Motion.      (line  31)
* C-c C-a (Mail mode):                   Mail Aliases.        (line  81)
* C-c C-a (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  80)
* C-c C-a (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  35)
* C-c C-a (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  43)
* C-c C-b (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* C-c C-b (Picture mode):                Insert in Picture.   (line  48)
* C-c C-b (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  44)
* C-c C-b (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line 111)
* C-c C-b (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  46)
* C-c C-c (C mode):                      Multi-Line Comments. (line  14)
* C-c C-c (Edit Abbrevs):                Editing Abbrevs.     (line  42)
* C-c C-c (Edit Tab Stops):              Tab Stops.           (line  10)
* C-c C-c (Mail mode):                   Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* C-c C-c (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  58)
* C-c C-c (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  68)
* C-c C-c (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line 148)
* C-c C-d (C Mode):                      Hungry Delete.       (line  20)
* C-c C-d (Fortran mode):                ForIndent Commands.  (line  30)
* C-c C-d (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  68)
* C-c C-d (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* C-c C-d (Picture mode):                Basic Picture.       (line  43)
* C-c C-d (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  50)
* C-c C-e (C mode):                      Other C Commands.    (line  45)
* C-c C-e (F90 mode):                    Fortran Motion.      (line  23)
* C-c C-e (LaTeX mode):                  LaTeX Editing.       (line  28)
* C-c C-e (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  58)
* C-c C-e (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line 101)
* C-c C-f (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  97)
* C-c C-f (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* C-c C-f (Picture mode):                Insert in Picture.   (line  48)
* C-c C-f (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  39)
* C-c C-f (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line 105)
* C-c C-f (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line 109)
* C-c C-f C-a (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* C-c C-f C-b (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* C-c C-f C-c (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* C-c C-f C-f (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* C-c C-f C-l (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* C-c C-f C-r (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* C-c C-f C-s (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* C-c C-f C-t (Mail mode):               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* C-c C-i (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  52)
* C-c C-i (Mail mode):                   Mail Mode Misc.      (line  52)
* C-c C-i (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  76)
* C-c C-j (Term mode):                   Term Mode.           (line  13)
* C-c C-k (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  70)
* C-c C-k (Picture mode):                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  27)
* C-c C-k (Term mode):                   Term Mode.           (line  16)
* C-c C-k (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  77)
* C-c C-l (C mode):                      Electric C.          (line  19)
* C-c C-l (Calendar mode):               General Calendar.    (line  27)
* C-c C-l (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  35)
* C-c C-l (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  70)
* C-c C-l (Shell mode):                  Shell Ring.          (line  26)
* C-c C-l (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  77)
* C-c C-n (C mode):                      Motion in C.         (line  35)
* C-c C-n (Fortran mode):                Fortran Motion.      (line  13)
* C-c C-n (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  47)
* C-c C-n (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  29)
* C-c C-n (Rmail):                       Rmail Motion.        (line  83)
* C-c C-n (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  19)
* C-c C-n (Shell mode):                  Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line   9)
* C-c C-o (LaTeX mode):                  LaTeX Editing.       (line  17)
* C-c C-o (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  92)
* C-c C-o (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  83)
* C-c C-p (C mode):                      Motion in C.         (line  30)
* C-c C-p (Fortran mode):                Fortran Motion.      (line  17)
* C-c C-p (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  56)
* C-c C-p (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  29)
* C-c C-p (Rmail):                       Rmail Motion.        (line  83)
* C-c C-p (Shell mode):                  Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-c C-p (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  46)
* C-c C-q (C mode):                      C Indent.            (line   9)
* C-c C-q (Mail mode):                   Citing Mail.         (line  43)
* C-c C-q (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  88)
* C-c C-q (Term mode):                   Paging in Term.      (line   9)
* C-c C-q (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  46)
* C-c C-r (Fortran mode):                Fortran Columns.     (line  33)
* C-c C-r (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  62)
* C-c C-r (Mail mode):                   Citing Mail.         (line  38)
* C-c C-r (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  96)
* C-c C-r (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  87)
* C-c C-s (C mode):                      Other C Commands.    (line  76)
* C-c C-s (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  41)
* C-c C-s (Mail mode):                   Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* C-c C-s (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* C-c C-s (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  89)
* C-c C-t (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  74)
* C-c C-t (Mail mode):                   Mail Mode Misc.      (line  21)
* C-c C-t (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  80)
* C-c C-t (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  23)
* C-c C-u (C mode):                      Motion in C.         (line  20)
* C-c C-u (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  90)
* C-c C-u (Outline mode):                Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* C-c C-u (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  60)
* C-c C-v (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  70)
* C-c C-v (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line  46)
* C-c C-w (Fortran mode):                Fortran Columns.     (line  52)
* C-c C-w (Mail mode):                   Mail Mode Misc.      (line  24)
* C-c C-w (Picture mode):                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  27)
* C-c C-w (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  65)
* C-c C-x:                               Foldout.             (line  39)
* C-c C-x (Picture mode):                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  38)
* C-c C-x (Shell mode):                  Shell Ring.          (line  20)
* C-c C-y (Mail mode):                   Citing Mail.         (line  20)
* C-c C-y (Picture mode):                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  38)
* C-c C-z:                               Foldout.             (line  16)
* C-c C-z (Shell mode):                  Shell Mode.          (line  73)
* C-c RET (Shell mode):                  Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line  12)
* C-c TAB (Picture mode):                Tabs in Picture.     (line  25)
* C-c TAB (SGML mode):                   HTML Mode.           (line  74)
* C-c TAB (TeX mode):                    TeX Print.           (line 138)
* C-c { (TeX mode):                      TeX Editing.         (line  51)
* C-c } (TeX mode):                      TeX Editing.         (line  51)
* C-d (Rmail):                           Rmail Deletion.      (line  29)
* C-d (Shell mode):                      Shell Mode.          (line  37)
* C-Down-Mouse-1:                        Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* C-e:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* C-e (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  12)
* C-f:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* C-f (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* C-g:                                   Quitting.            (line  32)
* C-g (MS-DOS):                          MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  12)
* C-h:                                   Help.                (line   6)
* C-h .:                                 Help Echo.           (line  14)
* C-h a:                                 Apropos.             (line  31)
* C-h b:                                 Misc Help.           (line  42)
* C-h C:                                 Coding Systems.      (line  42)
* C-h c:                                 Key Help.            (line   6)
* C-h C-\:                               Select Input Method. (line  14)
* C-h C-c:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-d:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-e:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-f:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-h:                               Help.                (line  13)
* C-h C-m:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-n:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-o:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-p:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-t:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h C-w:                               Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h d:                                 Apropos.             (line  81)
* C-h e:                                 Misc Help.           (line  33)
* C-h F:                                 Name Help.           (line  55)
* C-h f:                                 Name Help.           (line   6)
* C-h g:                                 Help Files.          (line  13)
* C-h h:                                 International Chars. (line  18)
* C-h I:                                 Select Input Method. (line  14)
* C-h i:                                 Misc Help.           (line   6)
* C-h K:                                 Key Help.            (line  16)
* C-h k:                                 Key Help.            (line  12)
* C-h L:                                 Language Environments.
                                                              (line  76)
* C-h l:                                 Misc Help.           (line  28)
* C-h m:                                 Misc Help.           (line  37)
* C-h p:                                 Library Keywords.    (line   6)
* C-h s:                                 Syntax.              (line  18)
* C-h S <1>:                             Info Lookup.         (line   6)
* C-h S:                                 Misc Help.           (line  22)
* C-h t:                                 Basic.               (line   6)
* C-h v:                                 Name Help.           (line  40)
* C-h w:                                 Key Help.            (line  25)
* C-j:                                   Basic Indent.        (line  30)
* C-j (and major modes):                 Major Modes.         (line   6)
* C-j (Lisp Interaction mode):           Lisp Interaction.    (line  10)
* C-j (MS-DOS):                          MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  31)
* C-j (TeX mode):                        TeX Editing.         (line  58)
* C-k:                                   Killing by Lines.    (line  12)
* C-k (Gnus):                            Summary of Gnus.     (line  40)
* C-l:                                   Scrolling.           (line  37)
* C-M-%:                                 Query Replace.       (line  24)
* C-M-.:                                 Find Tag.            (line  76)
* C-M-/:                                 Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  12)
* C-M-<SPC>:                             Expressions.         (line  68)
* C-M-@:                                 Expressions.         (line  68)
* C-M-\:                                 Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  37)
* C-M-a:                                 Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* C-M-b:                                 Expressions.         (line  37)
* C-M-c:                                 Recursive Edit.      (line  12)
* C-M-d:                                 Moving by Parens.    (line  42)
* C-M-d (Dired):                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  26)
* C-M-e:                                 Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* C-M-f:                                 Expressions.         (line  37)
* C-M-f (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  62)
* C-M-h:                                 Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* C-M-h (C mode):                        Moving by Defuns.    (line  32)
* C-M-j:                                 Multi-Line Comments. (line   6)
* C-M-j (Fortran mode):                  ForIndent Commands.  (line  25)
* C-M-k:                                 Expressions.         (line  54)
* C-M-l:                                 Scrolling.           (line  98)
* C-M-l (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  41)
* C-M-l (Shell mode):                    Shell Mode.          (line  96)
* C-M-n:                                 Moving by Parens.    (line  31)
* C-M-n (Dired):                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  15)
* C-M-n (Fortran mode):                  Fortran Motion.      (line  36)
* C-M-n (Rmail):                         Rmail Labels.        (line  43)
* C-M-o:                                 Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  17)
* C-M-p:                                 Moving by Parens.    (line  31)
* C-M-p (Dired):                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  19)
* C-M-p (Fortran mode):                  Fortran Motion.      (line  44)
* C-M-p (Rmail):                         Rmail Labels.        (line  43)
* C-M-q:                                 Multi-line Indent.   (line  26)
* C-M-q (C mode):                        C Indent.            (line  13)
* C-M-q (Fortran mode):                  ForIndent Commands.  (line  21)
* C-M-r:                                 Regexp Search.       (line  19)
* C-M-r (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  45)
* C-M-s:                                 Regexp Search.       (line  19)
* C-M-s (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  58)
* C-M-t:                                 Expressions.         (line  58)
* C-M-t (Rmail):                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  52)
* C-M-u:                                 Moving by Parens.    (line  35)
* C-M-u (Dired):                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  23)
* C-M-v:                                 Other Window.        (line  34)
* C-M-w:                                 Appending Kills.     (line  38)
* C-M-x (Emacs-Lisp mode):               Lisp Eval.           (line  44)
* C-M-x (Lisp mode):                     External Lisp.       (line  31)
* C-Mouse-1:                             Menu Mouse Clicks.   (line  10)
* C-Mouse-2:                             Menu Mouse Clicks.   (line  16)
* C-mouse-2 (mode line):                 Mode Line Mouse.     (line  31)
* C-Mouse-2 (scroll bar) <1>:            Mode Line Mouse.     (line  34)
* C-Mouse-2 (scroll bar):                Split Window.        (line  32)
* C-Mouse-3:                             Menu Mouse Clicks.   (line  20)
* C-Mouse-3 (when menu bar is disabled): Menu Bars.           (line  13)
* C-n:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* C-n (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* C-n (Dired):                           Dired Navigation.    (line   6)
* C-n (Gnus Group mode):                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* C-n (Gnus Summary mode):               Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* C-o:                                   Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* C-o (Dired):                           Dired Visiting.      (line  27)
* C-o (Occur mode):                      Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  20)
* C-o (Rmail):                           Rmail Output.        (line  20)
* C-p:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* C-p (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* C-p (Dired):                           Dired Navigation.    (line   6)
* C-p (Gnus Group mode):                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* C-p (Gnus Summary mode):               Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* C-q:                                   Inserting Text.      (line  26)
* C-r:                                   Basic Isearch.       (line  48)
* C-s:                                   Basic Isearch.       (line  12)
* C-S-backspace:                         Killing by Lines.    (line  35)
* C-S-Mouse-3 (FFAP):                    FFAP.                (line  68)
* C-SPC:                                 Setting Mark.        (line  28)
* C-SPC C-SPC:                           Mark Ring.           (line  18)
* C-t:                                   Transpose.           (line  18)
* C-t d (Image-Dired):                   Image-Dired.         (line  10)
* C-u:                                   Arguments.           (line  41)
* C-u C-/:                               Undo.                (line  52)
* C-u C-c C-w (Fortran mode):            Fortran Columns.     (line  57)
* C-u C-SPC:                             Mark Ring.           (line  27)
* C-u C-x C-x:                           Persistent Mark.     (line  62)
* C-u C-x v =:                           Old Revisions.       (line  39)
* C-u M-;:                               Comment Commands.    (line  59)
* C-u TAB:                               Multi-line Indent.   (line  39)
* C-v:                                   Scrolling.           (line  62)
* C-v (Calendar mode):                   Scroll Calendar.     (line  34)
* C-w:                                   Other Kill Commands. (line   6)
* C-x #:                                 Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line  30)
* C-x $:                                 Selective Display.   (line   6)
* C-x (:                                 Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  87)
* C-x ):                                 Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  87)
* C-x +:                                 Change Window.       (line  70)
* C-x -:                                 Change Window.       (line  65)
* C-x .:                                 Fill Prefix.         (line  27)
* C-x 0:                                 Change Window.       (line  35)
* C-x 1:                                 Change Window.       (line  46)
* C-x 2:                                 Split Window.        (line  17)
* C-x 3:                                 Split Window.        (line  23)
* C-x 4:                                 Pop Up Window.       (line   6)
* C-x 4 .:                               Find Tag.            (line  56)
* C-x 4 0:                               Change Window.       (line  43)
* C-x 4 a:                               Change Log Commands. (line   6)
* C-x 4 b:                               Select Buffer.       (line  65)
* C-x 4 b (Iswitchb mode):               Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* C-x 4 c:                               Indirect Buffers.    (line  19)
* C-x 4 C-o (Iswitchb mode):             Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* C-x 4 d:                               Dired Enter.         (line  29)
* C-x 4 f:                               Visiting.            (line 153)
* C-x 4 f (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  40)
* C-x 4 m:                               Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* C-x 5:                                 Creating Frames.     (line   6)
* C-x 5 .:                               Find Tag.            (line  56)
* C-x 5 0:                               Frame Commands.      (line  13)
* C-x 5 1:                               Frame Commands.      (line  22)
* C-x 5 2:                               Creating Frames.     (line  18)
* C-x 5 b:                               Select Buffer.       (line  73)
* C-x 5 b (Iswitchb mode):               Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* C-x 5 d:                               Dired Enter.         (line  29)
* C-x 5 f:                               Visiting.            (line 161)
* C-x 5 f (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  50)
* C-x 5 m:                               Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* C-x 5 o:                               Frame Commands.      (line  17)
* C-x 5 r:                               Creating Frames.     (line  43)
* C-x 6 1:                               Two-Column.          (line  60)
* C-x 6 2:                               Two-Column.          (line  12)
* C-x 6 b:                               Two-Column.          (line  35)
* C-x 6 d:                               Two-Column.          (line  65)
* C-x 6 RET:                             Two-Column.          (line  55)
* C-x 6 s:                               Two-Column.          (line  22)
* C-x 8:                                 Unibyte Mode.        (line  61)
* C-x ;:                                 Options for Comments.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-x <:                                 Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  36)
* C-x <LEFT>:                            Select Buffer.       (line  59)
* C-x <RET> F:                           File Name Coding.    (line  13)
* C-x <RIGHT>:                           Select Buffer.       (line  59)
* C-x = <1>:                             International Chars. (line  35)
* C-x =:                                 Position Info.       (line  54)
* C-x >:                                 Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  36)
* C-x [:                                 Pages.               (line  28)
* C-x [ (Calendar mode):                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* C-x ]:                                 Pages.               (line  28)
* C-x ] (Calendar mode):                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* C-x ^:                                 Change Window.       (line  51)
* C-x `:                                 Compilation Mode.    (line  56)
* C-x a g:                               Defining Abbrevs.    (line  31)
* C-x a i g:                             Defining Abbrevs.    (line  49)
* C-x a i l:                             Defining Abbrevs.    (line  49)
* C-x a l:                               Defining Abbrevs.    (line  43)
* C-x b:                                 Select Buffer.       (line  28)
* C-x b (Iswitchb mode):                 Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* C-x C-+:                               Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line   8)
* C-x C--:                               Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line   8)
* C-x C-0:                               Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line   8)
* C-x C-<SPC>:                           Global Mark Ring.    (line  11)
* C-x C-=:                               Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line   8)
* C-x C-a (GUD):                         Commands of GUD.     (line  28)
* C-x C-a C-j (GUD):                     Commands of GUD.     (line 104)
* C-x C-a C-w (GUD):                     Watch Expressions.   (line   6)
* C-x C-b:                               List Buffers.        (line   9)
* C-x C-c:                               Exiting.             (line  14)
* C-x C-d:                               Directories.         (line  26)
* C-x C-e:                               Lisp Eval.           (line  58)
* C-x C-f:                               Visiting.            (line  52)
* C-x C-f (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  23)
* C-x C-k b:                             Save Keyboard Macro. (line  28)
* C-x C-k C-a:                           Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  65)
* C-x C-k C-c:                           Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  57)
* C-x C-k C-e:                           Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  16)
* C-x C-k C-f:                           Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  71)
* C-x C-k C-i:                           Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  31)
* C-x C-k C-k:                           Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  33)
* C-x C-k C-n:                           Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  43)
* C-x C-k C-p:                           Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  43)
* C-x C-k e:                             Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  22)
* C-x C-k l:                             Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  27)
* C-x C-k n:                             Save Keyboard Macro. (line  17)
* C-x C-k r:                             Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  82)
* C-x C-k RET:                           Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  16)
* C-x C-k SPC:                           Keyboard Macro Step-Edit.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-x C-l:                               Case.                (line  47)
* C-x C-n:                               Moving Point.        (line 100)
* C-x C-o:                               Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* C-x C-p:                               Pages.               (line  34)
* C-x C-q:                               Misc Buffer.         (line  18)
* C-x C-r:                               Visiting.            (line 149)
* C-x C-r (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  27)
* C-x C-s:                               Save Commands.       (line  26)
* C-x C-t:                               Transpose.           (line  31)
* C-x C-u:                               Case.                (line  47)
* C-x C-v:                               Visiting.            (line 123)
* C-x C-v (FFAP):                        FFAP.                (line  30)
* C-x C-w:                               Save Commands.       (line  99)
* C-x C-x:                               Setting Mark.        (line  38)
* C-x C-z:                               External Lisp.       (line  12)
* C-x d:                                 Dired Enter.         (line   6)
* C-x d (FFAP):                          FFAP.                (line  33)
* C-x DEL:                               Sentences.           (line  40)
* C-x e:                                 Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  87)
* C-x ESC ESC:                           Repetition.          (line  20)
* C-x f:                                 Fill Commands.       (line  51)
* C-x h:                                 Marking Objects.     (line  38)
* C-x i:                                 Misc File Ops.       (line  22)
* C-x k:                                 Kill Buffer.         (line  21)
* C-x l:                                 Pages.               (line  49)
* C-x m:                                 Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* C-x n d:                               Narrowing.           (line  41)
* C-x n n:                               Narrowing.           (line  36)
* C-x n p:                               Narrowing.           (line  41)
* C-x n w:                               Narrowing.           (line  46)
* C-x o:                                 Other Window.        (line  20)
* C-x q:                                 Keyboard Macro Query.
                                                              (line  14)
* C-x r +:                               RegNumbers.          (line  14)
* C-x r b:                               Bookmarks.           (line  27)
* C-x r c:                               Rectangles.          (line  91)
* C-x r d:                               Rectangles.          (line  61)
* C-x r f:                               RegConfig.           (line   6)
* C-x r i:                               RegText.             (line  38)
* C-x r j:                               RegPos.              (line  19)
* C-x r k:                               Rectangles.          (line  61)
* C-x r l:                               Bookmarks.           (line  34)
* C-x r m:                               Bookmarks.           (line  27)
* C-x r n:                               RegNumbers.          (line  11)
* C-x r o:                               Rectangles.          (line  91)
* C-x r r:                               RegRect.             (line  10)
* C-x r s:                               RegText.             (line  23)
* C-x r SPC:                             RegPos.              (line  14)
* C-x r t:                               Rectangles.          (line 103)
* C-x r w:                               RegConfig.           (line   6)
* C-x r y:                               Rectangles.          (line  75)
* C-x RET:                               International Chars. (line  32)
* C-x RET c:                             Text Coding.         (line  36)
* C-x RET C-\:                           Select Input Method. (line  22)
* C-x RET f:                             Text Coding.         (line  23)
* C-x RET k:                             Terminal Coding.     (line  27)
* C-x RET p:                             Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  44)
* C-x RET r:                             Text Coding.         (line  67)
* C-x RET t:                             Terminal Coding.     (line  12)
* C-x RET X:                             Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  24)
* C-x RET x:                             Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  24)
* C-x s:                                 Save Commands.       (line  42)
* C-x SPC:                               Commands of GUD.     (line  26)
* C-x TAB:                               Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  37)
* C-x TAB (Enriched mode):               Format Indentation.  (line  15)
* C-x u:                                 Undo.                (line  21)
* C-x v =:                               Old Revisions.       (line  32)
* C-x v a:                               Change Logs and VC.  (line  11)
* C-x v b:                               Local Version Control.
                                                              (line  74)
* C-x v c:                               VC Undo.             (line  25)
* C-x v d:                               VC Directory Mode.   (line   6)
* C-x v g:                               Old Revisions.       (line  73)
* C-x v h:                               Version Headers.     (line  29)
* C-x v i:                               Registering.         (line   6)
* C-x v l:                               VC Status.           (line   9)
* C-x v m:                               Merging.             (line  16)
* C-x v r:                               Making Revision Tags.
                                                              (line  13)
* C-x v s:                               Making Revision Tags.
                                                              (line   9)
* C-x v u:                               VC Undo.             (line  14)
* C-x v v:                               Basic VC Editing.    (line  22)
* C-x v ~:                               Old Revisions.       (line  25)
* C-x w b:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  54)
* C-x w h:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  25)
* C-x w i:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  65)
* C-x w l:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  50)
* C-x w r:                               Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  38)
* C-x z:                                 Repeating.           (line  12)
* C-x }:                                 Change Window.       (line  51)
* C-y:                                   Kill Ring.           (line  15)
* C-z:                                   Exiting.             (line  49)
* C-z (X windows):                       Frame Commands.      (line   9)
* d (Calendar mode):                     Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  35)
* D (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  48)
* d (Dired):                             Dired Deletion.      (line  22)
* D (GDB breakpoints buffer):            Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  19)
* D (GDB speedbar):                      Watch Expressions.   (line  25)
* d (Rmail):                             Rmail Deletion.      (line  29)
* DEL (and major modes):                 Major Modes.         (line   6)
* DEL (Dired):                           Dired Deletion.      (line  28)
* DEL (Gnus):                            Summary of Gnus.     (line  66)
* DEL (MS-DOS):                          MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line   6)
* DEL (programming modes):               Program Modes.       (line  32)
* DEL (Rmail):                           Rmail Scrolling.     (line  23)
* DOWN:                                  Moving Point.        (line  16)
* e (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  18)
* e (Rmail):                             Rmail Editing.       (line  15)
* ESC ESC ESC:                           Quitting.            (line  78)
* f (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  12)
* f (Rmail):                             Rmail Reply.         (line  75)
* F1:                                    Help.                (line   6)
* F10:                                   Menu Bar.            (line  10)
* F10 (MS-Windows):                      Windows Keyboard.    (line  17)
* F2 1:                                  Two-Column.          (line  60)
* F2 2:                                  Two-Column.          (line  12)
* F2 b:                                  Two-Column.          (line  35)
* F2 d:                                  Two-Column.          (line  65)
* F2 RET:                                Two-Column.          (line  55)
* F2 s:                                  Two-Column.          (line  22)
* F3:                                    Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  25)
* F4:                                    Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  25)
* g (Dired):                             Dired Updating.      (line  29)
* G (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  81)
* g (Rmail):                             Rmail Files.         (line  54)
* g CHAR (Calendar mode):                From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* g D (Calendar mode):                   Specified Dates.     (line  29)
* g d (Calendar mode):                   Specified Dates.     (line  24)
* g m (Calendar mode):                   Mayan Calendar.      (line  42)
* g w (Calendar mode):                   Specified Dates.     (line  29)
* h (Calendar mode):                     Holidays.            (line  33)
* H (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  64)
* h (Rmail):                             Rmail Make Summary.  (line  36)
* Help:                                  Help.                (line   6)
* i (Dired):                             Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line  18)
* i (Rmail):                             Rmail Files.         (line  25)
* i a (Calendar mode):                   Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  29)
* i b (Calendar mode):                   Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  54)
* i c (Calendar mode):                   Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  59)
* i d (Calendar mode):                   Adding to Diary.     (line  27)
* i m (Calendar mode):                   Adding to Diary.     (line  32)
* i w (Calendar mode):                   Adding to Diary.     (line  32)
* i y (Calendar mode):                   Adding to Diary.     (line  32)
* INSERT:                                Minor Modes.         (line  65)
* j (Dired):                             Dired Navigation.    (line  16)
* j (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  90)
* k (Dired):                             Dired Updating.      (line  43)
* k (Rmail):                             Rmail Labels.        (line  34)
* l (Dired):                             Dired Updating.      (line  34)
* L (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 110)
* l (Gnus Group mode):                   Summary of Gnus.     (line  29)
* L (Gnus Group mode):                   Summary of Gnus.     (line  25)
* l (Rmail):                             Rmail Make Summary.  (line  41)
* LEFT:                                  Moving Point.        (line  16)
* m (Calendar mode):                     Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  49)
* M (Calendar mode):                     Lunar Phases.        (line  19)
* M (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  76)
* m (Dired):                             Marks vs Flags.      (line  17)
* m (Rmail):                             Rmail Reply.         (line 100)
* M-!:                                   Single Shell.        (line   6)
* M-$:                                   Spelling.            (line  49)
* M-$ (Dired):                           Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  15)
* M-%:                                   Query Replace.       (line  14)
* M-% (Incremental search):              Special Isearch.     (line  36)
* M-':                                   Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  32)
* M-*:                                   Find Tag.            (line  67)
* M-,:                                   Tags Search.         (line  31)
* M--:                                   Arguments.           (line  15)
* M-- M-c:                               Fixing Case.         (line  15)
* M-- M-l:                               Fixing Case.         (line  15)
* M-- M-u:                               Fixing Case.         (line  15)
* M-.:                                   Find Tag.            (line  35)
* M-/:                                   Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  12)
* M-1:                                   Arguments.           (line  15)
* M-;:                                   Comment Commands.    (line  27)
* M-<:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* M-< (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  21)
* M-<colon>:                             Lisp Eval.           (line  38)
* M-=:                                   Position Info.       (line  50)
* M-= (Calendar mode):                   Counting Days.       (line  10)
* M-= (Dired):                           Comparison in Dired. (line  18)
* M->:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* M-> (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  24)
* M-? (Nroff mode):                      Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* M-? (Shell mode):                      Shell Mode.          (line  32)
* M-@:                                   Words.               (line  61)
* M-\:                                   Deletion.            (line  35)
* M-^:                                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  24)
* M-^ (Fortran mode):                    ForIndent Commands.  (line  30)
* M-`:                                   Menu Bar.            (line  10)
* M-a:                                   Sentences.           (line  22)
* M-a (C mode):                          Motion in C.         (line  40)
* M-a (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  15)
* M-b:                                   Words.               (line  32)
* M-c:                                   Case.                (line  24)
* M-d:                                   Words.               (line  41)
* M-DEL:                                 Words.               (line  50)
* M-DEL (Dired):                         Marks vs Flags.      (line  54)
* M-Drag-Mouse-1:                        Secondary Selection. (line  11)
* M-e:                                   Sentences.           (line  22)
* M-e (C mode):                          Motion in C.         (line  49)
* M-e (Calendar mode):                   Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  18)
* M-f:                                   Words.               (line  32)
* M-g M-n:                               Compilation Mode.    (line  56)
* M-g n:                                 Compilation Mode.    (line  56)
* M-h:                                   Paragraphs.          (line  36)
* M-i <1>:                               Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* M-i:                                   Indentation.         (line  68)
* M-j:                                   Multi-Line Comments. (line   6)
* M-j b (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  48)
* M-j c (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  51)
* M-j l (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  44)
* M-j r (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  45)
* M-j u (Enriched mode):                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  55)
* M-k:                                   Sentences.           (line  33)
* M-l:                                   Case.                (line  24)
* M-m:                                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line   6)
* M-m (Rmail):                           Rmail Reply.         (line  64)
* M-Mouse-1:                             Secondary Selection. (line  22)
* M-Mouse-2:                             Secondary Selection. (line  33)
* M-Mouse-3:                             Secondary Selection. (line  26)
* M-n (minibuffer history):              Minibuffer History.  (line  29)
* M-n (Nroff mode):                      Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* M-n (Rmail):                           Rmail Motion.        (line  55)
* M-n (Shell mode):                      Shell Ring.          (line  10)
* M-o b (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  18)
* M-o d (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  15)
* M-o i (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  22)
* M-o l (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  26)
* M-o M-s (Text mode):                   Fill Commands.       (line  46)
* M-o o (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  34)
* M-o u (Enriched mode):                 Format Faces.        (line  30)
* M-p (minibuffer history):              Minibuffer History.  (line  29)
* M-p (Nroff mode):                      Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* M-p (Rmail):                           Rmail Motion.        (line  55)
* M-p (Shell mode):                      Shell Ring.          (line   6)
* M-q:                                   Fill Commands.       (line  21)
* M-q (C mode):                          Other C Commands.    (line  39)
* M-q (Fortran mode):                    ForIndent Commands.  (line  35)
* M-r:                                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* M-r (minibuffer history):              Minibuffer History.  (line  51)
* M-r (Shell mode):                      Shell Ring.          (line  14)
* M-S (Enriched mode):                   Format Justification.
                                                              (line  51)
* M-s (Gnus Summary mode):               Summary of Gnus.     (line  90)
* M-s (minibuffer history):              Minibuffer History.  (line  51)
* M-s (Rmail):                           Rmail Motion.        (line  68)
* M-s (Shell mode):                      Shell Ring.          (line  14)
* M-s o:                                 Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  31)
* M-s w:                                 Word Search.         (line  26)
* M-SPC:                                 Deletion.            (line  35)
* M-t:                                   Transpose.           (line  31)
* M-TAB:                                 Symbol Completion.   (line  10)
* M-TAB (customization buffer):          Changing a Variable. (line  49)
* M-TAB (Incremental search):            Special Isearch.     (line  40)
* M-TAB (Mail mode):                     Header Editing.      (line  52)
* M-TAB (Picture mode):                  Tabs in Picture.     (line   6)
* M-TAB (Text mode):                     Text Mode.           (line  36)
* M-TAB, (MS-Windows):                   Windows Keyboard.    (line  45)
* M-u:                                   Case.                (line  24)
* M-v:                                   Scrolling.           (line  62)
* M-v (Calendar mode):                   Scroll Calendar.     (line  34)
* M-w:                                   Other Kill Commands. (line  39)
* M-x:                                   M-x.                 (line  17)
* M-y:                                   Earlier Kills.       (line   6)
* M-z:                                   Other Kill Commands. (line  49)
* M-{:                                   Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* M-{ (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* M-{ (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  72)
* M-|:                                   Single Shell.        (line  30)
* M-}:                                   Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* M-} (Calendar mode):                   Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* M-} (Dired):                           Marks vs Flags.      (line  67)
* M-~:                                   Save Commands.       (line  78)
* Mouse-1:                               Mouse Commands.      (line   6)
* Mouse-1 (mode line):                   Mode Line Mouse.     (line  16)
* Mouse-1 (scroll bar):                  Mode Line Mouse.     (line  34)
* Mouse-1 (selection):                   Mouse References.    (line   6)
* Mouse-2:                               Mouse Commands.      (line   6)
* Mouse-2 (GDB breakpoints buffer):      Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  26)
* Mouse-2 (mode line):                   Mode Line Mouse.     (line  23)
* Mouse-2 (selection):                   Mouse References.    (line   6)
* Mouse-3:                               Mouse Commands.      (line   6)
* Mouse-3 (mode line):                   Mode Line Mouse.     (line  26)
* n (Gnus):                              Summary of Gnus.     (line  72)
* n (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  55)
* next:                                  Scrolling.           (line  62)
* o (Calendar mode):                     Specified Dates.     (line  34)
* O (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  85)
* o (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  21)
* o (Occur mode):                        Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  20)
* o (Rmail):                             Rmail Output.        (line  20)
* p (Calendar mode):                     To Other Calendar.   (line  11)
* P (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  99)
* p (Gnus):                              Summary of Gnus.     (line  76)
* p (Rmail):                             Rmail Motion.        (line  55)
* p d (Calendar mode):                   General Calendar.    (line  21)
* PageDown:                              Scrolling.           (line  62)
* PageUp:                                Scrolling.           (line  62)
* prior:                                 Scrolling.           (line  62)
* q (Calendar mode):                     General Calendar.    (line  36)
* Q (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 127)
* q (Gnus Group mode):                   Summary of Gnus.     (line  18)
* q (Rmail summary):                     Rmail Summary Edit.  (line 102)
* Q (Rmail summary):                     Rmail Summary Edit.  (line 102)
* q (Rmail):                             Rmail Basics.        (line  35)
* R (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  55)
* r (Rmail):                             Rmail Reply.         (line  33)
* RET:                                   Inserting Text.      (line  11)
* RET (Dired):                           Dired Visiting.      (line  18)
* RET (GDB breakpoints buffer):          Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  22)
* RET (GDB speedbar):                    Watch Expressions.   (line  28)
* RET (Occur mode):                      Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  20)
* RET (Shell mode):                      Shell Mode.          (line  13)
* RIGHT:                                 Moving Point.        (line  16)
* s (Calendar mode):                     Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  60)
* S (Calendar mode):                     Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  25)
* s (Dired):                             Dired Updating.      (line  59)
* S (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  70)
* s (Gnus Summary mode):                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  85)
* s (Rmail):                             Rmail Basics.        (line  28)
* S-<TAB> (Help mode):                   Help Mode.           (line  42)
* S-Mouse-2:                             Hideshow.            (line  16)
* S-Mouse-3 (FFAP):                      FFAP.                (line  64)
* S-TAB (customization buffer):          Changing a Variable. (line 103)
* SPC:                                   Completion Commands. (line  56)
* SPC (Calendar mode):                   General Calendar.    (line  31)
* SPC (Dired):                           Dired Navigation.    (line  11)
* SPC (GDB breakpoints buffer):          Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  12)
* SPC (Gnus):                            Summary of Gnus.     (line  49)
* SPC (Rmail):                           Rmail Scrolling.     (line  23)
* t (Calendar mode):                     Writing Calendar Files.
                                                              (line  23)
* T (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line  94)
* t (Dired):                             Marks vs Flags.      (line  76)
* t (Rmail):                             Rmail Display.       (line  27)
* TAB:                                   Completion Commands. (line  29)
* TAB (and major modes):                 Major Modes.         (line   6)
* TAB (completion):                      Completion Example.  (line   6)
* TAB (customization buffer):            Changing a Variable. (line 103)
* TAB (GUD):                             Commands of GUD.     (line 113)
* TAB (programming modes):               Basic Indent.        (line  16)
* TAB (Shell mode):                      Shell Mode.          (line  20)
* TAB (Text mode):                       Text Mode.           (line  15)
* u (Calendar mode):                     Holidays.            (line  40)
* u (Dired deletion):                    Dired Deletion.      (line  28)
* U (Dired):                             Marks vs Flags.      (line  49)
* u (Dired):                             Marks vs Flags.      (line  40)
* u (Gnus Group mode):                   Summary of Gnus.     (line  33)
* u (Rmail):                             Rmail Deletion.      (line  44)
* UP:                                    Moving Point.        (line  16)
* v (Dired):                             Dired Visiting.      (line  38)
* v (Rmail):                             Rmail Display.       (line  55)
* w (Dired):                             Misc Dired Features. (line  18)
* w (Rmail):                             Rmail Output.        (line  32)
* x (Calendar mode):                     Holidays.            (line  40)
* X (Dired):                             Shell Commands in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* x (Dired):                             Dired Deletion.      (line  36)
* x (Rmail):                             Rmail Deletion.      (line  44)
* Z (Dired):                             Operating on Files.  (line 106)
* ~ (Dired):                             Flagging Many Files. (line  34)

File: emacs,  Node: Option Index,  Next: Command Index,  Prev: Key Index,  Up: Top

Command-Line Options Index

* Menu:

* +LINENUM:                              Action Arguments.    (line  30)
* --background-color:                    Colors.              (line  29)
* --basic-display:                       Misc X.              (line  20)
* --batch:                               Initial Options.     (line  36)
* --border-color:                        Colors.              (line  33)
* --border-width:                        Borders X.           (line  20)
* --color:                               Colors.              (line  51)
* --cursor-color:                        Colors.              (line  37)
* --daemon:                              Initial Options.     (line  98)
* --debug-init:                          Initial Options.     (line 116)
* --directory:                           Action Arguments.    (line  49)
* --display:                             Initial Options.     (line  25)
* --eval:                                Action Arguments.    (line  59)
* --execute:                             Action Arguments.    (line  60)
* --file:                                Action Arguments.    (line   9)
* --find-file:                           Action Arguments.    (line  10)
* --font:                                Font X.              (line  12)
* --foreground-color:                    Colors.              (line  23)
* --fullheight:                          Window Size X.       (line  22)
* --fullscreen:                          Window Size X.       (line  18)
* --fullwidth:                           Window Size X.       (line  26)
* --funcall:                             Action Arguments.    (line  53)
* --geometry:                            Window Size X.       (line  11)
* --help:                                Action Arguments.    (line  71)
* --iconic:                              Icons X.             (line   7)
* --insert:                              Action Arguments.    (line  63)
* --internal-border:                     Borders X.           (line  15)
* --kill:                                Action Arguments.    (line  68)
* --line-spacing:                        Misc X.              (line  12)
* --load:                                Action Arguments.    (line  38)
* --mouse-color:                         Colors.              (line  42)
* --multibyte:                           Initial Options.     (line 130)
* --name:                                Resources.           (line  63)
* --no-bitmap-icon:                      Icons X.             (line  12)
* --no-blinking-cursor:                  Misc X.              (line  16)
* --no-desktop:                          Initial Options.     (line 109)
* --no-init-file:                        Initial Options.     (line  75)
* --no-multibyte:                        Initial Options.     (line 121)
* --no-site-file:                        Initial Options.     (line  82)
* --no-splash:                           Initial Options.     (line  87)
* --no-unibyte:                          Initial Options.     (line 131)
* --no-window-system:                    Initial Options.     (line  30)
* --quick:                               Initial Options.     (line  93)
* --reverse-video:                       Colors.              (line  48)
* --script:                              Initial Options.     (line  61)
* --terminal:                            Initial Options.     (line  20)
* --title:                               Title X.             (line  17)
* --unibyte:                             Initial Options.     (line 120)
* --user:                                Initial Options.     (line 113)
* --version:                             Action Arguments.    (line  75)
* --vertical-scroll-bars:                Misc X.              (line   8)
* --visit:                               Action Arguments.    (line  11)
* --xrm:                                 Resources.           (line  80)
* -bd:                                   Colors.              (line  32)
* -bg:                                   Colors.              (line  28)
* -bw:                                   Borders X.           (line  19)
* -cr:                                   Colors.              (line  36)
* -D:                                    Misc X.              (line  19)
* -d:                                    Initial Options.     (line  24)
* -daemon:                               Initial Options.     (line  97)
* -f:                                    Action Arguments.    (line  52)
* -fg:                                   Colors.              (line  22)
* -fh:                                   Window Size X.       (line  21)
* -fn:                                   Font X.              (line  11)
* -fs:                                   Window Size X.       (line  17)
* -fw:                                   Window Size X.       (line  25)
* -g:                                    Window Size X.       (line  10)
* -ib:                                   Borders X.           (line  14)
* -L:                                    Action Arguments.    (line  48)
* -l:                                    Action Arguments.    (line  37)
* -lsp:                                  Misc X.              (line  11)
* -ms:                                   Colors.              (line  41)
* -nbc:                                  Misc X.              (line  15)
* -nbi:                                  Icons X.             (line  11)
* -nw:                                   Initial Options.     (line  29)
* -Q:                                    Initial Options.     (line  92)
* -q:                                    Initial Options.     (line  74)
* -r:                                    Colors.              (line  46)
* -rv:                                   Colors.              (line  47)
* -T:                                    Title X.             (line  16)
* -t:                                    Initial Options.     (line  19)
* -u:                                    Initial Options.     (line 112)
* -vb:                                   Misc X.              (line   7)

File: emacs,  Node: Command Index,  Next: Variable Index,  Prev: Option Index,  Up: Top

Command and Function Index

* Menu:

* 2C-associate-buffer:                   Two-Column.          (line  35)
* 2C-dissociate:                         Two-Column.          (line  65)
* 2C-merge:                              Two-Column.          (line  60)
* 2C-newline:                            Two-Column.          (line  55)
* 2C-split:                              Two-Column.          (line  22)
* 2C-two-columns:                        Two-Column.          (line  12)
* 5x5:                                   Amusements.          (line  13)
* abbrev-mode:                           Abbrev Concepts.     (line  13)
* abbrev-prefix-mark:                    Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  32)
* abort-recursive-edit:                  Quitting.            (line  70)
* add-change-log-entry-other-window:     Change Log Commands. (line   6)
* add-change-log-entry-other-window, in Diff mode: Diff Mode. (line 106)
* add-global-abbrev:                     Defining Abbrevs.    (line  31)
* add-hook:                              Hooks.               (line  37)
* add-mode-abbrev:                       Defining Abbrevs.    (line  43)
* add-name-to-file:                      Misc File Ops.       (line  71)
* add-untranslated-filesystem:           Text and Binary.     (line  50)
* append-next-kill:                      Appending Kills.     (line  38)
* append-to-buffer:                      Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* append-to-file:                        Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* append-to-register:                    RegText.             (line  31)
* apply-macro-to-region-lines:           Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  82)
* appt-activate:                         Appointments.        (line  21)
* appt-add:                              Appointments.        (line  52)
* appt-delete:                           Appointments.        (line  52)
* apropos:                               Apropos.             (line  72)
* apropos-command:                       Apropos.             (line  31)
* apropos-documentation:                 Apropos.             (line  81)
* apropos-value:                         Apropos.             (line  84)
* apropos-variable:                      Apropos.             (line  77)
* ask-user-about-lock:                   Interlocking.        (line  18)
* auto-compression-mode:                 Compressed Files.    (line  17)
* auto-fill-mode:                        Auto Fill.           (line  17)
* auto-lower-mode:                       Frame Parameters.    (line  19)
* auto-raise-mode:                       Frame Parameters.    (line   9)
* auto-revert-mode:                      Reverting.           (line  34)
* auto-revert-tail-mode:                 Reverting.           (line  34)
* auto-save-mode:                        Auto Save Control.   (line   6)
* back-to-indentation:                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line   6)
* backward-char:                         Moving Point.        (line  16)
* backward-kill-sentence:                Sentences.           (line  40)
* backward-kill-word:                    Words.               (line  50)
* backward-list:                         Moving by Parens.    (line  31)
* backward-page:                         Pages.               (line  28)
* backward-paragraph:                    Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* backward-sentence:                     Sentences.           (line  22)
* backward-sexp:                         Expressions.         (line  37)
* backward-text-line:                    Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* backward-up-list:                      Moving by Parens.    (line  35)
* backward-word:                         Words.               (line  32)
* balance-windows:                       Change Window.       (line  70)
* beginning-of-buffer:                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* beginning-of-defun:                    Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* beginning-of-visual-line:              Visual Line Mode.    (line  23)
* bibtex-mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* binary-overwrite-mode:                 Minor Modes.         (line  75)
* blackbox:                              Amusements.          (line  13)
* blink-cursor-mode:                     Cursor Display.      (line   6)
* bookmark-delete:                       Bookmarks.           (line  69)
* bookmark-insert:                       Bookmarks.           (line  76)
* bookmark-insert-location:              Bookmarks.           (line  72)
* bookmark-jump:                         Bookmarks.           (line  19)
* bookmark-load:                         Bookmarks.           (line  60)
* bookmark-save:                         Bookmarks.           (line  25)
* bookmark-set:                          Bookmarks.           (line  16)
* bookmark-write:                        Bookmarks.           (line  66)
* browse-url <1>:                        Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* browse-url:                            Help Mode.           (line  38)
* browse-url-at-mouse:                   Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* browse-url-at-point:                   Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* bs-show:                               Buffer Menus.        (line   6)
* buffer-menu:                           Several Buffers.     (line  18)
* buffer-menu-other-window:              Several Buffers.     (line  18)
* c-backslash-region:                    Other C Commands.    (line  57)
* c-backward-conditional:                Motion in C.         (line  30)
* c-beginning-of-defun:                  Motion in C.         (line  11)
* c-beginning-of-statement:              Motion in C.         (line  40)
* c-context-line-break:                  Other C Commands.    (line  19)
* c-electric-backspace:                  Program Modes.       (line  32)
* c-end-of-defun:                        Motion in C.         (line  11)
* c-end-of-statement:                    Motion in C.         (line  49)
* c-fill-paragraph:                      Other C Commands.    (line  39)
* c-forward-conditional:                 Motion in C.         (line  35)
* c-hungry-delete-backwards:             Hungry Delete.       (line  14)
* c-hungry-delete-forward:               Hungry Delete.       (line  20)
* c-indent-command <1>:                  C Indent.            (line  18)
* c-indent-command:                      Basic Indent.        (line  16)
* c-indent-defun:                        C Indent.            (line   9)
* c-indent-exp:                          C Indent.            (line  13)
* c-macro-expand:                        Other C Commands.    (line  45)
* c-mark-function:                       Moving by Defuns.    (line  32)
* c-set-style:                           Custom C Indent.     (line  26)
* c-show-syntactic-information:          Other C Commands.    (line  76)
* c-subword-mode:                        Other C Commands.    (line   8)
* c-toggle-auto-newline:                 Electric C.          (line  29)
* c-toggle-electric-state:               Electric C.          (line  19)
* c-toggle-hungry-state:                 Hungry Delete.       (line  30)
* c-up-conditional:                      Motion in C.         (line  20)
* calendar:                              Calendar/Diary.      (line   6)
* calendar-astro-goto-day-number:        From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-astro-print-day-number:       To Other Calendar.   (line  23)
* calendar-backward-day:                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-backward-month:               Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* calendar-backward-week:                Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-bahai-goto-date:              From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-bahai-print-date:             To Other Calendar.   (line  39)
* calendar-beginning-of-month:           Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  15)
* calendar-beginning-of-week:            Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  11)
* calendar-beginning-of-year:            Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  21)
* calendar-chinese-goto-date:            From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-chinese-print-date:           To Other Calendar.   (line  42)
* calendar-coptic-goto-date:             From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-coptic-print-date:            To Other Calendar.   (line  46)
* calendar-count-days-region:            Counting Days.       (line  10)
* calendar-cursor-holidays:              Holidays.            (line  33)
* calendar-end-of-month:                 Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  18)
* calendar-end-of-week:                  Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  12)
* calendar-end-of-year:                  Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  24)
* calendar-ethiopic-goto-date:           From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-ethiopic-print-date:          To Other Calendar.   (line  50)
* calendar-forward-day:                  Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-forward-month:                Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* calendar-forward-week:                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  34)
* calendar-forward-year:                 Calendar Unit Motion.
                                                              (line  43)
* calendar-french-goto-date:             From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-french-print-date:            To Other Calendar.   (line  35)
* calendar-goto-date:                    Specified Dates.     (line  24)
* calendar-goto-day-of-year:             Specified Dates.     (line  29)
* calendar-goto-today:                   Specified Dates.     (line  37)
* calendar-hebrew-goto-date:             From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-hebrew-list-yahrzeits:        From Other Calendar. (line  65)
* calendar-hebrew-print-date:            To Other Calendar.   (line  27)
* calendar-islamic-goto-date:            From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-islamic-print-date:           To Other Calendar.   (line  31)
* calendar-iso-goto-date:                From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-iso-goto-week <1>:            From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-iso-goto-week:                Specified Dates.     (line  29)
* calendar-iso-print-date:               To Other Calendar.   (line  15)
* calendar-julian-goto-date:             From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-julian-print-date:            To Other Calendar.   (line  19)
* calendar-list-holidays:                Holidays.            (line  50)
* calendar-lunar-phases:                 Lunar Phases.        (line  19)
* calendar-mark-holidays:                Holidays.            (line  40)
* calendar-mark-today:                   Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  39)
* calendar-mayan-goto-long-count-date:   Mayan Calendar.      (line  42)
* calendar-mayan-next-calendar-round-date: Mayan Calendar.    (line  64)
* calendar-mayan-next-haab-date:         Mayan Calendar.      (line  56)
* calendar-mayan-next-tzolkin-date:      Mayan Calendar.      (line  48)
* calendar-mayan-previous-haab-date:     Mayan Calendar.      (line  56)
* calendar-mayan-previous-tzolkin-date:  Mayan Calendar.      (line  48)
* calendar-mayan-print-date:             To Other Calendar.   (line  58)
* calendar-other-month:                  Specified Dates.     (line  34)
* calendar-persian-goto-date:            From Other Calendar. (line  10)
* calendar-persian-print-date:           To Other Calendar.   (line  54)
* calendar-print-day-of-year:            General Calendar.    (line  21)
* calendar-print-other-dates:            To Other Calendar.   (line  11)
* calendar-redraw:                       General Calendar.    (line  27)
* calendar-scroll-left:                  Scroll Calendar.     (line  28)
* calendar-scroll-left-three-months:     Scroll Calendar.     (line  34)
* calendar-scroll-right:                 Scroll Calendar.     (line  28)
* calendar-scroll-right-three-months:    Scroll Calendar.     (line  34)
* calendar-set-date-style:               Date Formats.        (line  43)
* calendar-star-date:                    Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  33)
* calendar-sunrise-sunset:               Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  25)
* calendar-unmark:                       Holidays.            (line  40)
* capitalize-word:                       Case.                (line  24)
* cd:                                    File Names.          (line  42)
* center-line:                           Fill Commands.       (line  46)
* change-log-merge:                      Change Log Commands. (line  43)
* change-log-mode:                       Change Log Commands. (line  31)
* check-parens:                          Parentheses.         (line   6)
* choose-completion:                     Completion Commands. (line  79)
* clean-buffer-list:                     Kill Buffer.         (line  49)
* clear-rectangle:                       Rectangles.          (line  91)
* clipboard-kill-region:                 Clipboard.           (line  13)
* clipboard-kill-ring-save:              Clipboard.           (line  16)
* clipboard-yank:                        Clipboard.           (line  20)
* clone-indirect-buffer:                 Indirect Buffers.    (line  12)
* clone-indirect-buffer-other-window:    Indirect Buffers.    (line  19)
* column-number-mode:                    Optional Mode Line.  (line  23)
* comint-bol-or-process-mark:            Shell Mode.          (line  43)
* comint-continue-subjob:                Shell Mode.          (line 131)
* comint-copy-old-input:                 Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line  12)
* comint-delchar-or-maybe-eof:           Shell Mode.          (line  37)
* comint-delete-output:                  Shell Mode.          (line  83)
* comint-dynamic-complete:               Shell Mode.          (line  20)
* comint-dynamic-list-filename...:       Shell Mode.          (line  32)
* comint-dynamic-list-input-ring:        Shell Ring.          (line  26)
* comint-get-next-from-history:          Shell Ring.          (line  20)
* comint-input-previous-argument:        Shell Ring.          (line  23)
* comint-interrupt-subjob:               Shell Mode.          (line  68)
* comint-kill-input:                     Shell Mode.          (line  60)
* comint-magic-space:                    History References.  (line  17)
* comint-next-input:                     Shell Ring.          (line  10)
* comint-next-matching-input:            Shell Ring.          (line  14)
* comint-next-prompt:                    Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line   9)
* comint-previous-input:                 Shell Ring.          (line   6)
* comint-previous-matching-input:        Shell Ring.          (line  14)
* comint-previous-prompt:                Shell History Copying.
                                                              (line   6)
* comint-quit-subjob:                    Shell Mode.          (line  78)
* comint-run:                            Shell Mode.          (line 161)
* comint-send-input:                     Shell Mode.          (line  13)
* comint-show-maximum-output:            Shell Mode.          (line 101)
* comint-show-output:                    Shell Mode.          (line  96)
* comint-stop-subjob:                    Shell Mode.          (line  73)
* comint-strip-ctrl-m:                   Shell Mode.          (line 135)
* comint-truncate-buffer:                Shell Mode.          (line 144)
* comint-write-output:                   Shell Mode.          (line  89)
* comment-dwim:                          Comment Commands.    (line  27)
* comment-indent-new-line:               Multi-Line Comments. (line   6)
* comment-kill:                          Comment Commands.    (line  59)
* comment-region:                        Multi-Line Comments. (line  14)
* comment-set-column:                    Options for Comments.
                                                              (line   6)
* compare-windows:                       Comparing Files.     (line  26)
* compilation-next-error:                Compilation Mode.    (line 103)
* compilation-next-file:                 Compilation Mode.    (line 103)
* compilation-previous-error:            Compilation Mode.    (line 103)
* compilation-previous-file:             Compilation Mode.    (line 103)
* compile:                               Compilation.         (line  22)
* compile (MS-DOS):                      MS-DOS Processes.    (line   6)
* compile-goto-error:                    Compilation Mode.    (line  48)
* complete-symbol:                       Symbol Completion.   (line  25)
* compose-mail:                          Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* compose-mail-other-frame:              Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* compose-mail-other-window:             Sending Mail.        (line  27)
* copy-file:                             Misc File Ops.       (line  78)
* copy-rectangle-to-register:            RegRect.             (line  10)
* copy-to-buffer:                        Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* copy-to-register:                      RegText.             (line  23)
* count-lines-page:                      Pages.               (line  49)
* count-lines-region:                    Position Info.       (line  50)
* count-text-lines:                      Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* cpp-highlight-buffer:                  Other C Commands.    (line  67)
* create-fontset-from-fontset-spec:      Defining Fontsets.   (line 104)
* crisp-mode:                            Emulation.           (line  10)
* cua-mode:                              CUA Bindings.        (line   6)
* customize:                             Easy Customization.  (line  12)
* customize-apropos:                     Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  56)
* customize-browse:                      Browsing Custom.     (line   6)
* customize-changed:                     Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  63)
* customize-create-theme:                Custom Themes.       (line  11)
* customize-face:                        Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  46)
* customize-group:                       Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  50)
* customize-option:                      Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  36)
* customize-saved:                       Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  71)
* customize-unsaved:                     Specific Customization.
                                                              (line  71)
* cwarn-mode:                            Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* dabbrev-completion:                    Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  12)
* dabbrev-expand:                        Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  12)
* dbx:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  20)
* debug_print:                           Checklist.           (line 222)
* decipher:                              Amusements.          (line  20)
* default-value:                         Locals.              (line  70)
* define-abbrevs:                        Saving Abbrevs.      (line  49)
* define-global-abbrev:                  Defining Abbrevs.    (line  56)
* define-key:                            Local Keymaps.       (line  39)
* define-mail-abbrev:                    Mail Aliases.        (line  74)
* define-mail-alias:                     Mail Aliases.        (line  46)
* define-mode-abbrev:                    Defining Abbrevs.    (line  56)
* delete-backward-char:                  Deletion.            (line   6)
* delete-blank-lines:                    Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* delete-char:                           Deletion.            (line   6)
* delete-file:                           Misc File Ops.       (line  40)
* delete-frame:                          Frame Commands.      (line  13)
* delete-horizontal-space:               Deletion.            (line  35)
* delete-indentation:                    Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  24)
* delete-other-frames:                   Frame Commands.      (line  22)
* delete-other-windows:                  Change Window.       (line  46)
* delete-rectangle:                      Rectangles.          (line  61)
* delete-selection-mode <1>:             Mouse Commands.      (line  97)
* delete-selection-mode:                 Using Region.        (line  43)
* delete-trailing-whitespace:            Useless Whitespace.  (line  22)
* delete-whitespace-rectangle:           Rectangles.          (line  97)
* delete-window:                         Change Window.       (line  35)
* describe-bindings:                     Misc Help.           (line  42)
* describe-categories:                   Regexp Backslash.    (line 140)
* describe-character-set:                Charsets.            (line  28)
* describe-coding-system:                Coding Systems.      (line  42)
* describe-copying:                      Help Files.          (line  13)
* describe-distribution:                 Help Files.          (line  13)
* describe-function:                     Name Help.           (line   6)
* describe-gnu-project:                  Help Files.          (line  13)
* describe-input-method:                 Select Input Method. (line  14)
* describe-key:                          Key Help.            (line  12)
* describe-key-briefly:                  Key Help.            (line   6)
* describe-language-environment:         Language Environments.
                                                              (line  76)
* describe-mode:                         Misc Help.           (line  37)
* describe-no-warranty:                  Help Files.          (line  13)
* describe-syntax:                       Syntax.              (line  18)
* describe-text-properties:              Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* describe-variable:                     Name Help.           (line  40)
* desktop-change-dir:                    Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  20)
* desktop-clear:                         Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  40)
* desktop-revert:                        Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  20)
* desktop-save:                          Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  11)
* diary:                                 Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  71)
* diary-anniversary <1>:                 Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  16)
* diary-anniversary:                     Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  35)
* diary-astro-day-number:                Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-bahai-date:                      Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-bahai-insert-entry:              Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-bahai-insert-monthly-entry:      Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-bahai-insert-yearly-entry:       Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-bahai-list-entries:              Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  13)
* diary-bahai-mark-entries:              Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  13)
* diary-block:                           Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  47)
* diary-chinese-date:                    Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-coptic-date:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-cyclic <1>:                      Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  35)
* diary-cyclic:                          Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  64)
* diary-date:                            Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  53)
* diary-day-of-year:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-ethiopic-date:                   Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-fancy-display:                   Fancy Diary Display. (line   6)
* diary-float <1>:                       Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  65)
* diary-float:                           Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  86)
* diary-french-date:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-hebrew-date:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-hebrew-insert-entry:             Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-hebrew-insert-monthly-entry:     Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-hebrew-insert-yearly-entry:      Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-hebrew-list-entries:             Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  13)
* diary-hebrew-mark-entries:             Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  13)
* diary-hebrew-omer:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* diary-hebrew-parasha:                  Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* diary-hebrew-rosh-hodesh:              Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* diary-hebrew-sabbath-candles:          Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* diary-hebrew-yahrzeit:                 Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* diary-include-other-diary-files:       Fancy Diary Display. (line  50)
* diary-insert-anniversary-entry:        Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  29)
* diary-insert-block-entry:              Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  54)
* diary-insert-cyclic-entry:             Special Diary Entries.
                                                              (line  59)
* diary-insert-entry:                    Adding to Diary.     (line  27)
* diary-insert-monthly-entry:            Adding to Diary.     (line  32)
* diary-insert-weekly-entry:             Adding to Diary.     (line  32)
* diary-insert-yearly-entry:             Adding to Diary.     (line  32)
* diary-islamic-date:                    Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-islamic-insert-entry:            Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-islamic-insert-monthly-entry:    Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-islamic-insert-yearly-entry:     Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  70)
* diary-islamic-list-entries:            Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  13)
* diary-islamic-mark-entries:            Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  13)
* diary-iso-date:                        Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-julian-date:                     Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-lunar-phases:                    Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-mail-entries:                    Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  81)
* diary-mark-entries:                    Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  49)
* diary-mark-included-diary-files:       Fancy Diary Display. (line  50)
* diary-mayan-date:                      Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-persian-date:                    Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-print-entries:                   Diary Customizing.   (line  24)
* diary-remind:                          Sexp Diary Entries.  (line  48)
* diary-show-all-entries:                Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  60)
* diary-simple-display:                  Fancy Diary Display. (line   6)
* diary-sort-entries:                    Fancy Diary Display. (line  32)
* diary-sunrise-sunset:                  Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 116)
* diary-view-entries:                    Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  35)
* diff:                                  Comparing Files.     (line   6)
* diff-add-change-log-entries-other-window: Diff Mode.        (line 106)
* diff-apply-hunk:                       Diff Mode.           (line  56)
* diff-backup:                           Comparing Files.     (line  17)
* diff-buffer-with-file:                 Comparing Files.     (line  22)
* diff-context->unified:                 Diff Mode.           (line  96)
* diff-ediff-patch:                      Diff Mode.           (line  69)
* diff-file-kill:                        Diff Mode.           (line  52)
* diff-file-next:                        Diff Mode.           (line  41)
* diff-file-prev:                        Diff Mode.           (line  45)
* diff-goto-source:                      Diff Mode.           (line  65)
* diff-hunk-kill:                        Diff Mode.           (line  49)
* diff-hunk-next:                        Diff Mode.           (line  35)
* diff-hunk-prev:                        Diff Mode.           (line  38)
* diff-mode:                             Diff Mode.           (line   6)
* diff-refine-hunk:                      Diff Mode.           (line  60)
* diff-restrict-view:                    Diff Mode.           (line  73)
* diff-reverse-direction:                Diff Mode.           (line  79)
* diff-show-trailing-whitespaces:        Diff Mode.           (line 116)
* diff-split-hunk:                       Diff Mode.           (line  83)
* diff-unified->context:                 Diff Mode.           (line  91)
* digit-argument:                        Arguments.           (line  15)
* dir-locals-set-class-variables:        Directory Variables. (line  47)
* dir-locals-set-directory-class:        Directory Variables. (line  47)
* dired:                                 Dired Enter.         (line   6)
* dired-at-point:                        FFAP.                (line   6)
* dired-backup-diff:                     Comparison in Dired. (line  18)
* dired-change-marks:                    Marks vs Flags.      (line  81)
* dired-clean-directory:                 Flagging Many Files. (line  38)
* dired-compare-directories:             Misc Dired Features. (line  35)
* dired-copy-filename-as-kill:           Misc Dired Features. (line  18)
* dired-create-directory:                Misc Dired Features. (line   6)
* dired-diff:                            Comparison in Dired. (line  11)
* dired-display-file:                    Dired Visiting.      (line  27)
* dired-do-byte-compile:                 Operating on Files.  (line 114)
* dired-do-chgrp:                        Operating on Files.  (line  81)
* dired-do-chmod:                        Operating on Files.  (line  76)
* dired-do-chown:                        Operating on Files.  (line  85)
* dired-do-compress:                     Operating on Files.  (line 106)
* dired-do-copy:                         Operating on Files.  (line  34)
* dired-do-copy-regexp:                  Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  33)
* dired-do-delete:                       Operating on Files.  (line  48)
* dired-do-flagged-delete:               Dired Deletion.      (line  36)
* dired-do-hardlink:                     Operating on Files.  (line  64)
* dired-do-hardlink-regexp:              Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  34)
* dired-do-kill-lines:                   Dired Updating.      (line  43)
* dired-do-load:                         Operating on Files.  (line 110)
* dired-do-print:                        Operating on Files.  (line  99)
* dired-do-query-replace-regexp:         Operating on Files.  (line 127)
* dired-do-redisplay:                    Dired Updating.      (line  34)
* dired-do-rename:                       Operating on Files.  (line  55)
* dired-do-rename-regexp:                Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  32)
* dired-do-search:                       Operating on Files.  (line 119)
* dired-do-shell-command:                Shell Commands in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* dired-do-symlink:                      Operating on Files.  (line  70)
* dired-do-symlink-regexp:               Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  35)
* dired-do-touch:                        Operating on Files.  (line  94)
* dired-downcase:                        Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  27)
* dired-find-file:                       Dired Visiting.      (line  12)
* dired-find-file-other-window:          Dired Visiting.      (line  21)
* dired-flag-auto-save-files:            Flagging Many Files. (line  30)
* dired-flag-backup-files:               Flagging Many Files. (line  34)
* dired-flag-file-deletion:              Dired Deletion.      (line  22)
* dired-flag-files-regexp:               Flagging Many Files. (line  57)
* dired-flag-garbage-files:              Flagging Many Files. (line  51)
* dired-goto-file:                       Dired Navigation.    (line  16)
* dired-hide-all:                        Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  15)
* dired-hide-subdir:                     Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line  10)
* dired-mark:                            Marks vs Flags.      (line  17)
* dired-mark-directories:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  30)
* dired-mark-executables:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  22)
* dired-mark-files-containing-regexp:    Marks vs Flags.      (line 112)
* dired-mark-files-regexp:               Marks vs Flags.      (line 103)
* dired-mark-subdir-files:               Marks vs Flags.      (line  35)
* dired-mark-symlinks:                   Marks vs Flags.      (line  26)
* dired-maybe-insert-subdir:             Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line  18)
* dired-mouse-find-file-other-window:    Dired Visiting.      (line  33)
* dired-next-dirline:                    Subdirectory Motion. (line  35)
* dired-next-marked-file:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  67)
* dired-next-subdir:                     Subdirectory Motion. (line  15)
* dired-other-frame:                     Dired Enter.         (line  29)
* dired-other-window:                    Dired Enter.         (line  29)
* dired-prev-dirline:                    Subdirectory Motion. (line  30)
* dired-prev-marked-file:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  72)
* dired-prev-subdir:                     Subdirectory Motion. (line  19)
* dired-sort-toggle-or-edit:             Dired Updating.      (line  59)
* dired-toggle-marks:                    Marks vs Flags.      (line  76)
* dired-tree-down:                       Subdirectory Motion. (line  26)
* dired-tree-up:                         Subdirectory Motion. (line  23)
* dired-undo:                            Marks vs Flags.      (line 120)
* dired-unmark:                          Marks vs Flags.      (line  40)
* dired-unmark-all-files:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  54)
* dired-unmark-all-marks:                Marks vs Flags.      (line  49)
* dired-unmark-backward:                 Marks vs Flags.      (line  44)
* dired-up-directory:                    Dired Visiting.      (line  45)
* dired-upcase:                          Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  21)
* dired-view-file:                       Dired Visiting.      (line  38)
* dirs:                                  Directory Tracking.  (line  20)
* dirtrack-mode:                         Directory Tracking.  (line  25)
* disable-command:                       Disabling.           (line  33)
* disable-theme:                         Custom Themes.       (line  47)
* display-battery-mode:                  Optional Mode Line.  (line  72)
* display-local-help:                    Help Echo.           (line  14)
* display-time:                          Optional Mode Line.  (line  48)
* dissociated-press:                     Dissociated Press.   (line   6)
* do-auto-save:                          Auto Save Control.   (line  37)
* doc-view-clear-cache:                  Conversion.          (line   6)
* doc-view-enlarge:                      Document View.       (line  28)
* doc-view-first-page:                   Navigation.          (line  18)
* doc-view-goto-page:                    Navigation.          (line  18)
* doc-view-kill-proc:                    Conversion.          (line  10)
* doc-view-kill-proc-and-buffer:         Conversion.          (line  10)
* doc-view-last-page:                    Navigation.          (line  18)
* doc-view-mode:                         Document View.       (line   6)
* doc-view-next-page:                    Navigation.          (line   9)
* doc-view-previous-page:                Navigation.          (line   9)
* doc-view-reset-slice:                  Slicing.             (line  22)
* doc-view-scroll-down-or-previous-page: Navigation.          (line  13)
* doc-view-scroll-up-or-next-page:       Navigation.          (line  13)
* doc-view-search:                       Searching.           (line  10)
* doc-view-search-backward:              Searching.           (line  10)
* doc-view-set-slice:                    Slicing.             (line  10)
* doc-view-set-slice-using-mouse:        Slicing.             (line  10)
* doc-view-show-tooltip:                 Searching.           (line  10)
* doc-view-shrink:                       Document View.       (line  28)
* doc-view-toggle-display:               Document View.       (line  12)
* doctex-mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* doctor:                                Total Frustration.   (line  13)
* down-list:                             Moving by Parens.    (line  42)
* downcase-region:                       Case.                (line  47)
* downcase-word:                         Case.                (line  24)
* dunnet:                                Amusements.          (line  23)
* edit-abbrevs:                          Editing Abbrevs.     (line  42)
* edit-kbd-macro:                        Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  22)
* edit-tab-stops <1>:                    Tab Stops.           (line  10)
* edit-tab-stops:                        Indentation.         (line  68)
* edit-tab-stops-note-changes:           Tab Stops.           (line  10)
* edt-emulation-off:                     Emulation.           (line  18)
* edt-emulation-on:                      Emulation.           (line  18)
* eldoc-mode:                            Lisp Doc.            (line  16)
* electric-nroff-mode:                   Nroff Mode.          (line  25)
* emacs-lisp-mode:                       Lisp Eval.           (line   6)
* emacs-version:                         Understanding Bug Reporting.
                                                              (line   6)
* emerge-auto-advance-mode:              Submodes of Emerge.  (line  31)
* emerge-buffers:                        Overview of Emerge.  (line  15)
* emerge-buffers-with-ancestor:          Overview of Emerge.  (line  18)
* emerge-files:                          Overview of Emerge.  (line   9)
* emerge-files-with-ancestor:            Overview of Emerge.  (line  12)
* emerge-skip-prefers-mode:              Submodes of Emerge.  (line  31)
* enable-command:                        Disabling.           (line  33)
* enable-theme:                          Custom Themes.       (line  47)
* end-of-buffer:                         Moving Point.        (line  16)
* end-of-defun:                          Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* end-of-visual-line:                    Visual Line Mode.    (line  23)
* enlarge-window:                        Change Window.       (line  51)
* enlarge-window-horizontally:           Change Window.       (line  51)
* enriched-mode:                         Requesting Formatted Text.
                                                              (line  11)
* eval-buffer:                           Lisp Eval.           (line  73)
* eval-defun:                            Lisp Eval.           (line  44)
* eval-expression:                       Lisp Eval.           (line  38)
* eval-last-sexp:                        Lisp Eval.           (line  58)
* eval-print-last-sexp:                  Lisp Interaction.    (line  10)
* eval-region:                           Lisp Eval.           (line  73)
* exchange-point-and-mark:               Setting Mark.        (line  38)
* execute-extended-command:              M-x.                 (line  57)
* exit-calendar:                         General Calendar.    (line  36)
* exit-recursive-edit:                   Recursive Edit.      (line  12)
* expand-abbrev:                         Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  26)
* expand-mail-aliases:                   Mail Aliases.        (line  62)
* expand-region-abbrevs:                 Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  59)
* f90-beginning-of-block:                Fortran Motion.      (line  44)
* f90-end-of-block:                      Fortran Motion.      (line  36)
* f90-mode:                              Fortran.             (line   6)
* f90-next-block:                        Fortran Motion.      (line  23)
* f90-next-statement:                    Fortran Motion.      (line  13)
* f90-previous-block:                    Fortran Motion.      (line  31)
* f90-previous-statement:                Fortran Motion.      (line  17)
* facemenu-remove-all:                   Editing Format Info. (line  21)
* facemenu-remove-face-props:            Editing Format Info. (line  17)
* facemenu-set-background:               Format Colors.       (line  28)
* facemenu-set-bold:                     Format Faces.        (line  18)
* facemenu-set-bold-italic:              Format Faces.        (line  26)
* facemenu-set-default:                  Format Faces.        (line  15)
* facemenu-set-face:                     Format Faces.        (line  34)
* facemenu-set-foreground:               Format Colors.       (line  28)
* facemenu-set-italic:                   Format Faces.        (line  22)
* facemenu-set-underline:                Format Faces.        (line  30)
* ff-find-related-file:                  Other C Commands.    (line 107)
* ffap:                                  FFAP.                (line   6)
* ffap-menu:                             FFAP.                (line   6)
* ffap-mode:                             FFAP.                (line  18)
* ffap-next:                             FFAP.                (line   6)
* file-cache-add-directory:              File Name Cache.     (line  17)
* file-cache-minibuffer-complete:        File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* file-name-shadow-mode:                 Minibuffer File.     (line  32)
* filesets-add-buffer:                   Filesets.            (line  13)
* filesets-init:                         Filesets.            (line   6)
* filesets-remove-buffer:                Filesets.            (line  13)
* fill-individual-paragraphs:            Fill Prefix.         (line  63)
* fill-nonuniform-paragraphs:            Fill Prefix.         (line  70)
* fill-paragraph:                        Fill Commands.       (line  21)
* fill-region:                           Fill Commands.       (line  28)
* fill-region-as-paragraph:              Fill Commands.       (line  31)
* find-alternate-file:                   Visiting.            (line 123)
* find-dired:                            Dired and Find.      (line  27)
* find-file:                             Visiting.            (line  52)
* find-file-at-point:                    FFAP.                (line   6)
* find-file-literally:                   Visiting.            (line 178)
* find-file-other-frame:                 Visiting.            (line 161)
* find-file-other-window:                Visiting.            (line 153)
* find-file-read-only:                   Visiting.            (line 149)
* find-file-read-only-other-frame:       Creating Frames.     (line  43)
* find-grep:                             Grep Searching.      (line  50)
* find-grep-dired:                       Dired and Find.      (line  17)
* find-name-dired:                       Dired and Find.      (line   9)
* find-tag:                              Find Tag.            (line  35)
* find-tag-other-frame:                  Find Tag.            (line  56)
* find-tag-other-window:                 Find Tag.            (line  56)
* find-tag-regexp:                       Find Tag.            (line  76)
* finder-by-keyword:                     Library Keywords.    (line   6)
* flush-lines:                           Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* flyspell-mode:                         Spelling.            (line 169)
* flyspell-prog-mode:                    Spelling.            (line 183)
* foldout-exit-fold:                     Foldout.             (line  39)
* foldout-zoom-subtree:                  Foldout.             (line  16)
* follow-mode:                           Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* font-lock-add-keywords:                Font Lock.           (line  82)
* font-lock-mode:                        Font Lock.           (line  15)
* font-lock-remove-keywords:             Font Lock.           (line  93)
* format-find-file:                      Forcing Enriched Mode.
                                                              (line  28)
* fortran-beginning-of-block:            Fortran Motion.      (line  44)
* fortran-column-ruler:                  Fortran Columns.     (line  33)
* fortran-comment-region:                Fortran Comments.    (line  80)
* fortran-end-of-block:                  Fortran Motion.      (line  36)
* fortran-indent-subprogram:             ForIndent Commands.  (line  21)
* fortran-join-line:                     ForIndent Commands.  (line  30)
* fortran-mode:                          Fortran.             (line   6)
* fortran-next-statement:                Fortran Motion.      (line  13)
* fortran-previous-statement:            Fortran Motion.      (line  17)
* fortran-split-line:                    ForIndent Commands.  (line  25)
* fortran-strip-sequence-nos:            Fortran Columns.     (line  62)
* fortran-window-create:                 Fortran Columns.     (line  57)
* fortran-window-create-momentarily:     Fortran Columns.     (line  52)
* fortune-to-signature:                  Mail Amusements.     (line  19)
* forward-char:                          Moving Point.        (line  16)
* forward-list:                          Moving by Parens.    (line  31)
* forward-page:                          Pages.               (line  28)
* forward-paragraph:                     Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* forward-sentence:                      Sentences.           (line  22)
* forward-sexp:                          Expressions.         (line  37)
* forward-text-line:                     Nroff Mode.          (line  14)
* forward-word:                          Words.               (line  32)
* frame-configuration-to-register:       RegConfig.           (line   6)
* fringe-mode:                           Fringes.             (line  24)
* gdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  10)
* gdb-delete-breakpoint:                 Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  19)
* gdb-edit-value:                        Watch Expressions.   (line  28)
* gdb-frames-select:                     Stack Buffer.        (line  10)
* gdb-goto-breakpoint:                   Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  22)
* gdb-many-windows:                      GDB-UI Layout.       (line  31)
* gdb-restore-windows:                   GDB-UI Layout.       (line  27)
* gdb-threads-select:                    Other GDB-UI Buffers.
                                                              (line  46)
* gdb-toggle-breakpoint:                 Breakpoints Buffer.  (line  12)
* gdb-var-delete:                        Watch Expressions.   (line  25)
* getenv:                                Environment.         (line  19)
* glasses-mode:                          Glasses.             (line   6)
* global-auto-revert-mode:               Reverting.           (line  34)
* global-cwarn-mode:                     Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* global-font-lock-mode:                 Font Lock.           (line  20)
* global-hl-line-mode:                   Cursor Display.      (line  34)
* global-set-key:                        Rebinding.           (line  12)
* global-unset-key:                      Rebinding.           (line  12)
* global-visual-line-mode:               Visual Line Mode.    (line  13)
* gnus:                                  Gnus.                (line  12)
* gnus-group-exit:                       Summary of Gnus.     (line  18)
* gnus-group-kill-group:                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  40)
* gnus-group-list-all-groups:            Summary of Gnus.     (line  25)
* gnus-group-list-groups:                Summary of Gnus.     (line  29)
* gnus-group-next-group:                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* gnus-group-next-unread-group:          Summary of Gnus.     (line  72)
* gnus-group-prev-group:                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* gnus-group-prev-unread-group:          Summary of Gnus.     (line  76)
* gnus-group-read-group:                 Summary of Gnus.     (line  49)
* gnus-group-unsubscribe-current-group:  Summary of Gnus.     (line  33)
* gnus-summary-isearch-article:          Summary of Gnus.     (line  85)
* gnus-summary-next-subject:             Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* gnus-summary-next-unread-article:      Summary of Gnus.     (line  72)
* gnus-summary-prev-page:                Summary of Gnus.     (line  70)
* gnus-summary-prev-subject:             Summary of Gnus.     (line  80)
* gnus-summary-prev-unread-article:      Summary of Gnus.     (line  76)
* gnus-summary-search-article-forward:   Summary of Gnus.     (line  90)
* gomoku:                                Amusements.          (line   6)
* goto-address-mode:                     Goto Address mode.   (line   6)
* goto-char:                             Moving Point.        (line  16)
* goto-line <1>:                         Select Buffer.       (line  90)
* goto-line:                             Moving Point.        (line  16)
* gpm-mouse-mode:                        Text-Only Mouse.     (line  16)
* grep:                                  Grep Searching.      (line  26)
* grep (MS-DOS):                         MS-DOS Processes.    (line   6)
* grep-find:                             Grep Searching.      (line  50)
* gud-cont:                              Commands of GUD.     (line  63)
* gud-def:                               GUD Customization.   (line  18)
* gud-down:                              Commands of GUD.     (line  86)
* gud-finish:                            Commands of GUD.     (line  98)
* gud-gdb:                               Starting GUD.        (line  15)
* gud-gdb-complete-command:              Commands of GUD.     (line 113)
* gud-jump:                              Commands of GUD.     (line 104)
* gud-next:                              Commands of GUD.     (line  48)
* gud-print:                             Commands of GUD.     (line  57)
* gud-refresh:                           Commands of GUD.     (line  36)
* gud-remove:                            Commands of GUD.     (line  69)
* gud-step:                              Commands of GUD.     (line  42)
* gud-stepi:                             Commands of GUD.     (line  53)
* gud-tbreak:                            Commands of GUD.     (line  75)
* gud-until:                             Commands of GUD.     (line  91)
* gud-up:                                Commands of GUD.     (line  81)
* gud-watch:                             Watch Expressions.   (line   6)
* handwrite:                             PostScript.          (line  82)
* hanoi:                                 Amusements.          (line   6)
* help-command:                          Help.                (line   6)
* help-for-help:                         Help.                (line  13)
* help-next-ref:                         Help Mode.           (line  42)
* help-previous-ref:                     Help Mode.           (line  42)
* help-with-tutorial:                    Basic.               (line   6)
* hi-lock-find-patterns:                 Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  65)
* hi-lock-mode:                          Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  11)
* hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns:    Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  54)
* hide-body:                             Outline Visibility.  (line  80)
* hide-entry:                            Outline Visibility.  (line  58)
* hide-ifdef-mode:                       Other C Commands.    (line  99)
* hide-leaves:                           Outline Visibility.  (line  70)
* hide-other:                            Outline Visibility.  (line  92)
* hide-sublevels:                        Outline Visibility.  (line  88)
* hide-subtree:                          Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* highlight-changes-mode:                Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line   6)
* highlight-lines-matching-regexp:       Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  50)
* highlight-regexp:                      Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  25)
* hl-line-mode:                          Cursor Display.      (line  34)
* holidays:                              Holidays.            (line  55)
* how-many:                              Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* hs-hide-all:                           Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-hide-block:                         Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-hide-level:                         Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-minor-mode:                         Hideshow.            (line   6)
* hs-show-all:                           Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-show-block:                         Hideshow.            (line  16)
* hs-show-region:                        Hideshow.            (line  16)
* html-mode:                             HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* icalendar-export-file, icalendar-export-region: Importing Diary.
                                                              (line  37)
* icalendar-import-buffer:               Importing Diary.     (line  20)
* icalendar-import-file:                 Importing Diary.     (line  27)
* icomplete-mode:                        Completion Options.  (line  49)
* iconify-or-deiconify-frame <1>:        Frame Commands.      (line   9)
* iconify-or-deiconify-frame:            Exiting.             (line  49)
* ielm:                                  Lisp Interaction.    (line  27)
* image-dired-display-thumbs:            Image-Dired.         (line  10)
* image-mode:                            File Conveniences.   (line  20)
* image-toggle-display:                  File Conveniences.   (line  20)
* imenu:                                 Imenu.               (line  11)
* imenu-add-menubar-index:               Imenu.               (line  16)
* increase-left-margin:                  Format Indentation.  (line  15)
* increment-register:                    RegNumbers.          (line  14)
* indent-code-rigidly:                   Multi-line Indent.   (line  49)
* indent-for-tab-command:                Basic Indent.        (line  16)
* indent-line-function:                  Basic Indent.        (line  16)
* indent-pp-sexp:                        Multi-line Indent.   (line  26)
* indent-region:                         Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  37)
* indent-relative:                       Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  50)
* indent-rigidly:                        Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  37)
* info:                                  Misc Help.           (line   6)
* Info-goto-emacs-command-node:          Name Help.           (line  55)
* Info-goto-emacs-key-command-node:      Key Help.            (line  16)
* info-lookup-file:                      Info Lookup.         (line   6)
* info-lookup-symbol <1>:                Info Lookup.         (line   6)
* info-lookup-symbol:                    Misc Help.           (line  22)
* insert-abbrevs:                        Saving Abbrevs.      (line  49)
* insert-file:                           Misc File Ops.       (line  22)
* insert-file-literally:                 Misc File Ops.       (line  28)
* insert-kbd-macro:                      Save Keyboard Macro. (line  46)
* insert-register:                       RegText.             (line  38)
* inverse-add-global-abbrev:             Defining Abbrevs.    (line  49)
* inverse-add-mode-abbrev:               Defining Abbrevs.    (line  49)
* isearch-backward:                      Basic Isearch.       (line  48)
* isearch-backward-regexp:               Regexp Search.       (line  19)
* isearch-forward:                       Basic Isearch.       (line  12)
* isearch-forward-regexp:                Regexp Search.       (line  19)
* isearch-forward-word:                  Word Search.         (line  26)
* isearch-toggle-input-method:           Special Isearch.     (line  32)
* isearch-toggle-specified-input-method: Special Isearch.     (line  32)
* iso-gtex2iso:                          TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* iso-iso2gtex:                          TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* iso-iso2tex:                           TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* iso-tex2iso:                           TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* ispell:                                Spelling.            (line  56)
* ispell-buffer:                         Spelling.            (line  56)
* ispell-complete-word:                  Spelling.            (line 133)
* ispell-kill-ispell:                    Spelling.            (line 142)
* ispell-message:                        Mail Mode Misc.      (line  45)
* ispell-region:                         Spelling.            (line  56)
* ispell-word:                           Spelling.            (line  49)
* iswitchb-mode:                         Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* jdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  47)
* jump-to-register:                      RegPos.              (line  19)
* just-one-space:                        Deletion.            (line  35)
* kbd:                                   Init Rebinding.      (line  10)
* kbd-macro-query:                       Keyboard Macro Query.
                                                              (line  14)
* keep-lines:                            Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* keyboard-escape-quit:                  Quitting.            (line  78)
* keyboard-quit:                         Quitting.            (line  50)
* kill-all-abbrevs:                      Defining Abbrevs.    (line  65)
* kill-buffer:                           Kill Buffer.         (line  21)
* kill-buffer-and-window:                Change Window.       (line  43)
* kill-compilation:                      Compilation.         (line  72)
* kill-emacs:                            Exiting.             (line  39)
* kill-line:                             Killing by Lines.    (line  12)
* kill-local-variable:                   Locals.              (line  51)
* kill-matching-buffers:                 Kill Buffer.         (line  34)
* kill-rectangle:                        Rectangles.          (line  61)
* kill-region:                           Other Kill Commands. (line   6)
* kill-ring-save:                        Other Kill Commands. (line  39)
* kill-sentence:                         Sentences.           (line  33)
* kill-sexp:                             Expressions.         (line  54)
* kill-some-buffers:                     Kill Buffer.         (line  29)
* kill-whole-line:                       Killing by Lines.    (line  35)
* kill-word:                             Words.               (line  41)
* kmacro-add-counter:                    Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  65)
* kmacro-bind-to-key:                    Save Keyboard Macro. (line  28)
* kmacro-cycle-ring-next:                Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  43)
* kmacro-cycle-ring-previous:            Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  43)
* kmacro-edit-lossage:                   Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  27)
* kmacro-edit-macro:                     Edit Keyboard Macro. (line  16)
* kmacro-end-and-call-macro:             Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  25)
* kmacro-end-macro:                      Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  87)
* kmacro-end-or-call-macro:              Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  25)
* kmacro-end-or-call-macro-repeat:       Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  33)
* kmacro-insert-counter:                 Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  31)
* kmacro-name-last-macro:                Save Keyboard Macro. (line  17)
* kmacro-set-counter:                    Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  57)
* kmacro-set-format:                     Keyboard Macro Counter.
                                                              (line  71)
* kmacro-start-macro:                    Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  87)
* kmacro-start-macro-or-insert-counter:  Basic Keyboard Macro.
                                                              (line  25)
* kmacro-step-edit-macro:                Keyboard Macro Step-Edit.
                                                              (line   6)
* latex-mode:                            TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* lgrep:                                 Grep Searching.      (line  56)
* life:                                  Amusements.          (line  30)
* line-number-mode:                      Optional Mode Line.  (line  18)
* linum-mode:                            Minor Modes.         (line  59)
* lisp-complete-symbol:                  Symbol Completion.   (line  36)
* lisp-eval-defun:                       External Lisp.       (line  31)
* lisp-interaction-mode:                 Lisp Interaction.    (line  23)
* lisp-mode:                             External Lisp.       (line  27)
* list-abbrevs:                          Editing Abbrevs.     (line  13)
* list-bookmarks:                        Bookmarks.           (line  22)
* list-buffers:                          List Buffers.        (line   9)
* list-character-sets:                   Charsets.            (line  35)
* list-charset-chars:                    Charsets.            (line  28)
* list-coding-systems:                   Coding Systems.      (line  50)
* list-colors-display:                   Colors.              (line   6)
* list-command-history:                  Repetition.          (line  12)
* list-directory:                        Directories.         (line  26)
* list-faces-display:                    Standard Faces.      (line   6)
* list-holidays:                         Holidays.            (line  67)
* list-input-methods:                    Select Input Method. (line  85)
* list-matching-lines:                   Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* list-tags:                             List Tags.           (line  12)
* lm:                                    Amusements.          (line  26)
* load:                                  Lisp Libraries.      (line  22)
* load-file:                             Lisp Libraries.      (line  16)
* load-library:                          Lisp Libraries.      (line  22)
* load-theme:                            Custom Themes.       (line  47)
* local-set-key:                         Rebinding.           (line  12)
* local-unset-key:                       Rebinding.           (line  12)
* locate:                                Dired and Find.      (line  38)
* locate-with-filter:                    Dired and Find.      (line  38)
* log-edit-insert-changelog:             Log Buffer.          (line  19)
* log-edit-show-diff:                    Log Buffer.          (line  12)
* log-edit-show-files:                   Log Buffer.          (line  12)
* longlines-auto-wrap:                   Longlines.           (line  29)
* longlines-mode:                        Longlines.           (line  19)
* longlines-show-hard-newlines:          Longlines.           (line  42)
* lpr-buffer:                            Printing.            (line  26)
* lpr-region:                            Printing.            (line  26)
* lunar-phases:                          Lunar Phases.        (line  23)
* mail-abbrev-insert-alias:              Mail Aliases.        (line  81)
* mail-attach-file:                      Mail Mode Misc.      (line  52)
* mail-bcc:                              Header Editing.      (line  44)
* mail-cc:                               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* mail-complete:                         Header Editing.      (line  52)
* mail-fcc:                              Header Editing.      (line  44)
* mail-fill-yanked-message:              Citing Mail.         (line  43)
* mail-mail-followup-to:                 Header Editing.      (line  44)
* mail-mail-reply-to:                    Header Editing.      (line  44)
* mail-reply-to:                         Header Editing.      (line  44)
* mail-send:                             Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* mail-send-and-exit:                    Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* mail-signature:                        Mail Mode Misc.      (line  24)
* mail-subject:                          Header Editing.      (line  44)
* mail-text:                             Mail Mode Misc.      (line  21)
* mail-to:                               Header Editing.      (line  44)
* mail-yank-original:                    Citing Mail.         (line  20)
* mail-yank-region:                      Citing Mail.         (line  38)
* make-frame-command:                    Creating Frames.     (line  18)
* make-frame-on-display:                 Multiple Displays.   (line  11)
* make-indirect-buffer:                  Indirect Buffers.    (line  10)
* make-local-variable:                   Locals.              (line  22)
* make-symbolic-link:                    Misc File Ops.       (line  81)
* make-variable-buffer-local:            Locals.              (line  27)
* Man-fontify-manpage:                   Man Page.            (line  42)
* manual-entry:                          Man Page.            (line  12)
* mark-defun:                            Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* mark-page:                             Pages.               (line  34)
* mark-paragraph:                        Paragraphs.          (line  36)
* mark-sexp <1>:                         Expressions.         (line  68)
* mark-sexp:                             Marking Objects.     (line  33)
* mark-whole-buffer:                     Marking Objects.     (line  38)
* mark-word <1>:                         Words.               (line  61)
* mark-word:                             Marking Objects.     (line  33)
* menu-bar-mode:                         Menu Bars.           (line   6)
* menu-bar-open:                         Menu Bar.            (line  10)
* minibuffer-complete:                   Completion Commands. (line  10)
* minibuffer-complete-word:              Completion Commands. (line  56)
* mode, thumbs:                          File Conveniences.   (line  28)
* mode25:                                MS-DOS Display.      (line  43)
* mode4350:                              MS-DOS Display.      (line  43)
* modify-face:                           Face Customization.  (line  55)
* morse-region:                          Amusements.          (line  32)
* mouse-avoidance-mode:                  Mouse Avoidance.     (line  32)
* mouse-buffer-menu:                     Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* mouse-choose-completion:               Completion Commands. (line  66)
* mouse-save-then-kill:                  Mouse Commands.      (line  61)
* mouse-secondary-save-then-kill:        Secondary Selection. (line  26)
* mouse-set-point:                       Mouse Commands.      (line  23)
* mouse-set-region:                      Mouse Commands.      (line  37)
* mouse-set-secondary:                   Secondary Selection. (line  11)
* mouse-start-secondary:                 Secondary Selection. (line  22)
* mouse-wheel-mode:                      Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* mouse-yank-at-click:                   Mouse Commands.      (line  52)
* mouse-yank-secondary:                  Secondary Selection. (line  33)
* move-beginning-of-line:                Moving Point.        (line  16)
* move-end-of-line:                      Moving Point.        (line  16)
* move-to-window-line:                   Moving Point.        (line  16)
* mpuz:                                  Amusements.          (line  13)
* msb-mode:                              Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* msdos-set-mouse-buttons:               MS-DOS Mouse.        (line  18)
* multi-occur:                           Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* multi-occur-in-matching-buffers:       Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* narrow-to-defun:                       Narrowing.           (line  41)
* narrow-to-page:                        Narrowing.           (line  41)
* narrow-to-region:                      Narrowing.           (line  36)
* negative-argument:                     Arguments.           (line  15)
* newline-and-indent:                    Basic Indent.        (line  30)
* next-buffer:                           Select Buffer.       (line  59)
* next-completion:                       Completion Commands. (line  85)
* next-error:                            Compilation Mode.    (line  56)
* next-error-follow-minor-mode:          Compilation Mode.    (line 110)
* next-history-element:                  Minibuffer History.  (line  29)
* next-line:                             Moving Point.        (line  16)
* next-logical-line:                     Visual Line Mode.    (line  23)
* next-matching-history-element:         Minibuffer History.  (line  51)
* normal-erase-is-backspace-mode:        DEL Does Not Delete. (line  34)
* normal-mode:                           Choosing Modes.      (line 121)
* not-modified:                          Save Commands.       (line  78)
* nroff-mode:                            Nroff Mode.          (line   6)
* number-to-register:                    RegNumbers.          (line  11)
* nxml-mode:                             HTML Mode.           (line  77)
* occur:                                 Other Repeating Search.
                                                              (line  12)
* open-dribble-file:                     Checklist.           (line  80)
* open-line:                             Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* open-rectangle:                        Rectangles.          (line  91)
* open-termscript:                       Checklist.           (line  89)
* other-frame:                           Frame Commands.      (line  17)
* other-window:                          Other Window.        (line  20)
* outline-backward-same-level:           Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* outline-forward-same-level:            Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* outline-minor-mode:                    Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* outline-mode:                          Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* outline-next-visible-heading:          Outline Motion.      (line  29)
* outline-previous-visible-heading:      Outline Motion.      (line  29)
* outline-up-heading:                    Outline Motion.      (line  36)
* overwrite-mode:                        Minor Modes.         (line  65)
* paragraph-indent-minor-mode:           Text Mode.           (line  26)
* paragraph-indent-text-mode:            Text Mode.           (line  26)
* pdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  50)
* perldb:                                Starting GUD.        (line  43)
* picture-backward-clear-column:         Basic Picture.       (line  27)
* picture-backward-column:               Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* picture-clear-column:                  Basic Picture.       (line  27)
* picture-clear-line:                    Basic Picture.       (line  27)
* picture-clear-rectangle:               Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  27)
* picture-clear-rectangle-to-register:   Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  27)
* picture-forward-column:                Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* picture-mode:                          Picture Mode.        (line   6)
* picture-motion:                        Insert in Picture.   (line  48)
* picture-motion-reverse:                Insert in Picture.   (line  48)
* picture-move-down:                     Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* picture-move-up:                       Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* picture-movement-down:                 Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-left:                 Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-ne:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-nw:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-right:                Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-se:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-sw:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-movement-up:                   Insert in Picture.   (line   6)
* picture-newline:                       Basic Picture.       (line  20)
* picture-open-line:                     Basic Picture.       (line  37)
* picture-set-tab-stops:                 Tabs in Picture.     (line  25)
* picture-tab:                           Tabs in Picture.     (line  20)
* picture-tab-search:                    Tabs in Picture.     (line   6)
* picture-yank-rectangle:                Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  38)
* picture-yank-rectangle-from-register:  Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line  38)
* plain-tex-mode:                        TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* point-to-register:                     RegPos.              (line  14)
* pong:                                  Amusements.          (line  35)
* pop-global-mark:                       Global Mark Ring.    (line  11)
* pop-tag-mark:                          Find Tag.            (line  67)
* pr-interface:                          Printing Package.    (line  15)
* prefer-coding-system:                  Recognize Coding.    (line  31)
* prepend-to-buffer:                     Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* prepend-to-register:                   RegText.             (line  31)
* previous-buffer:                       Select Buffer.       (line  59)
* previous-completion:                   Completion Commands. (line  90)
* previous-history-element:              Minibuffer History.  (line  29)
* previous-line:                         Moving Point.        (line  16)
* previous-logical-line:                 Visual Line Mode.    (line  23)
* previous-matching-history-element:     Minibuffer History.  (line  51)
* print-buffer:                          Printing.            (line  26)
* print-buffer (MS-DOS):                 Windows Printing.    (line  66)
* print-region:                          Printing.            (line  26)
* print-region (MS-DOS):                 Windows Printing.    (line  66)
* ps-despool:                            PostScript.          (line  71)
* ps-print-buffer:                       PostScript.          (line  43)
* ps-print-buffer (MS-DOS):              Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-print-buffer-with-faces:            PostScript.          (line  43)
* ps-print-region:                       PostScript.          (line  43)
* ps-print-region-with-faces:            PostScript.          (line  43)
* ps-spool-buffer:                       PostScript.          (line  64)
* ps-spool-buffer (MS-DOS):              Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-spool-buffer-with-faces:            PostScript.          (line  64)
* ps-spool-region:                       PostScript.          (line  64)
* ps-spool-region-with-faces:            PostScript.          (line  64)
* pwd:                                   File Names.          (line  42)
* quail-set-keyboard-layout:             Select Input Method. (line  73)
* quail-show-key:                        Select Input Method. (line  79)
* query-replace:                         Query Replace.       (line  14)
* query-replace-regexp:                  Query Replace.       (line  24)
* quietly-read-abbrev-file:              Saving Abbrevs.      (line  30)
* quoted-insert:                         Inserting Text.      (line  26)
* re-search-backward:                    Regexp Search.       (line  57)
* re-search-forward:                     Regexp Search.       (line  57)
* read-abbrev-file:                      Saving Abbrevs.      (line  30)
* recenter-top-bottom:                   Scrolling.           (line  37)
* recentf-edit-list:                     File Conveniences.   (line  10)
* recentf-mode:                          File Conveniences.   (line  10)
* recentf-save-list:                     File Conveniences.   (line  10)
* recode-file-name:                      File Name Coding.    (line  35)
* recode-region:                         Text Coding.         (line  71)
* recompile:                             Compilation.         (line  61)
* recover-file:                          Recover.             (line   6)
* recover-session:                       Recover.             (line  22)
* remove-hook:                           Hooks.               (line  69)
* remove-untranslated-filesystem:        Text and Binary.     (line  71)
* rename-buffer:                         Misc Buffer.         (line  35)
* rename-file:                           Misc File Ops.       (line  57)
* rename-uniquely:                       Misc Buffer.         (line  40)
* repeat:                                Repeating.           (line  12)
* repeat-complex-command:                Repetition.          (line  20)
* replace-regexp:                        Regexp Replace.      (line   6)
* replace-string:                        Unconditional Replace.
                                                              (line   6)
* report-emacs-bug:                      Checklist.           (line  27)
* reposition-window:                     Scrolling.           (line  98)
* reveal-mode:                           Outline Visibility.  (line  97)
* revert-buffer:                         Reverting.           (line   6)
* revert-buffer (Dired):                 Dired Updating.      (line  29)
* revert-buffer-with-coding-system:      Text Coding.         (line  67)
* rgrep:                                 Grep Searching.      (line  56)
* rmail:                                 Rmail.               (line   6)
* rmail-add-label:                       Rmail Labels.        (line  34)
* rmail-beginning-of-message:            Rmail Scrolling.     (line  27)
* rmail-bury:                            Rmail Basics.        (line  35)
* rmail-continue:                        Rmail Reply.         (line 106)
* rmail-delete-backward:                 Rmail Deletion.      (line  29)
* rmail-delete-forward:                  Rmail Deletion.      (line  29)
* rmail-edit-current-message:            Rmail Editing.       (line  15)
* rmail-end-of-message:                  Rmail Scrolling.     (line  27)
* rmail-expunge:                         Rmail Deletion.      (line  44)
* rmail-expunge-and-save:                Rmail Basics.        (line  28)
* rmail-first-message:                   Rmail Motion.        (line  90)
* rmail-forward:                         Rmail Reply.         (line  75)
* rmail-get-new-mail:                    Rmail Files.         (line  54)
* rmail-input:                           Rmail Files.         (line  25)
* rmail-kill-label:                      Rmail Labels.        (line  34)
* rmail-last-message:                    Rmail Motion.        (line  90)
* rmail-mail:                            Rmail Reply.         (line 100)
* rmail-mime:                            Rmail Display.       (line  55)
* rmail-mode:                            Rmail.               (line   6)
* rmail-next-labeled-message:            Rmail Labels.        (line  43)
* rmail-next-message:                    Rmail Motion.        (line  55)
* rmail-next-same-subject:               Rmail Motion.        (line  83)
* rmail-next-undeleted-message:          Rmail Motion.        (line  55)
* rmail-output:                          Rmail Output.        (line  20)
* rmail-output-as-seen:                  Rmail Output.        (line  20)
* rmail-output-body-to-file:             Rmail Output.        (line  32)
* rmail-previous-labeled-message:        Rmail Labels.        (line  43)
* rmail-previous-message:                Rmail Motion.        (line  55)
* rmail-previous-same-subject:           Rmail Motion.        (line  83)
* rmail-previous-undeleted-message:      Rmail Motion.        (line  55)
* rmail-quit:                            Rmail Basics.        (line  35)
* rmail-redecode-body:                   Rmail Coding.        (line  24)
* rmail-reply:                           Rmail Reply.         (line  33)
* rmail-resend:                          Rmail Reply.         (line  93)
* rmail-retry-failure:                   Rmail Reply.         (line  64)
* rmail-search:                          Rmail Motion.        (line  68)
* rmail-show-message:                    Rmail Motion.        (line  90)
* rmail-sort-by-author:                  Rmail Sorting.       (line  14)
* rmail-sort-by-correspondent:           Rmail Sorting.       (line  22)
* rmail-sort-by-date:                    Rmail Sorting.       (line   6)
* rmail-sort-by-labels:                  Rmail Sorting.       (line  31)
* rmail-sort-by-lines:                   Rmail Sorting.       (line  27)
* rmail-sort-by-recipient:               Rmail Sorting.       (line  18)
* rmail-sort-by-subject:                 Rmail Sorting.       (line  10)
* rmail-summary:                         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  36)
* rmail-summary-bury:                    Rmail Summary Edit.  (line 102)
* rmail-summary-by-labels:               Rmail Make Summary.  (line  41)
* rmail-summary-by-recipients:           Rmail Make Summary.  (line  45)
* rmail-summary-by-regexp:               Rmail Make Summary.  (line  58)
* rmail-summary-by-senders:              Rmail Make Summary.  (line  62)
* rmail-summary-by-topic:                Rmail Make Summary.  (line  52)
* rmail-summary-quit:                    Rmail Summary Edit.  (line 102)
* rmail-summary-undelete-many:           Rmail Summary Edit.  (line  28)
* rmail-summary-wipe:                    Rmail Summary Edit.  (line 102)
* rmail-toggle-header:                   Rmail Display.       (line  27)
* rmail-undelete-previous-message:       Rmail Deletion.      (line  44)
* rot13-other-window:                    Rmail Rot13.         (line  12)
* run-lisp:                              External Lisp.       (line  12)
* save-buffer:                           Save Commands.       (line  26)
* save-buffers-kill-terminal:            Exiting.             (line  14)
* save-some-buffers:                     Save Commands.       (line  42)
* scroll-all-mode:                       Emulation.           (line  10)
* scroll-bar-mode:                       Scroll Bars.         (line  30)
* scroll-down:                           Scrolling.           (line  62)
* scroll-left:                           Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  36)
* scroll-other-window:                   Other Window.        (line  34)
* scroll-right:                          Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  36)
* scroll-up:                             Scrolling.           (line  62)
* sdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  31)
* search-backward:                       Nonincremental Search.
                                                              (line  26)
* search-forward:                        Nonincremental Search.
                                                              (line  26)
* select-frame-by-name:                  Non-Window Terminals.
                                                              (line  19)
* send-invisible:                        Shell Mode.          (line 119)
* serial-term:                           Serial Terminal.     (line   6)
* server-edit:                           Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line  30)
* server-start:                          Emacs Server.        (line  19)
* set-buffer-file-coding-system:         Text Coding.         (line  23)
* set-buffer-process-coding-system:      Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  44)
* set-face-background:                   Faces.               (line  34)
* set-face-foreground:                   Faces.               (line  34)
* set-file-modes:                        Misc File Ops.       (line  92)
* set-file-name-coding-system:           File Name Coding.    (line  13)
* set-fill-column:                       Fill Commands.       (line  51)
* set-fill-prefix:                       Fill Prefix.         (line  27)
* set-fontset-font:                      Modifying Fontsets.  (line   6)
* set-frame-name:                        Non-Window Terminals.
                                                              (line  19)
* set-fringe-style:                      Fringes.             (line  24)
* set-goal-column:                       Moving Point.        (line 100)
* set-input-method:                      Select Input Method. (line  22)
* set-justification-center:              Format Justification.
                                                              (line  51)
* set-justification-full:                Format Justification.
                                                              (line  48)
* set-justification-left:                Format Justification.
                                                              (line  44)
* set-justification-none:                Format Justification.
                                                              (line  55)
* set-justification-right:               Format Justification.
                                                              (line  45)
* set-keyboard-coding-system:            Terminal Coding.     (line  27)
* set-language-environment:              Language Environments.
                                                              (line  20)
* set-left-margin:                       Format Indentation.  (line  52)
* set-locale-environment:                Language Environments.
                                                              (line  47)
* set-mark-command:                      Setting Mark.        (line  28)
* set-next-selection-coding-system:      Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  24)
* set-right-margin:                      Format Indentation.  (line  52)
* set-selection-coding-system:           Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  24)
* set-selective-display:                 Selective Display.   (line   6)
* set-terminal-coding-system:            Terminal Coding.     (line  12)
* set-variable:                          Examining.           (line  41)
* set-visited-file-name:                 Save Commands.       (line  91)
* setenv:                                Environment.         (line  19)
* setq-default:                          Locals.              (line  57)
* sgml-attributes:                       HTML Mode.           (line  35)
* sgml-close-tag:                        HTML Mode.           (line  60)
* sgml-delete-tag:                       HTML Mode.           (line  50)
* sgml-mode:                             HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* sgml-name-8bit-mode:                   HTML Mode.           (line  65)
* sgml-name-char:                        HTML Mode.           (line  19)
* sgml-skip-tag-backward:                HTML Mode.           (line  44)
* sgml-skip-tag-forward:                 HTML Mode.           (line  39)
* sgml-tag:                              HTML Mode.           (line  23)
* sgml-tag-help:                         HTML Mode.           (line  56)
* sgml-tags-invisible:                   HTML Mode.           (line  74)
* sgml-validate:                         HTML Mode.           (line  70)
* shadow-initialize:                     File Shadowing.      (line   6)
* shell:                                 Interactive Shell.   (line   6)
* shell-backward-command:                Shell Mode.          (line 111)
* shell-command:                         Single Shell.        (line   6)
* shell-command-on-region:               Single Shell.        (line  30)
* shell-forward-command:                 Shell Mode.          (line 105)
* shell-pushd-dextract:                  Shell Options.       (line  47)
* shell-pushd-dunique:                   Shell Options.       (line  47)
* shell-pushd-tohome:                    Shell Options.       (line  47)
* show-all:                              Outline Visibility.  (line  80)
* show-branches:                         Outline Visibility.  (line  70)
* show-children:                         Outline Visibility.  (line  76)
* show-entry:                            Outline Visibility.  (line  58)
* show-paren-mode:                       Matching.            (line  33)
* show-subtree:                          Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* shrink-window-if-larger-than-buffer:   Change Window.       (line  65)
* size-indication-mode:                  Optional Mode Line.  (line   6)
* slitex-mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* smerge-mode:                           Comparing Files.     (line  46)
* snake:                                 Amusements.          (line  46)
* solitaire:                             Amusements.          (line  38)
* sort-columns:                          Sorting.             (line  96)
* sort-fields:                           Sorting.             (line  22)
* sort-lines:                            Sorting.             (line  22)
* sort-numeric-fields:                   Sorting.             (line  22)
* sort-pages:                            Sorting.             (line  22)
* sort-paragraphs:                       Sorting.             (line  22)
* split-line:                            Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  17)
* split-window-horizontally:             Split Window.        (line  23)
* split-window-vertically:               Split Window.        (line  17)
* spook:                                 Mail Amusements.     (line   6)
* standard-display-8bit:                 Unibyte Mode.        (line  33)
* string-insert-rectangle:               Rectangles.          (line 109)
* string-rectangle:                      Rectangles.          (line 103)
* studlify-region:                       Amusements.          (line  41)
* substitute-key-definition:             Init Examples.       (line 131)
* sunrise-sunset:                        Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  25)
* suspend-emacs:                         Exiting.             (line  49)
* switch-to-buffer:                      Select Buffer.       (line  28)
* switch-to-buffer-other-frame:          Select Buffer.       (line  73)
* switch-to-buffer-other-window:         Select Buffer.       (line  65)
* switch-to-completions:                 Completion Commands. (line  71)
* tab-to-tab-stop <1>:                   Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* tab-to-tab-stop:                       Indentation.         (line  68)
* tabify:                                Just Spaces.         (line  18)
* table-backward-cell:                   Cell Commands.       (line   6)
* table-capture:                         Table Conversion.    (line   6)
* table-delete-row:                      Row Commands.        (line  14)
* table-fixed-width-mode:                Fixed Width Mode.    (line   6)
* table-forward-cell:                    Cell Commands.       (line   6)
* table-generate-source:                 Table Misc.          (line  10)
* table-heighten-cell:                   Cell Commands.       (line  40)
* table-insert:                          Table Creation.      (line   6)
* table-insert-column:                   Column Commands.     (line   6)
* table-insert-row:                      Row Commands.        (line   6)
* table-insert-sequence:                 Table Misc.          (line   6)
* table-justify:                         Cell Justification.  (line  10)
* table-narrow-cell:                     Cell Commands.       (line  47)
* table-query-dimension:                 Measuring Tables.    (line   6)
* table-recognize:                       Table Recognition.   (line   6)
* table-recognize-cell:                  Table Recognition.   (line  30)
* table-recognize-region:                Table Recognition.   (line  20)
* table-recognize-table:                 Table Recognition.   (line  24)
* table-release:                         Table Conversion.    (line  34)
* table-shorten-cell:                    Cell Commands.       (line  41)
* table-span-cell:                       Cell Commands.       (line  13)
* table-split-cell:                      Cell Commands.       (line  18)
* table-split-cell-horizontally:         Cell Commands.       (line  28)
* table-split-cell-vertically:           Cell Commands.       (line  24)
* table-unrecognize:                     Table Recognition.   (line   6)
* table-unrecognize-cell:                Table Recognition.   (line  33)
* table-unrecognize-region:              Table Recognition.   (line  21)
* table-unrecognize-table:               Table Recognition.   (line  27)
* table-widen-cell:                      Cell Commands.       (line  44)
* tags-apropos:                          List Tags.           (line  22)
* tags-loop-continue:                    Tags Search.         (line  31)
* tags-query-replace:                    Tags Search.         (line  36)
* tags-search:                           Tags Search.         (line  25)
* term:                                  Terminal emulator.   (line   6)
* term-char-mode:                        Term Mode.           (line  13)
* term-line-mode:                        Term Mode.           (line  16)
* term-pager-toggle:                     Paging in Term.      (line   9)
* tetris:                                Amusements.          (line  46)
* tex-bibtex-file:                       TeX Print.           (line 138)
* tex-buffer:                            TeX Print.           (line  46)
* tex-close-latex-block:                 LaTeX Editing.       (line  28)
* tex-compile:                           TeX Print.           (line 148)
* tex-file:                              TeX Print.           (line 109)
* tex-insert-braces:                     TeX Editing.         (line  51)
* tex-insert-quote:                      TeX Editing.         (line  25)
* tex-kill-job:                          TeX Print.           (line  77)
* tex-latex-block:                       LaTeX Editing.       (line  17)
* tex-mode:                              TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* tex-print:                             TeX Print.           (line  46)
* tex-recenter-output-buffer:            TeX Print.           (line  77)
* tex-region:                            TeX Print.           (line  87)
* tex-show-print-queue:                  TeX Print.           (line  46)
* tex-terminate-paragraph:               TeX Editing.         (line  58)
* tex-validate-region:                   TeX Editing.         (line  58)
* tex-view:                              TeX Print.           (line  46)
* text-mode:                             Text Mode.           (line   6)
* text-scale-adjust:                     Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line   8)
* text-scale-decrease:                   Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line  20)
* text-scale-increase:                   Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line  20)
* text-scale-mode:                       Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line  25)
* thumbs-mode:                           File Conveniences.   (line  28)
* time-stamp:                            Time Stamps.         (line  17)
* timeclock-change:                      Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* timeclock-in:                          Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* timeclock-modeline-display:            Time Intervals.      (line  20)
* timeclock-out:                         Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* timeclock-reread-log:                  Time Intervals.      (line  32)
* timeclock-when-to-leave:               Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* timeclock-workday-remaining:           Time Intervals.      (line   9)
* tmm-menubar:                           Menu Bar.            (line  10)
* toggle-debug-on-error:                 Checklist.           (line 162)
* toggle-enable-multibyte-characters:    Enabling Multibyte.  (line  58)
* toggle-gdb-all-registers:              Other GDB-UI Buffers.
                                                              (line  31)
* toggle-input-method:                   Select Input Method. (line  28)
* toggle-read-only:                      Misc Buffer.         (line  25)
* toggle-scroll-bar:                     Scroll Bars.         (line  41)
* toggle-truncate-lines:                 Line Truncation.     (line  15)
* tool-bar-mode:                         Tool Bars.           (line  19)
* tooltip-mode:                          Tooltips.            (line  15)
* top-level:                             Quitting.            (line  88)
* tpu-edt-on:                            Emulation.           (line  28)
* transient-mark-mode:                   Persistent Mark.     (line  19)
* transpose-chars:                       Transpose.           (line  18)
* transpose-lines:                       Transpose.           (line  31)
* transpose-sexps:                       Expressions.         (line  58)
* transpose-words:                       Transpose.           (line  31)
* tty-suppress-bold-inverse-default-colors: Display Custom.   (line  50)
* turn-on-flyspell:                      Spelling.            (line 174)
* turn-on-font-lock:                     Font Lock.           (line  30)
* ucs-insert:                            Inserting Text.      (line  59)
* undigestify-rmail-message:             Rmail Digest.        (line  15)
* undo:                                  Undo.                (line  21)
* undo-only:                             Undo.                (line  29)
* unexpand-abbrev:                       Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  50)
* unforward-rmail-message:               Rmail Reply.         (line  83)
* unhighlight-regexp:                    Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  38)
* universal-argument:                    Arguments.           (line  41)
* universal-coding-system-argument:      Text Coding.         (line  36)
* unmorse-region:                        Amusements.          (line  32)
* untabify:                              Just Spaces.         (line  18)
* up-list:                               TeX Editing.         (line  51)
* upcase-region:                         Case.                (line  47)
* upcase-word:                           Case.                (line  24)
* variable-pitch-mode:                   Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line  29)
* vc-annotate:                           Old Revisions.       (line  73)
* vc-create-tag:                         Making Revision Tags.
                                                              (line   9)
* vc-diff:                               Old Revisions.       (line  32)
* vc-dir:                                VC Directory Mode.   (line   6)
* vc-insert-headers:                     Version Headers.     (line  29)
* vc-merge:                              Merging.             (line  16)
* vc-next-action:                        Basic VC Editing.    (line  22)
* vc-print-log:                          VC Status.           (line   9)
* vc-register:                           Registering.         (line   6)
* vc-rename-file:                        Renaming and VC.     (line   6)
* vc-retrieve-tag:                       Making Revision Tags.
                                                              (line  13)
* vc-revert-buffer:                      VC Undo.             (line  14)
* vc-revision-other-window:              Old Revisions.       (line  25)
* vc-rollback:                           VC Undo.             (line  25)
* vc-switch-backend:                     Local Version Control.
                                                              (line  74)
* vc-update-change-log:                  Change Logs and VC.  (line  11)
* vi-mode:                               Emulation.           (line  40)
* view-buffer:                           Misc Buffer.         (line  52)
* view-echo-area-messages:               Misc Help.           (line  33)
* view-emacs-debugging:                  Help Files.          (line  13)
* view-emacs-FAQ:                        Help Files.          (line  13)
* view-emacs-news:                       Help Files.          (line  13)
* view-emacs-problems:                   Help Files.          (line  13)
* view-emacs-todo:                       Help Files.          (line  13)
* view-external-packages:                Help Files.          (line  13)
* view-file:                             Misc File Ops.       (line   9)
* view-hello-file:                       International Chars. (line  18)
* view-lossage:                          Misc Help.           (line  28)
* view-order-manuals:                    Help Files.          (line  13)
* view-register:                         Registers.           (line  16)
* vip-mode:                              Emulation.           (line  53)
* viper-mode:                            Emulation.           (line  32)
* visit-tags-table:                      Select Tags Table.   (line   6)
* visual-line-mode:                      Visual Line Mode.    (line  13)
* w32-register-hot-key:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  26)
* w32-shell-execute:                     Windows Processes.   (line  57)
* w32-unregister-hot-key:                Windows Keyboard.    (line  26)
* wdired-change-to-wdired-mode:          Wdired.              (line   6)
* wdired-finish-edit:                    Wdired.              (line  12)
* what-cursor-position <1>:              International Chars. (line  35)
* what-cursor-position:                  Position Info.       (line  54)
* what-line:                             Position Info.       (line  38)
* what-page:                             Position Info.       (line  38)
* where-is:                              Key Help.            (line  25)
* which-function-mode:                   Which Function.      (line   9)
* widen:                                 Narrowing.           (line  46)
* widget-backward:                       Changing a Variable. (line 103)
* widget-complete:                       Changing a Variable. (line  49)
* widget-forward:                        Changing a Variable. (line 103)
* windmove-default-keybindings:          Window Convenience.  (line  14)
* windmove-right:                        Window Convenience.  (line  14)
* window-configuration-to-register:      RegConfig.           (line   6)
* winner-mode:                           Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* woman:                                 Man Page.            (line  46)
* word-search-backward:                  Word Search.         (line  34)
* word-search-forward:                   Word Search.         (line  34)
* wordstar-mode:                         Emulation.           (line  68)
* write-abbrev-file:                     Saving Abbrevs.      (line  24)
* write-file:                            Save Commands.       (line  99)
* write-region:                          Misc File Ops.       (line  33)
* xdb:                                   Starting GUD.        (line  26)
* xml-mode:                              HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* yank:                                  Kill Ring.           (line  15)
* yank-pop:                              Earlier Kills.       (line   6)
* yank-rectangle:                        Rectangles.          (line  75)
* yow:                                   Amusements.          (line   6)
* zap-to-char:                           Other Kill Commands. (line  49)
* zone:                                  Amusements.          (line  54)

File: emacs,  Node: Variable Index,  Next: Concept Index,  Prev: Command Index,  Up: Top

Variable Index

* Menu:

* abbrev-all-caps:                       Expanding Abbrevs.   (line  14)
* abbrev-file-name:                      Saving Abbrevs.      (line  30)
* abbrev-mode:                           Abbrev Concepts.     (line  13)
* adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp:       Adaptive Fill.       (line  31)
* adaptive-fill-function:                Adaptive Fill.       (line  52)
* adaptive-fill-mode:                    Adaptive Fill.       (line  46)
* adaptive-fill-regexp:                  Adaptive Fill.       (line  46)
* add-log-always-start-new-record:       Change Log Commands. (line  21)
* add-log-keep-changes-together:         Change Log Commands. (line  17)
* ange-ftp-default-user:                 Remote Files.        (line  56)
* ange-ftp-gateway-host:                 Remote Files.        (line  68)
* ange-ftp-generate-anonymous-password:  Remote Files.        (line  60)
* ange-ftp-make-backup-files:            Remote Files.        (line  49)
* ange-ftp-smart-gateway:                Remote Files.        (line  68)
* appt-audible:                          Appointments.        (line   6)
* appt-delete-window-function:           Appointments.        (line  15)
* appt-disp-window-function:             Appointments.        (line  15)
* appt-display-diary:                    Appointments.        (line  45)
* appt-display-duration:                 Appointments.        (line  15)
* appt-display-format:                   Appointments.        (line   6)
* appt-display-mode-line:                Appointments.        (line   6)
* appt-message-warning-time:             Appointments.        (line  34)
* apropos-do-all:                        Apropos.             (line  89)
* apropos-documentation-sort-by-scores:  Apropos.             (line  97)
* apropos-sort-by-scores:                Apropos.             (line  92)
* auto-coding-alist:                     Recognize Coding.    (line  85)
* auto-coding-functions:                 Recognize Coding.    (line  85)
* auto-coding-regexp-alist:              Recognize Coding.    (line  85)
* auto-compression-mode:                 Compressed Files.    (line  17)
* auto-hscroll-mode:                     Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line   6)
* auto-mode-alist:                       Choosing Modes.      (line  15)
* auto-mode-case-fold:                   Choosing Modes.      (line  99)
* auto-revert-check-vc-info:             VC Mode Line.        (line  23)
* auto-revert-interval:                  Reverting.           (line  34)
* auto-save-default:                     Auto Save Control.   (line   6)
* auto-save-file-name-transforms:        Auto Save Files.     (line  26)
* auto-save-interval:                    Auto Save Control.   (line  15)
* auto-save-list-file-prefix:            Recover.             (line  37)
* auto-save-timeout:                     Auto Save Control.   (line  22)
* auto-save-visited-file-name:           Auto Save Files.     (line  40)
* backup-by-copying:                     Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* backup-by-copying-when-linked:         Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* backup-by-copying-when-mismatch:       Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch: Backup Copying. (line  27)
* backup-directory-alist:                Backup Names.        (line  50)
* backup-enable-predicate:               Backup.              (line  31)
* battery-mode-line-format:              Optional Mode Line.  (line  72)
* baud-rate:                             Display Custom.      (line  23)
* bdf-directory-list:                    PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  65)
* blink-cursor-alist:                    Cursor Display.      (line   6)
* blink-matching-delay:                  Matching.            (line  17)
* blink-matching-paren:                  Matching.            (line  17)
* blink-matching-paren-distance:         Matching.            (line  17)
* bookmark-save-flag:                    Bookmarks.           (line  47)
* bookmark-search-size:                  Bookmarks.           (line  52)
* browse-url-browser-function:           Browse-URL.          (line  20)
* buffer-file-coding-system:             Output Coding.       (line   6)
* buffer-read-only:                      Misc Buffer.         (line  18)
* buffer-stale-function:                 Supporting additional buffers.
                                                              (line  16)
* c-default-style:                       Custom C Indent.     (line  33)
* c-hungry-delete-key:                   Hungry Delete.       (line  34)
* c-mode-hook:                           Program Modes.       (line  46)
* c-tab-always-indent:                   C Indent.            (line  21)
* cal-html-css-default:                  Writing Calendar Files.
                                                              (line  15)
* calendar-bahai-all-holidays-flag:      Holiday Customizing. (line  26)
* calendar-christian-all-holidays-flag:  Holiday Customizing. (line  26)
* calendar-date-display-form:            Date Display Format. (line   6)
* calendar-date-style:                   Date Formats.        (line  43)
* calendar-daylight-savings-ends:        Daylight Saving.     (line  13)
* calendar-daylight-savings-ends-time:   Daylight Saving.     (line  52)
* calendar-daylight-savings-starts:      Daylight Saving.     (line  13)
* calendar-daylight-time-offset:         Daylight Saving.     (line  48)
* calendar-daylight-time-zone-name:      Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  56)
* calendar-hebrew-all-holidays-flag:     Holiday Customizing. (line  26)
* calendar-holiday-marker:               Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  15)
* calendar-holidays:                     Holiday Customizing. (line   6)
* calendar-initial-window-hook:          Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  28)
* calendar-intermonth-text:              Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line   6)
* calendar-islamic-all-holidays-flag:    Holiday Customizing. (line  26)
* calendar-latitude:                     Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  44)
* calendar-load-hook:                    Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  24)
* calendar-location-name:                Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  44)
* calendar-longitude:                    Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  44)
* calendar-mark-diary-entries-flag:      Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  49)
* calendar-mark-holidays-flag:           Holidays.            (line  40)
* calendar-move-hook:                    Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  44)
* calendar-remove-frame-by-deleting:     General Calendar.    (line  36)
* calendar-standard-time-zone-name:      Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  56)
* calendar-time-display-form:            Time Display Format. (line   6)
* calendar-time-zone:                    Sunrise/Sunset.      (line  56)
* calendar-today-invisible-hook:         Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  41)
* calendar-today-visible-hook:           Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  33)
* calendar-view-diary-initially-flag:    Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  35)
* calendar-view-holidays-initially-flag: Holidays.            (line  33)
* calendar-week-start-day:               Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  33)
* calenday-today-marker:                 Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  15)
* cannot-suspend:                        Exiting.             (line  59)
* case-fold-search:                      Search Case.         (line  23)
* case-replace:                          Replacement and Case.
                                                              (line  12)
* change-log-version-info-enabled:       Change Log Commands. (line  25)
* change-log-version-number-regexp-list: Change Log Commands. (line  25)
* change-major-mode-with-file-name:      Choosing Modes.      (line 127)
* clone-indirect-buffer-hook:            Indirect Buffers.    (line  38)
* coding:                                Specify Coding.      (line  12)
* colon-double-space:                    Fill Commands.       (line  73)
* comint-completion-addsuffix:           Shell Options.       (line  33)
* comint-completion-autolist:            Shell Options.       (line  33)
* comint-completion-fignore:             Shell Mode.          (line  25)
* comint-completion-recexact:            Shell Options.       (line  33)
* comint-input-autoexpand:               History References.  (line  17)
* comint-input-ignoredups:               Shell Options.       (line  27)
* comint-move-point-for-output:          Shell Options.       (line  16)
* comint-prompt-read-only:               Shell Options.       (line  24)
* comint-prompt-regexp:                  Shell Prompts.       (line   6)
* comint-scroll-show-maximum-output:     Shell Options.       (line  10)
* comint-scroll-to-bottom-on-input:      Shell Options.       (line   6)
* comint-use-prompt-regexp:              Shell Prompts.       (line   6)
* command-history:                       Repetition.          (line  47)
* command-line-args:                     Emacs Invocation.    (line  40)
* comment-column:                        Options for Comments.
                                                              (line   6)
* comment-end:                           Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  31)
* comment-indent-function:               Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  54)
* comment-multi-line:                    Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  44)
* comment-padding:                       Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  38)
* comment-start:                         Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  31)
* comment-start-skip:                    Options for Comments.
                                                              (line  20)
* compare-ignore-case:                   Comparing Files.     (line  40)
* compare-ignore-whitespace:             Comparing Files.     (line  40)
* compilation-auto-jump-to-first-error:  Compilation Mode.    (line  48)
* compilation-environment:               Compilation.         (line 100)
* compilation-error-regexp-alist:        Compilation Mode.    (line  95)
* compilation-scroll-output:             Compilation.         (line  54)
* compilation-skip-threshold:            Compilation Mode.    (line  73)
* compile-command:                       Compilation.         (line  29)
* completion-auto-help:                  Completion Options.  (line   6)
* completion-ignored-extensions:         Completion Options.  (line  13)
* completion-styles:                     Completion Options.  (line  38)
* confirm-kill-emacs:                    Exiting.             (line  32)
* confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer <1>: Select Buffer.      (line  46)
* confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer:    Visiting.            (line 109)
* crisp-override-meta-x:                 Emulation.           (line  10)
* ctl-arrow:                             Text Display.        (line  30)
* ctl-x-4-map:                           Prefix Keymaps.      (line  40)
* ctl-x-map:                             Prefix Keymaps.      (line  32)
* cua-enable-cua-keys:                   CUA Bindings.        (line   6)
* cua-mode:                              CUA Bindings.        (line   6)
* current-input-method:                  Select Input Method. (line  22)
* current-language-environment:          Language Environments.
                                                              (line  20)
* cursor-in-non-selected-windows:        Cursor Display.      (line  21)
* custom-buffer-done-function:           Changing a Variable. (line 160)
* custom-enabled-themes:                 Custom Themes.       (line  35)
* custom-file:                           Saving Customizations.
                                                              (line   6)
* custom-theme-directory:                Custom Themes.       (line  20)
* dabbrev-abbrev-char-regexp:            Dabbrev Customization.
                                                              (line  35)
* dabbrev-abbrev-skip-leading-regexp:    Dabbrev Customization.
                                                              (line  43)
* dabbrev-case-fold-search:              Dabbrev Customization.
                                                              (line  10)
* dabbrev-case-replace:                  Dabbrev Customization.
                                                              (line  17)
* dabbrev-check-all-buffers:             Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  31)
* dabbrev-ignored-buffer-regexps:        Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  34)
* dabbrev-limit:                         Dynamic Abbrevs.     (line  21)
* dbx-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* default-buffer-file-coding-system:     Text Coding.         (line  60)
* default-case-fold-search:              Search Case.         (line  23)
* default-directory:                     File Names.          (line  17)
* default-enable-multibyte-characters:   Enabling Multibyte.  (line  29)
* default-indicate-buffer-boundaries:    Displaying Boundaries.
                                                              (line  30)
* default-indicate-empty-lines:          Useless Whitespace.  (line  26)
* default-input-method:                  Select Input Method. (line  41)
* default-justification:                 Format Justification.
                                                              (line  65)
* default-major-mode:                    Choosing Modes.      (line 114)
* default-tab-width:                     Text Display.        (line  10)
* delete-auto-save-files:                Auto Save Files.     (line  45)
* delete-by-moving-to-trash <1>:         Dired Deletion.      (line  52)
* delete-by-moving-to-trash:             Misc File Ops.       (line  40)
* delete-old-versions:                   Backup Deletion.     (line  21)
* desktop-clear-preserve-buffers-regexp: Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  40)
* desktop-globals-to-clear:              Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  40)
* desktop-restore-eager:                 Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  34)
* desktop-save-mode:                     Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line  11)
* diary-bahai-entry-symbol:              Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  20)
* diary-date-forms:                      Diary Customizing.   (line  34)
* diary-display-function:                Fancy Diary Display. (line   6)
* diary-entry-marker:                    Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line  15)
* diary-file:                            Format of Diary File.
                                                              (line   6)
* diary-hebrew-entry-symbol:             Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  20)
* diary-include-string:                  Fancy Diary Display. (line  38)
* diary-islamic-entry-symbol:            Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  20)
* diary-list-entries-hook:               Fancy Diary Display. (line  50)
* diary-list-include-blanks:             Fancy Diary Display. (line  23)
* diary-mail-days:                       Displaying the Diary.
                                                              (line  81)
* diary-mark-entries-hook:               Fancy Diary Display. (line  50)
* diary-nongregorian-listing-hook:       Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  13)
* diary-nongregorian-marking-hook:       Non-Gregorian Diary. (line  13)
* diary-nonmarking-symbol:               Format of Diary File.
                                                              (line  21)
* diary-number-of-entries:               Diary Customizing.   (line  12)
* diary-outlook-formats:                 Importing Diary.     (line   9)
* diary-print-entries-hook:              Diary Customizing.   (line  24)
* diary-sexp-entry-symbol:               Sexp Diary Entries.  (line   6)
* diary-show-holidays-flag:              Diary Customizing.   (line   6)
* diff-switches:                         Comparing Files.     (line   6)
* diff-update-on-the-fly:                Diff Mode.           (line  20)
* directory-free-space-args:             Directories.         (line  50)
* directory-free-space-program:          Directories.         (line  50)
* dired-chown-program:                   Operating on Files.  (line  90)
* dired-copy-preserve-time:              Operating on Files.  (line  39)
* dired-dwim-target:                     Operating on Files.  (line  25)
* dired-garbage-files-regexp:            Flagging Many Files. (line  51)
* dired-isearch-filenames:               Dired Navigation.    (line  20)
* dired-kept-versions:                   Flagging Many Files. (line  38)
* dired-listing-switches:                Dired Enter.         (line   6)
* dired-listing-switches (MS-DOS):       MS-DOS Processes.    (line  44)
* dired-recursive-copies:                Operating on Files.  (line  43)
* dired-recursive-deletes:               Dired Deletion.      (line  47)
* display-battery-mode:                  Optional Mode Line.  (line  72)
* display-buffer-reuse-frames:           Select Buffer.       (line  81)
* display-time-24hr-format:              Optional Mode Line.  (line  56)
* display-time-mail-directory:           Optional Mode Line.  (line  62)
* display-time-mail-face:                Optional Mode Line.  (line  62)
* display-time-mail-file:                Optional Mode Line.  (line  62)
* display-time-use-mail-icon:            Optional Mode Line.  (line  62)
* dnd-open-file-other-window:            Drag and Drop.       (line  13)
* doc-view-cache-directory:              Conversion.          (line   6)
* doc-view-resolution:                   Document View.       (line  28)
* dos-codepage:                          MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  36)
* dos-display-scancodes:                 MS-DOS Mouse.        (line  49)
* dos-hyper-key:                         MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* dos-keypad-mode:                       MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  31)
* dos-printer:                           MS-DOS Printing.     (line  25)
* dos-ps-printer:                        MS-DOS Printing.     (line  25)
* dos-super-key:                         MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* double-click-fuzz:                     Mouse Buttons.       (line  74)
* double-click-time:                     Mouse Buttons.       (line  68)
* echo-keystrokes:                       Display Custom.      (line  17)
* emacs-lisp-mode-hook:                  Program Modes.       (line  46)
* emerge-combine-versions-template:      Combining in Emerge. (line  16)
* emerge-startup-hook:                   Fine Points of Emerge.
                                                              (line  20)
* enable-local-eval:                     Safe File Variables. (line  46)
* enable-local-variables:                Safe File Variables. (line  38)
* enable-multibyte-characters:           Enabling Multibyte.  (line  29)
* enable-recursive-minibuffers:          Minibuffer Edit.     (line  57)
* enriched-translations:                 Requesting Formatted Text.
                                                              (line  27)
* eol-mnemonic-dos:                      Optional Mode Line.  (line  98)
* eol-mnemonic-mac:                      Optional Mode Line.  (line  98)
* eol-mnemonic-undecided:                Optional Mode Line.  (line  98)
* eol-mnemonic-unix:                     Optional Mode Line.  (line  98)
* esc-map:                               Prefix Keymaps.      (line  37)
* eval-expression-debug-on-error:        Lisp Eval.           (line  82)
* eval-expression-print-length:          Lisp Eval.           (line  82)
* eval-expression-print-level:           Lisp Eval.           (line  82)
* even-window-heights:                   Select Buffer.       (line  65)
* exit-language-environment-hook:        Language Environments.
                                                              (line  93)
* explicit-shell-file-name:              Interactive Shell.   (line  32)
* ff-related-file-alist:                 Other C Commands.    (line 107)
* file-coding-system-alist:              Recognize Coding.    (line  43)
* file-name-buffer-file-type-alist:      Text and Binary.     (line  81)
* file-name-coding-system:               File Name Coding.    (line   9)
* fill-column:                           Fill Commands.       (line  51)
* fill-nobreak-predicate:                Fill Commands.       (line  76)
* fill-prefix:                           Fill Prefix.         (line  79)
* find-file-existing-other-name:         File Aliases.        (line  15)
* find-file-hook:                        Visiting.            (line 188)
* find-file-not-found-functions:         Visiting.            (line 188)
* find-file-run-dired:                   Visiting.            (line 132)
* find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings: File Aliases.        (line  15)
* find-file-visit-truename:              File Aliases.        (line  27)
* find-file-wildcards:                   Visiting.            (line  80)
* find-ls-option:                        Dired and Find.      (line  33)
* find-tag-marker-ring-length:           Find Tag.            (line  67)
* focus-follows-mouse:                   Frame Commands.      (line  24)
* foldout-mouse-modifiers:               Foldout.             (line  79)
* font-lock-beginning-of-syntax-function: Font Lock.          (line  60)
* font-lock-maximum-decoration:          Font Lock.           (line  44)
* font-lock-maximum-size:                Font Lock.           (line  55)
* font-slant-table (MS-Windows):         Windows Fonts.       (line  34)
* font-weight-table (MS-Windows):        Windows Fonts.       (line  26)
* fortran-analyze-depth:                 ForIndent Cont.      (line  17)
* fortran-break-before-delimiters:       Fortran Autofill.    (line  14)
* fortran-check-all-num...:              ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-column-ruler-fixed:            Fortran Columns.     (line  45)
* fortran-column-ruler-tabs:             Fortran Columns.     (line  45)
* fortran-comment-indent-char:           Fortran Comments.    (line  64)
* fortran-comment-indent-style:          Fortran Comments.    (line  47)
* fortran-comment-line-extra-indent:     Fortran Comments.    (line  47)
* fortran-comment-line-start:            Fortran Comments.    (line  11)
* fortran-comment-region:                Fortran Comments.    (line  80)
* fortran-continuation-indent:           ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-continuation-string:           ForIndent Cont.      (line   6)
* fortran-directive-re:                  Fortran Comments.    (line  69)
* fortran-do-indent:                     ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-electric-line-number:          ForIndent Num.       (line  18)
* fortran-if-indent:                     ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-line-length:                   Fortran Columns.     (line   6)
* fortran-line-number-indent:            ForIndent Num.       (line  10)
* fortran-minimum-statement-indent...:   ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-structure-indent:              ForIndent Vars.      (line   6)
* fortran-tab-mode-default:              ForIndent Cont.      (line  17)
* gdb-delete-out-of-scope:               Watch Expressions.   (line  39)
* gdb-many-windows:                      GDB-UI Layout.       (line   6)
* gdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* gdb-show-changed-values:               Watch Expressions.   (line  33)
* gdb-speedbar-auto-raise:               Watch Expressions.   (line  50)
* gdb-use-colon-colon-notation:          Watch Expressions.   (line  45)
* gdb-use-separate-io-buffer:            Other GDB-UI Buffers.
                                                              (line   7)
* global-cwarn-mode:                     Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* global-font-lock-mode:                 Font Lock.           (line  20)
* grep-regexp-alist:                     Compilation Mode.    (line  95)
* gud-gdb-command-name:                  GDB Graphical Interface.
                                                              (line  18)
* gud-tooltip-echo-area:                 Debugger Operation.  (line  26)
* gud-tooltip-mode:                      Debugger Operation.  (line  26)
* gud-xdb-directories:                   Starting GUD.        (line  26)
* help-at-pt-display-when-idle:          Help Echo.           (line  14)
* help-map:                              Prefix Keymaps.      (line  35)
* hi-lock-exclude-modes:                 Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  84)
* hi-lock-file-patterns-policy:          Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  73)
* hide-ifdef-shadow:                     Other C Commands.    (line  99)
* highlight-nonselected-windows:         Mark.                (line  27)
* history-delete-duplicates:             Minibuffer History.  (line  79)
* history-length:                        Minibuffer History.  (line  74)
* holiday-bahai-holidays:                Holiday Customizing. (line  26)
* holiday-christian-holidays:            Holiday Customizing. (line  26)
* holiday-general-holidays:              Holiday Customizing. (line  21)
* holiday-hebrew-holidays:               Holiday Customizing. (line  26)
* holiday-islamic-holidays:              Holiday Customizing. (line  26)
* holiday-local-holidays:                Holiday Customizing. (line  24)
* holiday-oriental-holidays:             Holiday Customizing. (line   6)
* holiday-other-holidays:                Holiday Customizing. (line  34)
* holiday-solar-holidays:                Holiday Customizing. (line   6)
* hourglass-delay:                       Display Custom.      (line  35)
* hs-hide-comments-when-hiding-all:      Hideshow.            (line  38)
* hs-isearch-open:                       Hideshow.            (line  38)
* hs-special-modes-alist:                Hideshow.            (line  38)
* hscroll-margin:                        Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  15)
* hscroll-step:                          Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line  20)
* image-dired-external-viewer:           Image-Dired.         (line  32)
* imenu-auto-rescan:                     Imenu.               (line  25)
* imenu-sort-function:                   Imenu.               (line  31)
* indent-tabs-mode:                      Just Spaces.         (line   6)
* indent-tabs-mode (Fortran mode):       ForIndent Cont.      (line  17)
* indicate-buffer-boundaries:            Displaying Boundaries.
                                                              (line   6)
* indicate-empty-lines:                  Useless Whitespace.  (line  26)
* inferior-lisp-program:                 External Lisp.       (line  12)
* inhibit-eol-conversion:                Recognize Coding.    (line  56)
* inhibit-iso-escape-detection:          Recognize Coding.    (line  66)
* inhibit-startup-buffer-menu:           Action Arguments.    (line  12)
* inhibit-startup-screen <1>:            Initial Options.     (line  87)
* inhibit-startup-screen:                Entering Emacs.      (line  50)
* initial-environment:                   Environment.         (line  19)
* initial-scratch-message:               Lisp Interaction.    (line  17)
* input-method-highlight-flag:           Input Methods.       (line  91)
* input-method-verbose-flag:             Input Methods.       (line  91)
* insert-default-directory <1>:          File Names.          (line  17)
* insert-default-directory:              Minibuffer File.     (line  53)
* interpreter-mode-alist:                Choosing Modes.      (line  41)
* inverse-video:                         Display Custom.      (line   9)
* isearch-allow-scroll:                  Isearch Scroll.      (line   6)
* isearch-lazy-highlight:                Repeat Isearch.      (line  14)
* isearch-mode-map:                      Special Isearch.     (line  47)
* isearch-resume-in-command-history:     Repetition.          (line  40)
* ispell-complete-word-dict:             Spelling.            (line 148)
* ispell-dictionary:                     Spelling.            (line 148)
* ispell-local-dictionary:               Spelling.            (line 148)
* ispell-personal-dictionary:            Spelling.            (line 148)
* jdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* kept-new-versions:                     Backup Deletion.     (line  11)
* kept-old-versions:                     Backup Deletion.     (line  11)
* keyboard-coding-system:                Terminal Coding.     (line  27)
* kill-buffer-hook:                      Kill Buffer.         (line  45)
* kill-read-only-ok:                     Killing.             (line  34)
* kill-ring:                             Earlier Kills.       (line  51)
* kill-ring-max:                         Earlier Kills.       (line  48)
* kill-whole-line:                       Killing by Lines.    (line  31)
* kmacro-ring-max:                       Keyboard Macro Ring. (line  55)
* large-file-warning-threshold:          Visiting.            (line  71)
* latex-block-names:                     LaTeX Editing.       (line  17)
* latex-mode-hook:                       TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* latex-run-command:                     TeX Print.           (line  61)
* latin1-display:                        Undisplayable Characters.
                                                              (line  20)
* line-move-visual:                      Moving Point.        (line 110)
* line-number-display-limit:             Optional Mode Line.  (line  36)
* line-number-display-limit-width:       Optional Mode Line.  (line  42)
* lisp-body-indent:                      Lisp Indent.         (line  22)
* lisp-indent-offset:                    Lisp Indent.         (line  17)
* lisp-interaction-mode-hook:            Program Modes.       (line  46)
* lisp-mode-hook:                        Program Modes.       (line  46)
* list-directory-brief-switches:         Directories.         (line  43)
* list-directory-verbose-switches:       Directories.         (line  43)
* load-dangerous-libraries:              Lisp Libraries.      (line  63)
* load-path:                             Lisp Libraries.      (line  40)
* locale-charset-language-names:         Language Environments.
                                                              (line  47)
* locale-coding-system:                  Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  58)
* locale-language-names:                 Language Environments.
                                                              (line  47)
* locale-preferred-coding-systems:       Language Environments.
                                                              (line  64)
* locate-command:                        Dired and Find.      (line  38)
* lpr-add-switches:                      Printing.            (line  38)
* lpr-command (MS-DOS):                  Windows Printing.    (line  78)
* lpr-commands:                          Printing.            (line  38)
* lpr-headers-switches:                  Printing.            (line  38)
* lpr-headers-switches (MS-DOS):         Windows Printing.    (line  66)
* lpr-switches:                          Printing.            (line  26)
* lpr-switches (MS-DOS):                 Windows Printing.    (line  78)
* ls-lisp-dirs-first:                    ls in Lisp.          (line  35)
* ls-lisp-emulation:                     ls in Lisp.          (line  50)
* ls-lisp-format-time-list:              ls in Lisp.          (line  87)
* ls-lisp-ignore-case:                   ls in Lisp.          (line  29)
* ls-lisp-support-shell-wildcards:       ls in Lisp.          (line  82)
* ls-lisp-use-insert-directory-program:  ls in Lisp.          (line  22)
* ls-lisp-use-localized-time-format:     ls in Lisp.          (line 105)
* ls-lisp-verbosity:                     ls in Lisp.          (line  40)
* magic-fallback-mode-alist:             Choosing Modes.      (line 106)
* magic-mode-alist:                      Choosing Modes.      (line  57)
* mail-abbrevs:                          Mail Aliases.        (line  74)
* mail-aliases:                          Mail Aliases.        (line  53)
* mail-archive-file-name:                Mail Headers.        (line  54)
* mail-citation-hook:                    Citing Mail.         (line  51)
* mail-default-directory:                Sending Mail.        (line  51)
* mail-default-headers:                  Mail Headers.        (line 144)
* mail-default-reply-to:                 Mail Headers.        (line  78)
* mail-from-style:                       Mail Headers.        (line 126)
* mail-header-separator:                 Mail Format.         (line  17)
* mail-mailing-lists:                    Mail Headers.        (line  97)
* mail-mode-hook:                        Mail Mode Misc.      (line  59)
* mail-personal-alias-file:              Mail Aliases.        (line  59)
* mail-self-blind:                       Mail Headers.        (line  40)
* mail-send-hook:                        Mail Sending.        (line  16)
* mail-setup-hook:                       Mail Mode Misc.      (line  59)
* mail-setup-with-from:                  Mail Headers.        (line  66)
* mail-signature:                        Mail Mode Misc.      (line  24)
* mail-user-agent:                       Mail Methods.        (line  14)
* mail-yank-prefix:                      Citing Mail.         (line  32)
* make-backup-file-name-function:        Backup Names.        (line  61)
* make-backup-files:                     Backup.              (line   6)
* Man-fontify-manpage-flag:              Man Page.            (line  37)
* Man-switches:                          Man Page.            (line  31)
* mark-even-if-inactive:                 Mark Ring.           (line  47)
* mark-ring-max:                         Mark Ring.           (line  42)
* max-mini-window-height:                Minibuffer Edit.     (line  45)
* menu-bar-mode:                         Menu Bars.           (line   6)
* message-log-max:                       Echo Area.           (line  36)
* midnight-hook:                         Kill Buffer.         (line  58)
* midnight-mode:                         Kill Buffer.         (line  58)
* minibuffer-local-completion-map:       Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-filename-completion-map: Minibuffer Maps.  (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-map:                  Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-must-match-filename-map: Minibuffer Maps.  (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-must-match-map:       Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-local-ns-map:               Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-prompt-properties:          Standard Faces.      (line 123)
* mode-line-in-non-selected-windows:     Optional Mode Line.  (line  94)
* mode-require-final-newline:            Customize Save.      (line  16)
* mode-specific-map:                     Prefix Keymaps.      (line  42)
* mouse-1-click-follows-link:            Mouse References.    (line  36)
* mouse-1-click-in-non-selected-windows: Mouse References.    (line  30)
* mouse-autoselect-window:               Other Window.        (line  46)
* mouse-avoidance-mode:                  Mouse Avoidance.     (line   6)
* mouse-drag-copy-region:                Mouse Commands.      (line  37)
* mouse-highlight:                       Mouse References.    (line   6)
* mouse-scroll-min-lines:                Mouse Commands.      (line  45)
* mouse-wheel-follow-mouse:              Wheeled Mice.        (line  14)
* mouse-wheel-progressive-speed:         Wheeled Mice.        (line  14)
* mouse-wheel-scroll-amount:             Wheeled Mice.        (line  14)
* mouse-yank-at-point:                   Mouse Commands.      (line  52)
* next-error-highlight:                  Compilation Mode.    (line  56)
* next-line-add-newlines:                Moving Point.        (line 134)
* next-screen-context-lines:             Scrolling.           (line  71)
* no-redraw-on-reenter:                  Display Custom.      (line  55)
* nobreak-char-display:                  Text Display.        (line  43)
* normal-erase-is-backspace:             DEL Does Not Delete. (line  46)
* nroff-mode-hook:                       Nroff Mode.          (line  38)
* ns-pop-up-frames:                      Mac / GNUstep Events.
                                                              (line  13)
* ns-standard-fontset-spec:              Defining Fontsets.   (line   6)
* open-paren-in-column-0-is-defun-start: Left Margin Paren.   (line  42)
* outline-level:                         Outline Format.      (line  56)
* outline-minor-mode-prefix:             Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* outline-mode-hook:                     Outline Mode.        (line  36)
* outline-regexp:                        Outline Format.      (line  37)
* overflow-newline-into-fringe:          Line Truncation.     (line  30)
* overline-margin:                       Display Custom.      (line  41)
* page-delimiter:                        Pages.               (line  59)
* paragraph-separate:                    Paragraphs.          (line  47)
* paragraph-start:                       Paragraphs.          (line  47)
* pdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* perldb-mode-hook:                      GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* picture-mode-hook:                     Picture Mode.        (line  40)
* picture-tab-chars:                     Tabs in Picture.     (line   6)
* plain-tex-mode-hook:                   TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* print-region-function (MS-DOS):        Windows Printing.    (line  78)
* printer-name:                          Printing.            (line  35)
* printer-name, (MS-DOS/MS-Windows):     Windows Printing.    (line  19)
* ps-font-family:                        PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  45)
* ps-font-info-database:                 PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  45)
* ps-font-size:                          PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  45)
* ps-landscape-mode:                     PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  38)
* ps-lpr-command:                        PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* ps-lpr-command (MS-DOS):               Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-lpr-switches:                       PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* ps-lpr-switches (MS-DOS):              Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-multibyte-buffer:                   PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  51)
* ps-number-of-columns:                  PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  42)
* ps-page-dimensions-database:           PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  32)
* ps-paper-type:                         PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  32)
* ps-print-color-p:                      PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  17)
* ps-print-header:                       PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  14)
* ps-printer-name:                       PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* ps-printer-name (MS-DOS):              Windows Printing.    (line  86)
* ps-use-face-background:                PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  27)
* read-buffer-completion-ignore-case:    Completion Options.  (line  29)
* read-file-name-completion-ignore-case: Completion Options.  (line  29)
* read-mail-command:                     Mail Methods.        (line  24)
* read-quoted-char-radix:                Inserting Text.      (line  51)
* recentf-mode:                          File Conveniences.   (line  10)
* require-final-newline:                 Customize Save.      (line   6)
* resize-mini-windows:                   Minibuffer Edit.     (line  34)
* revert-without-query:                  Reverting.           (line  24)
* rmail-decode-mime-charset:             Recognize Coding.    (line  97)
* rmail-delete-after-output:             Rmail Output.        (line  50)
* rmail-delete-message-hook:             Rmail Deletion.      (line  39)
* rmail-displayed-headers:               Rmail Display.       (line  23)
* rmail-dont-reply-to-names:             Rmail Reply.         (line  42)
* rmail-edit-mode-hook:                  Rmail Editing.       (line  25)
* rmail-file-coding-system:              Recognize Coding.    (line  97)
* rmail-file-name:                       Rmail Basics.        (line   6)
* rmail-highlighted-headers:             Rmail Display.       (line  38)
* rmail-ignored-headers:                 Rmail Display.       (line  14)
* rmail-inbox-list:                      Rmail Files.         (line  48)
* rmail-mail-new-frame:                  Rmail Reply.         (line 110)
* rmail-mode-hook:                       Rmail.               (line   6)
* rmail-movemail-flags:                  Remote Mailboxes.    (line  53)
* rmail-movemail-program:                Movemail.            (line  87)
* rmail-movemail-search-path:            Movemail.            (line  87)
* rmail-nonignored-headers:              Rmail Display.       (line  14)
* rmail-output-file-alist:               Rmail Output.        (line  59)
* rmail-preserve-inbox:                  Rmail Inbox.         (line  49)
* rmail-primary-inbox-list:              Rmail Inbox.         (line  15)
* rmail-redisplay-summary:               Rmail Summary Edit.  (line  97)
* rmail-remote-password:                 Remote Mailboxes.    (line  39)
* rmail-remote-password-required:        Remote Mailboxes.    (line  39)
* rmail-retry-ignored-headers:           Rmail Reply.         (line  64)
* rmail-secondary-file-directory:        Rmail Files.         (line  38)
* rmail-secondary-file-regexp:           Rmail Files.         (line  38)
* rmail-summary-line-count-flag:         Rmail Make Summary.  (line  70)
* rmail-summary-window-size:             Rmail Make Summary.  (line  70)
* safe-local-eval-forms:                 Safe File Variables. (line  52)
* safe-local-variable-values:            Safe File Variables. (line  27)
* same-window-buffer-names:              Force Same Window.   (line  12)
* same-window-regexps:                   Force Same Window.   (line  26)
* save-abbrevs:                          Saving Abbrevs.      (line  43)
* scheme-mode-hook:                      Program Modes.       (line  46)
* scroll-all-mode:                       Window Convenience.  (line  25)
* scroll-bar-mode:                       Scroll Bars.         (line  30)
* scroll-bar-width:                      Scroll Bars.         (line  44)
* scroll-conservatively:                 Auto Scrolling.      (line   9)
* scroll-down-aggressively:              Auto Scrolling.      (line  15)
* scroll-margin:                         Auto Scrolling.      (line  30)
* scroll-preserve-screen-position:       Scrolling.           (line  88)
* scroll-up-aggressively:                Auto Scrolling.      (line  15)
* sdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* search-slow-speed:                     Slow Isearch.        (line  17)
* search-slow-window-lines:              Slow Isearch.        (line  22)
* search-whitespace-regexp:              Regexp Search.       (line  38)
* selective-display-ellipses:            Selective Display.   (line  27)
* send-mail-function:                    Mail Sending.        (line  40)
* sendmail-coding-system:                Output Coding.       (line  41)
* sentence-end:                          Sentences.           (line  63)
* sentence-end-double-space:             Sentences.           (line  54)
* sentence-end-without-period:           Sentences.           (line  71)
* server-host:                           emacsclient Options. (line  58)
* server-kill-new-buffers:               Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line  44)
* server-name:                           Emacs Server.        (line  38)
* server-temp-file-regexp:               Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line  44)
* server-use-tcp:                        emacsclient Options. (line  58)
* server-window:                         Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line  58)
* set-language-environment-hook:         Language Environments.
                                                              (line  83)
* set-mark-command-repeat-pop:           Mark Ring.           (line  33)
* sgml-xml-mode:                         HTML Mode.           (line  12)
* shell-cd-regexp:                       Directory Tracking.  (line   6)
* shell-command-default-error-buffer:    Single Shell.        (line  67)
* shell-command-regexp:                  Shell Mode.          (line 105)
* shell-completion-execonly:             Shell Options.       (line  43)
* shell-completion-fignore:              Shell Mode.          (line  25)
* shell-file-name:                       Single Shell.        (line  43)
* shell-input-ring-file-name:            Shell Ring.          (line  76)
* shell-popd-regexp:                     Directory Tracking.  (line   6)
* shell-prompt-pattern:                  Shell Prompts.       (line   6)
* shell-pushd-regexp:                    Directory Tracking.  (line   6)
* show-trailing-whitespace:              Useless Whitespace.  (line   6)
* slitex-mode-hook:                      TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* slitex-run-command:                    TeX Print.           (line  61)
* small-temporary-file-directory:        Backup.              (line  31)
* sort-fold-case:                        Sorting.             (line 115)
* sort-numeric-base:                     Sorting.             (line  22)
* special-display-buffer-names:          Special Buffer Frames.
                                                              (line   6)
* special-display-frame-alist:           Special Buffer Frames.
                                                              (line  31)
* special-display-regexps:               Special Buffer Frames.
                                                              (line  25)
* split-height-threshold:                Pop Up Window.       (line  42)
* split-width-threshold:                 Pop Up Window.       (line  42)
* split-window-keep-point:               Split Window.        (line  55)
* standard-fontset-spec:                 Defining Fontsets.   (line   6)
* standard-indent:                       Format Indentation.  (line  47)
* suggest-key-bindings:                  M-x.                 (line  45)
* tab-stop-list:                         Tab Stops.           (line  10)
* tab-width <1>:                         Indentation.         (line  61)
* tab-width:                             Text Display.        (line  10)
* table-cell-horizontal-chars:           Table Definition.    (line  29)
* table-cell-intersection-char:          Table Definition.    (line  33)
* table-cell-vertical-char:              Table Definition.    (line  25)
* table-detect-cell-alignment:           Cell Justification.  (line  24)
* tags-apropos-additional-actions:       List Tags.           (line  28)
* tags-apropos-verbose:                  List Tags.           (line  22)
* tags-case-fold-search:                 Tags Search.         (line  43)
* tags-file-name:                        Select Tags Table.   (line   6)
* tags-table-list:                       Select Tags Table.   (line  26)
* tags-tag-face:                         List Tags.           (line  28)
* temporary-file-directory:              Backup.              (line  31)
* term-file-prefix:                      Terminal Init.       (line  27)
* term-setup-hook:                       Terminal Init.       (line  32)
* tex-bibtex-command:                    TeX Print.           (line 138)
* tex-default-mode:                      TeX Mode.            (line  14)
* tex-directory:                         TeX Print.           (line  54)
* tex-dvi-print-command:                 TeX Print.           (line  61)
* tex-dvi-view-command:                  TeX Print.           (line  61)
* tex-main-file:                         TeX Print.           (line 128)
* tex-mode-hook:                         TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* tex-run-command:                       TeX Print.           (line  61)
* tex-shell-hook:                        TeX Misc.            (line   6)
* tex-show-queue-command:                TeX Print.           (line  61)
* tex-start-commands:                    TeX Print.           (line 124)
* tex-start-options:                     TeX Print.           (line 121)
* text-mode-hook:                        Text Mode.           (line  43)
* timeclock-ask-before-exiting:          Time Intervals.      (line  25)
* timeclock-file:                        Time Intervals.      (line  32)
* timeclock-modeline-display:            Time Intervals.      (line  20)
* tool-bar-mode:                         Tool Bars.           (line  19)
* tooltip-delay:                         Tooltips.            (line  22)
* tooltip-gud-modes:                     Debugger Operation.  (line  26)
* track-eol:                             Moving Point.        (line 129)
* truncate-lines:                        Line Truncation.     (line  15)
* truncate-partial-width-windows:        Split Window.        (line  38)
* undo-limit:                            Undo.                (line  65)
* undo-outer-limit:                      Undo.                (line  65)
* undo-strong-limit:                     Undo.                (line  65)
* unibyte-display-via-language-environment: Unibyte Mode.     (line  19)
* uniquify-buffer-name-style:            Uniquify.            (line  11)
* use-dialog-box:                        Dialog Boxes.        (line   6)
* use-file-dialog:                       Dialog Boxes.        (line  17)
* user-mail-address:                     Init Examples.       (line  34)
* user-mail-address, initialization:     General Variables.   (line  39)
* vc-BACKEND-header:                     Version Headers.     (line  35)
* vc-command-messages:                   General VC Options.  (line  37)
* vc-comment-alist:                      Version Headers.     (line  49)
* vc-consult-headers:                    RCS and SCCS.        (line  21)
* vc-cvs-global-switches:                CVS Options.         (line  58)
* vc-cvs-stay-local <1>:                 CVS Options.         (line  29)
* vc-cvs-stay-local:                     VC Directory Buffer. (line  33)
* vc-default-init-revision:              Registering.         (line  30)
* vc-diff-switches:                      Old Revisions.       (line  55)
* vc-directory-exclusion-list:           VC Directory Buffer. (line  48)
* vc-follow-symlinks:                    General VC Options.  (line  17)
* vc-handled-backends:                   Customizing VC.      (line   6)
* vc-initial-comment:                    Registering.         (line  38)
* vc-keep-workfiles:                     General VC Options.  (line  11)
* vc-log-mode-hook:                      Log Buffer.          (line  56)
* vc-make-backup-files <1>:              General VC Options.  (line   6)
* vc-make-backup-files:                  Backup.              (line   6)
* vc-mistrust-permissions:               RCS and SCCS.        (line  26)
* vc-path:                               General VC Options.  (line  42)
* vc-rcs-diff-switches:                  Old Revisions.       (line  55)
* vc-static-header-alist:                Version Headers.     (line  56)
* vc-stay-local <1>:                     CVS Options.         (line  29)
* vc-stay-local:                         VC Directory Buffer. (line  33)
* vc-suppress-confirm:                   General VC Options.  (line  31)
* version-control:                       Backup Names.        (line  21)
* visible-bell:                          Display Custom.      (line  12)
* visible-cursor:                        Cursor Display.      (line  14)
* w32-alt-is-meta:                       Windows Keyboard.    (line  22)
* w32-apps-modifier:                     Windows Keyboard.    (line  69)
* w32-capslock-is-shiftlock:             Windows Keyboard.    (line  53)
* w32-charset-info-alist:                Windows Fonts.       (line  56)
* w32-enable-caps-lock:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  60)
* w32-enable-num-lock:                   Windows Keyboard.    (line  64)
* w32-get-true-file-attributes:          Windows Files.       (line  14)
* w32-grab-focus-on-raise:               Windows Misc.        (line  17)
* w32-lwindow-modifier:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  75)
* w32-mouse-button-tolerance:            Windows Mouse.       (line   8)
* w32-pass-alt-to-system:                Windows Keyboard.    (line  86)
* w32-pass-extra-mouse-buttons-to-system: Windows Mouse.      (line  14)
* w32-pass-lwindow-to-system:            Windows Keyboard.    (line  97)
* w32-pass-rwindow-to-system:            Windows Keyboard.    (line  97)
* w32-quote-process-args:                Windows Processes.   (line  51)
* w32-recognize-altgr:                   Windows Keyboard.    (line 105)
* w32-rwindow-modifier:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  75)
* w32-scroll-lock-modifier:              Windows Keyboard.    (line  75)
* w32-standard-fontset-spec:             Defining Fontsets.   (line   6)
* w32-swap-mouse-buttons:                Windows Mouse.       (line  17)
* w32-use-visible-system-caret:          Windows Misc.        (line   8)
* which-func-modes:                      Which Function.      (line   9)
* window-min-height:                     Change Window.       (line  51)
* window-min-width:                      Change Window.       (line  51)
* write-region-inhibit-fsync:            Customize Save.      (line  22)
* x-cut-buffer-max:                      Cut/Paste Other App. (line  27)
* x-gtk-file-dialog-help-text:           Dialog Boxes.        (line  23)
* x-gtk-show-hidden-files:               Dialog Boxes.        (line  23)
* x-gtk-use-old-file-dialog:             Dialog Boxes.        (line  32)
* x-mouse-click-focus-ignore-position:   Mouse Commands.      (line  27)
* x-select-enable-clipboard:             Clipboard.           (line  23)
* x-select-request-type:                 Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  32)
* x-stretch-cursor:                      Cursor Display.      (line  28)
* x-underline-at-descent-line:           Display Custom.      (line  45)
* xdb-mode-hook:                         GUD Customization.   (line   6)
* yank-excluded-properties:              Kill Ring.           (line  25)

File: emacs,  Node: Concept Index,  Next: Acknowledgments,  Prev: Variable Index,  Up: Top

Concept Index

* Menu:

* $ in file names:                       File Names.          (line  50)
* ( in leftmost column:                  Left Margin Paren.   (line   6)
* *Messages* buffer:                     Echo Area.           (line  36)
* -/--/.-./.../.:                        Amusements.          (line  32)
* .dir-locals.el file:                   Directory Variables. (line  15)
* .mailrc file:                          Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* .timelog file:                         Time Intervals.      (line  32)
* // in file name:                       Minibuffer File.     (line  32)
* 8-bit display:                         Unibyte Mode.        (line  33)
* 8-bit input:                           Unibyte Mode.        (line  40)
* <BACKSPACE> vs <DEL>:                  DEL Does Not Delete. (line   6)
* <DEL> vs <BACKSPACE>:                  DEL Does Not Delete. (line   6)
* <ESC> replacing <Meta> key:            User Input.          (line  31)
* ? in display:                          International Chars. (line  18)
* _emacs init file, MS-Windows:          Windows HOME.        (line  33)
* A and B buffers (Emerge):              Overview of Emerge.  (line  21)
* abbrev file:                           Saving Abbrevs.      (line  30)
* Abbrev mode:                           Abbrev Concepts.     (line  13)
* abbrevs:                               Abbrevs.             (line   6)
* abnormal hook:                         Hooks.               (line  27)
* aborting recursive edit:               Quitting.            (line  70)
* accented characters:                   Unibyte Mode.        (line   6)
* accessible portion:                    Narrowing.           (line   6)
* accumulating scattered text:           Accumulating Text.   (line   6)
* action options (command line):         Emacs Invocation.    (line  40)
* adaptive filling:                      Adaptive Fill.       (line   6)
* Adding to the kill ring in Dired.:     Misc Dired Features. (line  18)
* addpm, MS-Windows installation program: MS-Windows Registry.
                                                              (line   6)
* adjust buffer face height:             Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line   8)
* againformation:                        Dissociated Press.   (line  28)
* aggressive scrolling:                  Auto Scrolling.      (line  15)
* alarm clock:                           Appointments.        (line  52)
* alignment for comments:                Comment Commands.    (line   6)
* Alt key (MS-Windows):                  Windows Keyboard.    (line  22)
* Alt key invokes menu (Windows):        Windows Keyboard.    (line  86)
* Alt-<TAB> vs M-<TAB> (MS-Windows):     Windows Keyboard.    (line  45)
* ALTERNATE_EDITOR environment variable: emacsclient Options. (line  32)
* AltGr key (MS-Windows):                Windows Keyboard.    (line 105)
* ange-ftp:                              Remote Files.        (line  56)
* anonymous FTP:                         Remote Files.        (line  60)
* appending kills in the ring:           Appending Kills.     (line   6)
* appointment notification:              Appointments.        (line   6)
* apropos:                               Apropos.             (line  31)
* apropos search results, order by score: Apropos.            (line  92)
* arc:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* Arch:                                  Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  41)
* Archive mode:                          File Archives.       (line  42)
* arguments (command line):              Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* arguments to commands:                 Arguments.           (line   6)
* arrow keys:                            Moving Point.        (line   6)
* ASCII:                                 User Input.          (line   6)
* ASCII art:                             Text.                (line  28)
* Asm mode:                              Asm Mode.            (line   6)
* assembler mode:                        Asm Mode.            (line   6)
* astronomical day numbers:              Calendar Systems.    (line  12)
* attached frame (of speedbar):          Speedbar.            (line   6)
* attribute (Rmail):                     Rmail Labels.        (line   6)
* attributes of mode line, changing:     Optional Mode Line.  (line  80)
* Auto Compression mode:                 Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* Auto Fill mode:                        Auto Fill.           (line   6)
* Auto Save mode:                        Auto Save.           (line   6)
* Auto-Lower mode:                       Frame Parameters.    (line   6)
* Auto-Raise mode:                       Frame Parameters.    (line   6)
* Auto-Revert mode:                      Reverting.           (line  34)
* auto-save for remote files:            Auto Save Files.     (line  26)
* autoload:                              Lisp Libraries.      (line  56)
* autoload Lisp libraries:               Init Examples.       (line  98)
* automatic typing:                      Text.                (line  32)
* automatic version backups:             Version Backups.     (line   6)
* autotyping:                            Text.                (line  32)
* available colors:                      Colors.              (line   6)
* avoiding mouse in the way of your typing: Mouse Avoidance.  (line   6)
* AWK mode:                              C Modes.             (line   6)
* back end (version control):            Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line   6)
* back reference, in regexp:             Regexp Backslash.    (line  54)
* back reference, in regexp replacement: Regexp Replace.      (line  13)
* background color, command-line argument: Colors.            (line  29)
* background mode, on xterm:             General Variables.   (line 145)
* background syntax highlighting:        Font Lock.           (line  97)
* backtrace for bug reports:             Checklist.           (line 213)
* backup file:                           Backup.              (line   6)
* backup file names on MS-DOS:           MS-DOS File Names.   (line  20)
* backup, and user-id:                   Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* backups for remote files:              Remote Files.        (line  49)
* Baha'i calendar:                       Calendar Systems.    (line  66)
* balanced expression:                   Expressions.         (line   6)
* balloon help:                          Help Echo.           (line   6)
* base buffer:                           Indirect Buffers.    (line   6)
* batch mode:                            Initial Options.     (line  35)
* Bazaar:                                Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  65)
* binary files, on MS-DOS/MS-Windows:    Text and Binary.     (line  81)
* binding:                               Commands.            (line   6)
* binding keyboard macros:               Save Keyboard Macro. (line  28)
* blank lines:                           Blank Lines.         (line  16)
* blank lines in programs:               Multi-Line Comments. (line   6)
* blinking cursor disable, command-line argument: Misc X.     (line  16)
* body lines (Outline mode):             Outline Format.      (line   6)
* bold font:                             Face Customization.  (line   6)
* bookmarks:                             Bookmarks.           (line   6)
* border color, command-line argument:   Colors.              (line  33)
* borders (X Window System):             Borders X.           (line   6)
* boredom:                               Amusements.          (line   6)
* brace in column zero and fontification: Font Lock.          (line  60)
* braces, moving across:                 Moving by Parens.    (line   6)
* branch (version control):              Branches.            (line   6)
* Brief emulation:                       Emulation.           (line  10)
* Browse-URL:                            Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* buffer definitions index:              Imenu.               (line   6)
* buffer list, customizable:             Buffer Menus.        (line   6)
* buffer menu <1>:                       Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* buffer menu:                           Several Buffers.     (line   6)
* buffer size display:                   Optional Mode Line.  (line   6)
* buffer size, maximum:                  Buffers.             (line  37)
* buffers:                               Buffers.             (line   6)
* buggestion:                            Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* bugs:                                  Bugs.                (line   6)
* building programs:                     Building.            (line   6)
* button down events:                    Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* buttons (customization buffer):        Customization Groups.
                                                              (line  33)
* buttons at buffer position:            Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* bypassing init and default.el file:    Initial Options.     (line  75)
* byte code:                             Lisp Libraries.      (line  10)
* byte-compiling several files (in Dired): Operating on Files.
                                                              (line 114)
* bzr:                                   Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  65)
* C editing:                             Programs.            (line   6)
* C mode:                                C Modes.             (line   6)
* C++ class browser, tags:               Tags.                (line  34)
* C++ mode:                              C Modes.             (line   6)
* C-:                                    User Input.          (line   6)
* cache of file names:                   File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* calendar:                              Calendar/Diary.      (line   6)
* calendar and HTML:                     Writing Calendar Files.
                                                              (line   8)
* calendar and LaTeX:                    Writing Calendar Files.
                                                              (line  37)
* calendar layout:                       Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line   6)
* calendar week numbers:                 Calendar Customizing.
                                                              (line   6)
* calendar, first day of week:           Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  33)
* call Lisp functions, command-line argument: Action Arguments.
                                                              (line  53)
* candle lighting times:                 Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* capitalizing words:                    Case.                (line  24)
* case conversion:                       Case.                (line   6)
* case-sensitivity and completion:       Completion Options.  (line  29)
* case-sensitivity and tags search:      Tags Search.         (line  43)
* categories of characters:              Regexp Backslash.    (line 140)
* cell text justification:               Cell Justification.  (line   6)
* Celtic:                                International.       (line   6)
* centering:                             Fill Commands.       (line  46)
* centralized vs. decentralized version control: VCS Concepts.
                                                              (line  88)
* change buffers:                        Select Buffer.       (line   6)
* change log:                            Change Log.          (line   6)
* Change Log mode:                       Change Log Commands. (line  31)
* changes, undoing:                      Undo.                (line   6)
* changing file group (in Dired):        Operating on Files.  (line  81)
* changing file owner (in Dired):        Operating on Files.  (line  85)
* changing file permissions (in Dired):  Operating on Files.  (line  76)
* changing file time (in Dired):         Operating on Files.  (line  94)
* character set (keyboard):              User Input.          (line   6)
* character set of character at point:   International Chars. (line  58)
* characters (in text):                  Text Display.        (line   6)
* characters in a certain charset:       Charsets.            (line  28)
* characters which belong to a specific language: Regexp Backslash.
                                                              (line 140)
* charsets:                              Charsets.            (line   6)
* checking out files:                    VCS Concepts.        (line  13)
* checking spelling:                     Spelling.            (line   6)
* checking syntax:                       Flymake.             (line   6)
* Chinese:                               International.       (line   6)
* Chinese calendar:                      Calendar Systems.    (line  58)
* choosing a major mode:                 Choosing Modes.      (line   6)
* ciphers:                               Amusements.          (line  20)
* citing mail:                           Citing Mail.         (line   6)
* class browser, C++:                    Tags.                (line  34)
* click events:                          Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* clipboard:                             Clipboard.           (line   6)
* codepage, MS-DOS:                      MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  21)
* coding systems:                        Coding Systems.      (line   6)
* collision:                             Interlocking.        (line  25)
* color customization, in init file:     Creating Frames.     (line  47)
* color emulation on black-and-white printers: PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  17)
* color of window, from command line:    Colors.              (line   6)
* Column Number mode:                    Optional Mode Line.  (line  23)
* columns (and rectangles):              Rectangles.          (line   6)
* columns (indentation):                 Indentation.         (line   6)
* columns, splitting:                    Two-Column.          (line   6)
* Comint mode:                           Shell Mode.          (line 152)
* comint-highlight-input face:           Interactive Shell.   (line  20)
* comint-highlight-prompt face:          Interactive Shell.   (line  20)
* command:                               Commands.            (line   6)
* command history:                       Repetition.          (line   6)
* command line arguments:                Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* comments:                              Comments.            (line   6)
* comments on customized settings:       Changing a Variable. (line 145)
* compare files (in Dired):              Comparison in Dired. (line   6)
* comparing 3 files (diff3):             Comparing Files.     (line  46)
* comparing files:                       Comparing Files.     (line   6)
* compilation buffer, keeping point at end: Compilation.      (line  54)
* compilation errors:                    Compilation.         (line   6)
* Compilation mode:                      Compilation Mode.    (line   6)
* compilation under MS-DOS:              MS-DOS Processes.    (line   6)
* complete key:                          Keys.                (line  11)
* completion:                            Completion.          (line   6)
* completion (Lisp symbols):             Symbol Completion.   (line  36)
* completion (symbol names):             Symbol Completion.   (line   6)
* compose character:                     Unibyte Mode.        (line  61)
* compressing files (in Dired):          Operating on Files.  (line 106)
* compression:                           Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* Conf mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  21)
* confirming in the minibuffer <1>:      Select Buffer.       (line  35)
* confirming in the minibuffer:          Visiting.            (line 109)
* conflicts:                             Merging.             (line  46)
* connecting to remote host:             Remote Host.         (line   6)
* continuation line:                     Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* Control:                               User Input.          (line   6)
* control characters:                    User Input.          (line   6)
* Control-Meta:                          Expressions.         (line  31)
* converting text to upper or lower case: Case.               (line  24)
* Coptic calendar:                       Calendar Systems.    (line  41)
* copy:                                  Clipboard.           (line  16)
* copy of every outgoing message:        Mail Headers.        (line  40)
* copying files:                         Misc File Ops.       (line  78)
* copying files (in Dired):              Operating on Files.  (line  34)
* copying text:                          Yanking.             (line   6)
* CORBA IDL mode:                        C Modes.             (line   6)
* correcting spelling:                   Spelling.            (line   6)
* CPerl mode:                            Program Modes.       (line  21)
* crashes:                               Auto Save.           (line   6)
* create a text-based table:             Table Creation.      (line   6)
* creating files:                        Visiting.            (line 104)
* creating frames:                       Creating Frames.     (line   6)
* CRiSP mode:                            Emulation.           (line  10)
* cryptanalysis:                         Amusements.          (line  20)
* CSSC:                                  Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  16)
* CUA key bindings:                      CUA Bindings.        (line   6)
* current buffer:                        Buffers.             (line  23)
* current function name in mode line:    Which Function.      (line   6)
* cursor:                                Point.               (line   6)
* cursor color, command-line argument:   Colors.              (line  37)
* cursor in non-selected windows:        Cursor Display.      (line  21)
* cursor location:                       Position Info.       (line  38)
* cursor location, on MS-DOS:            Text and Binary.     (line  19)
* cursor motion:                         Moving Point.        (line   6)
* cursor shape on MS-DOS:                MS-DOS Display.      (line  19)
* cursor, blinking:                      Cursor Display.      (line   6)
* cursor, locating visually:             Cursor Display.      (line   6)
* custom themes:                         Custom Themes.       (line   6)
* customization:                         Customization.       (line   6)
* customization buffer:                  Easy Customization.  (line  12)
* customization groups:                  Customization Groups.
                                                              (line   6)
* customization of menu face:            Standard Faces.      (line 156)
* customizing faces:                     Face Customization.  (line   6)
* customizing Lisp indentation:          Lisp Indent.         (line   6)
* cut:                                   Clipboard.           (line  13)
* cut and paste:                         Glossary.            (line 304)
* cut buffer:                            Cut/Paste Other App. (line  27)
* cutting text:                          Killing.             (line  13)
* cvs:                                   VC Directory Mode.   (line  14)
* CVS:                                   Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  26)
* CVS directory mode:                    VC Directory Mode.   (line  14)
* cvs watch feature:                     CVS Options.         (line  21)
* CVSREAD environment variable (CVS):    CVS Options.         (line  11)
* CWarn mode:                            Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* Cyrillic:                              International.       (line   6)
* Czech:                                 International.       (line   6)
* daemon, Emacs:                         Emacs Server.        (line  25)
* day of year:                           General Calendar.    (line  21)
* daylight saving time:                  Daylight Saving.     (line   6)
* DBX:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* dead character:                        Unibyte Mode.        (line  61)
* debuggers:                             Debuggers.           (line   6)
* debugging Emacs, tricks and techniques: Checklist.          (line 248)
* debugging X problems:                  Table of Resources.  (line 114)
* decoding mail messages (Rmail):        Rmail Coding.        (line   6)
* decoding non-ASCII keyboard input on X: Communication Coding.
                                                              (line  58)
* decrease buffer face height:           Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line  20)
* default argument:                      Minibuffer.          (line  23)
* default-frame-alist:                   Creating Frames.     (line  47)
* default.el file, not loading:          Initial Options.     (line  75)
* default.el, the default init file:     Init File.           (line  17)
* defining keyboard macros:              Keyboard Macros.     (line   6)
* defuns:                                Moving by Defuns.    (line   6)
* delete column in table:                Column Commands.     (line  13)
* delete row in table:                   Row Commands.        (line  14)
* Delete Selection mode <1>:             Mouse Commands.      (line  97)
* Delete Selection mode:                 Using Region.        (line  43)
* deleting auto-save files:              Flagging Many Files. (line  30)
* deleting blank lines:                  Blank Lines.         (line   6)
* deleting characters and lines:         Erasing.             (line  39)
* deleting files (in Dired):             Dired Deletion.      (line   6)
* deleting some backup files:            Flagging Many Files. (line  51)
* deletion:                              Killing.             (line  13)
* deletion (of files):                   Misc File Ops.       (line  40)
* deletion (Rmail):                      Rmail Deletion.      (line   6)
* Delphi mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  21)
* desktop:                               Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* Devanagari:                            International.       (line   6)
* developediment:                        Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* device for Emacs terminal I/O:         Initial Options.     (line  20)
* dialog boxes:                          Dialog Boxes.        (line   6)
* diary:                                 Diary.               (line   6)
* diary buffer:                          Fancy Diary Display. (line   6)
* diary file:                            Format of Diary File.
                                                              (line   6)
* Diff mode:                             Diff Mode.           (line   6)
* digest message:                        Rmail Digest.        (line   6)
* directional window selection:          Window Convenience.  (line  14)
* directories in buffer names:           Uniquify.            (line   6)
* directory header lines:                Subdirectory Motion. (line  10)
* directory listing:                     Directories.         (line   6)
* directory listing on MS-DOS:           MS-DOS Processes.    (line  44)
* directory local variables:             Directory Variables. (line   6)
* directory tracking:                    Directory Tracking.  (line   6)
* Dired:                                 Dired.               (line   6)
* Dired sorting:                         Dired Updating.      (line  59)
* Dired, and MS-Windows/MS-DOS:          ls in Lisp.          (line   6)
* disable window system:                 Initial Options.     (line  30)
* disabled command:                      Disabling.           (line   6)
* disabling remote files:                Remote Files.        (line  33)
* DISPLAY environment variable:          Display X.           (line   6)
* display for Emacs frame:               Initial Options.     (line  25)
* display name (X Window System):        Display X.           (line   6)
* display of buffer size:                Optional Mode Line.  (line   6)
* display of line number:                Optional Mode Line.  (line  18)
* DNS mode:                              Program Modes.       (line  21)
* doc-view-minor-mode:                   Document View.       (line  12)
* DocTeX mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* doctor:                                Total Frustration.   (line   6)
* document viewer (DocView):             Document View.       (line   6)
* DocView mode:                          Document View.       (line   6)
* DOS applications, running from Emacs:  Windows Processes.   (line   6)
* DOS codepages:                         MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  21)
* DOS-style end-of-line display:         Recognize Coding.    (line  56)
* DOS-to-Unix conversion of files:       Text and Binary.     (line  38)
* double clicks:                         Mouse Buttons.       (line  28)
* double slash in file name:             Minibuffer File.     (line  32)
* down events:                           Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* downcase file names:                   Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  27)
* drag and drop:                         Drag and Drop.       (line   6)
* drag and drop, Dired:                  Misc Dired Features. (line  57)
* drag events:                           Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* drastic changes:                       Reverting.           (line   6)
* dribble file:                          Checklist.           (line  80)
* DSSSL mode:                            Program Modes.       (line  21)
* Dutch:                                 International.       (line   6)
* DVI file:                              Document View.       (line   6)
* Ebrowse:                               Tags.                (line  34)
* echo area:                             Echo Area.           (line   6)
* Edebug:                                Checklist.           (line 162)
* editable fields (customization buffer): Customization Groups.
                                                              (line  33)
* editing binary files:                  Editing Binary Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* editing in Picture mode:               Basic Picture.       (line   6)
* editing level, recursive:              Recursive Edit.      (line   6)
* EDITOR environment variable:           Emacs Server.        (line   6)
* EDT:                                   Emulation.           (line   6)
* Eldoc mode:                            Lisp Doc.            (line  16)
* Eliza:                                 Total Frustration.   (line   6)
* Emacs as a server:                     Emacs Server.        (line   6)
* EMACS environment variable:            Interactive Shell.   (line  57)
* Emacs icon, a gnu:                     Icons X.             (line  12)
* Emacs initialization file:             Init File.           (line   6)
* Emacs-Lisp mode:                       Lisp Eval.           (line   6)
* EMACS_SERVER_FILE environment variable: emacsclient Options.
                                                              (line  58)
* emacsclient:                           Emacs Server.        (line   6)
* emacsclient invocation:                Invoking emacsclient.
                                                              (line   6)
* emacsclient options:                   emacsclient Options. (line   6)
* Emerge:                                Emerge.              (line   6)
* emulating other editors:               Emulation.           (line   6)
* emulation of Brief:                    Emulation.           (line  10)
* encoding of characters:                International.       (line   6)
* end-of-line conversion:                Coding Systems.      (line  55)
* end-of-line conversion on MS-DOS/MS-Windows: Text and Binary.
                                                              (line   9)
* end-of-line conversion, mode-line indication: Mode Line.    (line  36)
* enlarge a table cell:                  Cell Commands.       (line  36)
* Enriched mode:                         Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* entering Emacs:                        Entering Emacs.      (line   6)
* environment variables:                 Environment.         (line   6)
* environment variables for subshells:   Interactive Shell.   (line  32)
* environment variables in file names:   File Names.          (line  50)
* environment variables, and non-ASCII characters: Enabling Multibyte.
                                                              (line  29)
* erasing characters and lines:          Erasing.             (line  39)
* error log:                             Compilation.         (line   6)
* error message in the echo area:        Echo Area.           (line  20)
* errors in init file:                   Initial Options.     (line 116)
* escape sequences in files:             Recognize Coding.    (line  66)
* ESHELL environment variable:           Interactive Shell.   (line  32)
* etags program:                         Create Tags Table.   (line   6)
* Ethiopic:                              International.       (line   6)
* Ethiopic calendar:                     Calendar Systems.    (line  41)
* Euro sign:                             Language Environments.
                                                              (line  26)
* European character sets:               Unibyte Mode.        (line   6)
* evaluate expression, command-line argument: Action Arguments.
                                                              (line  60)
* exiting:                               Exiting.             (line   6)
* exiting recursive edit:                Recursive Edit.      (line  12)
* expanding subdirectories in Dired:     Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* expansion (of abbrevs):                Abbrevs.             (line   6)
* expansion of C macros:                 Other C Commands.    (line  45)
* expansion of environment variables:    File Names.          (line  50)
* expression:                            Expressions.         (line   6)
* expunging (Rmail):                     Rmail Deletion.      (line  11)
* face at point:                         International Chars. (line  58)
* face colors, setting:                  Faces.               (line  27)
* face customization, in init file:      Creating Frames.     (line  47)
* faces:                                 Faces.               (line   6)
* faces for highlighting query replace:  Query Replace.       (line  28)
* faces for highlighting search matches: Basic Isearch.       (line  22)
* faces under MS-DOS:                    MS-DOS Display.      (line   6)
* failed merges:                         Comparing Files.     (line  46)
* Feedmail:                              Mail Sending.        (line  40)
* FFAP minor mode:                       FFAP.                (line  18)
* file archives:                         File Archives.       (line   6)
* file comparison (in Dired):            Comparison in Dired. (line   6)
* file database (locate):                Dired and Find.      (line  38)
* file dates:                            Interlocking.        (line   6)
* file directory:                        Directories.         (line   6)
* file local variables:                  File Variables.      (line   6)
* file management:                       Dired.               (line   6)
* file modes:                            Misc File Ops.       (line  92)
* file name caching:                     File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* file names:                            File Names.          (line   6)
* file names on MS-Windows:              Windows Files.       (line   6)
* file names under MS-DOS:               MS-DOS File Names.   (line   6)
* file names under Windows 95/NT:        MS-DOS File Names.   (line  26)
* file names with non-ASCII characters:  File Name Coding.    (line   9)
* file names, quote special characters:  Quoted File Names.   (line   6)
* file ownership, and backup:            Backup Copying.      (line  27)
* file permissions:                      Misc File Ops.       (line  92)
* file selection dialog:                 Visiting.            (line  89)
* file selection dialog, how to disable: Dialog Boxes.        (line  17)
* file shadows:                          File Shadowing.      (line   6)
* file truenames:                        File Aliases.        (line  27)
* file version in change log entries:    Change Log Commands. (line  25)
* file-name completion, on MS-Windows:   Windows Files.       (line  11)
* files:                                 Files.               (line   6)
* files versus changesets.:              VCS Concepts.        (line  74)
* files, visiting and saving:            Visiting.            (line  28)
* filesets:                              Filesets.            (line   6)
* filesets, VC:                          Basic VC Editing.    (line   6)
* fill prefix:                           Fill Prefix.         (line   6)
* filling text:                          Filling.             (line   6)
* find:                                  File Name Cache.     (line   6)
* find and Dired:                        Dired and Find.      (line   6)
* find Info manual by its file name:     Misc Help.           (line  11)
* finding file at point:                 FFAP.                (line   6)
* finding files containing regexp matches (in Dired): Marks vs Flags.
                                                              (line 112)
* finding strings within text:           Search.              (line   6)
* firewall, and accessing remote files:  Remote Files.        (line  68)
* fix width of table cells:              Fixed Width Mode.    (line   6)
* fixing incorrectly decoded mail messages: Rmail Coding.     (line  16)
* flagging files (in Dired):             Dired Deletion.      (line   6)
* flagging many files for deletion (in Dired): Flagging Many Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* Flyspell mode:                         Spelling.            (line 169)
* folding editing:                       Foldout.             (line   6)
* Follow mode:                           Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* font (default):                        Creating Frames.     (line  53)
* font antialiasing (MS Windows):        Windows Fonts.       (line  90)
* font for menus:                        Table of Resources.  (line  82)
* Font Lock mode:                        Font Lock.           (line   6)
* font name (X Window System):           Font X.              (line   6)
* font of character at point:            International Chars. (line  58)
* font properties (MS Windows gdi backend): Windows Fonts.    (line  74)
* font properties (MS Windows):          Windows Fonts.       (line  24)
* font scripts (MS Windows):             Windows Fonts.       (line  76)
* font specification (MS Windows):       Windows Fonts.       (line   6)
* font unicode subranges (MS Windows):   Windows Fonts.       (line  76)
* fontconfig:                            Font X.              (line  31)
* fonts and faces:                       Face Customization.  (line   6)
* fonts for PostScript printing:         PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  51)
* fonts for various scripts:             Language Environments.
                                                              (line  41)
* fonts, emulating under MS-DOS:         MS-DOS Display.      (line   6)
* fontsets:                              Fontsets.            (line   6)
* fontsets, modifying:                   Modifying Fontsets.  (line   6)
* foreground color, command-line argument: Colors.            (line  23)
* formatted text:                        Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* formfeed character:                    Pages.               (line   6)
* Fortran 77 and Fortran 90, 95, 2003:   Fortran.             (line   6)
* Fortran continuation lines:            ForIndent Cont.      (line   6)
* Fortran fixed form and free form:      Fortran.             (line   6)
* Fortran mode:                          Fortran.             (line   6)
* fortune cookies:                       Mail Amusements.     (line  19)
* forwarding a message:                  Rmail Reply.         (line  75)
* frame focus policy, MS-Windows:        Windows Misc.        (line  17)
* frame size under MS-DOS:               MS-DOS Display.      (line  43)
* frame title, command-line argument:    Title X.             (line  17)
* frames:                                Frames.              (line   6)
* frames on MS-DOS:                      MS-DOS Display.      (line  36)
* French Revolutionary calendar:         Calendar Systems.    (line  29)
* fringe face:                           Standard Faces.      (line 130)
* fringes:                               Fringes.             (line   6)
* fringes, and continuation lines:       Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* fringes, and current execution line in GUD: Debugger Operation.
                                                              (line   6)
* fringes, and unused line indication:   Useless Whitespace.  (line  26)
* FTP:                                   Remote Files.        (line   6)
* fullheight, command-line argument:     Window Size X.       (line  22)
* fullscreen, command-line argument:     Window Size X.       (line  18)
* fullwidth, command-line argument:      Window Size X.       (line  26)
* function definition:                   Commands.            (line   6)
* function key:                          Keymaps.             (line  31)
* function, move to beginning or end:    Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* gamma correction:                      Table of Resources.  (line  96)
* gateway, and remote file access with ange-ftp: Remote Files.
                                                              (line  68)
* GDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* GDB commands in Fringe:                Source Buffers.      (line   6)
* GDB User Interface layout:             GDB-UI Layout.       (line   6)
* geometry of Emacs window:              Window Size X.       (line   6)
* geometry, command-line argument:       Window Size X.       (line  11)
* German:                                International.       (line   6)
* getting help with keys:                Basic Help.          (line   6)
* Ghostscript, use for PostScript printing: Windows Printing. (line  96)
* git:                                   Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  49)
* Glasses mode:                          Glasses.             (line   6)
* Global Auto-Revert mode:               Reverting.           (line  34)
* global keymap:                         Keymaps.             (line  17)
* global mark:                           CUA Bindings.        (line  35)
* global mark ring:                      Global Mark Ring.    (line   6)
* global substitution:                   Replace.             (line   6)
* GNU Arch:                              Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  41)
* Gnus:                                  Gnus.                (line   6)
* GNUstep:                               Mac OS / GNUstep.    (line   6)
* Go Moku:                               Amusements.          (line  10)
* Goto Address mode:                     Goto Address mode.   (line   6)
* graphic characters:                    Inserting Text.      (line   6)
* Greek:                                 International.       (line   6)
* Gregorian calendar:                    Other Calendars.     (line   6)
* growing minibuffer:                    Minibuffer Edit.     (line  26)
* GTK resources and customization:       GTK resources.       (line   6)
* GTK styles:                            GTK styles.          (line   6)
* GTK widget classes:                    GTK Names in Emacs.  (line   6)
* GTK widget names <1>:                  GTK Names in Emacs.  (line   6)
* GTK widget names:                      GTK widget names.    (line   6)
* GUD library:                           Debuggers.           (line   6)
* gzip:                                  Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* handwriting:                           PostScript.          (line  82)
* hard links (creation):                 Misc File Ops.       (line  71)
* hard links (in Dired):                 Operating on Files.  (line  64)
* hard links (visiting):                 File Aliases.        (line   6)
* hard newline:                          Hard and Soft Newlines.
                                                              (line   6)
* hardcopy:                              Printing.            (line   6)
* head revision:                         Branches.            (line  34)
* header (TeX mode):                     TeX Print.           (line  96)
* header line (Dired):                   Subdirectory Motion. (line  10)
* headers (of mail message):             Mail Headers.        (line   6)
* heading lines (Outline mode):          Outline Format.      (line   6)
* Hebrew:                                International.       (line   6)
* Hebrew calendar:                       Calendar Systems.    (line  16)
* height of minibuffer:                  Minibuffer Edit.     (line  26)
* help:                                  Help.                (line   6)
* help text, in GTK+ file chooser:       Dialog Boxes.        (line  23)
* help, viewing web pages:               Help Mode.           (line  38)
* hex editing:                           Editing Binary Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* Hexl mode:                             Editing Binary Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* hg:                                    Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  59)
* Hi Lock mode:                          Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  11)
* hidden files, in GTK+ file chooser:    Dialog Boxes.        (line  23)
* Hide-ifdef mode:                       Other C Commands.    (line  99)
* hiding subdirectories (Dired):         Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line   6)
* Highlight Changes mode:                Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line   6)
* highlight current line:                Cursor Display.      (line  34)
* highlighting by matching:              Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line   6)
* highlighting lines of text:            Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  50)
* highlighting matching parentheses:     Matching.            (line  33)
* highlighting region:                   Persistent Mark.     (line   6)
* Hindi:                                 International.       (line   6)
* history of commands:                   Repetition.          (line   6)
* history of minibuffer input:           Minibuffer History.  (line   6)
* history reference:                     History References.  (line   6)
* holiday forms:                         Holiday Customizing. (line  37)
* holidays:                              Holidays.            (line   6)
* HOME directory on MS-Windows:          Windows HOME.        (line   6)
* home directory shorthand:              Minibuffer File.     (line  39)
* HOME directory under MS-DOS:           MS-DOS File Names.   (line  35)
* hook:                                  Hooks.               (line   6)
* horizontal scrolling:                  Horizontal Scrolling.
                                                              (line   6)
* hourglass pointer display:             Display Custom.      (line  35)
* HTML mode:                             HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* hungry deletion (C Mode):              Hungry Delete.       (line   6)
* hunk, diff:                            Diff Mode.           (line  12)
* Hyper (under MS-DOS):                  MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* hyperlinking:                          Hyperlinking.        (line   6)
* iCalendar support:                     Importing Diary.     (line  15)
* Icomplete mode:                        Completion Options.  (line  49)
* Icon mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  21)
* iconifying:                            Exiting.             (line  42)
* icons (X Window System):               Icons X.             (line   6)
* icons, toolbar:                        Tool Bars.           (line   6)
* identifiers, making long ones readable: Glasses.            (line   6)
* IDL mode:                              C Modes.             (line   6)
* ignored file names, in completion:     Completion Options.  (line  13)
* ignoriginal:                           Dissociated Press.   (line  37)
* image-dired:                           Image-Dired.         (line   6)
* image-dired mode:                      Image-Dired.         (line   6)
* images, viewing:                       File Conveniences.   (line  20)
* IMAP mailboxes:                        Remote Mailboxes.    (line  33)
* in-situ subdirectory (Dired):          Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line  19)
* inbox file:                            Rmail Inbox.         (line   6)
* incorrect fontification:               Font Lock.           (line  60)
* increase buffer face height:           Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line  20)
* incremental search:                    Incremental Search.  (line   6)
* incremental search, input method interference: Input Methods.
                                                              (line  84)
* indentation:                           Indentation.         (line   6)
* indentation for comments:              Comment Commands.    (line   6)
* indentation for programs:              Program Indent.      (line   6)
* index of buffer definitions:           Imenu.               (line   6)
* indirect buffer:                       Indirect Buffers.    (line   6)
* indirect buffers and outlines:         Outline Views.       (line   6)
* inferior process:                      Compilation.         (line   6)
* inferior processes under MS-DOS:       MS-DOS Processes.    (line   6)
* Info:                                  Misc Help.           (line   6)
* Info index completion:                 Symbol Completion.   (line  25)
* init file:                             Init File.           (line   6)
* init file .emacs on MS-Windows:        Windows HOME.        (line  14)
* init file, and non-ASCII characters:   Enabling Multibyte.  (line  39)
* init file, default name under MS-DOS:  MS-DOS File Names.   (line   6)
* init file, not loading:                Initial Options.     (line  75)
* initial options (command line):        Emacs Invocation.    (line  40)
* initial revision ID to register:       Registering.         (line  30)
* initial-frame-alist:                   Creating Frames.     (line  47)
* input event:                           User Input.          (line  43)
* input methods:                         Input Methods.       (line   6)
* input methods, X:                      Table of Resources.  (line 131)
* input with the keyboard:               User Input.          (line   6)
* insert column in table:                Column Commands.     (line   6)
* insert file contents, command-line argument: Action Arguments.
                                                              (line  63)
* insert row in table:                   Row Commands.        (line   6)
* insert string into table cells:        Table Misc.          (line   6)
* inserted subdirectory (Dired):         Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line  19)
* inserting blank lines:                 Blank Lines.         (line   6)
* insertion:                             Inserting Text.      (line   6)
* INSIDE_EMACS environment variable:     Interactive Shell.   (line  52)
* interactive highlighting:              Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line   6)
* internal border width, command-line argument: Borders X.    (line  15)
* international characters in .emacs:    Init Non-ASCII.      (line   6)
* international files from DOS/Windows systems: Coding Systems.
                                                              (line  20)
* international scripts:                 International.       (line   6)
* international support (MS-DOS):        MS-DOS and MULE.     (line   6)
* Intlfonts for PostScript printing:     PostScript Variables.
                                                              (line  51)
* Intlfonts package, installation:       Language Environments.
                                                              (line  41)
* invisible lines:                       Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* invocation (command line arguments):   Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* IPA:                                   International.       (line   6)
* isearch:                               Incremental Search.  (line   6)
* Islamic calendar:                      Calendar Systems.    (line  20)
* ISO commercial calendar:               Calendar Systems.    (line   6)
* ISO Latin character sets:              Unibyte Mode.        (line   6)
* iso-ascii library:                     Unibyte Mode.        (line  27)
* iso-transl library:                    Unibyte Mode.        (line  61)
* ispell program:                        Spelling.            (line 142)
* Iswitchb mode:                         Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* italic font:                           Face Customization.  (line   6)
* Japanese:                              International.       (line   6)
* jar:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* Java class archives:                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* Java mode:                             C Modes.             (line   6)
* JDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* Julian calendar:                       Calendar Systems.    (line   8)
* Julian day numbers:                    Calendar Systems.    (line  12)
* just-in-time (JIT) font-lock:          Font Lock.           (line  97)
* justification:                         Fill Commands.       (line  38)
* Kerberos POP authentication:           Remote Mailboxes.    (line  58)
* key:                                   Keys.                (line  11)
* key bindings:                          Key Bindings.        (line   6)
* key rebinding, permanent:              Init File.           (line   6)
* key rebinding, this session:           Rebinding.           (line   6)
* key sequence:                          Keys.                (line  11)
* keyboard input:                        User Input.          (line   6)
* keyboard macro:                        Keyboard Macros.     (line   6)
* keyboard shortcuts:                    Glossary.            (line 728)
* keyboard, MS-Windows:                  Windows Keyboard.    (line   6)
* keymap:                                Keymaps.             (line   6)
* keypad:                                Function Keys.       (line  45)
* keypad keys (MS-Windows):              Windows Keyboard.    (line  64)
* keys stolen by window manager:         User Input.          (line  49)
* kill DOS application:                  Windows Processes.   (line  37)
* kill ring:                             Yanking.             (line   6)
* killing buffers:                       Kill Buffer.         (line   6)
* killing characters and lines:          Erasing.             (line  39)
* killing Emacs:                         Exiting.             (line   6)
* killing expressions:                   Expressions.         (line  54)
* killing rectangular areas of text:     Rectangles.          (line   6)
* killing text:                          Killing.             (line  13)
* Korean:                                International.       (line   6)
* label (Rmail):                         Rmail Labels.        (line   6)
* landmark game:                         Amusements.          (line  26)
* language environment, automatic selection on MS-DOS: MS-DOS and MULE.
                                                              (line  46)
* language environments:                 Language Environments.
                                                              (line   6)
* Lao:                                   International.       (line   6)
* LaTeX mode:                            TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* LaTeX references:                      TeX Misc.            (line  15)
* Latin:                                 International.       (line   6)
* Latin-1 TeX encoding:                  TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* lazy search highlighting:              Repeat Isearch.      (line  14)
* leading:                               Table of Resources.  (line  70)
* leaving Emacs:                         Exiting.             (line   6)
* LessTif Widget X Resources:            LessTif Resources.   (line   6)
* libraries:                             Lisp Libraries.      (line   6)
* Life:                                  Amusements.          (line  30)
* line endings:                          Coding Systems.      (line  55)
* line number commands:                  Position Info.       (line  38)
* line number display:                   Optional Mode Line.  (line  18)
* line spacing:                          Table of Resources.  (line  70)
* line spacing, command-line argument:   Misc X.              (line  12)
* line truncation, and fringes <1>:      Line Truncation.     (line   6)
* line truncation, and fringes:          Continuation Lines.  (line  20)
* line wrapping:                         Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* lines, highlighting:                   Highlight Interactively.
                                                              (line  50)
* links (customization buffer):          Customization Groups.
                                                              (line  33)
* Linum mode:                            Minor Modes.         (line  59)
* Lisp editing:                          Programs.            (line   6)
* Lisp files byte-compiled by XEmacs:    Lisp Libraries.      (line  63)
* Lisp files, and multibyte operation:   Enabling Multibyte.  (line  39)
* Lisp string syntax:                    Init Syntax.         (line  31)
* Lisp symbol completion:                Symbol Completion.   (line  36)
* lisp-indent-function property:         Lisp Indent.         (line  27)
* list commands:                         Moving by Parens.    (line   6)
* listing current buffers:               List Buffers.        (line   9)
* listing system fonts:                  Font X.              (line 196)
* load init file of another user:        Initial Options.     (line 113)
* loading Lisp code:                     Lisp Libraries.      (line   6)
* loading Lisp libraries automatically:  Init Examples.       (line  98)
* loading Lisp libraries, command-line argument: Action Arguments.
                                                              (line  38)
* loading several files (in Dired):      Operating on Files.  (line 110)
* local back end (version control):      Local Version Control.
                                                              (line   6)
* local keymap:                          Local Keymaps.       (line   6)
* local variables:                       Locals.              (line  16)
* local variables in files:              File Variables.      (line   6)
* local variables, for all files in a directory: Directory Variables.
                                                              (line   6)
* local version control:                 Local Version Control.
                                                              (line   6)
* locale, date format:                   Time Stamps.         (line   6)
* locales:                               Language Environments.
                                                              (line  47)
* location of point:                     Position Info.       (line  38)
* locking (CVS):                         CVS Options.         (line   6)
* locking files:                         Interlocking.        (line  18)
* locking versus merging:                VCS Concepts.        (line  31)
* locking, non-strict (RCS):             RCS and SCCS.        (line   6)
* log File, types of:                    Types of Log File.   (line   6)
* logging keystrokes:                    Checklist.           (line  80)
* long file names in DOS box under Windows 95/NT: MS-DOS File Names.
                                                              (line  26)
* Long Lines minor mode:                 Longlines.           (line   6)
* looking for a subject in documentation: Help.               (line  29)
* lpr usage under MS-DOS:                Windows Printing.    (line  78)
* ls emulation:                          ls in Lisp.          (line   6)
* Lucid Widget X Resources:              Lucid Resources.     (line   6)
* lzh:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* M-:                                    User Input.          (line  23)
* M-<TAB> vs Alt-<TAB> (MS-Windows):     Windows Keyboard.    (line  45)
* M4 mode:                               Program Modes.       (line  21)
* Mac OS X:                              Mac OS / GNUstep.    (line   6)
* Macintosh:                             Mac OS / GNUstep.    (line   6)
* Macintosh end-of-line conversion:      Coding Systems.      (line  55)
* Macintosh key bindings:                Emulation.           (line   6)
* macro expansion in C:                  Other C Commands.    (line  45)
* mail:                                  Sending Mail.        (line   6)
* mail (on mode line):                   Optional Mode Line.  (line  62)
* mail aliases:                          Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* MAIL environment variable:             Rmail Inbox.         (line  15)
* Mail mode:                             Mail Mode.           (line   6)
* mail-composition methods:              Mail Methods.        (line   6)
* Mailclient:                            Mail Sending.        (line  40)
* MAILHOST environment variable:         Remote Mailboxes.    (line  17)
* mailrc file:                           Mail Aliases.        (line   6)
* main border width, command-line argument: Borders X.        (line  20)
* major modes:                           Major Modes.         (line   6)
* make:                                  Compilation.         (line   6)
* Makefile mode:                         Program Modes.       (line  21)
* making pictures out of text characters: Picture Mode.       (line   6)
* man pages, and local file variables:   Specifying File Variables.
                                                              (line  29)
* manipulating paragraphs:               Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* manipulating sentences:                Sentences.           (line   6)
* manipulating text:                     Text.                (line   6)
* manual page:                           Man Page.            (line   6)
* manual pages, on MS-DOS/MS-Windows:    Man Page.            (line  46)
* manual version backups:                Version Backups.     (line  24)
* manuals, on-line:                      Misc Help.           (line   6)
* Marathi:                               International.       (line   6)
* mark:                                  Mark.                (line   6)
* mark rectangle:                        Rectangles.          (line  13)
* mark ring:                             Mark Ring.           (line   6)
* marking executable files (in Dired):   Marks vs Flags.      (line  22)
* marking many files (in Dired):         Marks vs Flags.      (line   6)
* marking sections of text:              Marking Objects.     (line   6)
* marking subdirectories (in Dired):     Marks vs Flags.      (line  30)
* marking symbolic links (in Dired):     Marks vs Flags.      (line  26)
* Markov chain:                          Dissociated Press.   (line  37)
* matching parentheses:                  Matching.            (line   6)
* matching parenthesis and braces, moving to: Moving by Parens.
                                                              (line   6)
* maximum buffer size exceeded, error message: Visiting.      (line  71)
* Mayan calendar:                        Calendar Systems.    (line  35)
* Mayan calendar round:                  Mayan Calendar.      (line  64)
* Mayan haab calendar:                   Mayan Calendar.      (line  56)
* Mayan long count:                      Mayan Calendar.      (line  36)
* Mayan tzolkin calendar:                Mayan Calendar.      (line  48)
* memory full:                           Memory Full.         (line   6)
* menu bar <1>:                          Table of Resources.  (line  73)
* menu bar:                              Menu Bar.            (line   6)
* menu bar access using keyboard (MS-Windows): Windows Keyboard.
                                                              (line  17)
* menu bar appearance:                   Standard Faces.      (line 156)
* Menu Bar mode:                         Menu Bars.           (line   6)
* menu face, no effect if customized:    Standard Faces.      (line 156)
* Menu X Resources (LessTif widgets):    LessTif Resources.   (line   6)
* Menu X Resources (Lucid widgets):      Lucid Resources.     (line   6)
* Mercurial:                             Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  59)
* merge buffer (Emerge):                 Overview of Emerge.  (line  21)
* merges, failed:                        Comparing Files.     (line  46)
* merging changes:                       Merging.             (line   6)
* merging files:                         Emerge.              (line   6)
* message:                               Sending Mail.        (line   6)
* Message mode for sending mail:         Mail Methods.        (line   6)
* message number:                        Rmail Basics.        (line  20)
* messages saved from echo area:         Echo Area.           (line  36)
* Meta:                                  User Input.          (line  23)
* Meta (under MS-DOS):                   MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* Meta commands and words:               Words.               (line   6)
* Metafont mode:                         Program Modes.       (line  21)
* MH mail interface:                     Mail Methods.        (line   6)
* Microsoft Windows:                     Microsoft Windows.   (line   6)
* Midnight mode:                         Kill Buffer.         (line  58)
* MIME messages (Rmail):                 Rmail Display.       (line  55)
* minibuffer <1>:                        Minibuffer.          (line   6)
* minibuffer:                            Echo Area.           (line  46)
* minibuffer confirmation <1>:           Select Buffer.       (line  35)
* minibuffer confirmation:               Visiting.            (line 109)
* minibuffer history:                    Minibuffer History.  (line   6)
* minibuffer history, searching:         Isearch Minibuffer.  (line   6)
* minibuffer keymaps:                    Minibuffer Maps.     (line   6)
* minibuffer-prompt face:                Standard Faces.      (line 123)
* minimizing a frame:                    Exiting.             (line  42)
* minimizing a frame at startup:         Icons X.             (line   6)
* minor mode keymap:                     Local Keymaps.       (line  13)
* minor modes:                           Minor Modes.         (line   6)
* mistakes, correcting:                  Fixit.               (line   6)
* mode hook:                             Program Modes.       (line  46)
* mode line:                             Mode Line.           (line   6)
* mode line (MS-DOS):                    MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  63)
* mode line, 3D appearance:              Optional Mode Line.  (line  80)
* mode line, mouse:                      Mode Line Mouse.     (line   6)
* mode, Abbrev:                          Abbrev Concepts.     (line  13)
* mode, archive:                         File Archives.       (line  42)
* mode, Auto Compression:                Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* mode, Auto Fill:                       Auto Fill.           (line   6)
* mode, Auto Save:                       Auto Save.           (line   6)
* mode, Auto-Revert:                     Reverting.           (line  34)
* mode, AWK:                             C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, C:                               C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, C++:                             C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, Column Number:                   Optional Mode Line.  (line  23)
* mode, Comint:                          Shell Mode.          (line 152)
* mode, Compilation:                     Compilation Mode.    (line   6)
* mode, CORBA IDL:                       C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, CRiSP:                           Emulation.           (line  10)
* mode, Delete Selection <1>:            Mouse Commands.      (line  97)
* mode, Delete Selection:                Using Region.        (line  43)
* mode, DocTeX:                          TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* mode, DocView:                         Document View.       (line   6)
* mode, Emacs-Lisp:                      Lisp Eval.           (line   6)
* mode, Enriched:                        Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* mode, Follow:                          Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* mode, Font Lock:                       Font Lock.           (line   6)
* mode, Fortran:                         Fortran.             (line   6)
* mode, Global Auto-Revert:              Reverting.           (line  34)
* mode, Hexl:                            Editing Binary Files.
                                                              (line   6)
* mode, HTML:                            HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* mode, Iswitchb:                        Iswitchb.            (line   6)
* mode, Java:                            C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, LaTeX:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* mode, Mail:                            Mail Mode.           (line   6)
* mode, major:                           Major Modes.         (line   6)
* mode, Menu Bar:                        Menu Bars.           (line   6)
* mode, minor:                           Minor Modes.         (line   6)
* mode, Mouse Wheel:                     Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* mode, MSB:                             Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* mode, nXML:                            HTML Mode.           (line  77)
* mode, Objective C:                     C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, Outline:                         Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* mode, Overwrite:                       Minor Modes.         (line  65)
* mode, Paragraph-Indent Text:           Text Mode.           (line  26)
* mode, Pike:                            C Modes.             (line   6)
* mode, Scroll Bar:                      Scroll Bars.         (line   6)
* mode, Scroll-all:                      Window Convenience.  (line  25)
* mode, SGML:                            HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* mode, Shell:                           Shell Mode.          (line   6)
* mode, SliTeX:                          TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* mode, tar:                             File Archives.       (line   6)
* mode, Term:                            Term Mode.           (line   6)
* mode, TeX:                             TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* mode, Text:                            Text Mode.           (line   6)
* mode, Tool Bar:                        Tool Bars.           (line   6)
* mode, Transient Mark:                  Persistent Mark.     (line   6)
* mode, View:                            Misc File Ops.       (line   9)
* mode, Winner:                          Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* mode, XML:                             HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* modes for programming languages:       Program Modes.       (line   6)
* modes, Long Lines:                     Longlines.           (line   6)
* modes, Refill:                         Refill.              (line   6)
* modification dates:                    Time Stamps.         (line   6)
* modified (buffer):                     Visiting.            (line  47)
* modifier keys <1>:                     Modifier Keys.       (line   6)
* modifier keys:                         User Input.          (line  23)
* Modula2 mode:                          Program Modes.       (line  21)
* moon, phases of:                       Lunar Phases.        (line   6)
* Morse code:                            Amusements.          (line  32)
* Motif key bindings:                    Emulation.           (line   6)
* mouse avoidance:                       Mouse Avoidance.     (line   6)
* mouse button events:                   Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* mouse buttons (what they do):          Mouse Commands.      (line   6)
* mouse on mode line:                    Mode Line Mouse.     (line   6)
* mouse pointer color, command-line argument: Colors.         (line  42)
* mouse support:                         Text-Only Mouse.     (line   6)
* mouse support under MS-DOS:            MS-DOS Mouse.        (line   6)
* mouse wheel:                           Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* Mouse Wheel minor mode:                Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* mouse, and MS-Windows:                 Windows Mouse.       (line   6)
* mouse, set number of buttons:          MS-DOS Mouse.        (line  18)
* move to beginning or end of function:  Moving by Defuns.    (line  19)
* movemail:                              Remote Mailboxes.    (line   6)
* movemail program:                      Movemail.            (line   6)
* movement:                              Moving Point.        (line   6)
* moving files (in Dired):               Operating on Files.  (line  55)
* moving inside the calendar:            Calendar Motion.     (line   6)
* moving point:                          Moving Point.        (line   6)
* moving text:                           Yanking.             (line   6)
* moving the cursor:                     Moving Point.        (line   6)
* MS-DOG:                                MS-DOS.              (line   6)
* MS-DOS end-of-line conversion:         Coding Systems.      (line  55)
* MS-DOS peculiarities:                  MS-DOS.              (line   6)
* MS-Windows codepages:                  MS-DOS and MULE.     (line  87)
* MS-Windows keyboard shortcuts:         Windows Keyboard.    (line   9)
* MS-Windows, Emacs peculiarities:       Microsoft Windows.   (line   6)
* MSB mode:                              Buffer Menus.        (line  16)
* MULE:                                  International.       (line   6)
* multibyte characters:                  International.       (line   6)
* multibyte operation, and Lisp files:   Enabling Multibyte.  (line  39)
* multiple displays:                     Multiple Displays.   (line   6)
* multiple views of outline:             Outline Views.       (line   6)
* multiple windows in Emacs:             Windows.             (line   6)
* multiple-file search and replace:      Tags Search.         (line   6)
* mustatement:                           Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* narrowing:                             Narrowing.           (line   6)
* narrowing, and line number display:    Optional Mode Line.  (line  31)
* navigation:                            Hyperlinking.        (line   6)
* net use, and printing on MS-Windows:   Windows Printing.    (line  38)
* networked printers (MS-Windows):       Windows Printing.    (line  38)
* newline:                               Inserting Text.      (line  11)
* newlines, hard and soft:               Hard and Soft Newlines.
                                                              (line   6)
* Next Error Follow mode:                Compilation Mode.    (line 110)
* NFS and quitting:                      Quitting.            (line  60)
* nil:                                   Glossary.            (line 946)
* no-break hyphen, display:              Text Display.        (line  43)
* no-break space, display:               Text Display.        (line  43)
* non-ASCII characters in .emacs:        Init Non-ASCII.      (line   6)
* non-ASCII keys, binding:               Init Non-ASCII.      (line   6)
* non-greedy regexp matching:            Regexps.             (line  78)
* non-integral number of lines in a window: Optional Mode Line.
                                                              (line  80)
* non-selected windows, mode line appearance: Optional Mode Line.
                                                              (line  86)
* non-strict locking (RCS):              RCS and SCCS.        (line   6)
* non-window terminals:                  Non-Window Terminals.
                                                              (line   6)
* nonincremental search:                 Nonincremental Search.
                                                              (line   6)
* normal hook:                           Hooks.               (line  21)
* nroff:                                 Nroff Mode.          (line   6)
* NSA:                                   Mail Amusements.     (line   6)
* numeric arguments:                     Arguments.           (line   6)
* nXML mode:                             HTML Mode.           (line  77)
* Objective C mode:                      C Modes.             (line   6)
* Octave mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  21)
* omer count:                            Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* on-line manuals:                       Misc Help.           (line   6)
* open file:                             Visiting.            (line   6)
* open-parenthesis in leftmost column:   Left Margin Paren.   (line   6)
* operating on files in Dired:           Operating on Files.  (line   6)
* operations on a marked region:         Using Region.        (line   6)
* option, user:                          Variables.           (line   6)
* options (command line):                Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* other editors:                         Emulation.           (line   6)
* out of memory:                         Memory Full.         (line   6)
* Outline mode:                          Outline Mode.        (line   6)
* outline with multiple views:           Outline Views.       (line   6)
* outragedy:                             Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* overlays at character position:        Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* override character terminal color support: Colors.          (line  51)
* Overwrite mode:                        Minor Modes.         (line  65)
* page-at-a-time:                        Paging in Term.      (line   6)
* pages:                                 Pages.               (line   6)
* Pango font name:                       GTK styles.          (line 134)
* Paragraph-Indent Text mode:            Text Mode.           (line  26)
* paragraphs:                            Paragraphs.          (line   6)
* parasha, weekly:                       Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* parentheses, displaying matches:       Matching.            (line   6)
* parentheses, moving across:            Moving by Parens.    (line   6)
* parenthesis in column zero and fontification: Font Lock.    (line  60)
* parenthetical groupings:               Moving by Parens.    (line   6)
* parts of the screen:                   Screen.              (line   6)
* paste:                                 Clipboard.           (line  20)
* pasting:                               Yanking.             (line   6)
* patches, editing:                      Diff Mode.           (line   6)
* patches, sending:                      Sending Patches.     (line   6)
* PC key bindings:                       Emulation.           (line   6)
* PC selection:                          Emulation.           (line   6)
* PCL-CVS:                               VC Directory Mode.   (line  14)
* PDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* PDF file:                              Document View.       (line   6)
* per-buffer variables:                  Locals.              (line  27)
* per-directory local variables:         Directory Variables. (line   6)
* Perl mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  21)
* Perldb:                                Debuggers.           (line   6)
* Persian calendar:                      Calendar Systems.    (line  47)
* phases of the moon:                    Lunar Phases.        (line   6)
* Picture mode and rectangles:           Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line   6)
* pictures:                              Picture Mode.        (line   6)
* Pike mode:                             C Modes.             (line   6)
* point:                                 Point.               (line   6)
* point location:                        Position Info.       (line  38)
* point location, on MS-DOS:             Text and Binary.     (line  19)
* Polish:                                International.       (line   6)
* Pong game:                             Amusements.          (line  35)
* POP mailboxes:                         Remote Mailboxes.    (line  17)
* position and size of Emacs frame:      Window Size X.       (line   6)
* Postscript file:                       Document View.       (line   6)
* PostScript mode:                       Program Modes.       (line  21)
* prefix arguments:                      Arguments.           (line   6)
* prefix key:                            Keys.                (line  11)
* preprocessor highlighting:             Other C Commands.    (line  67)
* presidentagon:                         Dissociated Press.   (line  19)
* pretty-printer:                        Program Indent.      (line  19)
* primary Rmail file:                    Rmail Basics.        (line   6)
* primary selection:                     Cut/Paste Other App. (line   6)
* printing:                              Printing.            (line   6)
* printing files (in Dired):             Operating on Files.  (line  99)
* Printing package:                      Printing Package.    (line   6)
* printing under MS-DOS:                 MS-DOS Processes.    (line  29)
* program building:                      Building.            (line   6)
* program editing:                       Programs.            (line   6)
* Prolog mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  21)
* prompt:                                Minibuffer.          (line  13)
* prompt, shell:                         Shell Prompts.       (line   6)
* properbose:                            Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* PS file:                               Document View.       (line   6)
* puzzles:                               Amusements.          (line  13)
* Python mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  21)
* query replace:                         Query Replace.       (line   6)
* quitting:                              Quitting.            (line   6)
* quitting (in search):                  Error in Isearch.    (line  22)
* quitting Emacs:                        Exiting.             (line   6)
* quitting on MS-DOS:                    MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  12)
* quoting:                               Inserting Text.      (line  26)
* quoting file names:                    Quoted File Names.   (line   6)
* rar:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* RCS:                                   Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  20)
* read-only buffer:                      Misc Buffer.         (line  18)
* read-only text, killing:               Killing.             (line  34)
* reading mail:                          Rmail.               (line   6)
* reading netnews:                       Gnus.                (line   6)
* rebinding keys, permanently:           Init File.           (line   6)
* rebinding major mode keys:             Local Keymaps.       (line  35)
* rebinding mouse buttons:               Mouse Buttons.       (line   6)
* rebinding non-ASCII keys:              Init Non-ASCII.      (line   6)
* rectangle:                             Rectangles.          (line   6)
* rectangle highlighting:                CUA Bindings.        (line  22)
* rectangles and Picture mode:           Rectangles in Picture.
                                                              (line   6)
* recursive copying:                     Operating on Files.  (line  43)
* recursive deletion:                    Dired Deletion.      (line  47)
* recursive editing level:               Recursive Edit.      (line   6)
* recycle bin:                           Misc File Ops.       (line  45)
* redefining keys, this session:         Rebinding.           (line   6)
* redo:                                  Undo.                (line  29)
* references, LaTeX:                     TeX Misc.            (line  15)
* Refill minor mode:                     Refill.              (line   6)
* refilling text, word processor style <1>: Longlines.        (line   6)
* refilling text, word processor style:  Refill.              (line   6)
* refreshing displayed files:            Dired Updating.      (line   6)
* RefTeX package:                        TeX Misc.            (line  15)
* regexp:                                Regexp Search.       (line   6)
* region:                                Mark.                (line   6)
* region highlighting:                   Persistent Mark.     (line   6)
* registered file:                       VCS Concepts.        (line   6)
* registers:                             Registers.           (line   6)
* Registry (MS-Windows):                 Resources.           (line  14)
* registry, setting environment variables and resources on MS-Windows: MS-Windows Registry.
                                                              (line   6)
* regular expression:                    Regexp Search.       (line   6)
* related files:                         Other C Commands.    (line 107)
* reload files:                          Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* remember editing session:              Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* remote file access:                    Remote Files.        (line   6)
* remote host:                           Remote Host.         (line   6)
* remote host, debugging on:             Starting GUD.        (line  59)
* remote repositories:                   Remote Repositories. (line   6)
* remote repositories (CVS):             CVS Options.         (line  29)
* remove indentation:                    Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  47)
* renaming files (in Dired):             Operating on Files.  (line  55)
* repeating a command:                   Repeating.           (line   6)
* replacement:                           Replace.             (line   6)
* reply to a message:                    Rmail Reply.         (line  33)
* REPLYTO environment variable:          Mail Headers.        (line  78)
* reporting bugs:                        Checklist.           (line   6)
* repository:                            VCS Concepts.        (line   6)
* reread a file:                         Reverting.           (line   6)
* resizing minibuffer:                   Minibuffer Edit.     (line  26)
* resolving conflicts:                   Merging.             (line  46)
* resource files for GTK:                GTK resources.       (line   6)
* resource name, command-line argument:  Resources.           (line  64)
* resource values, command-line argument: Resources.          (line  81)
* resources:                             Resources.           (line   6)
* restore session:                       Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* restriction:                           Narrowing.           (line   6)
* retrying a failed message:             Rmail Reply.         (line  64)
* reverse order in POP inboxes:          Remote Mailboxes.    (line  65)
* reverse video, command-line argument:  Colors.              (line  48)
* revision:                              VCS Concepts.        (line  19)
* revision ID:                           VCS Concepts.        (line  19)
* revision ID to check in/out:           Advanced C-x v v.    (line   6)
* risky variable:                        Safe File Variables. (line  27)
* Rlogin:                                Remote Host.         (line   6)
* Rmail:                                 Rmail.               (line   6)
* Rmail file sorting:                    Rmail Sorting.       (line   6)
* Romanian:                              International.       (line   6)
* rosh hodesh:                           Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* rot13 code:                            Rmail Rot13.         (line   6)
* Ruby mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  21)
* running a hook:                        Hooks.               (line   6)
* running Lisp functions:                Building.            (line   6)
* saved echo area messages:              Echo Area.           (line  36)
* saving a setting:                      Changing a Variable. (line 114)
* saving file name in a register:        RegFiles.            (line   6)
* saving files:                          Visiting.            (line  28)
* saving keyboard macros:                Save Keyboard Macro. (line  17)
* saving number in a register:           RegNumbers.          (line   6)
* saving position in a register:         RegPos.              (line   6)
* saving rectangle in a register:        RegRect.             (line   6)
* saving sessions:                       Saving Emacs Sessions.
                                                              (line   6)
* saving text in a register:             RegText.             (line   6)
* saving window configuration in a register: RegConfig.       (line   6)
* SCCS:                                  Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line   9)
* screen:                                Screen.              (line   6)
* screen reader software, MS-Windows:    Windows Misc.        (line   8)
* script mode:                           Initial Options.     (line  61)
* Scroll Bar mode:                       Scroll Bars.         (line   6)
* Scroll-all mode:                       Window Convenience.  (line  25)
* scrollbar width:                       Table of Resources.  (line 100)
* scrolling:                             Scrolling.           (line  10)
* scrolling all windows:                 Emulation.           (line   6)
* scrolling in the calendar:             Scroll Calendar.     (line   6)
* scrolling windows together:            Window Convenience.  (line  25)
* SDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* search and replace in multiple files:  Tags Search.         (line   6)
* search and replace in multiple files (in Dired): Operating on Files.
                                                              (line 127)
* search multiple files (in Dired):      Operating on Files.  (line 119)
* search ring:                           Repeat Isearch.      (line  43)
* search-and-replace commands:           Replace.             (line   6)
* searching:                             Search.              (line   6)
* searching Dired buffers:               Dired Navigation.    (line  20)
* searching documentation efficiently:   Help.                (line  29)
* searching in Rmail:                    Rmail Motion.        (line  68)
* searching multiple files via Dired:    Misc Dired Features. (line   9)
* secondary selection:                   Secondary Selection. (line   6)
* sections of manual pages:              Man Page.            (line  22)
* selected buffer:                       Buffers.             (line  23)
* selected window:                       Basic Window.        (line  12)
* selecting buffers in other windows:    Pop Up Window.       (line   6)
* selection, primary:                    Cut/Paste Other App. (line   6)
* selective display:                     Selective Display.   (line   6)
* selective undo:                        Undo.                (line  52)
* self-documentation:                    Help.                (line   6)
* sending mail:                          Sending Mail.        (line   6)
* sending patches for GNU Emacs:         Sending Patches.     (line   6)
* Sendmail:                              Mail Sending.        (line  40)
* sentences:                             Sentences.           (line   6)
* server file:                           emacsclient Options. (line  58)
* server, using Emacs as:                Emacs Server.        (line   6)
* setting a mark:                        Mark.                (line   6)
* setting variables:                     Examining.           (line   6)
* settings:                              Easy Customization.  (line   6)
* settings, how to save:                 Changing a Variable. (line 114)
* settings, how to set:                  Changing a Variable. (line  37)
* sexp:                                  Expressions.         (line   6)
* sexp diary entries:                    Sexp Diary Entries.  (line   6)
* SGML mode:                             HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* shadow files:                          File Shadowing.      (line   6)
* shell commands:                        Shell.               (line   6)
* shell commands, Dired:                 Shell Commands in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* SHELL environment variable:            Interactive Shell.   (line  32)
* Shell mode:                            Shell Mode.          (line   6)
* shell scripts, and local file variables: Specifying File Variables.
                                                              (line  29)
* Shell-script mode:                     Program Modes.       (line  21)
* shift-selection <1>:                   Shift Selection.     (line   6)
* shift-selection:                       Setting Mark.        (line  56)
* Show Paren mode:                       Matching.            (line  33)
* showing hidden subdirectories (Dired): Hiding Subdirectories.
                                                              (line   6)
* shrink a table cell:                   Cell Commands.       (line  36)
* shy group, in regexp:                  Regexp Backslash.    (line  47)
* Simula mode:                           Program Modes.       (line  21)
* simulation of middle mouse button:     Windows Mouse.       (line   8)
* simultaneous editing:                  Interlocking.        (line   6)
* single-frame terminals:                Non-Window Terminals.
                                                              (line   6)
* site init file:                        Init File.           (line  25)
* site-start.el file, not loading:       Initial Options.     (line  82)
* site-start.el, the site startup file:  Init File.           (line  25)
* size of minibuffer:                    Minibuffer Edit.     (line  26)
* skeletons:                             Text.                (line  32)
* slashes repeated in file name:         Minibuffer File.     (line  32)
* SliTeX mode:                           TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* Slovak:                                International.       (line   6)
* Slovenian:                             International.       (line   6)
* slow display during scrolling:         Font Lock.           (line  70)
* Smerge mode:                           Comparing Files.     (line  46)
* SMTP:                                  Mail Sending.        (line  40)
* Snake:                                 Amusements.          (line  46)
* soft hyphen, display:                  Text Display.        (line  43)
* soft newline:                          Hard and Soft Newlines.
                                                              (line   6)
* solitaire:                             Amusements.          (line  38)
* sorting:                               Sorting.             (line   6)
* sorting diary entries:                 Fancy Diary Display. (line  28)
* sorting Dired buffer:                  Dired Updating.      (line  59)
* sorting Rmail file:                    Rmail Sorting.       (line   6)
* Spanish:                               International.       (line   6)
* specific version control system:       Advanced C-x v v.    (line  21)
* specify default font from the command line: Font X.         (line  12)
* specify end-of-line conversion:        Text Coding.         (line  31)
* specifying fullscreen for Emacs frame: Window Size X.       (line   6)
* speedbar:                              Speedbar.            (line   6)
* spell-checking the active region:      Spelling.            (line  56)
* spelling, checking and correcting:     Spelling.            (line   6)
* splash screen:                         Initial Options.     (line  87)
* split table cell:                      Cell Commands.       (line  18)
* splitting columns:                     Two-Column.          (line   6)
* standard colors on a character terminal: Colors.            (line  51)
* standard fontset:                      Defining Fontsets.   (line   6)
* start iconified, command-line argument: Icons X.            (line   8)
* starting Emacs:                        Entering Emacs.      (line   6)
* startup (command line arguments):      Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* startup (init file):                   Init File.           (line   6)
* startup fontset:                       Defining Fontsets.   (line  22)
* startup message:                       Initial Options.     (line  87)
* startup screen:                        Entering Emacs.      (line  11)
* string substitution:                   Replace.             (line   6)
* string syntax:                         Init Syntax.         (line  31)
* StudlyCaps:                            Amusements.          (line  41)
* StudlyCaps, making them readable:      Glasses.             (line   6)
* style (for indentation):               Custom C Indent.     (line   6)
* subdirectories in Dired:               Subdirectories in Dired.
                                                              (line   6)
* subprocesses on MS-Windows:            Windows Processes.   (line   6)
* subscribe groups:                      Summary of Gnus.     (line  33)
* subshell:                              Shell.               (line   6)
* subtree (Outline mode):                Outline Visibility.  (line  63)
* Subversion:                            Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  36)
* summary (Rmail):                       Rmail Summary.       (line   6)
* summing time intervals:                Time Intervals.      (line   6)
* sunrise and sunset:                    Sunrise/Sunset.      (line   6)
* Super (under MS-DOS):                  MS-DOS Keyboard.     (line  20)
* suspending:                            Exiting.             (line  42)
* suspicious constructions in C, C++:    Other C Commands.    (line  82)
* SVN:                                   Version Control Systems.
                                                              (line  36)
* switch buffers:                        Select Buffer.       (line   6)
* switches (command line):               Emacs Invocation.    (line   6)
* symbolic links (creation in Dired):    Operating on Files.  (line  70)
* symbolic links (creation):             Misc File Ops.       (line  81)
* symbolic links (visiting):             File Aliases.        (line   6)
* synchronizing windows:                 Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* synchronous X mode:                    Table of Resources.  (line 114)
* syntax highlighting and coloring:      Font Lock.           (line   6)
* syntax of regexps:                     Regexps.             (line   6)
* syntax table:                          Syntax.              (line   6)
* t:                                     Glossary.            (line 946)
* tab stops:                             Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* table column commands:                 Column Commands.     (line   6)
* table creation:                        Table Creation.      (line   6)
* table dimensions:                      Measuring Tables.    (line   6)
* table for HTML and LaTeX:              Table Misc.          (line  10)
* table in language format:              Table Misc.          (line  10)
* table mode:                            Text Based Tables.   (line   6)
* table recognition:                     Table Recognition.   (line   6)
* table row commands:                    Row Commands.        (line   6)
* table to text:                         Table Conversion.    (line   6)
* tables, indentation for:               Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* tabs:                                  Indentation.         (line   6)
* tags and tag tables:                   Tags.                (line   6)
* tags and version control:              Revision Tags.       (line   6)
* tags, C++:                             Tags.                (line  34)
* tags-based completion:                 Symbol Completion.   (line  25)
* Tar mode:                              File Archives.       (line   6)
* Tcl mode:                              Program Modes.       (line  21)
* techniquitous:                         Dissociated Press.   (line  37)
* Telnet:                                Remote Host.         (line   6)
* templates:                             Text.                (line  32)
* TERM environment variable:             Checklist.           (line  89)
* Term mode:                             Term Mode.           (line   6)
* terminal emulators, mouse support:     Text-Only Mouse.     (line   6)
* terminal, serial:                      Serial Terminal.     (line   6)
* termscript file:                       Checklist.           (line  89)
* Tetris:                                Amusements.          (line  46)
* TeX encoding:                          TeX Misc.            (line  11)
* TeX mode:                              TeX Mode.            (line   6)
* TEXEDIT environment variable:          Emacs Server.        (line  32)
* TEXINPUTS environment variable:        TeX Print.           (line  54)
* text:                                  Text.                (line   6)
* text and binary files on MS-DOS/MS-Windows: Text and Binary.
                                                              (line   6)
* text colors, from command line:        Colors.              (line   6)
* Text mode:                             Text Mode.           (line   6)
* text properties at point:              International Chars. (line  58)
* text properties of characters:         Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* text to table:                         Table Conversion.    (line   6)
* text-based tables:                     Text Based Tables.   (line   6)
* text-based tables, split a cell:       Cell Commands.       (line  18)
* text/enriched MIME format:             Formatted Text.      (line  17)
* Thai:                                  International.       (line   6)
* Tibetan:                               International.       (line   6)
* time (on mode line):                   Optional Mode Line.  (line  48)
* time intervals, summing:               Time Intervals.      (line   6)
* time stamps:                           Time Stamps.         (line   6)
* timeclock:                             Time Intervals.      (line   6)
* TLS encryption (Rmail):                Remote Mailboxes.    (line  70)
* toggling marks (in Dired):             Marks vs Flags.      (line  76)
* tool bar:                              Table of Resources.  (line 121)
* Tool Bar mode:                         Tool Bars.           (line   6)
* tooltips <1>:                          Tooltips.            (line   6)
* tooltips:                              Help Echo.           (line   6)
* tooltips with GUD:                     Debugger Operation.  (line  26)
* top level:                             Mode Line.           (line   6)
* tower of Hanoi:                        Amusements.          (line   6)
* TPU:                                   Emulation.           (line  28)
* trailing whitespace:                   Useless Whitespace.  (line   6)
* Tramp:                                 Remote Files.        (line   6)
* Transient Mark mode:                   Persistent Mark.     (line   6)
* transposition of expressions:          Expressions.         (line  58)
* trash:                                 Misc File Ops.       (line  45)
* triple clicks:                         Mouse Buttons.       (line  28)
* truenames of files:                    File Aliases.        (line  27)
* truncation <1>:                        Line Truncation.     (line   6)
* truncation:                            Continuation Lines.  (line  20)
* trunk (version control):               Branches.            (line   6)
* Turkish:                               International.       (line   6)
* turn multibyte support on or off:      Enabling Multibyte.  (line  11)
* two directories (in Dired):            Operating on Files.  (line  25)
* two-column editing:                    Two-Column.          (line   6)
* types of log file:                     Types of Log File.   (line   6)
* typos, fixing:                         Fixit.               (line   6)
* unbalanced parentheses and quotes:     Parentheses.         (line   6)
* uncompression:                         Compressed Files.    (line   6)
* undecided, coding system:              Coding Systems.      (line  85)
* undeletion (Rmail):                    Rmail Deletion.      (line  44)
* undigestify:                           Rmail Digest.        (line   6)
* undisplayable characters:              International Chars. (line  18)
* undo:                                  Undo.                (line   6)
* undo limit:                            Undo.                (line  65)
* undoing window configuration changes:  Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* Unibyte operation:                     Unibyte Mode.        (line   6)
* unibyte operation, and Lisp files:     Enabling Multibyte.  (line  39)
* unibyte operation, command-line argument: Initial Options.  (line 121)
* unibyte operation, environment variable: General Variables. (line  16)
* Unicode <1>:                           International Chars. (line  11)
* Unicode:                               Inserting Text.      (line  59)
* unique buffer names:                   Uniquify.            (line   6)
* unmarking files (in Dired):            Marks vs Flags.      (line  44)
* unsubscribe groups:                    Summary of Gnus.     (line  33)
* untranslated file system:              Text and Binary.     (line  50)
* unused lines:                          Useless Whitespace.  (line  26)
* unzip archives:                        File Archives.       (line  42)
* upcase file names:                     Transforming File Names.
                                                              (line  21)
* updating Dired buffer:                 Dired Updating.      (line   6)
* URL, viewing in help:                  Help Mode.           (line  38)
* URLs:                                  Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* URLs, activating:                      Goto Address mode.   (line   6)
* use-hard-newlines:                     Hard and Soft Newlines.
                                                              (line   6)
* user name for remote file access:      Remote Files.        (line  56)
* user option:                           Variables.           (line   6)
* user options, how to set:              Changing a Variable. (line  37)
* userenced:                             Dissociated Press.   (line  45)
* using tab stops in making tables:      Tab Stops.           (line   6)
* usual erasure key:                     DEL Does Not Delete. (line   6)
* UTF-8:                                 Language Environments.
                                                              (line  26)
* variable:                              Variables.           (line   6)
* variable pitch mode:                   Temporary Face Changes.
                                                              (line  29)
* variables, how to set:                 Changing a Variable. (line  37)
* vc-resolve-conflicts:                  Merging.             (line  65)
* version backups:                       Version Backups.     (line   6)
* version control:                       Version Control.     (line   6)
* version control log:                   Types of Log File.   (line   6)
* VERSION_CONTROL environment variable:  Backup Names.        (line  42)
* vertical scroll bars, command-line argument: Misc X.        (line   8)
* VHDL mode:                             Program Modes.       (line  21)
* vi:                                    Emulation.           (line   6)
* Vietnamese:                            International.       (line   6)
* View mode:                             Misc File Ops.       (line   9)
* viewing:                               Misc File Ops.       (line   9)
* viewing web pages in help:             Help Mode.           (line  38)
* views of an outline:                   Outline Views.       (line   6)
* visiting files:                        Visiting.            (line   6)
* visiting files, command-line argument: Action Arguments.    (line  12)
* Visual Line mode:                      Visual Line Mode.    (line  13)
* Watching expressions in GDB:           Watch Expressions.   (line   6)
* watching files (CVS):                  CVS Options.         (line  21)
* wdired mode:                           Wdired.              (line   6)
* Web:                                   Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* web pages, viewing in help:            Help Mode.           (line  38)
* weeks, which day they start on:        Move to Beginning or End.
                                                              (line  33)
* wheel, mouse:                          Wheeled Mice.        (line   6)
* whitespace, trailing:                  Useless Whitespace.  (line   6)
* wide block cursor:                     Cursor Display.      (line  28)
* widening:                              Narrowing.           (line   6)
* widgets at buffer position:            Editing Format Info. (line  25)
* width and height of Emacs frame:       Window Size X.       (line   6)
* width of the scroll bar:               Scroll Bars.         (line  44)
* wildcard characters in file names:     Visiting.            (line  80)
* Windmove package:                      Window Convenience.  (line  14)
* window configuration changes, undoing: Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* window manager, keys stolen by:        User Input.          (line  49)
* Windows clipboard support:             MS-DOS Mouse.        (line  29)
* windows in Emacs:                      Windows.             (line   6)
* Windows system menu:                   Windows Keyboard.    (line  86)
* windows, synchronizing:                Follow Mode.         (line   6)
* Winner mode:                           Window Convenience.  (line   6)
* word processing:                       Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* word search:                           Word Search.         (line   6)
* word wrap <1>:                         Longlines.           (line   6)
* word wrap <2>:                         Visual Line Mode.    (line   6)
* word wrap:                             Continuation Lines.  (line  35)
* words:                                 Words.               (line   6)
* words, case conversion:                Case.                (line  24)
* WordStar:                              Emulation.           (line   6)
* work file:                             VCS Concepts.        (line  13)
* World Wide Web:                        Browse-URL.          (line   6)
* wrapping:                              Continuation Lines.  (line   6)
* WYSIWYG:                               Formatted Text.      (line   6)
* X cutting and pasting:                 Cut/Paste Other App. (line   6)
* X defaults file:                       Font X.              (line  21)
* X input methods:                       Table of Resources.  (line 131)
* X Logical Font Description:            Font X.              (line 111)
* X resources:                           Resources.           (line   6)
* X resources file:                      Font X.              (line  21)
* X selection:                           Cut/Paste Other App. (line   6)
* XDB:                                   Debuggers.           (line   6)
* XIM:                                   Table of Resources.  (line 131)
* XLFD:                                  Font X.              (line 111)
* XML mode:                              HTML Mode.           (line   6)
* XML schema:                            HTML Mode.           (line  77)
* xterm:                                 Text-Only Mouse.     (line   8)
* yahrzeits <1>:                         Sexp Diary Entries.  (line 176)
* yahrzeits:                             From Other Calendar. (line  65)
* yanking:                               Yanking.             (line   6)
* yanking and text properties:           Kill Ring.           (line  25)
* yanking previous kills:                Earlier Kills.       (line   6)
* zip:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* Zippy:                                 Amusements.          (line  52)
* Zmacs mode:                            Persistent Mark.     (line   6)
* zoo:                                   File Archives.       (line  42)
* ~/.emacs.d/gtkrc file:                 GTK resources.       (line   6)
* ~/.gtkrc-2.0 file:                     GTK resources.       (line   6)
* ~/.Xdefaults file:                     Resources.           (line   6)
* ~/.Xresources file:                    Resources.           (line   6)

File: emacs,  Node: Acknowledgments,  Next: Screen,  Prev: Concept Index,  Up: Top


Many people have contributed code included in the Free Software
Foundation's distribution of GNU Emacs.  To show our appreciation for
their public spirit, we list here in alphabetical order those who have
written substantial portions.  Others too numerous to mention have
reported and fixed bugs, and added features to many parts of Emacs.  We
thank them for their generosity as well.

   This list is intended to mention every contributor of a major
package or feature we currently distribute; if you know of someone we
have omitted, please report that as a manual bug.  More comprehensive
information is available in the `ChangeLog' files, summarized in the
file `etc/AUTHORS' in the distribution.

   * Per Abrahamsen wrote the customization facilities, as well as
     `double.el', for typing accented characters not normally available
     from the keyboard; `xt-mouse.el', which allows mouse commands
     through Xterm; `gnus-cus.el', which implements customization
     commands for Gnus; `gnus-cite.el', a citation-parsing facility for
     news articles); `gnus-score.el', scoring for Gnus; `cpp.el', which
     hides or highlights parts of C programs according to preprocessor
     conditionals; and the widget library files `wid-browse.el',
     `wid-edit.el', `widget.el'.  He also co-wrote `gnus-soup.el'.

   * Tomas Abrahamsson wrote `artist.el', a package for producing ASCII
     art with a mouse or with keyboard keys.

   * Jay K. Adams wrote `jka-compr.el' and `jka-cmpr-hook.el',
     providing automatic decompression and recompression for compressed

   * Michael Albinus wrote `dbus.el', a package that implements the
     D-Bus message bus protocol; `zeroconf.el', a mode for browsing
     Avahi services; and `xesam.el', a Xesam-based search engine
     interface.  He and Kai Grossjohann wrote the Tramp package, which
     provides transparent remote file editing using rcp, ssh, ftp, and
     other network protocols.  He and Daniel Pittman wrote

   * Ralf Angeli wrote `scroll-lock.el', a minor mode which keeps the
     point vertically fixed by scrolling the window when moving up and
     down in the buffer.

   * Joe Arceneaux wrote the original text property implementation, and
     implemented support for X11.

   * Miles Bader wrote `image-file.el', support code for visiting image
     files; `minibuf-eldef.el', a minor mode that hides the minibuffer
     default value when appropriate; `rfn-eshadow.el', shadowing of
     `read-file-name' input; `mb-depth.el', display of minibuffer
     depth; `button.el', the library that implements clickable buttons;
     `face-remap.el', a package for changing the default face in
     individual buffers; and `macroexp.el' for macro-expansion.

   * David Bakhash wrote `strokes.el', a mode for controlling Emacs by
     moving the mouse in particular patterns.

   * Eli Barzilay wrote `calculator.el', a desktop calculator for Emacs.

   * Steven L. Baur wrote `footnote.el' which lets you include
     footnotes in email messages; and `gnus-audio.el' and `earcon.el',
     which provide sound effects for Gnus.  He also wrote

   * Alexander L. Belikoff, Sergey Berezin, Sacha Chua, David Edmondson,
     Noah Friedman, Andreas Fuchs, Mario Lang, Ben Mesander, Lawrence
     Mitchell, Gergely Nagy, Michael Olson, Per Persson, Jorgen
     Schaefer, Alex Schroeder, and Tom Tromey wrote ERC, an advanced
     Internet Relay Chat client (for more information, see the file
     `CREDITS' in the ERC distribution).

   * Scott Bender, Michael Brouwer, Christophe de Dinechin, Carl Edman,
     Christian Limpach and Adrian Robert developed and maintained the
     NeXTstep port of Emacs.

   * Anna M. Bigatti wrote `cal-html.el', which produces HTML calendars.

   * Ray Blaak and Simon South wrote `delphi.el', a mode for editing
     Delphi (Object Pascal) source code.

   * Martin Blais, Stefan Merten, and David Goodger wrote `rst.el', a
     mode for editing reStructuredText documents.

   * Jim Blandy wrote Emacs 19's input system, brought its
     configuration and build process up to the GNU coding standards,
     and contributed to the frame support and multi-face support.  Jim
     also wrote `tvi970.el', terminal support for the TeleVideo 970
     terminals; and co-wrote `wyse50.el' (q.v.).

   * Per Bothner wrote `term.el', a terminal emulator in an Emacs

   * Terrence M. Brannon wrote `landmark.el', a neural-network robot
     that learns landmarks.

   * Frank Bresz wrote `diff.el', a program to display `diff' output.

   * Peter Breton implemented `dirtrack.el', a library for tracking
     directory changes in shell buffers; `filecache.el', which records
     which directories your files are in; `locate.el', which interfaces
     to the `locate' command; `find-lisp.el', an Emacs Lisp emulation
     of the `find' program; `net-utils.el'; and the "generic mode"

   * Emmanuel Briot wrote `xml.el', an XML parser for Emacs; and
     `ada-prj.el', editing of Ada mode project files, as well as
     co-authoring `ada-mode.el' and `ada-xref.el'.

   * Kevin Broadey wrote `foldout.el', providing folding extensions to
     Emacs's outline modes.

   * David M. Brown wrote `array.el', for editing arrays and other
     tabular data.

   * W/lodek Bzyl and Ryszard Kubiak wrote `ogonek.el', a package for
     changing the encoding of Polish characters.

   * Bill Carpenter provided `feedmail.el', a package for massaging
     outgoing mail messages and sending them through various popular

   * Per Cederqvist and Inge Wallin wrote `ewoc.el', an Emacs widget for
     manipulating object collections.  Per Cederqvist, Inge Wallin, and
     Thomas Bellman wrote `avl-tree.el', for balanced binary trees.

   * Hans Chalupsky wrote `advice.el', an overloading mechanism for
     Emacs Lisp functions; and `trace.el', a tracing facility for Emacs

   * Chris Chase, Carsten Dominik, and J. D. Smith wrote IDLWAVE mode,
     for editing IDL and WAVE CL.

   * Bob Chassell wrote `texnfo-upd.el', `texinfo.el', and
     `makeinfo.el', modes and utilities for working with Texinfo files;
     and `page-ext.el', commands for extended page handling.

   * Jihyun Cho wrote `hanja-util.el' and `hangul.el', utilities for
     Korean Hanja.

   * Andrew Choi and Yamamoto Mitsuharu wrote the Carbon support, used
     prior to Emacs 23 for Mac OS.

   * Chong Yidong was the Emacs co-maintainer for Emacs 23.  He made
     many improvements to the Emacs display engine; and, together with
     Kai Grossjohann and Alex Schroeder, wrote `longlines.el', a minor
     mode for wrapping long lines.

   * James Clark wrote SGML mode, a mode for editing SGML documents; and
     nXML mode, a mode for editing XML documents.  He also contributed
     to Emacs's dumping procedures.

   * Mike Clarkson wrote `edt.el', an emulation of DEC's EDT editor.

   * Glynn Clements provided `gamegrid.el' and a couple of games that
     use it, Snake and Tetris.

   * Andrew Cohen wrote `spam-wash.el', to decode and clean email before
     it is analysed for spam.

   * Georges Brun-Cottan and Stefan Monnier wrote `easy-mmode.el', a
     package for easy definition of major and minor modes.

   * Andrew Csillag wrote M4 mode (`m4-mode.el').

   * Doug Cutting and Jamie Zawinski wrote `disass.el', a disassembler
     for compiled Emacs Lisp code.

   * Mathias Dahl wrote `image-dired.el', a package for viewing image
     files as "thumbnails."

   * Michael DeCorte wrote `emacs.csh', a C-shell script that starts a
     new Emacs job, or restarts a paused Emacs if one exists.

   * Gary Delp wrote `mailpost.el', an interface between RMAIL and the
     `/usr/uci/post' mailer.

   * Matthieu Devin wrote `delsel.el', a package to make newly-typed
     text replace the current selection.

   * Eric Ding wrote `goto-addr.el',

   * Jan Dja"rv added support for the GTK+ toolkit and X drag-and-drop.

   * Carsten Dominik wrote RefTeX, a package for setting up labels and
     cross-references in LaTeX documents; and co-wrote IDLWAVE mode
     (q.v.).  He was the main author of Org mode, for maintaining notes,
     todo lists, and project planning.  Thomas Baumann, Bastien Guerry,
     Tassilo Horn, Philip Jackson, Tokuya Kameshima, Eric Schulte, Andy
     Stewart, David O'Toole, John Wiegley, and Piotr Zielinski also
     wrote various Org mode components.

   * Scott Draves wrote `tq.el', help functions for maintaining
     transaction queues between Emacs and its subprocesses.

   * Benjamin Drieu wrote `pong.el', an implementation of the classical
     pong game.

   * Viktor Dukhovni wrote support for dumping under SunOS version 4.

   * John Eaton and Kurt Hornik wrote Octave mode.

   * Rolf Ebert co-wrote Ada mode.

   * Stephen Eglen wrote `mspools.el', which tells you which Procmail
     folders have mail waiting in them; and `iswitchb.el', a feature
     for incremental reading and completion of buffer names.

   * Torbjo"rn Einarsson wrote `f90.el', a mode for Fortran 90 files.

   * Tsugutomo Enami co-wrote the support for international character

   * David Engster wrote `mairix.el' and `nnmairix.el', an interface to
     the Mairix indexing tool.

   * Hans Henrik Eriksen wrote `simula.el', a mode for editing SIMULA 87

   * Michael Ernst wrote `reposition.el', a command for recentering a
     function's source code and preceding comment on the screen.

   * Ata Etemadi wrote `cdl.el', functions for working with Common Data
     Language source code.

   * Frederick Farnbach implemented `morse.el', which converts text to
     Morse code.

   * Oscar Figueiredo wrote EUDC, the Emacs Unified Directory Client,
     which is an interface to directory servers via LDAP, CCSO PH/QI,
     or BBDB; and `ldap.el', the LDAP client interface.

   * Fred Fish wrote the support for dumping COFF executable files.

   * Karl Fogel wrote `bookmark.el', which implements named
     placeholders; `mail-hist.el', a history mechanism for outgoing
     mail messages; and `saveplace.el', for preserving point's location
     in files between editing sessions.

   * Gary Foster wrote `crisp.el', the emulation for CRiSP and Brief
     editors; and `scroll-all.el', a mode for scrolling several buffers

   * Noah Friedman wrote `rlogin.el', an interface to Rlogin,
     `type-break.el', which reminds you to take periodic breaks from
     typing, and `eldoc-mode', a mode to show the defined parameters or
     the doc string for the Lisp function near point.

   * Shigeru Fukaya wrote a testsuite for the byte-compiler.

   * Keith Gabryelski wrote `hexl.el', a mode for editing binary files.

   * Kevin Gallagher rewrote and enhanced the EDT emulation, and wrote
     `flow-ctrl.el', a package for coping with unsuppressible XON/XOFF
     flow control.

   * Kevin Gallo added multiple-frame support for Windows NT and wrote
     `w32-win.el', support functions for the MS-Windows window system.

   * Juan Leo'n Lahoz Garci'a wrote `wdired.el', a package for
     performing file operations by directly editing Dired buffers.

   * Howard Gayle wrote much of the C and Lisp code for display tables
     and case tables.  He also wrote `rot13.el', a command to display
     the plain-text form of a buffer encoded with the Caesar cipher;
     `vt100-led.el', a package for controlling the LEDs on
     VT100-compatible terminals; and much of the support for ISO-8859
     European character sets (which includes `iso-ascii.el',
     `iso-insert.el', `iso-swed.el', `iso-syntax.el', `iso-transl.el',
     and `swedish.el').

   * Stephen Gildea made the Emacs quick reference card, and made many
     contributions for `time-stamp.el', a package for maintaining
     last-change time stamps in files.

   * Julien Gilles wrote `gnus-ml.el', a mailing list minor mode for

   * David Gillespie wrote the Common Lisp compatibility packages;
     `Calc', an advanced calculator and mathematical tool, since
     maintained and developed by Jay Belanger; `complete.el', a partial
     completion mechanism; and `edmacro.el', a package for editing
     keyboard macros.

   * Bob Glickstein wrote `sregex.el', a facility for writing regexps
     using a Lisp-like syntax.

   * Boris Goldowsky wrote `avoid.el', a package to keep the mouse
     cursor out of the way of the text cursor; `shadowfile.el', a
     package for keeping identical copies of files in more than one
     place; `format.el', a package for reading and writing files in
     various formats; `enriched.el', a package for saving text
     properties in files; `facemenu.el', a package for specifying
     faces; and `descr-text.el', describing text and character

   * Michelangelo Grigni wrote `ffap.el' which visits a file, taking
     the file name from the buffer.

   * Odd Gripenstam wrote `dcl-mode.el' for editing DCL command files.

   * Michael Gschwind wrote `iso-cvt.el', a package to convert between
     the ISO 8859-1 character set and the notations for non-ASCII
     characters used by TeX and net tradition.

   * Bastien Guerry wrote `gnus-bookmark.el', bookmark support for Gnus;
     as well as contributing to Org mode (q.v.).

   * Henry Guillaume wrote `find-file.el', a package to visit files
     related to the currently visited file.

   * Doug Gwyn wrote the portable `alloca' implementation.

   * Ken'ichi Handa implemented most of the support for international
     character sets, and wrote most of the Emacs 23 font handling code.
     He also wrote `composite.el', which provides a minor mode that
     composes characters automatically when they are displayed;
     `isearch-x.el', a facility for searching non-ASCII text; and
     `ps-bdf.el', a BDF font support for printing non-ASCII text on a
     PostScript printer.  Together with Naoto Takahashi, he wrote
     `quail.el', an input facility for typing non-ASCII text from an
     ASCII keyboard.

   * Jesper Harder wrote `yenc.el', for decoding yenc encoded messages.

   * K. Shane Hartman wrote `chistory.el' and `echistory.el', packages
     for browsing command history lists; `electric.el' and `helper.el',
     which provide an alternative command loop and appropriate help
     facilities; `emacsbug.el', a package for reporting Emacs bugs;
     `picture.el', a mode for editing ASCII pictures; and `view.el', a
     package for perusing files and buffers without editing them.

   * John Heidemann wrote `mouse-copy.el' and `mouse-drag.el', which
     provide alternative mouse-based editing and scrolling features.

   * Jon K Hellan wrote `utf7.el', support for mail-safe transformation
     format of Unicode.

   * Markus Heritsch co-wrote Ada mode.

   * Karl Heuer wrote the original blessmail script, implemented the
     `intangible' text property, and rearranged the structure of the
     `Lisp_Object' type to allow for more data bits.

   * Manabu Higashida ported Emacs to MS-DOS.

   * Anders Holst wrote `hippie-exp.el', a versatile completion and
     expansion package.

   * Tassilo Horn wrote DocView mode, allowing viewing of PDF,
     PostScript and DVI documents.

   * Tom Houlder wrote `mantemp.el', which generates manual C++
     template instantiations.

   * Joakim Hove wrote `html2text.el', a html to plain text converter.

   * Denis Howe wrote `browse-url.el', a package for invoking a WWW
     browser to display a URL.

   * Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen did a major redesign of the Gnus
     news-reader and wrote many of its parts.  Several of these are now
     general components of Emacs: `dns.el' for Domain Name Service
     lookups; `format-spec.el' for formatting arbitrary format strings;
     `netrc.el' for parsing of `.netrc' files; and `time-date.el' for
     general date and time handling.  Components of Gnus have also been
     written by: Nagy Andras, David Blacka, Scott Byer, Kevin Greiner,
     Kai Grossjohann, Joe Hildebrand, Paul Jarc, Sascha Lu"decke, David
     Moore, Jim Radford, Benjamin Rutt, Raymond Scholz, Thomas Steffen,
     Reiner Steib, Didier Verna, Ilja Weis, Katsumi Yamaoka, Teodor
     Zlatanov, and others (*note Contributors: (gnus)Contributors.).

   * Andrew Innes contributed extensively to the MS-Windows support.

   * Seiichiro Inoue improved Emacs's XIM support.

   * Philip Jackson wrote `find-cmd.el', to build a `find' command-line.

   * Ulf Jasper wrote `icalendar.el', a package for converting Emacs
     diary entries to and from the iCalendar format; `newsticker.el',
     an RSS and Atom based Newsticker; and `bubbles.el', a puzzle game.

   * Kyle Jones wrote `life.el', a package to play Conway's "life" game.

   * Terry Jones wrote `shadow.el', a package for finding potential
     load-path problems when some Lisp file "shadows" another.

   * Simon Josefsson wrote `dns-mode.el', an editing mode for Domain
     Name System master files; `dig.el', a Domain Name System interface;
     `flow-fill.el', a package for interpreting RFC2646 formatted text
     in messages; `fringe.el', a package for customizing the fringe;
     `imap.el', an Emacs Lisp library for talking to IMAP servers;
     `password-cache.el', a password reader; `nnimap.el', the IMAP
     back-end for Gnus; `url-imap.el' for the URL library;
     `rfc2104.el', a hashed message authentication facility; the Gnus
     S/MIME and Sieve components; and `tls.el' and `starttls.el' for
     the Transport Layer Security protocol.

   * Arne J/orgensen wrote `latexenc.el', a package to automatically
     guess the correct coding system in LaTeX files.

   * Alexandre Julliard wrote `vc-git.el', support for the Git version
     control system.

   * Tomoji Kagatani implemented `smtpmail.el', used for sending out
     mail with SMTP.

   * Ivan Kanis wrote `vc-hg.el', support for the Mercurial version
     control system.

   * Henry Kautz wrote `bib-mode.el', a mode for maintaining
     bibliography databases compatible with `refer' (the `troff'
     version) and `lookbib', and `refbib.el', a package to convert
     those databases to the format used by the LaTeX text formatting

   * Taichi Kawabata added support for Devanagari script and the Indian

   * Taro Kawagishi implented the MD4 Message Digest Algorithm in Lisp;
     and wrote `ntlm.el' and `sasl-ntlm.el' for NT LanManager
     authentication support.

   * Howard Kaye wrote `sort.el', commands to sort text in Emacs

   * Michael Kifer wrote `ediff', an interactive interface to the
     `diff', `patch', and `merge' programs; and Viper, the newest
     emulation for VI.

   * Richard King wrote the first version of `userlock.el' and
     `filelock.c', which provide simple support for multiple users
     editing the same file.  He also wrote the initial version of
     `uniquify.el', a facility to make buffer names unique by adding
     parts of the file's name to the buffer name.

   * Peter Kleiweg wrote `ps-mode.el', a mode for editing PostScript
     files and running a PostScript interpreter interactively from
     within Emacs.

   * Shuhei Kobayashi wrote `hex-util.el', for operating on hexadecimal
     strings; support for HMAC (Keyed-Hashing for Message
     Authentication); and a Lisp implementation of the SHA1 Secure Hash

   * Pavel Kobyakov wrote `flymake.el', a minor mode for performing
     on-the-fly syntax checking.

   * Larry K. Kolodney wrote `cvtmail.c', a program to convert the mail
     directories used by Gosling Emacs into RMAIL format.

   * David M. Koppelman wrote `hi-lock.el', a minor mode for
     interactive automatic highlighting of parts of the buffer text.

   * Koseki Yoshinori wrote `iimage.el', a minor mode for displaying
     inline images.

   * Robert Krawitz wrote the original `xmenu.c', part of Emacs's pop-up
     menu support.

   * Sebastian Kremer wrote `dired-mode', with contributions by Lawrence
     R. Dodd.  He also wrote `ls-lisp.el', a Lisp emulation of the `ls'
     command for platforms which don't have `ls' as a standard program.

   * Geoff Kuenning and Ken Stevens wrote `ispell.el', a spell-checker

   * David Ka*gedal wrote `tempo.el', providing support for easy
     insertion of boilerplate text and other common constructions.

   * Daniel LaLiberte wrote `edebug.el', a source-level debugger for
     Emacs Lisp; `cl-specs.el', specifications to help `edebug' debug
     code written using David Gillespie's Common Lisp support;
     `cust-print.el', a customizable package for printing lisp objects;
     and `isearch.el', Emacs's incremental search minor mode.  He also
     co-wrote `hideif.el' (q.v.).

   * Vinicius Jose Latorre wrote the Emacs printing facilities, as well
     as `ps-print' (with Jim Thompson, Jacques Duthen, and Kenichi
     Handa), a package for pretty-printing Emacs buffers to PostScript
     printers; `delim-col.el', a package to arrange text into columns;
     `ebnf2ps.el', a package that translates EBNF grammar to a syntactic
     chart that can be printed to a PostScript printer; and
     `whitespace.el', a package that detects and cleans up excess
     whitespace in a file.  The previous version of `whitespace.el',
     used prior to Emacs 23, was written by Rajesh Vaidheeswarran.

   * Frederic Lepied wrote `expand.el', which uses the abbrev mechanism
     for inserting programming constructs.

   * Peter Liljenberg wrote `elint.el', a Lint-style code checker for
     Emacs Lisp programs.

   * Lars Lindberg wrote `msb.el', which provides more flexible menus
     for buffer selection; co-wrote `imenu.el' (q.v.); and rewrote
     `dabbrev.el', originally written by Don Morrison.

   * Anders Lindgren wrote `autorevert.el', a package for automatically
     reverting files visited by Emacs that were changed on disk;
     `cwarn.el', a package to highlight suspicious C and C++
     constructs; and `follow.el', a minor mode to synchronize windows
     that show the same buffer.

   * Thomas Link wrote `filesets.el', a package for handling sets of

   * Juri Linkov wrote `misearch.el', extending isearch to multi-buffer

   * Ka'roly Lo"rentey wrote the "multi-terminal" code, which allows
     Emacs to run on graphical and text-only terminals simultaneously.

   * Martin Lorentzon wrote `vc-annotate.el', support for version
     control annotation.

   * Dave Love wrote much of the code dealing with Unicode support and
     Latin-N unification.  He added support for many coding systems,
     including the various UTF-7 and UTF-16 coding systems.  He also
     wrote `autoarg-mode', a global minor mode whereby digit keys supply
     prefix arguments; `autoarg-kp-mode', which redefines the keypad
     numeric keys to digit arguments; `autoconf.el', a mode for editing
     Autoconf files; `cfengine.el', a mode for editing Cfengine files;
     `elide-head.el', a package for eliding boilerplate text from file
     headers; `hl-line.el', a minor mode for highlighting the line in
     the current window on which point is; `cap-words.el', a minor mode
     for motion in "CapitalizedWordIdentifiers"; `latin1-disp.el', a
     package that lets you display ISO 8859 characters on Latin-1
     terminals by setting up appropriate display tables; `python.el', a
     major mode for the Python programming language; `refill.el', a
     mode for automatic paragraph refilling, akin to typical word
     processors; `smiley.el', a facility for displaying smiley faces;
     `sym-comp.el', a library for performing mode-dependent symbol
     completion; `benchmark.el' for timing code execution; and
     `tool-bar.el', a mode to control the display of the Emacs tool bar.
     With Riccardo Murri he wrote `vc-bzr.el', support for the Bazaar
     version control system.

   * Eric Ludlam wrote the Speedbar package.  He also wrote
     `checkdoc.el', for checking doc strings in Emacs Lisp programs;
     `dframe.el', providing dedicatd frame support modes; and
     `ezimage.el', a generalized way to place images over text.

   * Alan Mackenzie wrote the integrated AWK support in CC Mode, and
     maintained CC Mode from Emacs 22 onwards.

   * Christopher J. Madsen wrote `decipher.el', a package for cracking
     simple substitution ciphers.

   * Neil M. Mager wrote `appt.el', functions to notify users of their
     appointments.  It finds appointments recorded in the diary files
     used by the `calendar' package.

   * Ken Manheimer wrote `allout.el', a mode for manipulating and
     formatting outlines, and `icomplete.el', which provides incremental
     completion feedback in the minibuffer.

   * Bill Mann wrote `perl-mode.el', a mode for editing Perl code.

   * Brian Marick and Daniel LaLiberte wrote `hideif.el', support for
     hiding selected code within C `#ifdef' clauses.

   * Simon Marshall wrote `regexp-opt.el', which generates a regular
     expression from a list of strings; and the fast-lock and lazy-lock
     font-lock support modes.  He also extended `comint.el' and
     `shell.el', originally written by Olin Shivers.

   * Bengt Martensson, Dirk Herrmann, Marc Shapiro, Mike Newton, Aaron
     Larson, and Stefan Schoef, wrote `bibtex.el', a mode for editing
     BibTeX bibliography files.

   * Charlie Martin wrote `autoinsert.el', which provides automatic
     mode-sensitive insertion of text into new files.

   * Yukihiro Matsumoto and Nobuyoshi Nakada wrote Ruby-mode.

   * Thomas May wrote `blackbox.el', a version of the traditional
     blackbox game.

   * Roland McGrath wrote `compile.el' (since updated by Daniel
     Pfeiffer), a package for running compilations in a buffer, and then
     visiting the locations reported in error messages; `etags.el', a
     package for jumping to function definitions and searching or
     replacing in all the files mentioned in a `TAGS' file;
     `find-dired.el', for using `dired' commands on output from the
     `find' program, with Sebastian Kremer; `grep.el' for running the
     `grep' command; `map-ynp.el', a general purpose boolean
     question-asker; `autoload.el', providing semi-automatic
     maintenance of autoload files.

   * Michael McNamara and Wilson Snyder wrote Verilog mode.

   * David Megginson wrote `derived.el', which allows one to define new
     major modes by inheriting key bindings and commands from existing
     major modes.

   * Will Mengarini wrote `repeat.el', a command to repeat the preceding
     command with its arguments.

   * Richard Mlynarik wrote `cl-indent.el', a package for indenting
     Common Lisp code; `ebuff-menu.el', an "electric" browser for
     buffer listings; `ehelp.el', bindings for browsing help screens;
     `rfc822.el', a parser for E-mail addresses in the RFC-822 format,
     used in mail messages and news articles; `terminal.el', a terminal
     emulator for Emacs subprocesses; and `yow.el', an essential

   * Gerd Moellmann was the Emacs maintainer from the beginning of
     Emacs 21 development until the release of 21.1.  He wrote the new
     display engine used from Emacs 21 onwards, and the asynchronous
     timers facility.  He also wrote `ebrowse', the C++ browser;
     `jit-lock.el', the Just-In-Time font-lock support mode;
     `tooltip.el', a package for displaying tooltips; `authors.el', a
     package for maintaining the `AUTHORS' file; and `rx.el', a regular
     expression constructor.

   * Stefan Monnier was the Emacs co-maintainer for Emacs 23.  He added
     support for Arch and Subversion to VC, re-wrote much of the Emacs
     server to use the built-in networking primitives, and re-wrote the
     abbrev and minibuffer completion code for Emacs 23.  He also wrote
     `PCL-CVS', a directory-level front end to the CVS version control
     system; `reveal.el', a minor mode for automatically revealing
     invisible text; `smerge-mode.el', a minor mode for resolving
     `diff3' conflicts; `diff-mode.el', a mode for viewing and editing
     context diffs; `css-mode.el' for Cascading Style Sheets; and
     `bibtex-style.el' for BibTeX Style files.

   * Morioka Tomohiko wrote several packages for MIME support in Gnus
     and elsewhere.

   * Takahashi Naoto co-wrote `quail.el' (q.v.), and wrote `robin.el',
     another input method.

   * Sen Nagata wrote `crm.el', a package for reading multiple strings
     with completion, and `rfc2368.el', support for `mailto:' URLs.

   * Erik Naggum wrote the time-conversion functions.  He also wrote
     `disp-table.el', a package for dealing with display tables;
     `mailheader.el', a package for parsing email headers; and
     `parse-time.el', a package for parsing time strings.

   * Thomas Neumann and Eric Raymond wrote `make-mode.el', a mode for
     editing makefiles.

   * Thien-Thi Nguyen and Dan Nicolaescu wrote `hideshow.el', a minor
     mode for selectively displaying blocks of text.

   * Dan Nicolaescu added support for running Emacs as a daemon.  He
     also wrote `romanian.el', support for editing Romanian text;
     `iris-ansi.el', support for running Emacs on SGI's `xwsh' and
     `winterm' terminal emulators; and `vc-dir.el', displaying the
     status of version-controlled directories.

   * Jurgen Nickelsen wrote `ws-mode.el', providing WordStar emulation.

   * Hrvoje Niksic wrote `savehist.el', for saving the minibuffer
     history between Emacs sessions.

   * Jeff Norden wrote `kermit.el', a package to help the Kermit dialup
     communications program run comfortably in an Emacs shell buffer.

   * Andrew Norman wrote `ange-ftp.el', providing transparent FTP

   * Edward O'Connor wrote `json.el', a file for parsing and generating
     JSON files.

   * Kentaro Ohkouchi created the Emacs icons used beginning with Emacs

   * Alexandre Oliva wrote `gnus-mlspl.el', a group params-based mail
     splitting mechanism.

   * Takaaki Ota wrote `table.el', a package for creating and editing
     embedded text-based tables.

   * Pieter E. J. Pareit wrote `mixal-mode.el', an editing mode for the
     MIX assembly language.

   * David Pearson wrote `quickurl.el', a simple method of inserting a
     URL into the current buffer based on text at point; `5x5.el', a
     game to fill all squares on the field.

   * Jeff Peck wrote `sun.el', key bindings for sunterm keys.

   * Damon Anton Permezel wrote `hanoi.el', an animated demonstration of
     the "Towers of Hanoi" puzzle.

   * William M. Perry wrote `mailcap.el' (with Lars Magne
     Ingebrigtsen), a MIME media types configuration facility;
     `mwheel.el', a package for supporting mouse wheels; co-wrote (with
     Dave Love) `socks.el', a Socks v5 client; and developed the URL

   * Per Persson wrote `gnus-vm.el', the VM interface for Gnus.

   * Jens Petersen wrote `find-func.el', which makes it easy to find
     the source code for an Emacs Lisp function or variable.

   * Daniel Pfeiffer wrote `conf-mode.el', a mode for editing
     configuration files; `copyright.el', a package for updating
     copyright notices in files; `executable.el', a package for
     executing interpreter scripts; `sh-script.el', a mode for editing
     shell scripts; `skeleton.el', implementing a concise language for
     writing statement skeletons; and `two-column.el', a minor mode for
     simultaneous two-column editing.

     Daniel also rewrote `apropos.el' (originally written by Joe Wells),
     for finding commands, functions, and variables matching a regular
     expression; and, together with Jim Blandy, co-authored `wyse50.el',
     support for Wyse 50 terminals.  He also co-wrote `compile.el'
     (q.v.) and `ada-stmt.el'.

   * Richard L. Pieri wrote `pop3.el', a Post Office Protocol (RFC
     1460) interface for Emacs.

   * Fred Pierresteguy and Paul Reilly made Emacs work with X Toolkit

   * Franc,ois Pinard, Greg McGary, and Bruno Haible wrote `po.el',
     support for PO translation files.

   * Christian Plaunt wrote `soundex.el', an implementation of the
     Soundex algorithm for comparing English words by their

   * David Ponce wrote `recentf.el', a package that puts a menu of
     recently visited files in the Emacs menu bar; `ruler-mode.el', a
     minor mode for displaying a ruler in the header line; and
     `tree-widget.el', a package to display hierarchical data

   * Francesco A. Potorti wrote `cmacexp.el', providing a command which
     runs the C preprocessor on a region of a file and displays the
     results.  He also expanded and redesigned the `etags' program.

   * Michael D. Prange and Steven A. Wood wrote `fortran.el', a mode
     for editing Fortran code.

   * Ashwin Ram wrote `refer.el', commands to look up references in
     bibliography files by keyword.

   * Eric S. Raymond wrote `vc.el', an interface to the RCS and SCCS
     source code version control systems, with Paul Eggert; `gud.el', a
     package for running source-level debuggers like GDB and SDB in
     Emacs; `asm-mode.el', a mode for editing assembly language code;
     `AT386.el', terminal support package for IBM's AT keyboards;
     `cookie1.el', support for "fortune-cookie" programs like `yow.el'
     and `spook.el'; `finder.el', a package for finding Emacs Lisp
     packages by keyword and topic; `keyswap.el', code to swap the <BS>
     and <DEL> keys; `loadhist.el', functions for loading and unloading
     Emacs features; `lisp-mnt.el', functions for working with the
     special headers used in Emacs Lisp library files; and code to set
     and make use of the `load-history' lisp variable, which records
     the source file from which each lisp function loaded into Emacs

   * Edward M. Reingold wrote the extensive calendar and diary support,
     with contributions from Stewart Clamen (`cal-mayan.el'), Nachum
     Dershowitz (`cal-hebrew.el'), Paul Eggert (`cal-dst.el'), Steve
     Fisk (`cal-tex.el'), Michael Kifer (`cal-x.el'), Lara Rios
     (`cal-menu.el'), and Denis B. Roegel (`solar.el').  Andy Oram
     contributed to its documentation.  Reingold also contributed to
     `tex-mode.el', a mode for editing TeX files, as did William F.
     Schelter, Dick King, Stephen Gildea, Michael Prange, and Jacob

   * David Reitter wrote `mailclient.el' which can send mail via the
     system's designated mail client.

   * Alex Rezinsky wrote `which-func.el', a mode that shows the name of
     the current function in the mode line.

   * Rob Riepel wrote `tpu-edt.el' and its associated files, providing
     an emulation of the VMS TPU text editor emulating the VMS EDT
     editor, and `vt-control.el', providing some control functions for
     the DEC VT line of terminals.

   * Nick Roberts wrote `gdb-ui.el', the graphical user interface to
     GDB; and `t-mouse.el', mouse support in text terminals.

   * Danny Roozendaal implemented `handwrite.el', which converts text
     into "handwriting."

   * Markus Rost wrote `cus-test.el', a testing framework for customize.

   * Guillermo J. Rozas wrote `scheme.el', a mode for editing Scheme and
     DSSSL code, and `fakemail.c', an interface to the System V mailer.

   * Ivar Rummelhoff wrote `winner.el', which records recent window
     configurations so you can move back to them.

   * Jason Rumney ported the Emacs 21 display engine to MS-Windows, and
     has contributed extensively to the MS-Windows port of Emacs.

   * Wolfgang Rupprecht wrote Emacs 19's floating-point support
     (including `float-sup.el' and `floatfns.c'), and `sup-mouse.el',
     support for the Supdup mouse on lisp machines.

   * Kevin Ryde wrote `info-xref.el', a library for checking references
     in Info files.

   * James B. Salem and Brewster Kahle wrote `completion.el', providing
     dynamic word completion.

   * Masahiko Sato wrote `vip.el', an emulation of the VI editor.

   * Holger Schauer wrote `fortune.el', a package for using fortune in
     message signatures.

   * William Schelter wrote `telnet.el', support for `telnet' sessions
     within Emacs.

   * Ralph Schleicher wrote `battery.el', a package for displaying
     laptop computer battery status, and `info-look.el', a package for
     looking up Info documentation for symbols in the buffer.

   * Michael Schmidt and Tom Perrine wrote `modula2.el', a mode for
     editing Modula-2 code, based on work by Mick Jordan and Peter

   * Ronald S. Schnell wrote `dunnet.el', a text adventure game.

   * Philippe Schnoebelen wrote `gomoku.el', a Go Moku game played
     against Emacs; and `mpuz.el', a multiplication puzzle.

   * Rainer Schoepf contributed to Alpha and OSF1 support.

   * Jan Schormann wrote `solitaire.el', an implementation of the
     Solitaire game.

   * Alex Schroeder wrote `ansi-color.el', a package for translating
     ANSI color escape sequences to Emacs faces; `sql.el', a package
     for interactively running an SQL interpreter in an Emacs buffer;
     `cus-theme.el', an interface for custom themes; `master.el', a
     package for making a buffer `master' over another; and
     `spam-stat.el', for statistical detection of junk email.  He also
     wrote parts of the IRC client ERC (q.v.).

   * Randal Schwartz wrote `pp.el', a pretty-printer for lisp objects.

   * Oliver Seidel wrote `todo-mode.el', a package for maintaining
     `TODO' list files.

   * Manuel Serrano wrote the Flyspell package, which does spell
     checking as you type.

   * Hovav Shacham wrote `windmove.el', a set of commands for selecting
     windows based on their geometrical position on the frame.

   * Stanislav Shalunov wrote `uce.el', for responding to unsolicited
     commercial email.

   * Richard Sharman wrote `hilit-chg.el', which uses colors to show
     recent editing changes.

   * Olin Shivers wrote `comint.el', a library for modes running
     interactive command-line-oriented subprocesses, and `shell.el', for
     running inferior shells (both since extended by Simon Marshall);
     `cmuscheme.el', for running inferior Scheme processes;
     `inf-lisp.el', for running inferior Lisp process.

   * Espen Skoglund wrote `pascal.el', a mode for editing Pascal code.

   * Rick Sladkey wrote `backquote.el', a lisp macro for creating
     mostly-constant data.

   * Lynn Slater wrote `help-macro.el', a macro for writing interactive
     help for key bindings.

   * Chris Smith wrote `icon.el', a mode for editing Icon code.

   * David Smith wrote `ielm.el', a mode for interacting with the Emacs
     Lisp interpreter as a subprocess.

   * Paul D. Smith wrote `snmp-mode.el'.

   * William Sommerfeld wrote `scribe.el', a mode for editing Scribe
     files, and `server.el', a package allowing programs to send files
     to an extant Emacs job to be edited.

   * Andre Spiegel made many contributions to the Emacs Version Control
     package, and in particular made it support multiple back ends.

   * Michael Staats wrote `pc-select.el', which rebinds keys for
     selecting regions to follow many other systems.

   * Richard Stallman invented Emacs.  He is the original author of GNU
     Emacs, and has been Emacs maintainer over several non-contiguous
     periods.  In addition to much of the "core" Emacs code, he has
     written `easymenu.el', a facility for defining Emacs menus;
     `image-mode.el', support for visiting image files; `menu-bar.el',
     the Emacs menu bar support code; `paren.el', a package to make
     matching parentheses stand out in color; and also co-authored
     portions of CC mode.

   * Sam Steingold wrote `gulp.el', a facility for asking package
     maintainers for updated versions of their packages via e-mail, and
     `midnight.el', a package for running a command every midnight.

   * Ake Stenhoff and Lars Lindberg wrote `imenu.el', a framework for
     browsing indices made from buffer contents.

   * Peter Stephenson wrote `vcursor.el', which implements a "virtual
     cursor" that you can move with the keyboard and use for copying

   * Ken Stevens wrote the initial version of `ispell.el' and maintains
     that package since Ispell 3.1 release.

   * Kim F. Storm made many improvements to the Emacs display engine,
     process support, and networking support. He also wrote
     `bindat.el', a package for encoding and decoding binary data; CUA
     mode, which allows Emacs to emulate the standard CUA key bindings;
     `ido.el', a package for selecting buffers and files quickly;
     `keypad.el' for simplified keypad bindings; and `kmacro.el', the
     keyboard macro facility.

   * Martin Stjernholm co-authored CC Mode, a major editing mode for C,
     C++, Objective-C, Java, Pike, CORBA IDL, and AWK code.

   * Steve Strassman did not write `spook.el', and even if he did, he
     really didn't mean for you to use it in an anarchistic way.

   * Olaf Sylvester wrote `bs.el', a package for manipulating Emacs

   * Tibor S<imko and Milan Zamazal wrote `slovak.el', support for
     editing text in Slovak language.

   * Luc Teirlinck wrote `help-at-pt.el', providing local help through
     the keyboard.

   * Jean-Philippe Theberge wrote `thumbs.el', a package for viewing
     image files as "thumbnails."

   * Spencer Thomas wrote the original `dabbrev.el', providing a command
     which completes the partial word before point, based on other
     nearby words for which it is a prefix.  He also wrote the original
     dumping support.

   * Toru Tomabechi contributed to Tibetan support.

   * Markus Triska wrote `linum.el', a minor mode that displays line
     numbers in the left margin.

   * Tom Tromey and Chris Lindblad wrote `tcl.el', a mode for editing
     Tcl/Tk source files and running a Tcl interpreter as an Emacs

   * Tom Tromey wrote `bug-reference.el', providing clickable links to
     bug reports.

   * Eli Tziperman wrote `rmail-spam-filter.el', a spam filter for

   * Daiki Ueno wrote `starttls.el', support for Transport Layer
     Security protocol; `sasl-cram.el' and `sasl-digest.el' (with
     Kenichi Okada), and `sasl.el', support for Simple Authentication
     and Security Layer (SASL); and the EasyPG (and its predecessor PGG)
     package, for GnuPG and PGP support.

   * Masanobu Umeda wrote GNUS, a feature-rich reader for Usenet news
     that was the ancestor of the current Gnus package.  He also wrote
     `prolog.el', a mode for editing Prolog code; `rmailsort.el', a
     package for sorting messages in RMAIL folders; `metamail.el', an
     interface to the Metamail program; `gnus-kill.el', the Kill File
     mode for Gnus; `gnus-mh.el', an mh-e interface for Gnus;
     `gnus-msg.el', a mail and post interface for Gnus; and
     `timezone.el', providing functions for dealing with time zones.

   * Neil W. Van Dyke wrote `webjump.el', a "hot links" package.

   * Didier Verna wrote `rect.el', a package of functions for
     operations on rectangle regions of text.  He also contributed to
     Gnus (q.v.).

   * Ulrik Vieth implemented `meta-mode.el', for editing MetaFont code.

   * Geoffrey Voelker wrote the Windows NT support.  He also wrote
     `dos-w32.el', functions shared by the MS-DOS and MS-Windows ports
     of Emacs, and `w32-fns.el', MS-Windows specific support functions.

   * Johan Vromans wrote `forms.el' and its associated files, a mode for
     filling in forms.  He also wrote `iso-acc.el', a minor mode
     providing electric accent keys.

   * Colin Walters wrote Ibuffer, an enhanced buffer menu.

   * Barry Warsaw wrote `assoc.el', a set of utility functions for
     working with association lists; `cc-mode.el', a mode for editing
     C, C++, and Java code, based on earlier work by Dave Detlefs,
     Stewart Clamen, and Richard Stallman; `elp.el', a profiler for
     Emacs Lisp programs; `man.el', a mode for reading UNIX manual
     pages; `regi.el', providing an AWK-like functionality for use in
     lisp programs; `reporter.el', providing customizable bug reporting
     for lisp packages; and `supercite.el', a minor mode for quoting
     sections of mail messages and news articles.

   * Christoph Wedler wrote `antlr-mode.el', a major mode for ANTLR
     grammar files.

   * Morten Welinder helped port Emacs to MS-DOS, and introduced face
     support into the MS-DOS port of Emacs.  He also wrote
     `desktop.el', facilities for saving some of Emacs's state between
     sessions; `timer.el', the Emacs facility to run commands at a
     given time or frequency, or when Emacs is idle, and its C-level
     support code; `pc-win.el', the MS-DOS "window-system" support;
     `internal.el', an "internal terminal" emulator for the MS-DOS port
     of Emacs; `arc-mode.el', the mode for editing compressed archives;
     `s-region.el', commands for setting the region using the shift key
     and motion commands; and `dos-fns.el', functions for use under

   * Joe Wells wrote the original version of `apropos.el' (q.v.);
     `resume.el', support for processing command-line arguments after
     resuming a suspended Emacs job; and `mail-extr.el', a package for
     extracting names and addresses from mail headers, with
     contributions from Jamie Zawinski.

   * Rodney Whitby and Reto Zimmermann wrote `vhdl-mode.el', a major
     mode for editing VHDL source code.

   * John Wiegley wrote `align.el', a set of commands for aligning text
     according to regular-expression based rules; `isearchb.el' for fast
     buffer switching; `timeclock.el', a package for keeping track of
     time spent on projects; the Baha'i calendar support;
     `pcomplete.el', a programmable completion facility; `remember.el',
     a mode for jotting down things to remember; `eudcb-mab.el', an
     address book backend for the Emacs Unified Directory Client; and
     `eshell', a command shell implemented entirely in Emacs Lisp.  He
     also contributed to Org mode (q.v.).

   * Ed Wilkinson wrote `b2m.c', a program to convert mail files from
     RMAIL format to Unix `mbox' format.

   * Mike Williams wrote `mouse-sel.el', providing enhanced mouse
     selection; and `thingatpt.el', a library of functions for finding
     the "thing" (word, line, s-expression) containing point.

   * Roland Winkler wrote `proced.el', a system process editor.

   * Bill Wohler wrote MH-E, the Emacs interface to the MH mail system;
     making use of earlier work by James R. Larus.  Satyaki Das, Peter
     S.  Galbraith, Stephen Gildea, and Jeffrey C. Honig also wrote
     various MH-E components.

   * Dale R. Worley wrote `emerge.el', a package for interactively
     merging two versions of a file.

   * Francis J. Wright wrote `woman.el', a package for browsing manual
     pages without the `man' command.

   * Tom Wurgler wrote `emacs-lock.el', which makes it harder to exit
     with valuable buffers unsaved.

   * Masatake Yamato wrote `ld-script.el', an editing mode for GNU
     linker scripts, and contributed subword handling in CC mode.

   * Jonathan Yavner wrote `testcover.el', a package for keeping track
     of the testing status of Emacs Lisp code; `unsafep.el' to determine
     if a Lisp form is safe; and the SES spreadsheet package.

   * Ryan Yeske wrote `rcirc.el' a simple Internet Relay Chat client.

   * Ilya Zakharevich and Bob Olson wrote `cperl-mode.el', a major mode
     for editing Perl code.  Ilya Zakharevich also wrote `tmm.el', a
     mode for accessing the Emacs menu bar on a text-mode terminal.

   * Milan Zamazal wrote `czech.el', support for editing Czech text;
     `glasses.el', a package for easier reading of source code that
     uses illegible identifier names; and `tildify.el', commands for
     adding hard spaces to text, TeX, and SGML/HTML files.

   * Victor Zandy wrote `zone.el', a package for people who like to
     zone out in front of Emacs.

   * Eli Zaretskii made many standard Emacs features work on MS-DOS and
     Microsoft Windows.  He also wrote `tty-colors.el', which
     implements transparent mapping of X colors to tty colors; and

   * Jamie Zawinski wrote much of the support for faces and X
     selections.  With Hallvard Furuseth, he wrote the optimizing byte
     compiler used from Emacs 19 onwards.  He also wrote
     `mailabbrev.el', a package that provides automatic expansion of
     mail aliases, and `tar-mode.el', which provides simple viewing and
     editing commands for tar files.

   * Andrew Zhilin created the Emacs 22 icons.

   * Shenghuo Zhu wrote `binhex.el', a package for reading and writing
     binhex files; `mm-partial.el', message/partial support for MIME
     messages; `rfc1843.el', an HZ decoding package; `uudecode.el', an
     Emacs Lisp decoder for uuencoded data; and `webmail.el', an
     interface to Web mail.  He also wrote several other Gnus

   * Ian T. Zimmerman wrote `gametree.el'.

   * Reto Zimmermann wrote `vera-mode.el'.

   * Neal Ziring and Felix S. T. Wu wrote `vi.el', an emulation of the
     VI text editor.

   * Detlev Zundel wrote `re-builder.el', a package for building regexps
     with visual feedback.

File: emacs,  Node: Screen,  Next: User Input,  Prev: Acknowledgments,  Up: Top

1 The Organization of the Screen

On a text-only terminal, the Emacs display occupies the entire terminal
screen.  On a graphical display, such as on GNU/Linux using the X
Window System, Emacs creates its own windows to use.  We use the term
"frame" to mean the entire terminal screen or graphical window used by
Emacs.  Emacs uses both kinds of frames, in the same way, to display
your editing.  Emacs normally starts out with just one frame, but you
can create additional frames if you wish (*note Frames::).

   The frame consists of several distinct regions.  At the top of the
frame is a "menu bar", which allows you to access commands via a series
of menus.  On a graphical display, directly below the menu bar is a
"tool bar", a row of icons that perform editing commands if you click
on them.  At the very bottom of the frame is a special "echo area",
where short informative messages are displayed and where you enter
information when Emacs asks for it.

   The main area of the frame, below the tool bar (if one exists) and
above the echo area, is called "the window".  This is where Emacs
displays the "buffer": the text that you are editing.  On a graphical
display, the window possesses a "scroll bar" on one side, which you can
use to display different parts of the buffer in the window.  The last
line of the window is a "mode line".  This displays various information
about what is going on in the buffer, such as whether there are unsaved
changes, the editing modes that are in use, the current line number,
and so forth.

   When you start Emacs, there is normally only one window in the
frame.  However, you can subdivide this window horizontally or
vertically to create multiple windows, each of which can independently
display a buffer (*note Windows::).  In this manual, the word "window"
refers to the initial large window if not subdivided, or any one of the
multiple windows you have subdivided it into.

   At any time, one window is the "selected window".  On graphical
displays, the selected window normally shows a more prominent cursor
(usually solid and blinking) while other windows show a weaker cursor
(such as a hollow box).  Text terminals have just one cursor, so it
always appears in the selected window.  The buffer displayed in the
selected window is called the "current buffer", and it is where editing
happens.  Most Emacs commands implicitly apply to the current buffer;
the text displayed in unselected windows is mostly visible for
reference.  If you use multiple frames on a graphical display,
selecting a particular frame selects a window in that frame.

* Menu:

* Point::	        The place in the text where editing commands operate.
* Echo Area::           Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
* Mode Line::	        Interpreting the mode line.
* Menu Bar::            How to use the menu bar.

File: emacs,  Node: Point,  Next: Echo Area,  Up: Screen

1.1 Point

The active cursor shows the location at which editing commands will
take effect, which is called "point"(1).  Many Emacs commands move
point to different places in the buffer; for example, you can place
point by clicking mouse button 1 (normally the left button) at the
desired location.

   While the cursor appears to be _on_ a character, you should think of
point as _between_ two characters; it points _before_ the character
that appears under the cursor.  For example, if your text looks like
`frob' with the cursor over the `b', then point is between the `o' and
the `b'.  If you insert the character `!' at that position, the result
is `fro!b', with point between the `!' and the `b'.  Thus, the cursor
remains over the `b', as before.

   Sometimes people speak of "the cursor" when they mean "point," or
speak of commands that move point as "cursor motion" commands.

   If you are editing several files in Emacs, each in its own buffer,
each buffer has its own point location.  A buffer that is not currently
displayed remembers its point location in case you display it again
later.  When Emacs displays multiple windows, each window has its own
point location.  If the same buffer appears in more than one window,
each window has its own point position in that buffer.

   On a graphical display, Emacs shows a cursor in each window; the
selected window's cursor is solid and blinking, and the other cursors
are hollow.  On a text-only terminal, there is just one cursor, in the
selected window; even though the unselected windows have their own
point positions, they do not display a cursor.  *Note Cursor Display::,
for customizable variables that control cursor display.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The term "point" comes from the character `.', which was the
command in TECO (the language in which the original Emacs was written)
for accessing the value now called "point."

File: emacs,  Node: Echo Area,  Next: Mode Line,  Prev: Point,  Up: Screen

1.2 The Echo Area

The line at the very bottom of the frame is the "echo area".  It is
used to display small amounts of text for various purposes.

   "Echoing" means displaying the characters that you type.
Single-character commands, including most simple editing operations,
are not echoed.  Multi-character commands are echoed if you pause while
typing them: if you pause for more than a second in the middle of a
command, Emacs echoes all the characters of the command so far, to
prompt you for the rest of the command.  The echoed characters are
displayed in the echo area.  Once echoing has started, the rest of the
command echoes immediately as you type it.  This behavior is designed
to give confident users fast response, while giving hesitant users
maximum feedback.  *Note Display Custom::.

   If a command cannot do its job, it may display an "error message".
Error messages are also displayed in the echo area.  They may be
accompanied by beeping or by flashing the screen.

   Some commands display informative messages in the echo area.  Unlike
error messages, these messages are not announced with a beep or flash.
Sometimes the message tells you what the command has done, when this is
not obvious from looking at the text being edited.  Other times, the
sole purpose of a command is to show you a message giving you specific
information.  For example, `C-x =' (hold down <CTRL> and type `x', then
let go of <CTRL> and type `=') displays a message describing the
character position of point in the text and its current column in the
window.  Commands that take a long time often display messages ending
in `...' while they are working, and add `done' at the end when they
are finished.  They may also indicate progress with percentages.

   Informative echo-area messages are saved in a special buffer named
`*Messages*'.  (We have not explained buffers yet; see *note Buffers::,
for more information about them.)  If you miss a message that appeared
briefly on the screen, you can switch to the `*Messages*' buffer to see
it again.  The `*Messages*' buffer is limited to a certain number of
lines, specified by the variable `message-log-max'.  (We have not
explained variables either; see *note Variables::, for more information
about them.)  Beyond this limit, one line is deleted from the beginning
whenever a new message line is added at the end.

   The echo area is also used to display the "minibuffer", a special
window where you can input arguments to commands, such as the name of a
file to be edited.  When the minibuffer is in use, the text displayed
in the echo area begins with a "prompt string" (usually ending with a
colon); also, the active cursor appears within the minibuffer, which is
temporarily considered the selected window.  You can always get out of
the minibuffer by typing `C-g'.  *Note Minibuffer::.

File: emacs,  Node: Mode Line,  Next: Menu Bar,  Prev: Echo Area,  Up: Screen

1.3 The Mode Line

At the bottom of each window is a "mode line", which describes what is
going on in the current buffer.  When there is only one window, the
mode line appears right above the echo area; it is the next-to-last
line in the frame.  On a graphical display, the mode line is drawn with
a 3D box appearance, and the mode line of the selected window has a
brighter color than that of unselected windows to make it stand out.
On a text-only terminal, the mode line is usually drawn in inverse

   The text displayed in the mode line has the following format:

     -CS:CH-FR  BUF      POS LINE   (MAJOR MINOR)------

The CS string and the colon character after it describe the character
set and newline convention used for the current buffer.  Normally,
Emacs handles these settings intelligently, but it is sometimes useful
to have this information.

   CS describes the character set of the buffer (*note Coding
Systems::).  If it is a dash (`-'), that indicates the default state of
affairs: no special character set handling, except for the end-of-line
translations described in the next paragraph.  `=' means no conversion
whatsoever.  Letters represent various nontrivial "coding systems"--for
example, `1' represents ISO Latin-1.  On a text-only terminal, CS is
preceded by two additional characters that describe the coding system
for keyboard input and the coding system for terminal output.
Furthermore, if you are using an input method, CS is preceded by a
string that identifies the input method, which takes the form `I>',
`I+', or `I@' (*note Input Methods::).

   The character after CS is usually a colon.  However, under some
circumstances a different string is displayed, which indicates a
nontrivial end-of-line convention.  Usually, lines of text are
separated by "newline characters", but two other conventions are
sometimes used.  The MS-DOS convention is to use a "carriage-return"
character followed by a "linefeed" character; when editing such files,
the colon changes to either a backslash (`\') or `(DOS)', depending on
the operating system.  The Macintosh end-of-line convention is to use a
"carriage-return" character instead of a newline; when editing such
files, the colon indicator changes to either a forward slash (`/') or
`(Mac)'.  On some systems, Emacs displays `(Unix)' instead of the colon
for files that use newline as the line separator.

   The next element on the mode line is the string indicated by CH.
This shows two dashes (`--') if the buffer displayed in the window has
the same contents as the corresponding file on the disk; i.e., if the
buffer is "unmodified".  If the buffer is modified, it shows two stars
(`**').  For a read-only buffer, it shows `%*' if the buffer is
modified, and `%%' otherwise.

   The character after CH is normally a dash (`-').  However, if the
default-directory for the current buffer is on a remote machine, `@' is
displayed instead (*note File Names::).

   FR gives the selected frame name (*note Frames::).  It appears only
on text-only terminals.  The initial frame's name is `F1'.

   BUF is the name of the buffer displayed in the window.  Usually,
this is the same as the name of a file you are editing.  *Note

   POS tells you whether there is additional text above the top of the
window, or below the bottom.  If your buffer is small and it is all
visible in the window, POS is `All'.  Otherwise, it is `Top' if you are
looking at the beginning of the buffer, `Bot' if you are looking at the
end of the buffer, or `NN%', where NN is the percentage of the buffer
above the top of the window.  With Size Indication mode, you can
display the size of the buffer as well.  *Note Optional Mode Line::.

   LINE is the character `L' followed by the line number at point.
(You can display the current column number too, by turning on Column
Number mode.  *Note Optional Mode Line::.)

   MAJOR is the name of the "major mode" used in the buffer.  A major
mode is a principal editing mode for the buffer, such as Text mode,
Lisp mode, C mode, and so forth.  *Note Major Modes::.

   Some major modes display additional information after the major mode
name.  For example, Rmail buffers display the current message number and
the total number of messages.  Compilation buffers and Shell buffers
display the status of the subprocess.

   MINOR is a list of some of the "minor modes" turned on in the
buffer.  Minor modes are optional editing modes that provide additional
features on top of the major mode.  *Note Minor Modes::.

   Some features are listed together with the minor modes whenever they
are turned on, even through they are not really minor modes.  `Narrow'
means that the buffer being displayed has editing restricted to only a
portion of its text (*note Narrowing::).  `Def' means that a keyboard
macro is currently being defined (*note Keyboard Macros::).

   In addition, if Emacs is inside a recursive editing level, square
brackets (`[...]') appear around the parentheses that surround the
modes.  If Emacs is in one recursive editing level within another,
double square brackets appear, and so on.  Since recursive editing
levels affect Emacs globally, not just one buffer, the square brackets
appear in every window's mode line or not in any of them.  *Note
Recursive Edit::.

   You can change the appearance of the mode line as well as the format
of its contents.  *Note Optional Mode Line::.  In addition, the mode
line is mouse-sensitive; clicking on different parts of the mode line
performs various commands.  *Note Mode Line Mouse::.

File: emacs,  Node: Menu Bar,  Prev: Mode Line,  Up: Screen

1.4 The Menu Bar

Each Emacs frame normally has a "menu bar" at the top which you can use
to perform common operations.  There's no need to list them here, as
you can more easily see them yourself.

   On a graphical display, you can use the mouse to choose a command
from the menu bar.  A right-arrow at the end of a menu item means it
leads to a subsidiary menu, or "submenu".  A `...' at the end of a menu
item means that the command invoked will prompt you for further input
before it actually does anything.

   Some of the commands in the menu bar have ordinary key bindings as
well; if so, a key binding is shown in parentheses after the item
itself.  To view the full command name and documentation for a menu
item, type `C-h k', and then select the menu bar with the mouse in the
usual way (*note Key Help::).

   Instead of using the mouse, you can also invoke the first menu bar
item by pressing <F10> (to run the command `menu-bar-open').  You can
then navigate the menus with the arrow keys.  To activate a selected
menu item, press <RET>; to cancel menu navigation, press <ESC>.

   On text-only terminals with no mouse, you can use the menu bar by
typing `M-`' or <F10> (these run the command `tmm-menubar').  This lets
you select a menu item with the keyboard.  A provisional choice appears
in the echo area.  You can use the up and down arrow keys to move
through the menu to different items, and then you can type <RET> to
select the item.

   Each menu item also has an assigned letter or digit which designates
that item; it is usually the initial of some word in the item's name.
This letter or digit is separated from the item name by `=>'.  You can
type the item's letter or digit to select the item.

File: emacs,  Node: User Input,  Next: Keys,  Prev: Screen,  Up: Top

2 Kinds of User Input

GNU Emacs is primarily designed for use with the keyboard.  While it is
possible to use the mouse to issue editing commands through the menu
bar and tool bar, that is not as efficient as using the keyboard.
Therefore, this manual mainly documents how to edit with the keyboard.

   Keyboard input into Emacs is based on a heavily-extended version of
ASCII.  The simplest characters that you can input into Emacs
correspond to graphic symbols such as `a', `B', `3', `=', the space
character (conventionally denoted as <SPC>), and so on.  Entering these
using the keyboard is straightforward.  Certain characters found on
non-English keyboards also fall into this category (*note

   In addition to these simple characters, Emacs recognizes "control
characters" such as <RET>, <TAB>, <DEL>, <ESC>, <F1>, <Home>, <left>,
etc.  Most keyboards have special keys for entering these.

   Emacs also recognizes control characters that are entered using
"modifier keys".  Two commonly-used modifier keys are <Control> (which
is usually labelled as <Ctrl>), and <Meta> (which is usually labeled as
<Alt>)(1).  For example, `Control-a' is entered by holding down the
<Ctrl> key while pressing `a'; we will refer to this as `C-a' for short.
Similarly `Meta-a', or `M-a' for short, is entered by holding down the
<Alt> key and pressing `a'.

   You can also type Meta characters using two-character sequences
starting with <ESC>.  Thus, you can enter `M-a' by typing `<ESC> a'.
You can enter `C-M-a' by typing `<ESC> C-a'.  Unlike <Meta>, <ESC> is
entered as a separate character.  You don't hold down <ESC> while
typing the next character; instead, press <ESC> and release it, then
enter the next character.  This feature is useful on certain text-only
terminals where the <Meta> key does not function reliably.

   Modifier keys can apply not only to alphanumerical characters, but
also to special input characters, such as the arrow keys and mouse

   *Note Input Events: (elisp)Input Events, for the full Lisp-level
details about keyboard and mouse input, which are collectively referred
to as "input events".  If you are not doing Lisp programming, but
simply want to redefine the meaning of some characters or non-character
events, see *note Customization::.

   On graphical displays, the window manager is likely to block the
character `M-<TAB>' before Emacs can see it.  It may also block
`M-<SPC>', `C-M-d' and `C-M-l'.  If you have these problems, we
recommend that you customize your window manager to turn off those
commands, or put them on key combinations that Emacs does not use.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) We refer to <Alt> as <Meta> for historical reasons.

File: emacs,  Node: Keys,  Next: Commands,  Prev: User Input,  Up: Top

3 Keys

Some Emacs commands are invoked by just one input event; for example,
`C-f' moves forward one character in the buffer.  But Emacs also has
commands that take two or more input events to invoke, such as `C-x
C-f' and `C-x 4 C-f'.

   A "key sequence", or "key" for short, is a sequence of one or more
input events that is meaningful as a unit.  If a key sequence invokes a
command, we call it a "complete key"; for example, `C-f', `C-x C-f' and
`C-x 4 C-f' are all complete keys.  If a key sequence isn't long enough
to invoke a command, we call it a "prefix key"; from the preceding
example, we see that `C-x' and `C-x 4' are prefix keys.  Every key is
either a complete key or a prefix key.

   A prefix key combines with the following input event to make a
longer key sequence, which may itself be complete or a prefix.  For
example, `C-x' is a prefix key, so `C-x' and the next input event
combine to make a two-event key sequence.  This two-event key sequence
could itself be a prefix key (such as `C-x 4'), or a complete key (such
as `C-x C-f').  There is no limit to the length of a key sequence, but
in practice people rarely use sequences longer than three or four input

   You can't add input events onto a complete key.  For example, the
two-event sequence `C-f C-k' is not a key, because the `C-f' is a
complete key in itself, so `C-f C-k' cannot have an independent meaning
as a command.  `C-f C-k' is two key sequences, not one.

   By default, the prefix keys in Emacs are `C-c', `C-h', `C-x', `C-x
<RET>', `C-x @', `C-x a', `C-x n', `C-x r', `C-x v', `C-x 4', `C-x 5',
`C-x 6', <ESC>, `M-g', and `M-o'.  (<F1> and <F2> are aliases for `C-h'
and `C-x 6'.)  This list is not cast in stone; if you customize Emacs,
you can make new prefix keys.  You could even eliminate some of the
standard ones, though this is not recommended for most users; for
example, if you remove the prefix definition of `C-x 4', then `C-x 4
ANYTHING' would become an invalid key sequence.  *Note Key Bindings::.

   Typing the help character (`C-h' or <F1>) after a prefix key
displays a list of the commands starting with that prefix.  The sole
exception to this rule is <ESC>: `<ESC>C-h' is equivalent to `C-M-h',
which does something else entirely.  You can, however, use <F1> to
displays a list of the commands starting with <ESC>.

File: emacs,  Node: Commands,  Next: Entering Emacs,  Prev: Keys,  Up: Top

4 Keys and Commands

This manual is full of passages that tell you what particular keys do.
But Emacs does not assign meanings to keys directly.  Instead, Emacs
assigns meanings to named "commands", and then gives keys their
meanings by "binding" them to commands.

   Every command has a name chosen by a programmer.  The name is
usually made of a few English words separated by dashes; for example,
`next-line' or `forward-word'.  A command also has a "function
definition" which is a Lisp program; this is how the command does its
work.  In Emacs Lisp, a command is a Lisp function with special
properties that make it suitable for interactive use.  For more
information on commands and functions, see *note What Is a Function:
(elisp)What Is a Function.

   The bindings between keys and commands are recorded in tables called
"keymaps".  *Note Keymaps::.

   When we say that "`C-n' moves down vertically one line" we are
glossing over a subtle distinction that is irrelevant in ordinary use,
but vital for Emacs customization.  The command `next-line' does a
vertical move downward.  `C-n' has this effect _because_ it is bound to
`next-line'.  If you rebind `C-n' to the command `forward-word', `C-n'
will move forward one word instead.

   In this manual, we will often speak of keys like `C-n' as commands,
even though strictly speaking the key is bound to a command.  Usually
we state the name of the command which really does the work in
parentheses after mentioning the key that runs it.  For example, we
will say that "The command `C-n' (`next-line') moves point vertically
down," meaning that the command `next-line' moves vertically down, and
the key `C-n' is normally bound to it.

   Since we are discussing customization, we should tell you about
"variables".  Often the description of a command will say, "To change
this, set the variable `mumble-foo'."  A variable is a name used to
store a value.  Most of the variables documented in this manual are
meant for customization: some command or other part of Emacs examines
the variable and behaves differently according to the value that you
set.  You can ignore the information about variables until you are
interested in customizing them.  Then read the basic information on
variables (*note Variables::) and the information about specific
variables will make sense.

File: emacs,  Node: Entering Emacs,  Next: Exiting,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Top

5 Entering Emacs

The usual way to invoke Emacs is with the shell command `emacs'.  From
a terminal window running in the X Window System, you can also run
Emacs in the background with `emacs&'; this way, Emacs won't tie up the
terminal window, so you can use it to run other shell commands.

   When Emacs starts up, the initial frame displays a special buffer
named `*GNU Emacs*'.  This buffer contains some information about
Emacs, and includes "links" to common tasks that might be useful to
beginning users.  For instance, activating the `Emacs Tutorial' link
opens the Emacs tutorial; this does the same thing as the command `C-h
t' (`help-with-tutorial').  To activate a link, either move point onto
it and type `<RET>', or click on it with `mouse-1' (the left mouse

   Using a command line argument, you can tell Emacs to visit one or
more specific files as soon as it starts up.  For example, `emacs
foo.txt' starts Emacs with a buffer displaying the contents of the file
`foo.txt'.  This feature exists mainly for compatibility with other
editors, which are designed to edit one file at a time: once you are
done with that file, you exit the editor, and start it again the next
time you need it.

   Using Emacs in this way--starting it afresh each time you want to
edit a file--is unnecessary and wasteful.  Emacs can visit more than
one file in a single editing session, and exiting the Emacs session
loses valuable accumulated context, such as the kill ring, registers,
undo history, and mark ring.  These features, described later in the
manual, are useful for performing edits across multiple files, or
continuing edits to a single file.

   The recommended way to use Emacs is to start it only once, just
after you log in, and do all your editing in the same Emacs session.
Each time you edit a file, visit it with the existing Emacs, which
eventually has many files in it ready for editing.  *Note Files::, for
more information on visiting more than one file.

   To edit a file from another program while Emacs is running, you can
use the `emacsclient' helper program to open a file in the already
running Emacs.  *Note Emacs Server::.

   Emacs accepts other command line arguments that tell it to load
certain Lisp files, call certain functions, and so forth.  These
features exist mainly for advanced users.  *Note Emacs Invocation::.

   If the variable `inhibit-startup-screen' is non-`nil', Emacs does
not display the startup screen.  In that case, if one or more files
were specified on the command line, Emacs simply displays those files;
otherwise, it displays a buffer named `*scratch*', which can be used to
evaluate Emacs Lisp expressions interactively.  *Note Lisp
Interaction::.  You can set the variable `inhibit-startup-screen' using
the Customize facility (*note Easy Customization::), or by editing your
initialization file (*note Init File::).(1)

   You can also force Emacs to display a file or directory at startup
by setting the variable `initial-buffer-choice' to a non-`nil' value.
(In that case, even if you specify one or more files on the command
line, Emacs opens but does not display them.)  The value of
`initial-buffer-choice' can be either the name of the desired file or
directory, or `t', which means to display the `*scratch*' buffer.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Note that setting `inhibit-startup-screen' in `site-start.el'
doesn't work, because the startup screen is set up before reading
`site-start.el'.  *Note Init File::, for information about

File: emacs,  Node: Exiting,  Next: Basic,  Prev: Entering Emacs,  Up: Top

6 Exiting Emacs

`C-x C-c'
     Kill Emacs (`save-buffers-kill-terminal').

     On a text terminal, suspend Emacs (`suspend-emacs'); on a
     graphical display, iconify (or "minimize") the selected frame

   "Killing" Emacs means terminating the Emacs program.  To do this,
type `C-x C-c' (`save-buffers-kill-terminal').  A two-character key is
used to make it harder to type by accident.  If there are any modified
file-visiting buffers when you type `C-x C-c', Emacs first offers to
save these buffers.  If you do not save them all, it asks for
confirmation again, since the unsaved changes will be lost.  Emacs also
asks for confirmation if any subprocesses are still running, since
killing Emacs will also kill the subprocesses (*note Shell::).

   `C-x C-c' behaves specially if you are using Emacs as a server.  If
you type it from a "client frame", it closes the client connection.
*Note Emacs Server::.

   Emacs can, optionally, record certain session information when you
kill it, such as the files you were visiting at the time.  This
information is then available the next time you start Emacs.  *Note
Saving Emacs Sessions::.

   If the value of the variable `confirm-kill-emacs' is non-`nil', `C-x
C-c' assumes that its value is a predicate function, and calls that
function.  If the result of the function call is non-`nil', the session
is killed, otherwise Emacs continues to run.  One convenient function
to use as the value of `confirm-kill-emacs' is the function
`yes-or-no-p'.  The default value of `confirm-kill-emacs' is `nil'.

   To kill Emacs without being prompted about saving, type `M-x

   You can "exit" Emacs in two other ways.  On a graphical display, you
can "iconify" (or "minimize") an Emacs frame; depending on the window
system, this either replaces the Emacs frame with a tiny "icon" or
conceals the frame entirely (*note Frames::).  On a text-only terminal,
you can "suspend" Emacs; this means stopping the Emacs program
temporarily, returning control to its parent process (usually a shell).

   On a graphical display, `C-z' runs the command
`iconify-or-deiconify-frame', which iconifies the selected Emacs frame.
On a text terminal, `C-z' runs the command `suspend-emacs', which
suspends Emacs.

   After iconifying or suspending Emacs, you can return to it and
continue editing wherever you left off.  The way to do this depends on
the window system or shell.  In most common shells, you can resume
Emacs after suspending it with the shell command `%emacs'.

   On very old systems that don't support suspending programs, `C-z'
starts an inferior shell that communicates directly with the terminal,
and Emacs waits until you exit the subshell.  (The way to exit the
subshell is usually `C-d' or `exit'.)  On these systems, you can only
get back to the shell from which Emacs was run (to log out, for
example) when you kill Emacs.  Suspending can also fail if you run
Emacs under a shell that doesn't support suspending jobs, even if the
system itself does support it.  In this case, you can set the variable
`cannot-suspend' to a non-`nil' value to force `C-z' to start an
inferior shell.

   Text-only terminals usually listen for certain special characters
whose meaning is to kill or suspend the program you are running.  This
terminal feature is turned off while you are in Emacs.  The meanings of
`C-z' and `C-x C-c' as keys in Emacs were inspired by the use of `C-z'
and `C-c' on several operating systems as the characters for stopping
or killing a program, but that is their only relationship with the
operating system.  You can customize these keys to run any commands of
your choice (*note Keymaps::).

File: emacs,  Node: Basic,  Next: Minibuffer,  Prev: Exiting,  Up: Top

7 Basic Editing Commands

Here we explain the basics of how to enter text, make corrections, and
save the text in a file.  If this material is new to you, we suggest
you first run the Emacs learn-by-doing tutorial, by typing `Control-h
t' inside Emacs.  (`help-with-tutorial').

* Menu:

* Inserting Text::      Inserting text by simply typing it.
* Moving Point::        Moving the cursor to the place where you want to
			  change something.
* Erasing::	        Deleting and killing text.
* Basic Undo::	        Undoing recent changes in the text.
* Files: Basic Files.   Visiting, creating, and saving files.
* Help: Basic Help.     Asking what a character does.
* Blank Lines::	        Making and deleting blank lines.
* Continuation Lines::  How Emacs displays lines too wide for the screen.
* Position Info::       What page, line, row, or column is point on?
* Arguments::	        Numeric arguments for repeating a command N times.
* Repeating::           Repeating the previous command quickly.

File: emacs,  Node: Inserting Text,  Next: Moving Point,  Up: Basic

7.1 Inserting Text

You can insert an ordinary "graphic character" (e.g., `a', `B', `3',
and `=') by typing the associated key.  This adds the character to the
buffer at point.  Insertion moves point forward, so that point remains
just after the inserted text.  *Note Point::.

   To end a line and start a new one, type <RET>.  This key may be
labeled <Return> or <Enter> on your keyboard, but we refer to it as
<RET> in this manual.  Pressing it inserts a newline character in the
buffer.  If point is at the end of the line, this creates a new blank
line after it; if point is in the middle of a line, the line is split
at that position.

   As we explain later in this manual, you can change the way Emacs
handles text insertion by turning on "minor modes".  For instance, if
you turn on a minor mode called "Auto Fill" mode, Emacs can split lines
automatically when they become too long (*note Filling::).  If you turn
on a minor mode called "Overwrite" mode, inserted characters replace
(overwrite) existing text, instead of shoving it to the right.  *Note
Minor Modes::.

   Only graphic characters can be inserted by typing the associated
key; other keys act as editing commands and do not insert themselves.
For instance, `DEL' runs the command `delete-backward-char' by default
(some modes bind it to a different command); it does not insert a
literal `DEL' character (ASCII character code 127).

   To insert a non-graphic character, or a character that your keyboard
does not support, first "quote" it by typing `C-q' (`quoted-insert').
There are two ways to use `C-q':

   * `C-q' followed by any non-graphic character (even `C-g') inserts
     that character.  For instance, `C-q <DEL>' inserts a literal `DEL'

   * `C-q' followed by a sequence of octal digits inserts the character
     with the specified octal character code.  You can use any number of
     octal digits; any non-digit terminates the sequence.  If the
     terminating character is <RET>, it serves only to terminate the
     sequence.  Any other non-digit terminates the sequence and then
     acts as normal input--thus, `C-q 1 0 1 B' inserts `AB'.

     The use of octal sequences is disabled in ordinary non-binary
     Overwrite mode, to give you a convenient way to insert a digit
     instead of overwriting with it.

To use decimal or hexadecimal instead of octal, set the variable
`read-quoted-char-radix' to 10 or 16.  If the radix is greater than 10,
some letters starting with `a' serve as part of a character code, just
like digits.

   A numeric argument tells `C-q' how many copies of the quoted
character to insert (*note Arguments::).

   Instead of `C-q', you can use `C-x 8 <RET>' (`ucs-insert') to insert
a character based on its Unicode name or code-point.  This commands
prompts for a character to insert, using the minibuffer; you can
specify the character using either (i) the character's name in the
Unicode standard, or (ii) the character's code-point in the Unicode

File: emacs,  Node: Moving Point,  Next: Erasing,  Prev: Inserting Text,  Up: Basic

7.2 Changing the Location of Point

To do more than insert characters, you have to know how to move point
(*note Point::).  The keyboard commands `C-f', `C-b', `C-n', and `C-p'
move point to the right, left, up and down respectively.  These are
equivalent to the commands `<right>', `<left>', `<down>', and `<up>',
entered using the "arrow keys" present on many keyboards.  Many Emacs
users find that it is slower to use the arrow keys than the equivalent
control keys.  You can also click the left mouse button to move point
to the position clicked.  Emacs also provides a variety of additional
keyboard commands that move point in more sophisticated ways.

     Move to the beginning of the line (`move-beginning-of-line').

     Move to the end of the line (`move-end-of-line').

     Move forward one character (`forward-char').

     Move backward one character (`backward-char').

     Move forward one word (`forward-word').

     Move backward one word (`backward-word').

     Move down one screen line (`next-line').  This command attempts to
     keep the horizontal position unchanged, so if you start in the
     middle of one line, you move to the middle of the next.

     Move up one screen line (`previous-line').  This command preserves
     position within the line, like `C-n'.

     Move point to left margin, vertically centered in the window
     (`move-to-window-line').  Text does not move on the screen.  A
     numeric argument says which screen line to place point on, counting
     downward from the top of the window (zero means the top line).  A
     negative argument counts lines up from the bottom (-1 means the
     bottom line).

     Move to the top of the buffer (`beginning-of-buffer').  With
     numeric argument N, move to N/10 of the way from the top.  *Note
     Arguments::, for more information on numeric arguments.

     Move to the end of the buffer (`end-of-buffer').

     Scroll the display one screen forward, and move point if necessary
     to put it on the screen (`scroll-up').  If your keyboard has a
     <PageDown> key (sometimes labelled <next>), it does the same thing
     as <C-v>.  Scrolling commands are described further in *note

     Scroll one screen backward, and move point if necessary to put it
     on the screen (`scroll-down').  If your keyboard has a <PageUp>
     key (sometimes labelled <prior>), it does the same thing as `M-v'.

`M-x goto-char'
     Read a number N and move point to buffer position N.  Position 1
     is the beginning of the buffer.

`M-g M-g'
`M-g g'
     Read a number N and move point to the beginning of line number N
     (`goto-line').  Line 1 is the beginning of the buffer.  If point
     is on or just after a number in the buffer, that is the default
     for N.  Just type <RET> in the minibuffer to use it.  You can also
     specify N by giving `M-g M-g' a numeric prefix argument.  *Note
     Select Buffer::, for the behavior of `M-g M-g' when you give it a
     plain prefix argument.

`C-x C-n'
     Use the current column of point as the "semipermanent goal column"
     for `C-n' and `C-p' (`set-goal-column').  When a semipermanent
     goal column is in effect, those commands always try to move to
     this column, or as close as possible to it, after moving
     vertically.  The goal column remains in effect until canceled.

`C-u C-x C-n'
     Cancel the goal column.  Henceforth, `C-n' and `C-p' try to
     preserve the horizontal position, as usual.

   When a line of text in the buffer is longer than the width of the
window, Emacs usually displays it on two or more "screen lines".  For
convenience, `C-n' and `C-p' move point by screen lines, as do the
equivalent keys `<down>' and `<up>'.  You can force these commands to
move according to "logical lines" (i.e., according to the text lines in
the buffer) by setting the variable `line-move-visual' to `nil'; if a
logical line occupies multiple screen lines, the cursor then skips over
the additional screen lines.  Moving by logical lines was the default
behavior prior to Emacs 23.1.  For details, see *note Continuation
Lines::.  *Note Variables::, for how to set variables such as

   Unlike `C-n' and `C-p', most of the Emacs commands that work on
lines work on _logical_ lines.  For instance, `C-a'
(`move-beginning-of-line') and `C-e' (`move-end-of-line') respectively
move to the beginning and end of the logical line.  Whenever we
encounter commands that work on screen lines, such as `C-n' and `C-p',
we will point these out.

   When `line-move-visual' is `nil', you can also set the variable
`track-eol' to a non-`nil' value.  Then `C-n' and `C-p', when starting
at the end of the logical line, move to the end of the next logical
line.  Normally, `track-eol' is `nil'.

   `C-n' normally stops at the end of the buffer when you use it on the
last line of the buffer.  However, if you set the variable
`next-line-add-newlines' to a non-`nil' value, `C-n' on the last line
of a buffer creates an additional line at the end and moves down into

File: emacs,  Node: Erasing,  Next: Basic Undo,  Prev: Moving Point,  Up: Basic

7.3 Erasing Text

     Delete the character before point (`delete-backward-char').

     Delete the character after point (`delete-char').

     Kill to the end of the line (`kill-line').

     Kill forward to the end of the next word (`kill-word').

     Kill back to the beginning of the previous word

   The key `<DEL>' (`delete-backward-char') removes the character
before point, moving the cursor and all the characters after it
backwards.  On most keyboards, <DEL> is labelled <Backspace>, but we
refer to it as <DEL> in this manual.  Do not confuse <DEL> with another
key, labelled <Delete>, that exists on many keyboards; we will discuss
<Delete> momentarily.

   Typing <DEL> when the cursor is at the beginning of a line deletes
the preceding newline character, joining the line with the one before

   On some text-only terminals, Emacs may not recognize the <DEL> key
properly.  If <DEL> does not do the right thing (e.g., if it deletes
characters forwards), see *note DEL Does Not Delete::.

   The key `C-d' (`delete-char') deletes the character after point,
i.e., the character under the cursor.  This shifts the rest of the text
on the line to the left.  If you type `C-d' at the end of a line, it
joins that line with the following line.  This command is also bound to
the key labelled <Delete> on many keyboards.

   To erase a larger amount of text, use the `C-k' key, which erases
(kills) a line at a time.  If you type `C-k' at the beginning or middle
of a line, it kills all the text up to the end of the line.  If you
type `C-k' at the end of a line, it joins that line with the following

   To learn more about killing text, see *note Killing::.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Undo,  Next: Basic Files,  Prev: Erasing,  Up: Basic

7.4 Undoing Changes

     Undo one entry of the undo records--usually, one command worth

`C-x u'

     The same.

   Emacs records a list of changes made in the buffer text, so you can
undo recent changes.  This is done using the `undo' command, which is
bound to `C-/' (as well as `C-x u' and `C-_').  Normally, this command
undoes the last change, moving point back to where it was before the
change.  The undo command applies only to changes in the buffer; you
can't use it to undo cursor motion.

   Although each editing command usually makes a separate entry in the
undo records, very simple commands may be grouped together.  Sometimes,
an entry may cover just part of a complex command.

   If you repeat `C-/' (or its aliases), each repetition undoes
another, earlier change, back to the limit of the undo information
available.  If all recorded changes have already been undone, the undo
command displays an error message and does nothing.

   To learn more about the `undo' command, see *note Undo::.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Files,  Next: Basic Help,  Prev: Basic Undo,  Up: Basic

7.5 Files

Text that you insert in an Emacs buffer lasts only as long as the Emacs
session.  To keep any text permanently, you must put it in a "file".
Files are named units of text which are stored by the operating system
for you to retrieve later by name.  To use the contents of a file in
any way, including editing it with Emacs, you must specify the file

   Suppose there is a file named `test.emacs' in your home directory.
To begin editing this file in Emacs, type

     C-x C-f test.emacs <RET>

Here the file name is given as an "argument" to the command `C-x C-f'
(`find-file').  That command uses the "minibuffer" to read the
argument, and you type <RET> to terminate the argument (*note

   Emacs obeys this command by "visiting" the file: it creates a
buffer, copies the contents of the file into the buffer, and then
displays the buffer for editing.  If you alter the text, you can "save"
the new text in the file by typing `C-x C-s' (`save-buffer').  This
copies the altered buffer contents back into the file `test.emacs',
making them permanent.  Until you save, the changed text exists only
inside Emacs, and the file `test.emacs' is unaltered.

   To create a file, just visit it with `C-x C-f' as if it already
existed.  This creates an empty buffer, in which you can insert the
text you want to put in the file.  Emacs actually creates the file the
first time you save this buffer with `C-x C-s'.

   To learn more about using files in Emacs, see *note Files::.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Help,  Next: Blank Lines,  Prev: Basic Files,  Up: Basic

7.6 Help

If you forget what a key does, you can find out with the Help
character, which is `C-h' (or <F1>, which is an alias for `C-h').  Type
`C-h k', followed by the key of interest; for example, `C-h k C-n'
tells you what `C-n' does.  `C-h' is a prefix key; `C-h k' is just one
of its subcommands (the command `describe-key').  The other subcommands
of `C-h' provide different kinds of help.  Type `C-h' twice to get a
description of all the help facilities.  *Note Help::.

File: emacs,  Node: Blank Lines,  Next: Continuation Lines,  Prev: Basic Help,  Up: Basic

7.7 Blank Lines

Here are special commands and techniques for inserting and deleting
blank lines.

     Insert a blank line after the cursor (`open-line').

`C-x C-o'
     Delete all but one of many consecutive blank lines

   We have seen how `<RET>' (`newline') starts a new line of text.
However, it may be easier to see what you are doing if you first make a
blank line and then insert the desired text into it.  This is easy to
do using the key `C-o' (`open-line'), which inserts a newline after
point but leaves point in front of the newline.  After `C-o', type the
text for the new line.

   You can make several blank lines by typing `C-o' several times, or
by giving it a numeric argument specifying how many blank lines to make.
*Note Arguments::, for how.  If you have a fill prefix, the `C-o'
command inserts the fill prefix on the new line, if typed at the
beginning of a line.  *Note Fill Prefix::.

   The easy way to get rid of extra blank lines is with the command
`C-x C-o' (`delete-blank-lines').  If point lies within a run of
several blank lines, `C-x C-o' deletes all but one of them.  If point
is on a single blank line, `C-x C-o' deletes it.  If point is on a
nonblank line, `C-x C-o' deletes all following blank lines, if any

File: emacs,  Node: Continuation Lines,  Next: Position Info,  Prev: Blank Lines,  Up: Basic

7.8 Continuation Lines

Sometimes, a line of text in the buffer--a "logical line"--is too long
to fit in the window, and Emacs displays it as two or more "screen
lines".  This is called "line wrapping" or "continuation", and the long
logical line is called a "continued line".  On a graphical display,
Emacs indicates line wrapping with small bent arrows in the left and
right window fringes.  On a text-only terminal, Emacs indicates line
wrapping by displaying a `\' character at the right margin.

   Most commands that act on lines act on logical lines, not screen
lines.  For instance, `C-k' kills a logical line.  As described
earlier, `C-n' (`next-line') and `C-p' (`previous-line') are special
exceptions: they move point down and up, respectively, by one screen
line (*note Moving Point::).

   Emacs can optionally "truncate" long logical lines instead of
continuing them.  This means that every logical line occupies a single
screen line; if it is longer than the width of the window, the rest of
the line is not displayed.  On a graphical display, a truncated line is
indicated by a small straight arrow in the right fringe; on a text-only
terminal, it is indicated by a `$' character in the right margin.
*Note Line Truncation::.

   By default, continued lines are wrapped at the right window edge.
Since the wrapping may occur in the middle of a word, continued lines
can be difficult to read.  The usual solution is to break your lines
before they get too long, by inserting newlines.  If you prefer, you
can make Emacs insert a newline automatically when a line gets too
long, by using Auto Fill mode.  *Note Filling::.

   Sometimes, you may need to edit files containing many long logical
lines, and it may not be practical to break them all up by adding
newlines.  In that case, you can use Visual Line mode, which enables
"word wrapping": instead of wrapping long lines exactly at the right
window edge, Emacs wraps them at the word boundaries (i.e., space or
tab characters) nearest to the right window edge.  Visual Line mode
also redefines editing commands such as `C-a', `C-n', and `C-k' to
operate on screen lines rather than logical lines.  *Note Visual Line

File: emacs,  Node: Position Info,  Next: Arguments,  Prev: Continuation Lines,  Up: Basic

7.9 Cursor Position Information

Here are commands to get information about the size and position of
parts of the buffer, and to count lines.

`M-x what-page'
     Display the page number of point, and the line number within that

`M-x what-line'
     Display the line number of point in the whole buffer.

`M-x line-number-mode'
`M-x column-number-mode'
     Toggle automatic display of the current line number or column
     number.  *Note Optional Mode Line::.

`M-x count-lines-region'
     Display the number of lines in the current region.  Normally bound
     to `M-=', except in a few specialist modes.  *Note Mark::, for
     information about the region.

`C-x ='
     Display the character code of character after point, character
     position of point, and column of point (`what-cursor-position').

`M-x hl-line-mode'
     Enable or disable highlighting of the current line.  *Note Cursor

`M-x size-indication-mode'
     Toggle automatic display of the size of the buffer.  *Note
     Optional Mode Line::.

   `M-x what-line' displays the current line number in the echo area.
This command is usually redundant, because the current line number is
shown in the mode line (*note Mode Line::).  However, if you narrow the
buffer, the mode line shows the line number relative to the accessible
portion (*note Narrowing::).  By contrast, `what-line' displays both
the line number relative to the narrowed region and the line number
relative to the whole buffer.

   `M-x what-page' counts pages from the beginning of the file, and
counts lines within the page, showing both numbers in the echo area.
*Note Pages::.

   Use `M-x count-lines-region' (normally bound to `M-=') to display
the number of lines in the region (*note Mark::).  *Note Pages::, for
the command `C-x l' which counts the lines in the current page.

   The command `C-x =' (`what-cursor-position') shows information about
the current cursor position and the buffer contents at that position.
It displays a line in the echo area that looks like this:

     Char: c (99, #o143, #x63) point=28062 of 36168 (78%) column=53

   After `Char:', this shows the character in the buffer at point.  The
text inside the parenthesis shows the corresponding decimal, octal and
hex character codes; for more information about how `C-x =' displays
character information, see *note International Chars::.  After `point='
is the position of point as a character count (the first character in
the buffer is position 1, the second character is position 2, and so
on).  The number after that is the total number of characters in the
buffer, and the number in parenthesis expresses the position as a
percentage of the total.  After `column=' is the horizontal position of
point, in columns counting from the left edge of the window.

   If the buffer has been narrowed, making some of the text at the
beginning and the end temporarily inaccessible, `C-x =' displays
additional text describing the currently accessible range.  For
example, it might display this:

     Char: C (67, #o103, #x43) point=252 of 889 (28%) <231-599> column=0

where the two extra numbers give the smallest and largest character
position that point is allowed to assume.  The characters between those
two positions are the accessible ones.  *Note Narrowing::.

File: emacs,  Node: Arguments,  Next: Repeating,  Prev: Position Info,  Up: Basic

7.10 Numeric Arguments

In the terminology of mathematics and computing, "argument" means "data
provided to a function or operation."  You can give any Emacs command a
"numeric argument" (also called a "prefix argument").  Some commands
interpret the argument as a repetition count.  For example, giving
`C-f' an argument of ten causes it to move point forward by ten
characters instead of one.  With these commands, no argument is
equivalent to an argument of one, and negative arguments cause them to
move or act in the opposite direction.

   The easiest way to specify a numeric argument is to type a digit
and/or a minus sign while holding down the <META> key.  For example,

     M-5 C-n

moves down five lines.  The keys `M-1', `M-2', and so on, as well as
`M--', are bound to commands (`digit-argument' and `negative-argument')
that set up an argument for the next command.  `Meta--' without digits
normally means -1.

   If you enter more than one digit, you need not hold down the <META>
key for the second and subsequent digits.  Thus, to move down fifty
lines, type

     M-5 0 C-n

Note that this _does not_ insert five copies of `0' and move down one
line, as you might expect--the `0' is treated as part of the prefix

   (What if you do want to insert five copies of `0'?  Type `M-5 C-u
0'.  Here, `C-u' "terminates" the prefix argument, so that the next
keystroke begins the command that you want to execute.  Note that this
meaning of `C-u' applies only to this case.  For the usual role of
`C-u', see below.)

   Instead of typing `M-1', `M-2', and so on, another way to specify a
numeric argument is to type `C-u' (`universal-argument') followed by
some digits, or (for a negative argument) a minus sign followed by
digits.  A minus sign without digits normally means -1.

   `C-u' alone has the special meaning of "four times": it multiplies
the argument for the next command by four.  `C-u C-u' multiplies it by
sixteen.  Thus, `C-u C-u C-f' moves forward sixteen characters.  Other
useful combinations are `C-u C-n', `C-u C-u C-n' (move down a good
fraction of a screen), `C-u C-u C-o' (make "a lot" of blank lines), and
`C-u C-k' (kill four lines).

   You can use a numeric argument before a self-inserting character to
insert multiple copies of it.  This is straightforward when the
character is not a digit; for example, `C-u 6 4 a' inserts 64 copies of
the character `a'.  But this does not work for inserting digits; `C-u 6
4 1' specifies an argument of 641.  You can separate the argument from
the digit to insert with another `C-u'; for example, `C-u 6 4 C-u 1'
does insert 64 copies of the character `1'.

   Some commands care whether there is an argument, but ignore its
value.  For example, the command `M-q' (`fill-paragraph') fills text;
with an argument, it justifies the text as well.  (*Note Filling::, for
more information on `M-q'.)  For these commands, it is enough to the
argument with a single `C-u'.

   Some commands use the value of the argument as a repeat count, but
do something special when there is no argument.  For example, the
command `C-k' (`kill-line') with argument N kills N lines, including
their terminating newlines.  But `C-k' with no argument is special: it
kills the text up to the next newline, or, if point is right at the end
of the line, it kills the newline itself.  Thus, two `C-k' commands
with no arguments can kill a nonblank line, just like `C-k' with an
argument of one.  (*Note Killing::, for more information on `C-k'.)

   A few commands treat a plain `C-u' differently from an ordinary
argument.  A few others may treat an argument of just a minus sign
differently from an argument of -1.  These unusual cases are described
when they come up; they exist to make an individual command more
convenient, and they are documented in that command's documentation

   We use the term "prefix argument" as well as "numeric argument," to
emphasize that you type these argument before the command, and to
distinguish them from minibuffer arguments that come after the command.

File: emacs,  Node: Repeating,  Prev: Arguments,  Up: Basic

7.11 Repeating a Command

Many simple commands, such as those invoked with a single key or with
`M-x COMMAND-NAME <RET>', can be repeated by invoking them with a
numeric argument that serves as a repeat count (*note Arguments::).
However, if the command you want to repeat prompts for input, or uses a
numeric argument in another way, that method won't work.

   The command `C-x z' (`repeat') provides another way to repeat an
Emacs command many times.  This command repeats the previous Emacs
command, whatever that was.  Repeating a command uses the same arguments
that were used before; it does not read new arguments each time.

   To repeat the command more than once, type additional `z''s: each
`z' repeats the command one more time.  Repetition ends when you type a
character other than `z', or press a mouse button.

   For example, suppose you type `C-u 2 0 C-d' to delete 20 characters.
You can repeat that command (including its argument) three additional
times, to delete a total of 80 characters, by typing `C-x z z z'.  The
first `C-x z' repeats the command once, and each subsequent `z' repeats
it once again.

File: emacs,  Node: Minibuffer,  Next: M-x,  Prev: Basic,  Up: Top

8 The Minibuffer

The "minibuffer" is where Emacs commands read complicated arguments,
such as file names, buffer names, Emacs command names, or Lisp
expressions.  We call it the "minibuffer" because it's a
special-purpose buffer with a small amount of screen space.  You can
use the usual Emacs editing commands in the minibuffer to edit the
argument text.

   When the minibuffer is in use, it appears in the echo area, with a
cursor.  The minibuffer display starts with a "prompt" in a distinct
color, usually ending with a colon.  The prompt states what kind of
input is expected, and how it will be used.

   The simplest way to enter a minibuffer argument is to type the text,
then <RET> to submit the argument and exit the minibuffer.  You can
cancel the minibuffer, and the command that wants the argument, by
typing `C-g'.

   Sometimes, a "default argument" appears in the prompt, inside
parentheses before the colon.  The default will be used as the argument
value if you just type <RET>.  For example, commands that read buffer
names usually show a buffer name as the default; you can type <RET> to
operate on that default buffer.

   Since the minibuffer appears in the echo area, it can conflict with
other uses of the echo area.  If an error occurs while the minibuffer
is active, the error message hides the minibuffer for a few seconds, or
until you type something; then the minibuffer comes back.  If a command
such as `C-x =' needs to display a message in the echo area, the
message hides the minibuffer for a few seconds, or until you type
something; then the minibuffer comes back.  While the minibuffer is in
use, keystrokes do not echo.

* Menu:

* Minibuffer File::       Entering file names with the minibuffer.
* Minibuffer Edit::       How to edit in the minibuffer.
* Completion::		  An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
* Minibuffer History::    Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
* Repetition::		  Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.
* Passwords::             Entering passwords in the echo area.

File: emacs,  Node: Minibuffer File,  Next: Minibuffer Edit,  Up: Minibuffer

8.1 Minibuffers for File Names

Commands such as `C-x C-f' (`find-file') use the minibuffer to read a
file name argument (*note Basic Files::).  When the minibuffer is used
to read a file name, it typically starts out with some initial text
ending in a slash.  This is the "default directory".  For example, it
may start out like this:

     Find File: /u2/emacs/src/

Here, `Find File: ' is the prompt and `/u2/emacs/src/' is the default
directory.  If you now type `buffer.c' as input, that specifies the
file `/u2/emacs/src/buffer.c'.  *Note File Names::, for information
about the default directory.

   You can specify the parent directory by adding `..': for example,
`/u2/emacs/src/../lisp/simple.el' is equivalent to
`/u2/emacs/lisp/simple.el'.  Alternatively, you can use `M-<DEL>' to
kill directory names backwards (*note Words::).

   To specify a file in a completely different directory, you can kill
the entire default with `C-a C-k' (*note Minibuffer Edit::).
Alternatively, you can ignore the default, and enter an absolute file
name starting with a slash or a tilde after the default directory.  For
example, you can specify `/etc/termcap' as follows:

     Find File: /u2/emacs/src//etc/termcap

Emacs interprets a double slash as "ignore everything before the second
slash in the pair."  In the example above, `/u2/emacs/src/' is ignored,
so the argument you supplied is `/etc/termcap'.  The ignored part of
the file name is dimmed if the terminal allows it (to disable this
dimming, turn off File Name Shadow mode with the command `M-x

   Emacs interprets `~/' as your home directory.  Thus, `~/foo/bar.txt'
specifies a file named `bar.txt', inside a directory named `foo', which
is in turn located in your home directory.  In addition, `~USER-ID/'
means the home directory of a user whose login name is USER-ID.  Any
leading directory name in front of the `~' is ignored: thus,
`/u2/emacs/~/foo/bar.txt' is equivalent to `~/foo/bar.txt'.

   On MS-Windows and MS-DOS systems, where a user doesn't always have a
home directory, Emacs uses several alternatives.  For MS-Windows, see
*note Windows HOME::; for MS-DOS, see *note HOME on MS-DOS: MS-DOS File
Names.  On these systems, the `~USER-ID/' construct is supported only
for the current user, i.e., only if USER-ID is the current user's login

   To prevent Emacs from inserting the default directory when reading
file names, change the variable `insert-default-directory' to `nil'.
In that case, the minibuffer starts out empty.  Nonetheless, relative
file name arguments are still interpreted based on the same default

File: emacs,  Node: Minibuffer Edit,  Next: Completion,  Prev: Minibuffer File,  Up: Minibuffer

8.2 Editing in the Minibuffer

The minibuffer is an Emacs buffer, albeit a peculiar one, and the usual
Emacs commands are available for editing the argument text.  (The
prompt, however, is "read-only", and cannot be changed.)

   Since <RET> in the minibuffer is defined to exit the minibuffer, you
can't use it to insert a newline in the minibuffer.  To do that, type
`C-o' or `C-q C-j'.  (The newline character is really the ASCII
character control-J.)

   Inside a minibuffer, the keys `<TAB>', `<SPC>', and `<?>' are often
bound to commands that perform "completion".  *Note Completion::.  You
can use `C-q' (`quoted-insert') to insert a <TAB>, <SPC>, or <?>
character.  For example, `C-q <TAB>' inserts a <TAB> character.  *Note
Inserting Text::.

   For convenience, `C-a' (`move-beginning-of-line') in a minibuffer
moves point to the beginning of the argument text, not the beginning of
the prompt.  For example, this allows you to erase the entire argument
with `C-a C-k'.

   When the minibuffer is active, the echo area is treated much like an
ordinary Emacs window.  For instance, you can switch to another window
(with `C-x o'), edit text there, then return to the minibuffer window
to finish the argument.  You can even kill text in another window,
return to the minibuffer window, and yank the text into the argument.
There are some restrictions on the minibuffer window, however: for
instance, you cannot split it.  *Note Windows::.

   Normally, the minibuffer window occupies a single screen line.
However, if you add two or more lines' worth of text into the
minibuffer, it expands automatically to accomodate the text.  The
variable `resize-mini-windows' controls the resizing of the minibuffer.
The default value is `grow-only', which means the behavior we have just
described.  If the value is `t', the minibuffer window will also shrink
automatically if you remove some lines of text from the minibuffer,
down to a minimum of one screen line.  If the value is `nil', the
minibuffer window never changes size automatically, but you can use the
usual window-resizing commands on it (*note Windows::).

   The variable `max-mini-window-height' controls the maximum height
for resizing the minibuffer window.  A floating-point number specifies
a fraction of the frame's height; an integer specifies the maximum
number of lines; `nil' means do not resize the minibuffer window
automatically.  The default value is 0.25.

   The `C-M-v' command in the minibuffer scrolls the help text from
commands that display help text of any sort in another window.  You can
also scroll the help text with `M-<prior>' and `M-<next>' (or,
equivalently, `M-<PageUp>' and `M-<PageDown>').  This is especially
useful with long lists of possible completions.  *Note Other Window::.

   Emacs normally disallows most commands that use the minibuffer while
the minibuffer is active.  To allow such commands in the minibuffer,
set the variable `enable-recursive-minibuffers' to `t'.

File: emacs,  Node: Completion,  Next: Minibuffer History,  Prev: Minibuffer Edit,  Up: Minibuffer

8.3 Completion

Sometimes, you can use a feature called "completion" to help you enter
arguments.  This means that after you type part of the argument, Emacs
can fill in the rest, or some of it, based on what you have typed so

   When completion is available, certain keys (usually <TAB>, <RET>,
and <SPC>) are rebound to complete the text in the minibuffer into a
longer string chosen from a set of "completion alternatives".  The set
of completion alternatives depends on the command that requested the
argument, and on what you have typed so far.  In addition, you can
usually type `?' to display a list of possible completions.

   For example, `M-x' uses the minibuffer to read the name of a
command, so completion works by matching the minibuffer text against
the names of existing Emacs commands.  So, to run the command
`insert-buffer', you can type `M-x ins <SPC> b <RET>' instead of the
full `M-x insert-buffer <RET>'.

   Case is significant in completion when it is significant in the
argument you are entering, such as command names.  Thus,
`insert-buffer' is not a valid completion for `IN'.  Completion ignores
case distinctions for certain arguments in which case does not matter.

* Menu:

* Example: Completion Example.    Examples of using completion.
* Commands: Completion Commands.  A list of completion commands.
* Strict Completion::             Different types of completion.
* Options: Completion Options.    Options for completion.

File: emacs,  Node: Completion Example,  Next: Completion Commands,  Up: Completion

8.3.1 Completion Example

A concrete example may help here.  If you type `M-x a u <TAB>', the
<TAB> looks for alternatives (in this case, command names) that start
with `au'.  There are several, including `auto-fill-mode' and
`autoconf-mode', but they all begin with `auto', so the `au' in the
minibuffer completes to `auto'.

   If you type <TAB> again immediately, it cannot determine the next
character; it could be `-', `a', or `c'.  So it does not add any
characters; instead, <TAB> displays a list of all possible completions
in another window.

   Next, type `- f'.  The minibuffer now contains `auto-f', and the
only command name that starts with this is `auto-fill-mode'.  If you
now type <TAB>, completion fills in the rest of the argument
`auto-fill-mode' into the minibuffer.  You have been able to enter
`auto-fill-mode' by typing just `a u <TAB> - f <TAB>'.

File: emacs,  Node: Completion Commands,  Next: Strict Completion,  Prev: Completion Example,  Up: Completion

8.3.2 Completion Commands

Here is a list of the completion commands defined in the minibuffer
when completion is allowed.

     Complete the text in the minibuffer as much as possible; if unable
     to complete, display a list of possible completions

     Complete up to one word from the minibuffer text before point
     (`minibuffer-complete-word').  <SPC> for completion is not
     available when entering a file name, since file names often include

     Submit the text in the minibuffer as the argument, possibly
     completing first as described in the next node
     (`minibuffer-complete-and-exit').  *Note Strict Completion::.

     Display a list of possible completions of the text before point

   <TAB> (`minibuffer-complete') is the most fundamental completion
command.  It searches for all possible completion alternatives that
match the existing minibuffer text, and attempts to complete as much as
it can.  The matching of completion alternatives to the minibuffer text
is performed according to somewhat intricate rules, which are designed
so that plausible completions are offered under most circumstances.  A
valid completion alternative must satisfy the following criteria:

   * The minibuffer text before point must be the same as the beginning
     of the completion alternative.  If there is any minibuffer text
     after point, it must be a substring of the remainder of the
     completion alternative.

   * If no completion alternative satisfies the above rules, try using
     "partial completion" rules: divide the minibuffer text into words
     separated by hyphens or spaces, and complete each word separately.
     Thus, when completing command names, `em-l-m' completes to

   * If there is still no completion alternative, try the first rule
     again, but ignore the minibuffer text after point (i.e., don't try
     matching it).

When performing these comparisons, a `*' in the minibuffer text acts as
a "wildcard"--it matches any character at the corresponding position in
the completion alternative.

   <SPC> (`minibuffer-complete-word') completes like <TAB>, but only up
to the next hyphen or space.  If you have `auto-f' in the minibuffer
and type <SPC>, it finds that the completion is `auto-fill-mode', but
it only inserts `ill-', giving `auto-fill-'.  Another <SPC> at this
point completes all the way to `auto-fill-mode'.

   If <TAB> or <SPC> is unable to complete, it displays a list of
possible completions (if there are any) in a separate window.  You can
choose a completion from this list using the following commands:

     Clicking mouse button 1 or 2 on a completion possibility chooses
     that completion (`mouse-choose-completion').

     Typing `M-v', while in the minibuffer, selects the window showing
     the completion list buffer (`switch-to-completions').  This paves
     the way for using the commands below.  Typing <PageUp> or <prior>
     does the same, as does selecting that window in other ways.

     Typing <RET>, while in the completion list buffer, chooses the
     completion that point is in or next to (`choose-completion').  To
     use this command, you must first switch to the completion list

     Typing the right-arrow key <Right>, while in the completion list
     buffer, moves point to the following completion possibility

     Typing the left-arrow key <Left>, while in the completion list
     buffer, moves point to the previous completion possibility

File: emacs,  Node: Strict Completion,  Next: Completion Options,  Prev: Completion Commands,  Up: Completion

8.3.3 Strict Completion

There are three different ways that <RET> can do completion, depending
on how the argument will be used.

   * "Strict" completion accepts only known completion candidates.  For
     example, when `C-x k' reads the name of a buffer to kill, only the
     name of an existing buffer makes sense.  In strict completion,
     <RET> refuses to exit if the text in the minibuffer does not
     complete to an exact match.

   * "Cautious" completion is similar to strict completion, except that
     <RET> exits only if the text is an already exact match.
     Otherwise, <RET> does not exit, but it does complete the text.  If
     that completes to an exact match, a second <RET> will exit.

     Cautious completion is used for reading file names for files that
     must already exist, for example.

   * "Permissive" completion allows any input; the completion
     candidates are just suggestions.  For example, when `C-x C-f'
     reads the name of a file to visit, any file name is allowed,
     including nonexistent file (in case you want to create a file).
     In permissive completion, <RET> does not complete, it just submits
     the argument as you have entered it.

   The completion commands display a list of all possible completions
whenever they can't determine even one more character by completion.
Also, typing `?' explicitly requests such a list.  You can scroll the
list with `C-M-v' (*note Other Window::).

File: emacs,  Node: Completion Options,  Prev: Strict Completion,  Up: Completion

8.3.4 Completion Options

If `completion-auto-help' is set to `nil', the completion commands
never display the completion list buffer; you must type `?'  to display
the list.  If the value is `lazy', Emacs only shows the completion list
buffer on the second attempt to complete.  In other words, if there is
nothing to complete, the first <TAB> echoes `Next char not unique'; the
second <TAB> does the completion list buffer.

   When completing file names, certain file names are usually ignored.
The variable `completion-ignored-extensions' contains a list of
strings; a file name ending in any of those strings is ignored as a
completion candidate.  The standard value of this variable has several
elements including `".o"', `".elc"', and `"~"'.  For example, if a
directory contains `foo.c' and `foo.elc', `foo' completes to `foo.c'.
However, if _all_ possible completions end in "ignored" strings, they
are not ignored: in the previous example, `foo.e' completes to
`foo.elc'.  Displaying a list of possible completions disregards
`completion-ignored-extensions'; it shows them all.

   If an element of `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a slash
(`/'), it's a subdirectory name; that directory and its contents are
ignored.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions' that do not end
in a slash are ordinary file names.

   When completing file names, Emacs ignores case differences if the
variable `read-file-name-completion-ignore-case' is non-`nil'.  The
default value is `nil' on systems that have case-sensitive file-names,
such as GNU/Linux; it is non-`nil' on systems that have
case-insensitive file-names, such as Microsoft Windows.  When
completing buffer names, Emacs ignores case differences if
`read-buffer-completion-ignore-case' is non-`nil' (the default value is

   You can customize the matching rules for completion alternatives
using the variable `completion-styles'.  Its value should be a list of
symbols, each representing a "completion style"; valid style symbols
are `basic', `partial-completion', `emacs22', and `emacs21'.  When
completing, Emacs attempts to use the first completion style in the
list; if this does not return any completion alternatives, it tries the
next completion style in the list, and so on.  The completion rules
described in *note Completion Commands:: correspond to the default
value of `completion-styles', which is `(basic partial-completion

   Icomplete mode presents a constantly-updated display that tells you
what completions are available for the text you've entered so far.  The
command to enable or disable this minor mode is `M-x icomplete-mode'.

File: emacs,  Node: Minibuffer History,  Next: Repetition,  Prev: Completion,  Up: Minibuffer

8.4 Minibuffer History

Every argument that you enter with the minibuffer is saved in a
"minibuffer history list" so you can easily use it again later.  You
can use the following arguments to quickly fetch an earlier argument
into the minibuffer:

     Move to the previous item in the minibuffer history, an earlier
     argument (`previous-history-element').

     Move to the next item in the minibuffer history

     Move to an earlier item in the minibuffer history that matches
     REGEXP (`previous-matching-history-element').

     Move to a later item in the minibuffer history that matches REGEXP

   While in the minibuffer, typing `M-p' or <Up>
(`previous-history-element') moves up through the minibuffer history
list, one item at a time.  Each `M-p' fetches an earlier item from the
history list into the minibuffer, replacing its existing contents.
Similarly, typing `M-n' or <Down> (`next-history-element') moves back
down the history list, fetching later entries into the minibuffer.  You
can think of these commands as "backwards" and "forwards" through the
history list.

   If you type `M-n' in the minibuffer when there are no later entries
in the minibuffer history (e.g., if you haven't previously typed
`M-p'), Emacs tries fetching from a list of default argument: values
that you are likely to enter.  You can think of this as moving through
the "future list" instead of the "history list".

   The input that `M-p' or `M-n' fetches into the minibuffer entirely
replaces the existing contents of the minibuffer, so you can simply
type <RET> to use it as an argument.  You can also edit the text before
you reuse it; this does not change the history element that you "moved"
to, but your new argument does go at the end of the history list in its
own right.

   There are also commands to search forward or backward through the
history; they search for history elements that match a regular
expression.  `M-r' (`previous-matching-history-element') searches older
elements in the history, while `M-s' (`next-matching-history-element')
searches newer elements.  These commands are unusual: they use the
minibuffer to read the regular expression even though they are invoked
from the minibuffer.  As with incremental searching, an upper-case
letter in the regular expression makes the search case-sensitive (*note
Search Case::).  You can also search through the history using an
incremental search (*note Isearch Minibuffer::).

   All uses of the minibuffer record your input on a history list, but
there are separate history lists for different kinds of arguments.  For
example, there is a list for file names, used by all the commands that
read file names.  (As a special feature, this history list records the
absolute file name, even if the name you entered was not absolute.)

   There are several other specific history lists, including one for
buffer names, one for arguments of commands like `query-replace', one
used by `M-x' for command names, and one used by `compile' for
compilation commands.  Finally, there is one "miscellaneous" history
list that most minibuffer arguments use.

   The variable `history-length' specifies the maximum length of a
minibuffer history list; adding a new element deletes the oldest
element if the list gets too long.  If the value of `history-length' is
`t', there is no maximum length.

   The variable `history-delete-duplicates' specifies whether to delete
duplicates in history.  If it is non-`nil', adding a new element
deletes from the list all other elements that are equal to it.  The
default is `nil'.

File: emacs,  Node: Repetition,  Next: Passwords,  Prev: Minibuffer History,  Up: Minibuffer

8.5 Repeating Minibuffer Commands

Every command that uses the minibuffer once is recorded on a special
history list, the "command history", together with the values of its
arguments, so that you can repeat the entire command.  In particular,
every use of `M-x' is recorded there, since `M-x' uses the minibuffer
to read the command name.

`C-x <ESC> <ESC>'
     Re-execute a recent minibuffer command from the command history

`M-x list-command-history'
     Display the entire command history, showing all the commands `C-x
     <ESC> <ESC>' can repeat, most recent first.

   `C-x <ESC> <ESC>' is used to re-execute a recent command that used
the minibuffer.  With no argument, it repeats the last such command.  A
numeric argument specifies which command to repeat; 1 means the last
one, 2 the previous, and so on.

   `C-x <ESC> <ESC>' works by turning the previous command into a Lisp
expression and then entering a minibuffer initialized with the text for
that expression.  Even if you don't understand Lisp syntax, it will
probably be obvious which command is displayed for repetition.  If you
type just <RET>, that repeats the command unchanged.  You can also
change the command by editing the Lisp expression before you execute
it.  The repeated command is added to the front of the command history
unless it is identical to the most recently item.

   Once inside the minibuffer for `C-x <ESC> <ESC>', you can use the
minibuffer history commands (`M-p', `M-n', `M-r', `M-s'; *note
Minibuffer History::) to move through the history list of saved entire
commands.  After finding the desired previous command, you can edit its
expression as usual and then repeat it by typing <RET>.

   Incremental search does not, strictly speaking, use the minibuffer.
Therefore, although it behaves like a complex command, it normally does
not appear in the history list for `C-x <ESC> <ESC>'.  You can make
incremental search commands appear in the history by setting
`isearch-resume-in-command-history' to a non-`nil' value.  *Note
Incremental Search::.

   The list of previous minibuffer-using commands is stored as a Lisp
list in the variable `command-history'.  Each element is a Lisp
expression which describes one command and its arguments.  Lisp programs
can re-execute a command by calling `eval' with the `command-history'

File: emacs,  Node: Passwords,  Prev: Repetition,  Up: Minibuffer

8.6 Entering passwords

Sometimes, you may need to enter a password into Emacs.  For instance,
when you tell Emacs to visit a file on another machine via a network
protocol such as FTP, you often need to supply a password to gain
access to the machine (*note Remote Files::).

   Entering a password is, in a basic sense, similar to using a
minibuffer.  Emacs displays a prompt in the echo area (such as
`Password: '); after you type the required password, press <RET> to
submit it.  To prevent others from seeing your password, every
character you type is displayed as a dot (`.') instead of its usual

   Most of the features and commands associated with the minibuffer can
_not_ be used when entering a password.  There is no history or
completion, and you cannot change windows or perform any other action
with Emacs until you have submitted the password.

   While you are typing the password, you may press <DEL> to delete
backwards, removing the last character entered.  <C-u> deletes
everything you have typed so far.  `C-g' quits the password prompt
(*note Quitting::).  `C-y' inserts the current kill into the password
(*note Killing::).  You may type either <RET> or <ESC> to submit the
password.  Any other self-inserting character key inserts the
associated character into the password, and all other input is ignored.

File: emacs,  Node: M-x,  Next: Help,  Prev: Minibuffer,  Up: Top

9 Running Commands by Name

Every Emacs command has a name that you can use to run it.  For
convenience, many commands also have key bindings.  You can run those
commands by typing the keys, or run them by name.  Most Emacs commands
have no key bindings, so the only way to run them is by name.  (*Note
Key Bindings::, for how to set up key bindings.)

   By convention, a command name consists of one or more words,
separated by hyphens; for example, `auto-fill-mode' or `manual-entry'.
Command names mostly use complete English words to make them easier to

   To run a command by name, start with `M-x', type the command name,
then terminate it with <RET>.  `M-x' uses the minibuffer to read the
command name.  The string `M-x' appears at the beginning of the
minibuffer as a "prompt" to remind you to enter a command name to be
run.  <RET> exits the minibuffer and runs the command.  *Note
Minibuffer::, for more information on the minibuffer.

   You can use completion to enter the command name.  For example, to
invoke the command `forward-char', you can type

     M-x forward-char <RET>


     M-x forw <TAB> c <RET>

Note that `forward-char' is the same command that you invoke with the
key `C-f'.  The existence of a key binding does not stop you from
running the command by name.

   To cancel the `M-x' and not run a command, type `C-g' instead of
entering the command name.  This takes you back to command level.

   To pass a numeric argument to the command you are invoking with
`M-x', specify the numeric argument before `M-x'.  The argument value
appears in the prompt while the command name is being read, and finally
`M-x' passes the argument to that command.

   When the command you run with `M-x' has a key binding, Emacs
mentions this in the echo area after running the command.  For example,
if you type `M-x forward-word', the message says that you can run the
same command by typing `M-f'.  You can turn off these messages by
setting the variable `suggest-key-bindings' to `nil'.

   In this manual, when we speak of running a command by name, we often
omit the <RET> that terminates the name.  Thus we might say `M-x
auto-fill-mode' rather than `M-x auto-fill-mode <RET>'.  We mention the
<RET> only for emphasis, such as when the command is followed by

   `M-x' works by running the command `execute-extended-command', which
is responsible for reading the name of another command and invoking it.

File: emacs,  Node: Help,  Next: Mark,  Prev: M-x,  Up: Top

10 Help

Emacs provides extensive help features, all accessible through the
"help character", `C-h'.  This is a prefix key that is used for
commands that display documentation; the next character you type should
be a "help option", to ask for a particular kind of help.  You can
cancel the `C-h' command with `C-g'.  The function key <F1> is
equivalent to `C-h'.

   `C-h' itself is one of the help options; `C-h C-h' displays a list
of help options, with a brief description of each one
(`help-for-help').  You can scroll the list with <SPC> and <DEL>, then
type the help option you want.  To cancel, type `C-g'.

   `C-h' or <F1> means "help" in various other contexts as well.  For
instance, you can type them after a prefix key to display a list of the
keys that can follow the prefix key.  (A few prefix keys don't support
`C-h' in this way, because they define other meanings for it, but they
all support <F1> for help.)

   Most help buffers use a special major mode, Help mode, which lets
you scroll conveniently with <SPC> and <DEL>.  You can also follow
hyperlinks to URLs, and to other facilities including Info nodes and
customization buffers.  *Note Help Mode::.

   If you are looking for a certain feature, but don't know what it is
called or where to look, we recommend three methods.  First, try an
apropos command, then try searching the manual index, then look in the
FAQ and the package keywords.

`C-h a TOPICS <RET>'
     This searches for commands whose names match the argument TOPICS.
     The argument can be a keyword, a list of keywords, or a regular
     expression (*note Regexps::).  *Note Apropos::.

`C-h i d m emacs <RET> i TOPIC <RET>'
     This searches for TOPIC in the indices of the on-line Emacs
     manual, and displays the first match found.  Press `,' to see
     subsequent matches.  You can use a regular expression as TOPIC.

`C-h i d m emacs <RET> s TOPIC <RET>'
     Similar, but searches the _text_ of the manual rather than the

`C-h C-f'
     This displays the Emacs FAQ.  You can use the Info commands to
     browse it.

`C-h p'
     This displays the available Emacs packages based on keywords.
     *Note Library Keywords::.

* Menu:

* Help Summary::	Brief list of all Help commands.
* Key Help::		Asking what a key does in Emacs.
* Name Help::		Asking about a command, variable or function name.
* Apropos::		Asking what pertains to a given topic.
* Help Mode::           Special features of Help mode and Help buffers.
* Library Keywords::	Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
* Language Help::       Help relating to international language support.
* Misc Help::		Other help commands.
* Help Files::          Commands to display pre-written help files.
* Help Echo::           Help on active text and tooltips (`balloon help').

File: emacs,  Node: Help Summary,  Next: Key Help,  Up: Help

10.1 Help Summary

   Here is a summary of the Emacs interactive help commands.  (The
character that follows `C-h' is the "help option.")  See *note Help
Files::, for other help commands that display fixed files of

`C-h a TOPICS <RET>'
     Display a list of commands whose names match TOPICS
     (`apropos-command'; *note Apropos::).

`C-h b'
     Display all active key bindings; minor mode bindings first, then
     those of the major mode, then global bindings

`C-h c KEY'
     Given a key sequence KEY, show the name of the command that it
     runs (`describe-key-briefly').  Here `c' stands for "character."
     For more extensive information on KEY, use `C-h k'.

`C-h d TOPICS <RET>'
     Display the commands and variables whose documentation matches
     TOPICS (`apropos-documentation').

`C-h e'
     Display the `*Messages*' buffer (`view-echo-area-messages').

     Display documentation on the Lisp function named FUNCTION
     (`describe-function').  Since commands are Lisp functions, this
     works for commands too.

`C-h h'
     Display the `HELLO' file, which shows examples of various character

`C-h i'
     Run Info, the GNU documentation browser (`info').  The complete
     Emacs manual is available on-line in Info.

`C-h k KEY'
     Display the name and documentation of the command that KEY runs

`C-h l'
     Display a description of your last 300 keystrokes (`view-lossage').

`C-h m'
     Display documentation of the current major mode (`describe-mode').

`C-h n'
     Display news of recent Emacs changes (`view-emacs-news').

`C-h p'
     Find packages by topic keyword (`finder-by-keyword').

`C-h r'
     Display the Emacs manual in Info (`info-emacs-manual').

`C-h s'
     Display the current contents of the syntax table, with an
     explanation of what they mean (`describe-syntax').  *Note Syntax::.

`C-h t'
     Enter the Emacs interactive tutorial (`help-with-tutorial').

`C-h v VAR <RET>'
     Display the documentation of the Lisp variable VAR

     Show which keys run the command named COMMAND (`where-is').

     Describe the coding system CODING (`describe-coding-system').

`C-h C <RET>'
     Describe the coding systems currently in use.

     Enter Info and go to the node that documents the Emacs command
     COMMAND (`Info-goto-emacs-command-node').

     Describe the input method METHOD (`describe-input-method').

`C-h K KEY'
     Enter Info and go to the node that documents the key sequence KEY

     Display information on the character sets, coding systems, and
     input methods used in language environment LANGUAGE-ENV

     Display the Info documentation on symbol SYMBOL according to the
     programming language you are editing (`info-lookup-symbol').

`C-h .'
     Display the help message for a special text area, if point is in
     one (`display-local-help').  (These include, for example, links in
     `*Help*' buffers.)

File: emacs,  Node: Key Help,  Next: Name Help,  Prev: Help Summary,  Up: Help

10.2 Documentation for a Key

The help commands to get information about a key sequence are `C-h c'
and `C-h k'.  `C-h c KEY' displays in the echo area the name of the
command that KEY is bound to.  For example, `C-h c C-f' displays
`forward-char'.  Since command names are chosen to describe what the
commands do, this gives you a very brief description of what KEY does.

   `C-h k KEY' is similar but gives more information: it displays the
documentation string of the command as well as its name.  It displays
this information in a window, since it may not fit in the echo area.

   To find the documentation of a key sequence KEY, type `C-h K KEY'.
This displays the appropriate manual section which contains the
documentation of KEY.

   `C-h c', `C-h k' and `C-h K' work for any sort of key sequences,
including function keys, menus, and mouse events.  For instance, after
`C-h k' you can select a menu item from the menu bar, to view the
documentation string of the command it runs.

   `C-h w COMMAND <RET>' lists the keys that are bound to COMMAND.  It
displays the list in the echo area.  If it says the command is not on
any key, that means you must use `M-x' to run it.  `C-h w' runs the
command `where-is'.

File: emacs,  Node: Name Help,  Next: Apropos,  Prev: Key Help,  Up: Help

10.3 Help by Command or Variable Name

`C-h f FUNCTION <RET>' (`describe-function') displays the documentation
of Lisp function FUNCTION, in a window.  Since commands are Lisp
functions, you can use this method to view the documentation of any
command whose name you know.  For example,

     C-h f auto-fill-mode <RET>

displays the documentation of `auto-fill-mode'.  This is the only way
to get the documentation of a command that is not bound to any key (one
which you would normally run using `M-x').

   `C-h f' is also useful for Lisp functions that you use in a Lisp
program.  For example, if you have just written the expression
`(make-vector len)' and want to check that you are using `make-vector'
properly, type `C-h f make-vector <RET>'.  Because `C-h f' allows all
function names, not just command names, you may find that some of your
favorite completion abbreviations that work in `M-x' don't work in `C-h
f'.  An abbreviation that is unique among command names may not be
unique among all function names.

   If you type `C-h f <RET>', it describes the function called by the
innermost Lisp expression in the buffer around point, _provided_ that
function name is a valid, defined Lisp function.  (That name appears as
the default while you enter the argument.)  For example, if point is
located following the text `(make-vector (car x)', the innermost list
containing point is the one that starts with `(make-vector', so `C-h f
<RET>' will describe the function `make-vector'.

   `C-h f' is also useful just to verify that you spelled a function
name correctly.  If the minibuffer prompt for `C-h f' shows the
function name from the buffer as the default, it means that name is
defined as a Lisp function.  Type `C-g' to cancel the `C-h f' command
if you don't really want to view the documentation.

   `C-h v' (`describe-variable') is like `C-h f' but describes Lisp
variables instead of Lisp functions.  Its default is the Lisp symbol
around or before point, if that is the name of a defined Lisp variable.
*Note Variables::.

   Help buffers that describe Emacs variables and functions normally
have hyperlinks to the corresponding source definition, if you have the
source files installed.  (*Note Hyperlinking::.)  If you know Lisp (or
C), this provides the ultimate documentation.  If you don't know Lisp,
you should learn it.  (The Introduction to Emacs Lisp Programming,
available from the FSF through, is a good way to get started.)
If Emacs feels you are just _using_ it, treating it as an object
program, its feelings may be hurt.  For real intimacy, read the Emacs
source code.

   To find a command's documentation in a manual, use `C-h F'
(`Info-goto-emacs-command-node').  This knows about various manuals,
not just the Emacs manual, and finds the right one.

File: emacs,  Node: Apropos,  Next: Help Mode,  Prev: Name Help,  Up: Help

10.4 Apropos

The "apropos" commands answer questions like, "What are the commands
for working with files?"  More precisely, you specify an "apropos
pattern", which means either a word, a list of words, or a regular
expression.  Each apropos command displays a list of items that match
the pattern, in a separate buffer.

     Search for commands whose names match PATTERN.

`M-x apropos <RET> PATTERN <RET>'
     Search for functions and variables whose names match PATTERN.
     Both interactive functions (commands) and noninteractive functions
     can be found by this command.

`M-x apropos-variable <RET> PATTERN <RET>'
     Search for user-option variables whose names match PATTERN.

`M-x apropos-value <RET> PATTERN <RET>'
     Search for functions whose definitions match PATTERN, and
     variables whose values match PATTERN.

     Search for functions and variables whose *documentation strings*
     match PATTERN.

   The simplest kind of apropos pattern is one word.  Anything which
contains that word matches the pattern.  Thus, to find the commands
that work on files, type `C-h a file <RET>'.  This displays a list of
all command names that contain `file', including `copy-file',
`find-file', and so on.  Each command name comes with a brief
description and a list of keys you can currently invoke it with.  In
our example, it would say that you can invoke `find-file' by typing
`C-x C-f'.

   The `a' in `C-h a' stands for "Apropos"; `C-h a' runs the command
`apropos-command'.  This command normally checks only commands
(interactive functions); if you specify a prefix argument, it checks
noninteractive functions as well.

   For more information about a function definition, variable or symbol
property listed in the apropos buffer, you can click on it with
`Mouse-1' or `Mouse-2', or move there and type <RET>.

   When you specify more than one word in the apropos pattern, a name
must contain at least two of the words in order to match.  Thus, if you
are looking for commands to kill a chunk of text before point, you
could try `C-h a kill back backward behind before <RET>'.  The real
command name `kill-backward' will match that; if there were a command
`kill-text-before', it would also match, since it contains two of the
specified words.

   For even greater flexibility, you can specify a regular expression
(*note Regexps::).  An apropos pattern is interpreted as a regular
expression if it contains any of the regular expression special
characters, `^$*+?.\['.

   Following the conventions for naming Emacs commands, here are some
words that you'll find useful in apropos patterns.  By using them in
`C-h a', you will also get a feel for the naming conventions.

     char, line, word, sentence, paragraph, region, page, sexp, list,
     defun, rect, buffer, frame, window, face, file, dir, register,
     mode, beginning, end, forward, backward, next, previous, up, down,
     search, goto, kill, delete, mark, insert, yank, fill, indent,
     case, change, set, what, list, find, view, describe, default.

   Use `M-x apropos' instead of `C-h a' to list all the Lisp symbols
that match an apropos pattern, not just the symbols that are commands.
This command does not list key bindings by default; specify a numeric
argument if you want it to list them.

   Use `M-x apropos-variable' to list user-customizable variables that
match an apropos pattern.  If you specify a prefix argument, it lists
all matching variables.

   The `apropos-documentation' command is like `apropos' except that it
searches documentation strings instead of symbol names for matches.

   The `apropos-value' command is like `apropos' except that it
searches variables' values for matches for the apropos pattern.  With a
prefix argument, it also checks symbols' function definitions and
property lists.

   If the variable `apropos-do-all' is non-`nil', the apropos commands
always behave as if they had been given a prefix argument.

   By default, apropos lists the search results in alphabetical order.
If the variable `apropos-sort-by-scores' is non-`nil', the apropos
commands try to guess the relevance of each result, and display the
most relevant ones first.

   By default, apropos lists the search results for
`apropos-documentation' in order of relevance of the match.  If the
variable `apropos-documentation-sort-by-scores' is `nil', apropos lists
the symbols found in alphabetical order.

File: emacs,  Node: Help Mode,  Next: Library Keywords,  Prev: Apropos,  Up: Help

10.5 Help Mode Commands

Help buffers provide the same commands as View mode (*note Misc File
Ops::), plus a few special commands of their own.

     Scroll forward.

     Scroll backward.

     Follow a cross reference at point.

     Move point forward to the next cross reference.

     Move point back to the previous cross reference.

     Follow a cross reference that you click on.

`C-c C-c'
     Show all documentation about the symbol at point.

   When a function name (*note Running Commands by Name: M-x.),
variable name (*note Variables::), or face name (*note Faces::) appears
in the documentation, it normally appears inside paired single-quotes.
To view the documentation of that command, variable or face, you can
click on the name with `Mouse-1' or `Mouse-2', or move point there and
type <RET>.  Use `C-c C-b' to retrace your steps.

   You can follow cross references to URLs (web pages) also.  This uses
the `browse-url' command to view the page in the browser you choose.
*Note Browse-URL::.

   There are convenient commands to move point to cross references in
the help text.  <TAB> (`help-next-ref') moves point down to the next
cross reference.  `S-<TAB>' moves up to the previous cross reference

   To view all documentation about any symbol name that appears in the
text, move point to the symbol name and type `C-c C-c'
(`help-follow-symbol').  This shows all available documentation about
the symbol as a variable, function and/or face.  As above, use `C-c
C-b' to retrace your steps.

File: emacs,  Node: Library Keywords,  Next: Language Help,  Prev: Help Mode,  Up: Help

10.6 Keyword Search for Lisp Libraries

The `C-h p' command lets you search the standard Emacs Lisp libraries
by topic keywords.  Here is a partial list of keywords you can use:

abbrev        abbreviation handling, typing shortcuts, macros.
bib           code related to the `bib' bibliography processor.
c             support for the C language and related languages.
calendar      calendar and time management support.
comm          communications, networking, remote access to files.
convenience   convenience features for faster editing.
data          support for editing files of data.
docs          support for Emacs documentation.
emulations    emulations of other editors.
extensions    Emacs Lisp language extensions.
faces         support for multiple fonts.
files         support for editing and manipulating files.
frames        support for Emacs frames and window systems.
games         games, jokes and amusements.
hardware      support for interfacing with exotic hardware.
help          support for on-line help systems.
hypermedia    support for links between text or other media types.
i18n          internationalization and alternate character-set support.
internal      code for Emacs internals, build process, defaults.
languages     specialized modes for editing programming languages.
lisp          Lisp support, including Emacs Lisp.
local         code local to your site.
maint         maintenance aids for the Emacs development group.
mail          modes for electronic-mail handling.
matching      various sorts of searching and matching.
mouse         mouse support.
multimedia    images and sound support.
news          support for netnews reading and posting.
oop           support for object-oriented programming.
outlines      support for hierarchical outlining.
processes     process, subshell, compilation, and job control support.
terminals     support for terminal types.
tex           supporting code for the TeX formatter.
tools         programming tools.
unix          front-ends/assistants for, or emulators of, UNIX-like
wp            word processing.

File: emacs,  Node: Language Help,  Next: Misc Help,  Prev: Library Keywords,  Up: Help

10.7 Help for International Language Support

You can use the command `C-h L' (`describe-language-environment') to
get information about a specific language environment.  *Note Language
Environments::.  This tells you which languages this language
environment supports.  It also lists the character sets, coding
systems, and input methods that work with this language environment,
and finally shows some sample text to illustrate scripts.

   The command `C-h h' (`view-hello-file') displays the file
`etc/HELLO', which shows how to say "hello" in many languages.

   The command `C-h I' (`describe-input-method') describes an input
method--either a specified input method, or by default the input method
currently in use.  *Note Input Methods::.

   The command `C-h C' (`describe-coding-system') describes coding
systems--either a specified coding system, or the ones currently in
use.  *Note Coding Systems::.

File: emacs,  Node: Misc Help,  Next: Help Files,  Prev: Language Help,  Up: Help

10.8 Other Help Commands

`C-h i' (`info') runs the Info program, which browses structured
documentation files.  The entire Emacs manual is available within Info,
along with many other manuals for the GNU system.  Type `h' after
entering Info to run a tutorial on using Info.

   With a numeric argument N, `C-h i' selects the Info buffer
`*info*<N>'.  This is useful if you want to browse multiple Info
manuals simultaneously.  If you specify just `C-u' as the prefix
argument, `C-h i' prompts for the name of a documentation file, so you
can browse a file which doesn't have an entry in the top-level Info

   The help commands `C-h F FUNCTION <RET>' and `C-h K KEY', described
above, enter Info and go straight to the documentation of FUNCTION or

   When editing a program, if you have an Info version of the manual
for the programming language, you can use `C-h S'
(`info-lookup-symbol') to find an entry for a symbol (keyword, function
or variable) in the proper manual.  The details of how this command
works depend on the major mode.

   If something surprising happens, and you are not sure what you typed,
use `C-h l' (`view-lossage').  `C-h l' displays your last 300 input
keystrokes.  If you see commands that you don't know, you can use `C-h
c' to find out what they do.

   To review recent echo area messages, use `C-h e'
(`view-echo-area-messages').  This displays the buffer `*Messages*',
where those messages are kept.

   Each Emacs major mode typically redefines a few keys and makes other
changes in how editing works.  `C-h m' (`describe-mode') displays
documentation on the current major mode, which normally describes the
commands and features that are changed in this mode.

   `C-h b' (`describe-bindings') and `C-h s' (`describe-syntax') show
other information about the current environment within Emacs.  `C-h b'
displays a list of all the key bindings now in effect: first the local
bindings of the current minor modes, then the local bindings defined by
the current major mode, and finally the global bindings (*note Key
Bindings::).  `C-h s' displays the contents of the syntax table, with
explanations of each character's syntax (*note Syntax::).

   You can get a list of subcommands for a particular prefix key by
typing `C-h' after the prefix key.  (There are a few prefix keys for
which this does not work--those that provide their own bindings for
`C-h'.  One of these is <ESC>, because `<ESC> C-h' is actually `C-M-h',
which marks a defun.)

File: emacs,  Node: Help Files,  Next: Help Echo,  Prev: Misc Help,  Up: Help

10.9 Help Files

The Emacs help commands described above display dynamic help based on
the current state within Emacs, or refer to manuals.  Other help
commands display pre-written, static help files.

   Except for `C-h g', these commands all have the form `C-h C-CHAR';
that is, `C-h' followed by a control character.

`C-h C-c'
     Display the Emacs copying conditions (`describe-copying').  These
     are the rules under which you can copy and redistribute Emacs.

`C-h C-d'
     Display how to debug Emacs problems (`view-emacs-debugging').

`C-h C-f'
     Display the Emacs frequently-answered-questions list

`C-h g'
     Display general information about the GNU Project

`C-h C-m'
     Display how to order printed copies of Emacs manuals

`C-h C-n'
     Display the Emacs "news" file, which lists new features in the most
     recent version of Emacs (`view-emacs-news').

`C-h C-o'
     Display how to order or download the latest version of Emacs and
     other GNU software (`describe-distribution').

`C-h C-p'
     Display the list of known Emacs problems, sometimes with suggested
     workarounds (`view-emacs-problems').

`C-h C-t'
     Display the Emacs to-do list (`view-emacs-todo').

`C-h C-w'
     Display the full details on the complete absence of warranty for
     GNU Emacs (`describe-no-warranty').

File: emacs,  Node: Help Echo,  Prev: Help Files,  Up: Help

10.10 Help on Active Text and Tooltips

When text on the screen is "active", so that it does something special
in response to mouse clicks or `RET', it often has associated help
text.  For instance, most parts of the mode line have help text.  On
terminals that support mouse tracking, Emacs displays the help text as a
"tooltip" (sometimes known as "balloon help") or in the echo area,
whenever you leave the mouse stationary over the active text.  *Note

   If your terminal doesn't support mouse-tracking, you can display the
help text for active buffer text using the keyboard.  `C-h .'
(`display-local-help') displays any help text associated with the
character after point, using the echo area.  To display help text
automatically whenever it is available on the character after point, set
the variable `help-at-pt-display-when-idle' to `t'.

File: emacs,  Node: Mark,  Next: Killing,  Prev: Help,  Up: Top

11 The Mark and the Region

Many Emacs commands operate on an arbitrary contiguous part of the
current buffer.  To specify the text for such a command to operate on,
you set "the mark" at one end of it, and move point to the other end.
The text between point and the mark is called "the region".  The region
always extends between point and the mark, no matter which one comes
earlier in the text; each time you move point, the region changes.

   Setting the mark at a position in the text also "activates" it.
When the mark is active, Emacs indicates the extent of the region by
highlighting the text within it, using the `region' face (*note Face
Customization::).  After certain non-motion commands, including any
command that changes the text in the buffer, Emacs automatically
"deactivates" the mark; this turns off the highlighting.  You can also
explicitly deactivate the mark at any time, by typing `C-g' (*note

   This default behavior of the mark is known as Transient Mark mode.
Disabling Transient Mark mode switches Emacs to an alternative
behavior, in which the mark is always active, which was the default
prior to Emacs 23.  *Note Persistent Mark::.

   Setting the mark in one buffer has no effect on the marks in other
buffers.  When you return to a buffer with an active mark, the mark is
at the same place as before.  When multiple windows show the same
buffer, they can have different values of point, and thus different
regions, but they all share one common mark position.  *Note Windows::.
Ordinarily, only the selected window highlights its region; however, if
the variable `highlight-nonselected-windows' is non-`nil', each window
highlights its own region.

* Menu:

* Setting Mark::	Commands to set the mark.
* Marking Objects::	Commands to put region around textual units.
* Using Region::	Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
* Mark Ring::   	Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
* Global Mark Ring::    Previous mark positions in various buffers.
* Shift Selection::     Using shifted cursor motion keys.
* Persistent Mark::	Keeping the mark active all the time.

File: emacs,  Node: Setting Mark,  Next: Marking Objects,  Up: Mark

11.1 Setting the Mark

Here are some commands for setting the mark:

     Set the mark at point, and activate it (`set-mark-command').

     The same.

`C-x C-x'
     Set the mark at point, and move point where the mark was

     Set point and the mark around the text you drag across.

     Set the mark at point, then move point to where you click

``Shifted motion keys''
     Set the mark at point if the mark is inactive, then move point.

   The most common way to set the mark is with `C-<SPC>'
(`set-mark-command')(1).  This sets the mark where point is, and
activates it.  You can then move point away, leaving the mark behind.

   For example, suppose you wish to convert part of the buffer to upper
case.  To accomplish this, go to the beginning of the desired text,
type `C-<SPC>', and move point until the desired portion of text is
highlighted.  Now type `C-x C-u' (`upcase-region').  This converts the
text in the region to upper case, and then deactivates the mark.

   The command `C-x C-x' (`exchange-point-and-mark') exchanges the
positions of point and the mark, keeping the region unchanged.  If the
mark is inactive, Emacs first reactivates the mark wherever it was last
set.  `C-x C-x' is useful when you are satisfied with the position of
point but want to move the other end of the region (where the mark is).
Using `C-x C-x' a second time, if necessary, puts the mark at the new
position with point back at its original position.

   You can also set the mark with the mouse.  If you press the left
mouse button (`down-mouse-1') and drag the mouse across a range of text
while holding down this button, this sets the mark where you first
pressed the mouse button and puts point where you release it.
Alternatively, clicking the right mouse button (`mouse-3') sets the
mark at point and then moves point to where you clicked.  Using the
mouse to mark a region also copies the region into the kill ring (*note
Kill Ring::).  *Note Mouse Commands::, for a more detailed description
of these mouse commands.

   Finally, you can set the mark by holding down the shift key while
typing certain cursor motion commands (such as `S-<right>', `S-C-f',
`S-C-n', etc.)  This is referred to as "shift-selection".  This sets
the mark at point before moving point, but only if there is no active
mark set via shift-selection.  The mark set by mouse commands and by
shift-selection behaves slightly differently from the usual mark: any
subsequent unshifted cursor motion command deactivates it
automatically.  For details, *Note Shift Selection::.

   Whenever the mark is active, you can deactivate it by typing `C-g'
(*note Quitting::).  The mark is also automatically deactivated after
certain non-motion commands.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) There is no `C-<SPC>' character in ASCII; usually, typing
`C-<SPC>' on a text terminal gives the character `C-@'.  This key is
also bound to `set-mark-command', so unless you are unlucky enough to
have an text terminal that behaves differently, you might as well think
of `C-@' as `C-<SPC>'.

File: emacs,  Node: Marking Objects,  Next: Using Region,  Prev: Setting Mark,  Up: Mark

11.2 Commands to Mark Textual Objects

Here are the commands for placing point and the mark around a textual
object such as a word, list, paragraph or page:

     Set mark after end of next word (`mark-word').  This does not move

     Set mark after end of following balanced expression (`mark-sexp').
     This does not move point.

     Move point to the beginning of the current paragraph, and set mark
     at the end (`mark-paragraph').

     Move point to the beginning of the current defun, and set mark at
     the end (`mark-defun').

`C-x C-p'
     Move point to the beginning of the current page, and set mark at
     the end (`mark-page').

`C-x h'
     Move point to the beginning of the buffer, and set mark at the end

   `M-@' (`mark-word') puts the mark at the end of the next word, while
`C-M-@' (`mark-sexp') puts it at the end of the next balanced
expression (*note Expressions::).  These commands handle arguments just
like `M-f' and `C-M-f'.

   The other commands in the above list set both point and mark, so as
to delimit an object in the buffer.  `M-h' (`mark-paragraph') moves
point to the beginning of the paragraph that surrounds or follows
point, and sets the mark at the end of that paragraph (*note
Paragraphs::).  As a special exception, repeated invocations of `M-h'
extend the region to subsequent paragraphs.  This is convenient for
indenting, case-converting, or killing entire paragraphs.

   The `M-h' command accepts prefix arguments.  If the argument's value
is positive, `M-h' marks that many paragraphs starting with the one
surrounding point; therefore, `C-u M-h' is equivalent to `M-h M-h M-h
M-h'.  If the prefix argument is -N, `M-h' marks N paragraphs running
back from the one surrounding point; in this case, point moves forward
to the end of that paragraph, and the mark goes at the start of the

   Similarly, `C-M-h' (`mark-defun') sets mark and point around major
top-level definitions (*note Moving by Defuns::), and `C-x C-p'
(`mark-page') does the same for pages (*note Pages::).  These treat
repeated invocations and prefix arguments similarly to `mark-paragraph'.

   Finally, `C-x h' (`mark-whole-buffer') sets up the entire buffer as
the region, by putting point at the beginning and the mark at the end.
(In some programs this is called "select all.")

File: emacs,  Node: Using Region,  Next: Mark Ring,  Prev: Marking Objects,  Up: Mark

11.3 Operating on the Region

Once you have a region, here are some of the ways you can operate on it:

   * Kill it with `C-w' (*note Killing::).

   * Copy it to the kill ring with `M-w' (*note Yanking::).

   * Convert case with `C-x C-l' or `C-x C-u' (*note Case::).

   * Undo changes within it using `C-u C-/' (*note Undo::).

   * Replace text within it using `M-%' (*note Query Replace::).

   * Indent it with `C-x <TAB>' or `C-M-\' (*note Indentation::).

   * Fill it as text with `M-x fill-region' (*note Filling::).

   * Print hardcopy with `M-x print-region' (*note Printing::).

   * Evaluate it as Lisp code with `M-x eval-region' (*note Lisp

   * Save it in a register with `C-x r s' (*note Registers::).

   * Save it in a buffer or a file (*note Accumulating Text::).

   Most commands that operate on the text in the region have the word
`region' in their names.

   Some commands have a default behavior when the mark is inactive, but
operate on the text in the region if the mark is active.  For example,
`M-$' (`ispell-word') normally checks the spelling of the word at
point, but it checks the text in the region if the region is active
(*note Spelling::).  Normally, such commands use their default behavior
if the region is empty (i.e., if mark and point are at the same
position).  If you want them to operate on the empty region, change the
variable `use-empty-active-region' to `t'.

   If you enable Delete Selection mode, a minor mode, then inserting
text while the mark is active causes the selected text to be deleted
first.  This also deactivates the mark.  Many graphical applications
follow this convention, but Emacs does not.  To toggle Delete Selection
mode on or off, type `M-x delete-selection-mode'.  Another effect of
this mode is that some keys, such as <DEL> and `C-d', always kill the
region if one exists.

File: emacs,  Node: Mark Ring,  Next: Global Mark Ring,  Prev: Using Region,  Up: Mark

11.4 The Mark Ring

Aside from delimiting the region, the mark is also useful for
remembering spots that you may want to go back to.  Each buffer
remembers 16 previous locations of the mark, in the "mark ring".
Commands that set the mark also push the old mark onto this ring.

`C-<SPC> C-<SPC>'
     Set the mark, pushing it onto the mark ring, without activating it.

`C-u C-<SPC>'
     Move point to where the mark was, and restore the mark from the
     ring of former marks.

   The command C-<SPC> C-<SPC> is handy when you want to use the mark
to remember a position to which you may wish to return.  It pushes the
current point onto the mark ring, without activating the mark (which
would cause Emacs to highlight the region).  This is actually two
consecutive invocations of `C-<SPC>' (`set-mark-command'); the first
`C-<SPC>' sets the mark, and the second `C-<SPC>' deactivates it.
(When Transient Mark mode is off, C-<SPC> C-<SPC> instead activates
Transient Mark mode temporarily.  *Note Persistent Mark::.)

   To return to a marked position, use `set-mark-command' with a prefix
argument: `C-u C-<SPC>'.  This moves point to where the mark was, and
deactivates the mark if it was active.  Each subsequent `C-u C-<SPC>'
jumps to a prior position stored in the mark ring.  The positions you
move through in this way are not lost; they go to the end of the ring.

   If you set `set-mark-command-repeat-pop' to non-`nil', then
immediately after you type `C-u C-<SPC>', you can type `C-<SPC>'
instead of `C-u C-<SPC>' to cycle through the mark ring.  By default,
`set-mark-command-repeat-pop' is `nil'.

   Each buffer has its own mark ring.  All editing commands use the
current buffer's mark ring.  In particular, `C-u C-<SPC>' always stays
in the same buffer.

   The variable `mark-ring-max' specifies the maximum number of entries
to keep in the mark ring.  If that many entries exist and another one
is pushed, the earliest one in the list is discarded.  Repeating `C-u
C-<SPC>' cycles through the positions currently in the ring.

   If the variable `mark-even-if-inactive' is `nil', commands can only
use the mark and the region when it is active.  This variable is
non-`nil' by default.

   If you want to move back to the same place over and over, the mark
ring may not be convenient enough.  If so, you can record the position
in a register for later retrieval (*note Saving Positions in Registers:

File: emacs,  Node: Global Mark Ring,  Next: Shift Selection,  Prev: Mark Ring,  Up: Mark

11.5 The Global Mark Ring

In addition to the ordinary mark ring that belongs to each buffer,
Emacs has a single "global mark ring".  Each time you set a mark, in
any buffer, this is recorded in the global mark ring in addition to the
current buffer's own mark ring.

   The command `C-x C-<SPC>' (`pop-global-mark') jumps to the buffer
and position of the latest entry in the global ring.  It also rotates
the ring, so that successive uses of `C-x C-<SPC>' take you to earlier
buffers and mark positions.

File: emacs,  Node: Shift Selection,  Next: Persistent Mark,  Prev: Global Mark Ring,  Up: Mark

11.6 Shift Selection

If you hold down the shift key while typing a cursor motion command,
this sets the mark before moving point, so that the region extends from
the original position of point to its new position.  This feature,
newly introduced in Emacs 23, is referred to as "shift-selection".  It
is similar to the way text is selected in other editors.

   The mark set via shift-selection behaves a little differently from
what we have described above.  Firstly, in addition to the usual ways
of deactivating the mark (such as changing the buffer text or typing
`C-g'), the mark is deactivated by any _unshifted_ cursor motion
command.  Secondly, any subsequent _shifted_ cursor motion command
avoids setting the mark anew.  Therefore, a series of shifted cursor
motion commands will continuously extend the region.

   Shift-selection only works if the shifted cursor motion key is not
already bound to a separate command (*note Customization::).  For
example, if you bind `S-C-f' to another command, typing `S-C-f' runs
that command instead of performing a shift-selected version of `C-f'

   A mark set via mouse commands behaves the same as a mark set via
shift-selection (*note Setting Mark::).  For example, if you specify a
region by dragging the mouse, you can continue to extend the region
using shifted cursor motion commands.  In either case, any unshifted
cursor motion command deactivates the mark.

   To turn off shift-selection, set `shift-select-mode' to `nil'.
Doing this does not disable setting the mark via mouse commands.

File: emacs,  Node: Persistent Mark,  Prev: Shift Selection,  Up: Mark

11.7 Persistent Marks

By default, the mark is activated by setting it, and deactivated by
most non-motion commands (including all commands that change the text
in the buffer).  This behavior is called Transient Mark mode(1).

   Turning off Transient Mark mode switches Emacs to an alternative
mode of operation, which was the default prior to Emacs 23.  When
Transient Mark mode is off, the mark is _never_ deactivated, but it can
be set to different locations using commands such as `C-<SPC>'.  Emacs
does not highlight the region, because that would be a nuisance.  As a
special exception, the region is temporarily highlighted if you set it
with the mouse (*note Setting Mark::), or with shift-selection (*note
Shift Selection::).

   To turn off Transient Mark mode, type `M-x transient-mark-mode'.
This command toggles the mode; you can use the same command to turn
Transient Mark mode on again.  You can also turn off Transient Mark
mode using the menu bar: in the `Options' menu, toggle the `Active
Region Highlighting' menu item.

   Here are the details of how Emacs behaves when Transient Mark mode
is off:

   * Emacs does not show where the mark is located--you have to
     remember.  The usual solution to this problem is to set the mark
     and then use it soon, before you forget where it is.
     Alternatively, you can check the location of the mark by using
     `C-x C-x', which exchanges the positions of the point and the mark
     (*note Setting Mark::).

   * Many commands that insert text, such as `C-y' (`yank'), position
     point and the mark at opposite ends of the inserted text, so that
     the region consists of the text just inserted.  You can tell when
     a command sets the mark because it displays `Mark set' in the echo

   * Many commands that move point long distances, like `M-<' and
     `C-s', first set the mark where point was.

   * Some commands, which ordinarily operate on the region when the
     mark is active, instead act on the entire buffer.  For instance,
     `C-x u' normally reverses changes within the region if the mark is
     active; when Transient Mark mode is off, it acts on the entire
     buffer.  However, you can type `C-u C-x u' to make it operate on
     the region.  *Note Undo::.  Other commands that act this way are
     identified in their own documentation.

   While Transient Mark mode is off, you can activate it temporarily
using `C-<SPC> C-<SPC>' or `C-u C-x C-x'.

`C-<SPC> C-<SPC>'
     Set the mark at point (like plain `C-<SPC>') and enable Transient
     Mark mode just once, until the mark is deactivated.  (This is not
     really a separate command; you are using the `C-<SPC>' command

`C-u C-x C-x'
     Activate the mark without changing it; enable Transient Mark mode
     just once, until the mark is deactivated.  (This is the `C-x C-x'
     command, `exchange-point-and-mark', with a prefix argument.)

   These commands set or activate the mark, and enable Transient Mark
mode only until the mark is deactivated.  One reason you may want to
use them is that some commands operate on the entire buffer instead of
the region when Transient Mark mode is off.  Enabling Transient Mark
mode momentarily gives you a way to use these commands on the region.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) It is also sometimes called "Zmacs mode", because the Zmacs
editor on the MIT Lisp Machine handled the mark in a similar way.

File: emacs,  Node: Killing,  Next: Yanking,  Prev: Mark,  Up: Top

12 Killing and Moving Text

"Killing" means erasing text and copying it into the "kill ring", from
which you can bring it back into the buffer by "yanking" it.  (Some
applications use the terms "cutting" and "pasting" for similar
operations.)  This is the most common way of moving or copying text
within Emacs.  It is very versatile, because there are commands for
killing many different types of syntactic units.

   Most commands which erase text from the buffer save it in the kill
ring.  These are known as "kill" commands.  The kill ring stores
several recent kills, not just the last one, so killing is a very safe
operation: when you make a new kill, you don't have to worry much about
losing text that you previously killed.

   You can yank text from the kill ring into any position in a buffer,
including a position in a different buffer; the kill ring is shared by
all buffers.  The `C-/' (`undo') command can undo both kill and delete
commands (*note Undo::); the importance of the kill ring is that you
can yank the text in a different place.

   Commands that erase text but do not save it in the kill ring are
known as "delete" commands.  These include `C-d' (`delete-char') and
<DEL> (`delete-backward-char'), which delete only one character at a
time, and those commands that delete only spaces or newlines.  Commands
that can erase significant amounts of nontrivial data generally do a
kill operation instead.  The commands' names and individual
descriptions use the words `kill' and `delete' to say which kind of
operation they perform.

   Some specialized buffers contain "read-only text", which cannot be
modified and therefore cannot be killed.  But some users like to use
the kill commands to copy read-only text into the kill ring, without
actually changing it.  Therefore, the kill commands work specially in a
read-only buffer: they move over text, and copy it to the kill ring,
without actually deleting it from the buffer.  Normally, kill commands
beep and display an error message when this happens.  But if you set
the variable `kill-read-only-ok' to a non-`nil' value, they just print
a message in the echo area to explain why the text has not been erased.

   You can also use the mouse to kill and yank.  *Note Cut and Paste::.

* Menu:

* Deletion::            Commands for deleting small amounts of text and
                          blank areas.
* Killing by Lines::    How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
* Other Kill Commands:: Commands to kill large regions of text and
                          syntactic units such as words and sentences.

File: emacs,  Node: Deletion,  Next: Killing by Lines,  Up: Killing

12.1 Deletion

Deletion means erasing text and not saving it in the kill ring.  For
the most part, the Emacs commands that delete text are those that erase
just one character or only whitespace.

     Delete next character (`delete-char').

     Delete previous character (`delete-backward-char').

     Delete spaces and tabs around point (`delete-horizontal-space').

     Delete spaces and tabs around point, leaving one space

`C-x C-o'
     Delete blank lines around the current line (`delete-blank-lines').

     Join two lines by deleting the intervening newline, along with any
     indentation following it (`delete-indentation').

   We have already described the basic deletion commands `C-d'
(`delete-char') and <DEL> (`delete-backward-char').  *Note Erasing::.

   The other delete commands are those that delete only whitespace
characters: spaces, tabs and newlines.  `M-\'
(`delete-horizontal-space') deletes all the spaces and tab characters
before and after point.  With a prefix argument, this only deletes
spaces and tab characters before point.  `M-<SPC>' (`just-one-space')
does likewise but leaves a single space after point, regardless of the
number of spaces that existed previously (even if there were none
before).  With a numeric argument N, it leaves N spaces after point.

   `C-x C-o' (`delete-blank-lines') deletes all blank lines after the
current line.  If the current line is blank, it deletes all blank lines
preceding the current line as well (leaving one blank line, the current
line).  On a solitary blank line, it deletes that line.

   `M-^' (`delete-indentation') joins the current line and the previous
line, by deleting a newline and all surrounding spaces, usually leaving
a single space.  *Note M-^: Indentation.

File: emacs,  Node: Killing by Lines,  Next: Other Kill Commands,  Prev: Deletion,  Up: Killing

12.2 Killing by Lines

     Kill rest of line or one or more lines (`kill-line').

     Kill an entire line at once (`kill-whole-line')

   The simplest kill command is `C-k'.  If given at the beginning of a
line, it kills all the text on the line(1), leaving it blank.  When
used on a blank line, it kills the whole line including its newline.

   More precisely, `C-k' kills from point up to the end of the line,
unless it is at the end of a line.  In that case it kills the newline
following point, thus merging the next line into the current one.
Spaces and tabs at the end of the line are ignored when deciding which
case applies, so as long as point is after the last visible character
in the line, you can be sure that `C-k' will kill the newline.  To kill
an entire non-blank line, go to the beginning and type `C-k' twice.

   When `C-k' is given a positive argument N, it kills N lines and the
newlines that follow them (text on the current line before point is not
killed).  With a negative argument -N, it kills N lines preceding the
current line, together with the text on the current line before point.
`C-k' with an argument of zero kills the text before point on the
current line.

   If the variable `kill-whole-line' is non-`nil', `C-k' at the very
beginning of a line kills the entire line including the following
newline.  This variable is normally `nil'.

   `C-S-backspace' (`kill-whole-line') will kill a whole line including
its newline regardless of the position of point within the line.  Note
that many character terminals will prevent you from typing the key
sequence `C-S-backspace'.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Here, "line" means a logical text line, not a screen line.
*Note Continuation Lines::.

File: emacs,  Node: Other Kill Commands,  Prev: Killing by Lines,  Up: Killing

12.3 Other Kill Commands

     Kill region (`kill-region').  *Note Mark::.

     Save region as last killed text without actually killing it
     (`kill-ring-save').  Some programs call this "copying."

     Kill word (`kill-word').  *Note Words::.

     Kill word backwards (`backward-kill-word').

`C-x <DEL>'
     Kill back to beginning of sentence (`backward-kill-sentence').
     *Note Sentences::.

     Kill to end of sentence (`kill-sentence').

     Kill the following balanced expression (`kill-sexp').  *Note

`M-z CHAR'
     Kill through the next occurrence of CHAR (`zap-to-char').

   Apart from `C-k', the most commonly-used kill command is `C-w'
(`kill-region'), which kills the text in the region (i.e., between
point and mark).  *Note Mark::.  If the mark is inactive when you type
`C-w', it first reactivates the mark where it was last set.  The mark
is deactivated at the end of the command.

   The command `M-w' (`kill-ring-save') copies the region into the kill
ring without removing it from the buffer.  This is approximately
equivalent to `C-w' followed by `C-/', except that `M-w' does not alter
the undo history.

   Emacs also provides commands to kill specific syntactic units:
words, with `M-<DEL>' and `M-d' (*note Words::); balanced expressions,
with `C-M-k' (*note Expressions::); and sentences, with `C-x <DEL>' and
`M-k' (*note Sentences::).

   The command `M-z' (`zap-to-char') combines killing with searching:
it reads a character and kills from point up to (and including) the
next occurrence of that character in the buffer.  A numeric argument
acts as a repeat count; a negative argument means to search backward
and kill text before point.

File: emacs,  Node: Yanking,  Next: Accumulating Text,  Prev: Killing,  Up: Top

13 Yanking

"Yanking" means reinserting text previously killed.  The usual way to
move or copy text is to kill it and then yank it elsewhere one or more

     Yank last killed text (`yank').

     Replace text just yanked with an earlier batch of killed text

     Append next kill to last batch of killed text (`append-next-kill').

   On graphical displays with window systems, if there is a current
selection in some other application, and you selected it more recently
than you killed any text in Emacs, `C-y' copies the selection instead
of text killed within Emacs.

* Menu:

* Kill Ring::		Where killed text is stored.  Basic yanking.
* Appending Kills::	Several kills in a row all yank together.
* Earlier Kills::	Yanking something killed some time ago.

File: emacs,  Node: Kill Ring,  Next: Appending Kills,  Up: Yanking

13.1 The Kill Ring

All killed text is recorded in the "kill ring", a list of blocks of
text that have been killed.  There is only one kill ring, shared by all
buffers, so you can kill text in one buffer and yank it in another
buffer.  This is the usual way to move text from one file to another.
(There are several other methods: for instance, you could store the
text in a register.  *Note Registers::, for information about
registers.  *Note Accumulating Text::, for some other ways to move text

   The command `C-y' (`yank') reinserts the text of the most recent
kill, leaving the cursor at the end of the text.  It also adds the
position of the beginning of the text to the mark ring, without
activating the mark; this allows you to jump easily to that position
with `C-x C-x' (*note Setting Mark::).  With a plain prefix argument
(`C-u C-y'), it instead leaves the cursor in front of the text, and
adds the position of the end of the text to the mark ring.  Using other
sort of prefix argument specifies an earlier kill; for example, `C-u 4
C-y' reinserts the fourth most recent kill.  *Note Earlier Kills::.

   The yank commands discard certain properties from the yanked text.
These are properties that might lead to annoying results, such as
causing the text to respond to the mouse or specifying key bindings.
The list of properties to discard is stored in the variable
`yank-excluded-properties'.  Yanking of register contents and
rectangles also discard these properties.  *Note Text Properties:
(elisp)Text Properties, for more information about text properties.

File: emacs,  Node: Appending Kills,  Next: Earlier Kills,  Prev: Kill Ring,  Up: Yanking

13.2 Appending Kills

Normally, each kill command pushes a new entry onto the kill ring.
However, two or more kill commands in a row combine their text into a
single entry, so that a single `C-y' yanks all the text as a unit, just
as it was before it was killed.

   Thus, if you want to yank text as a unit, you need not kill all of it
with one command; you can keep killing line after line, or word after
word, until you have killed it all, and you can still get it all back at

   Commands that kill forward from point add onto the end of the
previous killed text.  Commands that kill backward from point add text
onto the beginning.  This way, any sequence of mixed forward and
backward kill commands puts all the killed text into one entry without
rearrangement.  Numeric arguments do not break the sequence of
appending kills.  For example, suppose the buffer contains this text:

     This is a line -!-of sample text.

with point shown by -!-.  If you type `M-d M-<DEL> M-d M-<DEL>',
killing alternately forward and backward, you end up with `a line of
sample' as one entry in the kill ring, and `This is  text.' in the
buffer.  (Note the double space between `is' and `text', which you can
clean up with `M-<SPC>' or `M-q'.)

   Another way to kill the same text is to move back two words with
`M-b M-b', then kill all four words forward with `C-u M-d'.  This
produces exactly the same results in the buffer and in the kill ring.
`M-f M-f C-u M-<DEL>' kills the same text, all going backward; once
again, the result is the same.  The text in the kill ring entry always
has the same order that it had in the buffer before you killed it.

   If a kill command is separated from the last kill command by other
commands (not just numeric arguments), it starts a new entry on the kill
ring.  But you can force it to append by first typing the command
`C-M-w' (`append-next-kill') right before it.  The `C-M-w' tells the
following command, if it is a kill command, to append the text it kills
to the last killed text, instead of starting a new entry.  With
`C-M-w', you can kill several separated pieces of text and accumulate
them to be yanked back in one place.

   A kill command following `M-w' (`kill-ring-save') does not append to
the text that `M-w' copied into the kill ring.

File: emacs,  Node: Earlier Kills,  Prev: Appending Kills,  Up: Yanking

13.3 Yanking Earlier Kills

To recover killed text that is no longer the most recent kill, use the
`M-y' command (`yank-pop').  It takes the text previously yanked and
replaces it with the text from an earlier kill.  So, to recover the
text of the next-to-the-last kill, first use `C-y' to yank the last
kill, and then use `M-y' to replace it with the previous kill.  `M-y'
is allowed only after a `C-y' or another `M-y'.

   You can understand `M-y' in terms of a "last yank" pointer which
points at an entry in the kill ring.  Each time you kill, the "last
yank" pointer moves to the newly made entry at the front of the ring.
`C-y' yanks the entry which the "last yank" pointer points to.  `M-y'
moves the "last yank" pointer to a different entry, and the text in the
buffer changes to match.  Enough `M-y' commands can move the pointer to
any entry in the ring, so you can get any entry into the buffer.
Eventually the pointer reaches the end of the ring; the next `M-y'
loops back around to the first entry again.

   `M-y' moves the "last yank" pointer around the ring, but it does not
change the order of the entries in the ring, which always runs from the
most recent kill at the front to the oldest one still remembered.

   `M-y' can take a numeric argument, which tells it how many entries
to advance the "last yank" pointer by.  A negative argument moves the
pointer toward the front of the ring; from the front of the ring, it
moves "around" to the last entry and continues forward from there.

   Once the text you are looking for is brought into the buffer, you can
stop doing `M-y' commands and it will stay there.  It's just a copy of
the kill ring entry, so editing it in the buffer does not change what's
in the ring.  As long as no new killing is done, the "last yank"
pointer remains at the same place in the kill ring, so repeating `C-y'
will yank another copy of the same previous kill.

   If you know how many `M-y' commands it would take to find the text
you want, you can yank that text in one step using `C-y' with a numeric
argument.  `C-y' with an argument restores the text from the specified
kill ring entry, counting back from the most recent as 1.  Thus, `C-u 2
C-y' gets the next-to-the-last block of killed text--it is equivalent
to `C-y M-y'.  `C-y' with a numeric argument starts counting from the
"last yank" pointer, and sets the "last yank" pointer to the entry that
it yanks.

   The length of the kill ring is controlled by the variable
`kill-ring-max'; no more than that many blocks of killed text are saved.

   The actual contents of the kill ring are stored in a variable named
`kill-ring'; you can view the entire contents of the kill ring with the
command `C-h v kill-ring'.

File: emacs,  Node: Accumulating Text,  Next: Rectangles,  Prev: Yanking,  Up: Top

14 Accumulating Text

Usually we copy or move text by killing it and yanking it, but there
are other convenient methods for copying one block of text in many
places, or for copying many scattered blocks of text into one place.
Here we describe the commands to accumulate scattered pieces of text
into a buffer or into a file.

`M-x append-to-buffer'
     Append region to the contents of a specified buffer.

`M-x prepend-to-buffer'
     Prepend region to the contents of a specified buffer.

`M-x copy-to-buffer'
     Copy region into a specified buffer, deleting that buffer's old

`M-x insert-buffer'
     Insert the contents of a specified buffer into current buffer at

`M-x append-to-file'
     Append region to the contents of a specified file, at the end.

   To accumulate text into a buffer, use `M-x append-to-buffer'.  This
reads a buffer name, then inserts a copy of the region into the buffer
specified.  If you specify a nonexistent buffer, `append-to-buffer'
creates the buffer.  The text is inserted wherever point is in that
buffer.  If you have been using the buffer for editing, the copied text
goes into the middle of the text of the buffer, starting from wherever
point happens to be at that moment.

   Point in that buffer is left at the end of the copied text, so
successive uses of `append-to-buffer' accumulate the text in the
specified buffer in the same order as they were copied.  Strictly
speaking, `append-to-buffer' does not always append to the text already
in the buffer--it appends only if point in that buffer is at the end.
However, if `append-to-buffer' is the only command you use to alter a
buffer, then point is always at the end.

   `M-x prepend-to-buffer' is just like `append-to-buffer' except that
point in the other buffer is left before the copied text, so successive
prependings add text in reverse order.  `M-x copy-to-buffer' is
similar, except that any existing text in the other buffer is deleted,
so the buffer is left containing just the text newly copied into it.

   The command `M-x insert-buffer' can be used to retrieve the
accumulated text from another buffer.  This prompts for the name of a
buffer, and inserts a copy of all the text in that buffer into the
current buffer at point, leaving point at the beginning of the inserted
text.  It also adds the position of the end of the inserted text to the
mark ring, without activating the mark.  *Note Buffers::, for
background information on buffers.

   Instead of accumulating text in a buffer, you can append text
directly into a file with `M-x append-to-file'.  This prompts for a
filename, and adds the text of the region to the end of the specified
file.  The file is changed immediately on disk.

   You should use `append-to-file' only with files that are _not_ being
visited in Emacs.  Using it on a file that you are editing in Emacs
would change the file behind Emacs's back, which can lead to losing
some of your editing.

   Another way to move text around is to store it in a register.  *Note

File: emacs,  Node: Rectangles,  Next: CUA Bindings,  Prev: Accumulating Text,  Up: Top

15 Rectangles

"Rectangle" commands operate on rectangular areas of the text: all the
characters between a certain pair of columns, in a certain range of
lines.  Emacs has commands to kill rectangles, yank killed rectangles,
clear them out, fill them with blanks or text, or delete them.
Rectangle commands are useful with text in multicolumn formats, and for
changing text into or out of such formats.

   When you must specify a rectangle for a command to work on, you do it
by putting the mark at one corner and point at the opposite corner.  The
rectangle thus specified is called the "region-rectangle" because you
control it in much the same way as the region is controlled.  But
remember that a given combination of point and mark values can be
interpreted either as a region or as a rectangle, depending on the
command that uses them.

   If point and the mark are in the same column, the rectangle they
delimit is empty.  If they are in the same line, the rectangle is one
line high.  This asymmetry between lines and columns comes about
because point (and likewise the mark) is between two columns, but within
a line.

`C-x r k'
     Kill the text of the region-rectangle, saving its contents as the
     "last killed rectangle" (`kill-rectangle').

`C-x r d'
     Delete the text of the region-rectangle (`delete-rectangle').

`C-x r y'
     Yank the last killed rectangle with its upper left corner at point

`C-x r o'
     Insert blank space to fill the space of the region-rectangle
     (`open-rectangle').  This pushes the previous contents of the
     region-rectangle rightward.

`C-x r c'
     Clear the region-rectangle by replacing all of its contents with
     spaces (`clear-rectangle').

`M-x delete-whitespace-rectangle'
     Delete whitespace in each of the lines on the specified rectangle,
     starting from the left edge column of the rectangle.

`C-x r t STRING <RET>'
     Replace rectangle contents with STRING on each line

`M-x string-insert-rectangle <RET> STRING <RET>'
     Insert STRING on each line of the rectangle.

   The rectangle operations fall into two classes: commands for
deleting and inserting rectangles, and commands for blank rectangles.

   There are two ways to get rid of the text in a rectangle: you can
discard the text (delete it) or save it as the "last killed" rectangle.
The commands for these two ways are `C-x r d' (`delete-rectangle') and
`C-x r k' (`kill-rectangle').  In either case, the portion of each line
that falls inside the rectangle's boundaries is deleted, causing any
following text on the line to move left into the gap.

   Note that "killing" a rectangle is not killing in the usual sense;
the rectangle is not stored in the kill ring, but in a special place
that can only record the most recent rectangle killed.  This is because
yanking a rectangle is so different from yanking linear text that
different yank commands have to be used.  It is hard to define
yank-popping for rectangles, so we do not try.

   To yank the last killed rectangle, type `C-x r y'
(`yank-rectangle').  Yanking a rectangle is the opposite of killing
one.  Point specifies where to put the rectangle's upper left corner.
The rectangle's first line is inserted there, the rectangle's second
line is inserted at the same horizontal position, but one line
vertically down, and so on.  The number of lines affected is determined
by the height of the saved rectangle.

   You can convert single-column lists into double-column lists using
rectangle killing and yanking; kill the second half of the list as a
rectangle and then yank it beside the first line of the list.  *Note
Two-Column::, for another way to edit multi-column text.

   You can also copy rectangles into and out of registers with `C-x r r
R' and `C-x r i R'.  *Note Rectangle Registers: RegRect.

   There are two commands you can use for making blank rectangles: `C-x
r c' (`clear-rectangle') which blanks out existing text, and `C-x r o'
(`open-rectangle') which inserts a blank rectangle.  Clearing a
rectangle is equivalent to deleting it and then inserting a blank
rectangle of the same size.

   The command `M-x delete-whitespace-rectangle' deletes horizontal
whitespace starting from a particular column.  This applies to each of
the lines in the rectangle, and the column is specified by the left
edge of the rectangle.  The right edge of the rectangle does not make
any difference to this command.

   The command `C-x r t' (`string-rectangle') replaces the contents of
a region-rectangle with a string on each line.  The string's width need
not be the same as the width of the rectangle.  If the string's width
is less, the text after the rectangle shifts left; if the string is
wider than the rectangle, the text after the rectangle shifts right.

   The command `M-x string-insert-rectangle' is similar to
`string-rectangle', but inserts the string on each line, shifting the
original text to the right.

File: emacs,  Node: CUA Bindings,  Next: Registers,  Prev: Rectangles,  Up: Top

16 CUA Bindings

The command `M-x cua-mode' sets up key bindings that are compatible
with the Common User Access (CUA) system used in many other
applications.  `C-x' means cut (kill), `C-c' copy, `C-v' paste (yank),
and `C-z' undo.  Standard Emacs commands like `C-x C-c' still work,
because `C-x' and `C-c' only take effect when the mark is active (and
the region is highlighted).  However, if you don't want to override
these bindings in Emacs at all, set `cua-enable-cua-keys' to `nil'.

   To enter an Emacs command like `C-x C-f' while the mark is active,
use one of the following methods: either hold `Shift' together with the
prefix key, e.g. `S-C-x C-f', or quickly type the prefix key twice,
e.g. `C-x C-x C-f'.

   In CUA mode, typed text replaces the active region as in
Delete-Selection mode (*note Mouse Commands::).

   CUA mode provides enhanced rectangle support with visible rectangle
highlighting.  Use `C-RET' to start a rectangle, extend it using the
movement commands, and cut or copy it using `C-x' or `C-c'.  `RET'
moves the cursor to the next (clockwise) corner of the rectangle, so
you can easily expand it in any direction.  Normal text you type is
inserted to the left or right of each line in the rectangle (on the
same side as the cursor).

   With CUA you can easily copy text and rectangles into and out of
registers by providing a one-digit numeric prefix to the kill, copy,
and yank commands, e.g. `C-1 C-c' copies the region into register `1',
and `C-2 C-v' yanks the contents of register `2'.

   CUA mode also has a global mark feature which allows easy moving and
copying of text between buffers.  Use `C-S-SPC' to toggle the global
mark on and off.  When the global mark is on, all text that you kill or
copy is automatically inserted at the global mark, and text you type is
inserted at the global mark rather than at the current position.

   For example, to copy words from various buffers into a word list in
a given buffer, set the global mark in the target buffer, then navigate
to each of the words you want in the list, mark it (e.g. with `S-M-f'),
copy it to the list with `C-c' or `M-w', and insert a newline after the
word in the target list by pressing <RET>.

File: emacs,  Node: Registers,  Next: Display,  Prev: CUA Bindings,  Up: Top

17 Registers

Emacs "registers" are compartments where you can save text, rectangles,
positions, and other things for later use.  Once you save text or a
rectangle in a register, you can copy it into the buffer once, or many
times; once you save a position in a register, you can jump back to
that position once, or many times.

   Each register has a name that consists of a single character, which
we will denote by R; R can be a letter (such as `a') or a number (such
as `1'); case matters, so register `a' is not the same as register `A'.

   A register can store a position, a piece of text, a rectangle, a
number, a window configuration, or a file name, but only one thing at
any given time.  Whatever you store in a register remains there until
you store something else in that register.  To see what register R
contains, use `M-x view-register':

`M-x view-register <RET> R'
     Display a description of what register R contains.

   "Bookmarks" record files and positions in them, so you can return to
those positions when you look at the file again.  Bookmarks are similar
enough in spirit to registers that they seem to belong in this chapter.

* Menu:

* Position: RegPos.           Saving positions in registers.
* Text: RegText.              Saving text in registers.
* Rectangle: RegRect.         Saving rectangles in registers.
* Configurations: RegConfig.  Saving window configurations in registers.
* Numbers: RegNumbers.        Numbers in registers.
* Files: RegFiles.            File names in registers.
* Bookmarks::                 Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.

File: emacs,  Node: RegPos,  Next: RegText,  Up: Registers

17.1 Saving Positions in Registers

`C-x r <SPC> R'
     Record the position of point and the current buffer in register R

`C-x r j R'
     Jump to the position and buffer saved in register R

   Typing `C-x r <SPC>' (`point-to-register'), followed by a character
`R', saves both the position of point and the current buffer in
register R.  The register retains this information until you store
something else in it.

   The command `C-x r j R' switches to the buffer recorded in register
R, and moves point to the recorded position.  The contents of the
register are not changed, so you can jump to the saved position any
number of times.

   If you use `C-x r j' to go to a saved position, but the buffer it
was saved from has been killed, `C-x r j' tries to create the buffer
again by visiting the same file.  Of course, this works only for buffers
that were visiting files.

File: emacs,  Node: RegText,  Next: RegRect,  Prev: RegPos,  Up: Registers

17.2 Saving Text in Registers

When you want to insert a copy of the same piece of text several times,
it may be inconvenient to yank it from the kill ring, since each
subsequent kill moves that entry further down the ring.  An alternative
is to store the text in a register and later retrieve it.

`C-x r s R'
     Copy region into register R (`copy-to-register').

`C-x r i R'
     Insert text from register R (`insert-register').

`M-x append-to-register <RET> R'
     Append region to text in register R.

`M-x prepend-to-register <RET> R'
     Prepend region to text in register R.

   `C-x r s R' stores a copy of the text of the region into the
register named R.  If the mark is inactive, Emacs first reactivates the
mark where it was last set.  The mark is deactivated at the end of this
command.  *Note Mark::.  `C-u C-x r s R', the same command with a
prefix argument, copies the text into register R and deletes the text
from the buffer as well; you can think of this as "moving" the region
text into the register.

   `M-x append-to-register <RET> R' appends the copy of the text in the
region to the text already stored in the register named R.  If invoked
with a prefix argument, it deletes the region after appending it to the
register.  The command `prepend-to-register' is similar, except that it
_prepends_ the region text to the text in the register instead of
_appending_ it.

   `C-x r i R' inserts in the buffer the text from register R.
Normally it leaves point before the text and places the mark after, but
with a numeric argument (`C-u') it puts point after the text and the
mark before.

File: emacs,  Node: RegRect,  Next: RegConfig,  Prev: RegText,  Up: Registers

17.3 Saving Rectangles in Registers

A register can contain a rectangle instead of linear text.  *Note
Rectangles::, for basic information on how to specify a rectangle in
the buffer.

`C-x r r R'
     Copy the region-rectangle into register R
     (`copy-rectangle-to-register').  With numeric argument, delete it
     as well.

`C-x r i R'
     Insert the rectangle stored in register R (if it contains a
     rectangle) (`insert-register').

   The `C-x r i R' command inserts a text string if the register
contains one, and inserts a rectangle if the register contains one.

   See also the command `sort-columns', which you can think of as
sorting a rectangle.  *Note Sorting::.

File: emacs,  Node: RegConfig,  Next: RegNumbers,  Prev: RegRect,  Up: Registers

17.4 Saving Window Configurations in Registers

You can save the window configuration of the selected frame in a
register, or even the configuration of all windows in all frames, and
restore the configuration later.  *Note Windows::, for information
about window configurations.

`C-x r w R'
     Save the state of the selected frame's windows in register R

`C-x r f R'
     Save the state of all frames, including all their windows, in
     register R (`frame-configuration-to-register').

   Use `C-x r j R' to restore a window or frame configuration.  This is
the same command used to restore a cursor position.  When you restore a
frame configuration, any existing frames not included in the
configuration become invisible.  If you wish to delete these frames
instead, use `C-u C-x r j R'.

File: emacs,  Node: RegNumbers,  Next: RegFiles,  Prev: RegConfig,  Up: Registers

17.5 Keeping Numbers in Registers

There are commands to store a number in a register, to insert the
number in the buffer in decimal, and to increment it.  These commands
can be useful in keyboard macros (*note Keyboard Macros::).

`C-u NUMBER C-x r n R'
     Store NUMBER into register R (`number-to-register').

`C-u NUMBER C-x r + R'
     Increment the number in register R by NUMBER

`C-x r i R'
     Insert the number from register R into the buffer.

   `C-x r i' is the same command used to insert any other sort of
register contents into the buffer.  `C-x r +' with no numeric argument
increments the register value by 1; `C-x r n' with no numeric argument
stores zero in the register.

File: emacs,  Node: RegFiles,  Next: Bookmarks,  Prev: RegNumbers,  Up: Registers

17.6 Keeping File Names in Registers

If you visit certain file names frequently, you can visit them more
conveniently if you put their names in registers.  Here's the Lisp code
used to put a file name in a register:

     (set-register ?R '(file . NAME))

For example,

     (set-register ?z '(file . "/gd/gnu/emacs/19.0/src/ChangeLog"))

puts the file name shown in register `z'.

   To visit the file whose name is in register R, type `C-x r j R'.
(This is the same command used to jump to a position or restore a frame

File: emacs,  Node: Bookmarks,  Prev: RegFiles,  Up: Registers


"Bookmarks" are somewhat like registers in that they record positions
you can jump to.  Unlike registers, they have long names, and they
persist automatically from one Emacs session to the next.  The
prototypical use of bookmarks is to record "where you were reading" in
various files.

`C-x r m <RET>'
     Set the bookmark for the visited file, at point.

`C-x r m BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Set the bookmark named BOOKMARK at point (`bookmark-set').

`C-x r b BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Jump to the bookmark named BOOKMARK (`bookmark-jump').

`C-x r l'
     List all bookmarks (`list-bookmarks').

`M-x bookmark-save'
     Save all the current bookmark values in the default bookmark file.

   The prototypical use for bookmarks is to record one current position
in each of several files.  So the command `C-x r m', which sets a
bookmark, uses the visited file name as the default for the bookmark
name.  If you name each bookmark after the file it points to, then you
can conveniently revisit any of those files with `C-x r b', and move to
the position of the bookmark at the same time.

   To display a list of all your bookmarks in a separate buffer, type
`C-x r l' (`list-bookmarks').  If you switch to that buffer, you can
use it to edit your bookmark definitions or annotate the bookmarks.
Type `C-h m' in the bookmark buffer for more information about its
special editing commands.

   When you kill Emacs, Emacs offers to save your bookmark values in
your default bookmark file, `~/.emacs.bmk', if you have changed any
bookmark values.  You can also save the bookmarks at any time with the
`M-x bookmark-save' command.  The bookmark commands load your default
bookmark file automatically.  This saving and loading is how bookmarks
persist from one Emacs session to the next.

   If you set the variable `bookmark-save-flag' to 1, each command that
sets a bookmark will also save your bookmarks; this way, you don't lose
any bookmark values even if Emacs crashes.  (The value, if a number,
says how many bookmark modifications should go by between saving.)

   Bookmark position values are saved with surrounding context, so that
`bookmark-jump' can find the proper position even if the file is
modified slightly.  The variable `bookmark-search-size' says how many
characters of context to record on each side of the bookmark's position.

   Here are some additional commands for working with bookmarks:

`M-x bookmark-load <RET> FILENAME <RET>'
     Load a file named FILENAME that contains a list of bookmark
     values.  You can use this command, as well as `bookmark-write', to
     work with other files of bookmark values in addition to your
     default bookmark file.

`M-x bookmark-write <RET> FILENAME <RET>'
     Save all the current bookmark values in the file FILENAME.

`M-x bookmark-delete <RET> BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Delete the bookmark named BOOKMARK.

`M-x bookmark-insert-location <RET> BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Insert in the buffer the name of the file that bookmark BOOKMARK
     points to.

`M-x bookmark-insert <RET> BOOKMARK <RET>'
     Insert in the buffer the _contents_ of the file that bookmark
     BOOKMARK points to.

File: emacs,  Node: Display,  Next: Search,  Prev: Registers,  Up: Top

18 Controlling the Display

Since only part of a large buffer fits in the window, Emacs tries to
show a part that is likely to be interesting.  Display-control commands
and variables allow you to specify which part of the text you want to
see, and how to display it.

* Menu:

* Scrolling::	           Commands to move text up and down in a window.
* Auto Scrolling::         Redisplay scrolls text automatically when needed.
* Horizontal Scrolling::   Moving text left and right in a window.
* Follow Mode::            Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
* Faces::	           How to change the display style using faces.
* Standard Faces::         Emacs' predefined faces.
* Temporary Face Changes:: Commands to temporarily modify the default text face
* Font Lock::              Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
* Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
* Fringes::                Enabling or disabling window fringes.
* Displaying Boundaries::  Displaying top and bottom of the buffer.
* Useless Whitespace::     Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
* Selective Display::      Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
* Optional Mode Line::     Optional mode line display features.
* Text Display::           How text characters are normally displayed.
* Cursor Display::         Features for displaying the cursor.
* Line Truncation::        Truncating lines to fit the screen width instead
                             of continuing them to multiple screen lines.
* Visual Line Mode::       Word wrap and screen line-based editing.
* Display Custom::         Information on variables for customizing display.

File: emacs,  Node: Scrolling,  Next: Auto Scrolling,  Up: Display

18.1 Scrolling

If a buffer contains text that is too large to fit entirely within a
window that is displaying the buffer, Emacs shows a contiguous portion
of the text.  The portion shown always contains point.

   "Scrolling" means moving text up or down in the window so that
different parts of the text are visible.  Scrolling "forward" or "up"
means that text moves up, and new text appears at the bottom.
Scrolling "backward" or "down" moves text down, and new text appears at
the top.

   Scrolling happens automatically if you move point past the bottom or
top of the window.  You can also scroll explicitly with these commands:

     Scroll the selected window to center point vertically within it and
     redisplay the screen (`recenter-top-bottom').

     Scroll forward by nearly a full window (`scroll-up').

     Scroll backward (`scroll-down').

     Scroll heuristically to bring useful information onto the screen

   The most basic scrolling command is `C-l' (`recenter-top-bottom').
This "recenters" the selected window, scrolling it so that the current
screen line is exactly in the center of the window, or as close to the
center as possible.  It also clears the screen and redisplays all
windows; this is useful in case the screen becomes garbled for any
reason (*note Screen Garbled::).

   Typing `C-l' twice in a row (`C-l C-l') scrolls the window so that
point is on the topmost screen line.  Typing a third `C-l' scrolls the
window so that point is on the bottom-most screen line.  Each
successive `C-l' cycles through these three screen positions.  (If you
change the variable `scroll-margin' to a non-zero value N, Emacs leaves
N screen lines between point and the top or bottom of the window.
*Note Auto Scrolling::.)

   You can also supply `C-l' with a prefix argument.  With a plain
prefix argument, `C-u C-l', Emacs simply recenters point.  With a
positive argument N, it scrolls to place point N lines down from the
top of the window.  An argument of zero puts point on the topmost line.
A negative argument -N puts point N lines from the bottom of the
window.  For example, `C-u - 1 C-l' puts point on the bottom line, and
`C-u - 5 C-l' puts it five lines from the bottom.  When given an
argument, `C-l' does not clear the screen or cycle through different
screen positions.

   To read the buffer a windowful at a time, use `C-v' (`scroll-up').
This scrolls forward by nearly the whole window height.  The effect is
to take the two lines at the bottom of the window and put them at the
top, followed by lines that were not previously visible.  If point was
in the text that scrolled off the top, it ends up at the new top of the

   `M-v' (`scroll-down') scrolls backward in a similar way.

   The variable `next-screen-context-lines' controls the number of
lines of overlap left by `C-v' or `M-v'; by default, it is 2.  The
function keys <next> and <prior>, or <PageDown> and <PageUp>, are
equivalent to `C-v' and `M-v' respectively.

   You can supply `C-v' or `M-v' with a numeric prefix argument N.
This scrolls the window by N lines, while attempting to leave point
unchanged (so that the text and point move up or down together).  `C-v'
with a negative argument is like `M-v' and vice versa.

   The names of scroll commands are based on the direction that the
text moves in the window.  Thus, the command to scroll forward is
called `scroll-up' because it moves the text upward on the screen.  The
keys <PageUp> and <PageDown> derive their names and customary meanings
from a different convention that developed elsewhere; hence the strange
result that <PageDown> runs `scroll-up'.

   Some users like the full-screen scroll commands to keep point at the
same screen position.  To enable this behavior, set the variable
`scroll-preserve-screen-position' to a non-`nil' value.  Then, whenever
a command scrolls the text around point offscreen (or within
`scroll-margin' lines of the edge), Emacs moves point to keep it at the
same vertical and horizontal position within the window.  This mode is
convenient for browsing through a file by scrolling by screenfuls; if
you come back to the screen where you started, point goes back to the
line where it started.

   The `C-M-l' command (`reposition-window') scrolls the current window
heuristically in a way designed to get useful information onto the
screen.  For example, in a Lisp file, this command tries to get the
entire current defun onto the screen if possible.

File: emacs,  Node: Auto Scrolling,  Next: Horizontal Scrolling,  Prev: Scrolling,  Up: Display

18.2 Automatic Scrolling

Emacs performs "automatic scrolling" when point moves out of the
visible portion of the text.

   Normally, this centers point vertically within the window.  However,
if you set `scroll-conservatively' to a small number N, then if you
move point just a little off the screen (less than N lines), Emacs
scrolls the text just far enough to bring point back on screen.  By
default, `scroll-conservatively' is 0.

   When the window does scroll by a longer distance, you can control
how aggressively it scrolls by setting the variables
`scroll-up-aggressively' and `scroll-down-aggressively'.  The value of
`scroll-up-aggressively' should be either `nil', or a fraction F
between 0 and 1.  A fraction specifies where on the screen to put point
when scrolling upward: when a window scrolls up because point is above
the window start, the new start position is chosen to put point F parts
of the window height from the top.  Thus, larger F means more aggressive
scrolling.  The default value, `nil', is equivalent to 0.5.

   Likewise, `scroll-down-aggressively' is used for scrolling down.
The value specifies how far point should be placed from the bottom of
the window; thus, as with `scroll-up-aggressively', a larger value is
more aggressive.

   The variable `scroll-margin' restricts how close point can come to
the top or bottom of a window.  Its value is a number of screen lines;
if point comes within that many lines of the top or bottom of the
window, Emacs performs automatic scrolling.  By default,
`scroll-margin' is 0.

File: emacs,  Node: Horizontal Scrolling,  Next: Follow Mode,  Prev: Auto Scrolling,  Up: Display

18.3 Horizontal Scrolling

"Horizontal scrolling" means shifting all the lines sideways within a
window, so that some of the text near the left margin is not displayed.
When the text in a window is scrolled horizontally, text lines are
truncated rather than continued (*note Line Truncation::).  If a window
shows truncated lines, Emacs performs automatic horizontal scrolling
whenever point moves off the left or right edge of the screen.  To
disable automatic horizontal scrolling, set the variable
`auto-hscroll-mode' to `nil'.

   The variable `hscroll-margin' controls how close point can get to
the window's edges before automatic scrolling occurs.  It is measured
in columns.  If the value is 5, then moving point within 5 columns of
an edge causes horizontal scrolling away from that edge.

   The variable `hscroll-step' determines how many columns to scroll
the window when point gets too close to the edge.  Zero, the default
value, means to center point horizontally within the window.  A
positive integer value specifies the number of columns to scroll by.  A
floating-point number specifies the fraction of the window's width to
scroll by.

   You can also perform explicit horizontal scrolling with the
following commands:

`C-x <'
     Scroll text in current window to the left (`scroll-left').

`C-x >'
     Scroll to the right (`scroll-right').

   `C-x <' (`scroll-left') scrolls the selected window to the left by
the full width of the window, less two columns.  (In other words, the
text in the window moves left relative to the window.)  With a numeric
argument N, it scrolls by N columns.

   `C-x >' (`scroll-right') scrolls similarly to the right.  The window
cannot be scrolled any farther to the right once it is displayed
normally, with each line starting at the window's left margin;
attempting to do so has no effect.  This means that you don't have to
calculate the argument precisely for `C-x >'; any sufficiently large
argument will restore the normal display.

   If you use those commands to scroll a window horizontally, that sets
a lower bound for automatic horizontal scrolling.  Automatic scrolling
will continue to scroll the window, but never farther to the right than
the amount you previously set by `scroll-left'.

File: emacs,  Node: Follow Mode,  Next: Faces,  Prev: Horizontal Scrolling,  Up: Display

18.4 Follow Mode

"Follow mode" is a minor mode that makes two windows, both showing the
same buffer, scroll as a single tall "virtual window."  To use Follow
mode, go to a frame with just one window, split it into two
side-by-side windows using `C-x 3', and then type `M-x follow-mode'.
From then on, you can edit the buffer in either of the two windows, or
scroll either one; the other window follows it.

   In Follow mode, if you move point outside the portion visible in one
window and into the portion visible in the other window, that selects
the other window--again, treating the two as if they were parts of one
large window.

   To turn off Follow mode, type `M-x follow-mode' a second time.

File: emacs,  Node: Faces,  Next: Standard Faces,  Prev: Follow Mode,  Up: Display

18.5 Faces: Controlling Text Display Style

Emacs can display text in several different styles, which are called
"faces".  Each face can specify various "face attributes", such as the
font, height, weight and slant, the foreground and background color,
and underlining or overlining.  A face does not have to specify all of
these attributes; often it inherits most of them from another face.

   On a text-only terminal, not all face attributes are meaningful.
Some text-only terminals support inverse video, bold, and underline
attributes; some support colors.  Text-only terminals generally do not
support changing the height, width or font.

   Most major modes assign faces to the text automatically through the
work of Font Lock mode.  *Note Font Lock::, for more information about
Font Lock mode and syntactic highlighting.  You can print the current
buffer with the highlighting that appears on your screen using the
command `ps-print-buffer-with-faces'.  *Note PostScript::.

   Enriched mode, the mode for editing formatted text, provides
commands and menus for specifying faces for text in the buffer.  *Note
Format Faces::.

   To alter the appearance of a face, use the customization buffer.
*Note Face Customization::.  You can also use X resources to specify
attributes of any particular face (*note Resources::).  When displaying
a character, any attribute that isn't specified by its face is taken
from the `default' face, whose attributes reflect the default settings
of the frame itself.

   You can also change the foreground and background colors of a
specific face with `M-x set-face-foreground' and `M-x
set-face-background'.  These commands prompt in the minibuffer for a
face name and a color name, with completion, and then set that face to
use the specified color.  *Note Face Customization::, for information
about color names.  These commands affect the face colors on all
frames, both existing and those to be created in the future.  These
changes do not, however, persist for future Emacs sessions; to make
lasting changes, use the customization buffer (*note Face

   You can also set foreground and background colors for the current
frame only; see *note Frame Parameters::.

   Emacs can display variable-width fonts, but some of the Emacs
commands that calculate width and indentation do not know how to
calculate variable widths.  This can sometimes lead to incorrect
results when you use variable-width fonts.  In particular, indentation
commands can give inconsistent results, so we recommend you avoid
variable-width fonts, especially for editing program source code.

File: emacs,  Node: Standard Faces,  Next: Temporary Face Changes,  Prev: Faces,  Up: Display

18.6 Standard Faces

To see what faces are currently defined, and what they look like, type
`M-x list-faces-display'.  It's possible for a given face to look
different in different frames; this command shows the appearance in the
frame in which you type it.  With a prefix argument, this prompts for a
regular expression, and displays only faces with names matching that
regular expression.

   Here are the standard faces for specifying text appearance.  You can
apply them to specific text when you want the effects they produce.

     This face is used for ordinary text that doesn't specify any face.

     This face uses a bold variant of the default font.

     This face uses an italic variant of the default font.

     This face uses a bold italic variant of the default font.

     This face underlines text.

     This face forces use of a fixed-width font.  It's reasonable to
     customize this face to use a different fixed-width font, if you
     like, but you should not make it a variable-width font.

     This face forces use of a variable-width font.

     This face is used for making the text less noticeable than the
     surrounding ordinary text.  Usually this can be achieved by using
     shades of gray in contrast with either black or white default
     foreground color.

   Here's an incomplete list of faces used to highlight parts of the
text temporarily for specific purposes.  (Many other modes define their
own faces for this purpose.)

     This face is used for highlighting portions of text, in various
     modes.  For example, mouse-sensitive text is highlighted using
     this face.

     This face is used for highlighting the current Isearch match
     (*note Incremental Search::).

     This face is used for highlighting the current Query Replace match
     (*note Replace::).

     This face is used for lazy highlighting of Isearch and Query
     Replace matches other than the current one.

     This face is used for displaying a selected region (*note Mark::).

     This face is used for displaying a secondary X selection (*note
     Secondary Selection::).

     The face for highlighting excess spaces and tabs at the end of a
     line when `show-trailing-whitespace' is non-`nil'; see *note
     Useless Whitespace::.

     The face for displaying the character "nobreak space."

     The face for highlighting the `\' or `^' that indicates a control
     character.  It's also used when `\' indicates a nobreak space or
     nobreak (soft) hyphen.

   These faces control the appearance of parts of the Emacs frame.
They exist as faces to provide a consistent way to customize the
appearance of these parts of the frame.

     This face is used for the mode line of the currently selected
     window, and for menu bars when toolkit menus are not used.  By
     default, it's drawn with shadows for a "raised" effect on
     graphical displays, and drawn as the inverse of the default face
     on non-windowed terminals.

     Like `mode-line', but used for mode lines of the windows other
     than the selected one (if `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' is
     non-`nil').  This face inherits from `mode-line', so changes in
     that face affect mode lines in all windows.

     Like `highlight', but used for portions of text on mode lines.

     This face is used for buffer identification parts in the mode line.

     Similar to `mode-line' for a window's header line, which appears
     at the top of a window just as the mode line appears at the bottom.
     Most windows do not have a header line--only some special modes,
     such Info mode, create one.

     This face is used for the vertical divider between windows.  By
     default this face inherits from the `mode-line-inactive' face on
     character terminals.  On graphical displays the foreground color of
     this face is used for the vertical line between windows without

     This face is used for the prompt strings displayed in the
     minibuffer.  By default, Emacs automatically adds this face to the
     value of `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is a list of text
     properties used to display the prompt text.  (This variable takes
     effect when you enter the minibuffer.)

     The face for the fringes to the left and right of windows on
     graphic displays.  (The fringes are the narrow portions of the
     Emacs frame between the text area and the window's right and left
     borders.)  *Note Fringes::.

     This face determines the visual appearance of the scroll bar.
     *Note Scroll Bars::.

     This face determines the color of the frame border.

     This face determines the color of the cursor.

     This face determines the color of the mouse pointer.

     This face determines the color of tool bar icons.  *Note Tool

     This face is used for tooltips.  *Note Tooltips::.

     This face determines the colors and font of Emacs's menus.  *Note
     Menu Bars::.  This has no effect in Emacs built with GTK and in the
     MS-Windows/Mac ports; you need to use system-wide styles and
     options to change the appearance of GTK, Windows, or Mac menus.
     Setting the font of LessTif/Motif menus is currently not
     supported; attempts to set the font are ignored in this case.

File: emacs,  Node: Temporary Face Changes,  Next: Font Lock,  Prev: Standard Faces,  Up: Display

18.7 Temporary Face Changes

The following commands change the default face within a buffer.

   To increase the height of the default face in the current buffer,
type `C-x C-+' or `C-x C-='.  To decrease it, type `C-x C--'.  To
restore the default (global) face height, type `C-x C-0'.  These keys
are all bound to the same command, `text-scale-adjust', which looks at
the last key typed to determine which action to take.

   The final key of these commands may be repeated without the leading
`C-x'.  For instance, `C-x C-= C-= C-=' increases the face height by
three steps.  Each step scales the height of the default face by the
value of the variable `text-scale-mode-step'.  As a special case, an
argument of 0 removes any scaling currently active.

   The commands `text-scale-increase' and `text-scale-decrease'
increase or decrease the height of the default face, just like `C-x
C-+' and `C-x C--' respectively.  You may find it convenient to bind to
these commands, rather than `text-scale-adjust'.

   The above commands automatically enable or disable the minor mode
`text-scale-mode', depending on whether the current font scaling is
other than 1 or not.

   To temporarily change the face in the current buffer to a
variable-pitch ("proportional") font, use the command `M-x
variable-pitch-mode' to enable or disable the Variable Pitch minor mode.

File: emacs,  Node: Font Lock,  Next: Highlight Interactively,  Prev: Temporary Face Changes,  Up: Display

18.8 Font Lock mode

Font Lock mode is a minor mode, always local to a particular buffer,
which highlights (or "fontifies") the buffer contents according to the
syntax of the text you are editing.  It can recognize comments and
strings in most programming languages; in several languages, it can
also recognize and properly highlight various other important
constructs, such as names of functions being defined or reserved
keywords.  Some special modes, such as Occur mode and Info mode, have
completely specialized ways of assigning fonts for Font Lock mode.

   Font Lock mode is turned on by default in all modes which support it.
You can toggle font-lock for each buffer with the command `M-x
font-lock-mode'.  Using a positive argument unconditionally turns Font
Lock mode on, and a negative or zero argument turns it off.

   If you do not wish Font Lock mode to be turned on by default,
customize the variable `global-font-lock-mode' using the Customize
interface (*note Easy Customization::), or use the function
`global-font-lock-mode' in your `.emacs' file, like this:

     (global-font-lock-mode 0)

This variable, like all the variables that control Font Lock mode, take
effect whenever fontification is done; that is, potentially at any time.

   If you have disabled Global Font Lock mode, you can still enable Font
Lock for specific major modes by adding the function
`turn-on-font-lock' to the mode hooks (*note Hooks::).  For example, to
enable Font Lock mode for editing C files, you can do this:

     (add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)

   Font Lock mode uses several specifically named faces to do its job,
including `font-lock-string-face', `font-lock-comment-face', and
others.  The easiest way to find them all is to use `M-x
customize-group <RET> font-lock-faces <RET>'.  You can then use that
customization buffer to customize the appearance of these faces.  *Note
Face Customization::.

   The variable `font-lock-maximum-decoration' specifies the preferred
level of fontification, for modes that provide multiple levels.  Level
1 is the least amount of fontification; some modes support levels as
high as 3.  The normal default is "as high as possible."  You can
specify an integer, which applies to all modes, or you can specify
different numbers for particular major modes; for example, to use level
1 for C/C++ modes, and the default level otherwise, use this:

     (setq font-lock-maximum-decoration
           '((c-mode . 1) (c++-mode . 1)))

   Fontification can be too slow for large buffers, so you can suppress
it for buffers above a certain size.  The variable
`font-lock-maximum-size' specifies a buffer size, beyond which buffer
fontification is suppressed.

   Comment and string fontification (or "syntactic" fontification)
relies on analysis of the syntactic structure of the buffer text.  For
the sake of speed, some modes, including Lisp mode, rely on a special
convention: an open-parenthesis or open-brace in the leftmost column
always defines the beginning of a defun, and is thus always outside any
string or comment.  (*Note Left Margin Paren::.)  If you don't follow
this convention, Font Lock mode can misfontify the text that follows an
open-parenthesis or open-brace in the leftmost column that is inside a
string or comment.

   The variable `font-lock-beginning-of-syntax-function' (always
buffer-local) specifies how Font Lock mode can find a position
guaranteed to be outside any comment or string.  In modes which use the
leftmost column parenthesis convention, the default value of the
variable is `beginning-of-defun'--that tells Font Lock mode to use the
convention.  If you set this variable to `nil', Font Lock no longer
relies on the convention.  This avoids incorrect results, but the price
is that, in some cases, fontification for a changed text must rescan
buffer text from the beginning of the buffer.  This can considerably
slow down redisplay while scrolling, particularly if you are close to
the end of a large buffer.

   Font Lock highlighting patterns already exist for many modes, but you
may want to fontify additional patterns.  You can use the function
`font-lock-add-keywords', to add your own highlighting patterns for a
particular mode.  For example, to highlight `FIXME:' words in C
comments, use this:

     (add-hook 'c-mode-hook
               (lambda ()
                (font-lock-add-keywords nil
                 '(("\\<\\(FIXME\\):" 1 font-lock-warning-face t)))))

   To remove keywords from the font-lock highlighting patterns, use the
function `font-lock-remove-keywords'.  *Note Search-based
Fontification: (elisp)Search-based Fontification.

   Fontifying large buffers can take a long time.  To avoid large
delays when a file is visited, Emacs fontifies only the visible portion
of a buffer.  As you scroll through the buffer, each portion that
becomes visible is fontified as soon as it is displayed; this type of
Font Lock is called "Just-In-Time" (or "JIT") Lock.  You can control
how JIT Lock behaves, including telling it to perform fontification
while idle, by customizing variables in the customization group
`jit-lock'.  *Note Specific Customization::.

File: emacs,  Node: Highlight Interactively,  Next: Fringes,  Prev: Font Lock,  Up: Display

18.9 Interactive Highlighting

Highlight Changes mode is a minor mode that "highlights" the parts of
the buffer were changed most recently, by giving that text a different
face.  To enable or disable Highlight Changes mode, use `M-x

   Hi Lock mode is a minor mode that highlights text that matches
regular expressions you specify.  For example, you can use it to
highlight all the references to a certain variable in a program source
file, highlight certain parts in a voluminous output of some program,
or highlight certain names in an article.  To enable or disable Hi Lock
mode, use the command `M-x hi-lock-mode'.  To enable Hi Lock mode for
all buffers, use `M-x global-hi-lock-mode' or place
`(global-hi-lock-mode 1)' in your `.emacs' file.

   Hi Lock mode works like Font Lock mode (*note Font Lock::), except
that you specify explicitly the regular expressions to highlight.  You
control them with these commands:

     Highlight text that matches REGEXP using face FACE
     (`highlight-regexp').  The highlighting will remain as long as the
     buffer is loaded.  For example, to highlight all occurrences of
     the word "whim" using the default face (a yellow background) `C-x
     w h whim <RET> <RET>'.  Any face can be used for highlighting, Hi
     Lock provides several of its own and these are pre-loaded into a
     history list.  While being prompted for a face use `M-p' and `M-n'
     to cycle through them.

     You can use this command multiple times, specifying various regular
     expressions to highlight in different ways.

`C-x w r REGEXP <RET>'
     Unhighlight REGEXP (`unhighlight-regexp').

     If you invoke this from the menu, you select the expression to
     unhighlight from a list.  If you invoke this from the keyboard, you
     use the minibuffer.  It will show the most recently added regular
     expression; use `M-p' to show the next older expression and `M-n'
     to select the next newer expression.  (You can also type the
     expression by hand, with completion.)  When the expression you
     want to unhighlight appears in the minibuffer, press `<RET>' to
     exit the minibuffer and unhighlight it.

     Highlight entire lines containing a match for REGEXP, using face
     FACE (`highlight-lines-matching-regexp').

`C-x w b'
     Insert all the current highlighting regexp/face pairs into the
     buffer at point, with comment delimiters to prevent them from
     changing your program.  (This key binding runs the
     `hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns' command.)

     These patterns are extracted from the comments, if appropriate, if
     you invoke `M-x hi-lock-find-patterns', or if you visit the file
     while Hi Lock mode is enabled (since that runs

`C-x w i'
     Extract regexp/face pairs from comments in the current buffer
     (`hi-lock-find-patterns').  Thus, you can enter patterns
     interactively with `highlight-regexp', store them into the file
     with `hi-lock-write-interactive-patterns', edit them (perhaps
     including different faces for different parenthesized parts of the
     match), and finally use this command (`hi-lock-find-patterns') to
     have Hi Lock highlight the edited patterns.

     The variable `hi-lock-file-patterns-policy' controls whether Hi
     Lock mode should automatically extract and highlight patterns
     found in a file when it is visited.  Its value can be `nil' (never
     highlight), `t' (highlight the patterns), `ask' (query the user),
     or a function.  If it is a function, `hi-lock-find-patterns' calls
     it with the patterns as argument; if the function returns
     non-`nil', the patterns are used.  The default is `nil'.  Note
     that patterns are always highlighted if you call
     `hi-lock-find-patterns' directly, regardless of the value of this

     Also, `hi-lock-find-patterns' does nothing if the current major
     mode's symbol is a member of the list `hi-lock-exclude-modes'.

File: emacs,  Node: Fringes,  Next: Displaying Boundaries,  Prev: Highlight Interactively,  Up: Display

18.10 Window Fringes

On a graphical display, each Emacs window normally has narrow "fringes"
on the left and right edges.  The fringes are used to display symbols
that provide information about the text in the window.

   The most common use of the fringes is to indicate a continuation
line, when one line of text is split into multiple lines on the screen.
The left fringe shows a curving arrow for each screen line except the
first, indicating that "this is not the real beginning."  The right
fringe shows a curving arrow for each screen line except the last,
indicating that "this is not the real end."

   The fringes indicate line truncation with short horizontal arrows
meaning "there's more text on this line which is scrolled horizontally
out of view;" clicking the mouse on one of the arrows scrolls the
display horizontally in the direction of the arrow.   The fringes can
also indicate other things, such as empty lines, or where a program you
are debugging is executing (*note Debuggers::).

   You can enable and disable the fringes for all frames using `M-x
fringe-mode'.  To enable and disable the fringes for the selected
frame, use `M-x set-fringe-style'.

File: emacs,  Node: Displaying Boundaries,  Next: Useless Whitespace,  Prev: Fringes,  Up: Display

18.11 Displaying Boundaries

On a graphical display, Emacs can indicate the buffer boundaries in the
fringes.  It indicates the first line and the last line with angle
images in the fringes.  This can be combined with up and down arrow
images which say whether it is possible to scroll the window up and

   The buffer-local variable `indicate-buffer-boundaries' controls how
the buffer boundaries and window scrolling is indicated in the fringes.
If the value is `left' or `right', both angle and arrow bitmaps are
displayed in the left or right fringe, respectively.

   If value is an alist, each element `(INDICATOR .  POSITION)'
specifies the position of one of the indicators.  The INDICATOR must be
one of `top', `bottom', `up', `down', or `t' which specifies the default
position for the indicators not present in the alist.  The POSITION is
one of `left', `right', or `nil' which specifies not to show this

   For example, `((top . left) (t . right))' places the top angle
bitmap in left fringe, the bottom angle bitmap in right fringe, and
both arrow bitmaps in right fringe.  To show just the angle bitmaps in
the left fringe, but no arrow bitmaps, use `((top .  left) (bottom .

   The value of the variable `default-indicate-buffer-boundaries' is
the default value for `indicate-buffer-boundaries' in buffers that do
not override it.

File: emacs,  Node: Useless Whitespace,  Next: Selective Display,  Prev: Displaying Boundaries,  Up: Display

18.12 Useless Whitespace

It is easy to leave unnecessary spaces at the end of a line, or empty
lines at the end of a file, without realizing it.  In most cases, this
"trailing whitespace" has no effect, but there are special
circumstances where it matters, and it can be a nuisance.

   You can make trailing whitespace at the end of a line visible by
setting the buffer-local variable `show-trailing-whitespace' to `t'.
Then Emacs displays trailing whitespace, using the face

   This feature does not apply when point is at the end of the line
containing the whitespace.  Strictly speaking, that is "trailing
whitespace" nonetheless, but displaying it specially in that case looks
ugly while you are typing in new text.  In this special case, the
location of point is enough to show you that the spaces are present.

   To delete all trailing whitespace within the buffer's accessible
portion (*note Narrowing::), type `M-x delete-trailing-whitespace
<RET>'.  This command does not remove newline characters.

   Emacs can indicate unused lines at the end of the window with a
small image in the left fringe (*note Fringes::).  The image appears
for window lines that do not correspond to any buffer text.  Blank
lines at the end of the buffer then stand out because they do not have
this image in the fringe.

   To enable this feature, set the buffer-local variable
`indicate-empty-lines' to a non-`nil' value.  The default value of this
variable is controlled by the variable `default-indicate-empty-lines';
by setting that variable, you can enable or disable this feature for
all new buffers.  (This feature currently doesn't work on text-only

File: emacs,  Node: Selective Display,  Next: Optional Mode Line,  Prev: Useless Whitespace,  Up: Display

18.13 Selective Display

Emacs has the ability to hide lines indented more than a given number
of columns.  You can use this to get an overview of a part of a program.

   To hide lines in the current buffer, type `C-x $'
(`set-selective-display') with a numeric argument N.  Then lines with
at least N columns of indentation disappear from the screen.  The only
indication of their presence is that three dots (`...') appear at the
end of each visible line that is followed by one or more hidden ones.

   The commands `C-n' and `C-p' move across the hidden lines as if they
were not there.

   The hidden lines are still present in the buffer, and most editing
commands see them as usual, so you may find point in the middle of the
hidden text.  When this happens, the cursor appears at the end of the
previous line, after the three dots.  If point is at the end of the
visible line, before the newline that ends it, the cursor appears before
the three dots.

   To make all lines visible again, type `C-x $' with no argument.

   If you set the variable `selective-display-ellipses' to `nil', the
three dots do not appear at the end of a line that precedes hidden
lines.  Then there is no visible indication of the hidden lines.  This
variable becomes local automatically when set.

   See also *note Outline Mode:: for another way to hide part of the
text in a buffer.

File: emacs,  Node: Optional Mode Line,  Next: Text Display,  Prev: Selective Display,  Up: Display

18.14 Optional Mode Line Features

The buffer percentage POS indicates the percentage of the buffer above
the top of the window.  You can additionally display the size of the
buffer by typing `M-x size-indication-mode' to turn on Size Indication
mode.  The size will be displayed immediately following the buffer
percentage like this:

     POS of SIZE

Here SIZE is the human readable representation of the number of
characters in the buffer, which means that `k' for 10^3, `M' for 10^6,
`G' for 10^9, etc., are used to abbreviate.

   The current line number of point appears in the mode line when Line
Number mode is enabled.  Use the command `M-x line-number-mode' to turn
this mode on and off; normally it is on.  The line number appears after
the buffer percentage POS, with the letter `L' to indicate what it is.

   Similarly, you can display the current column number by turning on
Column number mode with `M-x column-number-mode'.  The column number is
indicated by the letter `C'.  However, when both of these modes are
enabled, the line and column numbers are displayed in parentheses, the
line number first, rather than with `L' and `C'.  For example:
`(561,2)'.  *Note Minor Modes::, for more information about minor modes
and about how to use these commands.

   If you have narrowed the buffer (*note Narrowing::), the displayed
line number is relative to the accessible portion of the buffer.  Thus,
it isn't suitable as an argument to `goto-line'.  (Use `what-line'
command to see the line number relative to the whole file.)

   If the buffer is very large (larger than the value of
`line-number-display-limit'), Emacs won't compute the line number,
because that would be too slow; therefore, the line number won't appear
on the mode-line.  To remove this limit, set
`line-number-display-limit' to `nil'.

   Line-number computation can also be slow if the lines in the buffer
are too long.  For this reason, Emacs doesn't display line numbers if
the average width, in characters, of lines near point is larger than
the value of `line-number-display-limit-width'.  The default value is
200 characters.

   Emacs can optionally display the time and system load in all mode
lines.  To enable this feature, type `M-x display-time' or customize
the option `display-time-mode'.  The information added to the mode line
usually appears after the buffer name, before the mode names and their
parentheses.  It looks like this:

     HH:MMpm L.LL

Here HH and MM are the hour and minute, followed always by `am' or
`pm'.  L.LL is the average number of running processes in the whole
system recently.  (Some fields may be missing if your operating system
cannot support them.)  If you prefer time display in 24-hour format,
set the variable `display-time-24hr-format' to `t'.

   The word `Mail' appears after the load level if there is mail for
you that you have not read yet.  On a graphical display you can use an
icon instead of `Mail' by customizing `display-time-use-mail-icon';
this may save some space on the mode line.  You can customize
`display-time-mail-face' to make the mail indicator prominent.  Use
`display-time-mail-file' to specify the mail file to check, or set
`display-time-mail-directory' to specify the directory to check for
incoming mail (any nonempty regular file in the directory is considered
as "newly arrived mail").

   When running Emacs on a laptop computer, you can display the battery
charge on the mode-line, by using the command `display-battery-mode' or
customizing the variable `display-battery-mode'.  The variable
`battery-mode-line-format' determines the way the battery charge is
displayed; the exact mode-line message depends on the operating system,
and it usually shows the current battery charge as a percentage of the
total charge.

   By default, the mode line is drawn on graphics displays with
3D-style highlighting, like that of a button when it is not being
pressed.  If you don't like this effect, you can disable the 3D
highlighting of the mode line, by customizing the attributes of the
`mode-line' face.  *Note Face Customization::.

   By default, the mode line of nonselected windows is displayed in a
different face, called `mode-line-inactive'.  Only the selected window
is displayed in the `mode-line' face.  This helps show which window is
selected.  When the minibuffer is selected, since it has no mode line,
the window from which you activated the minibuffer has its mode line
displayed using `mode-line'; as a result, ordinary entry to the
minibuffer does not change any mode lines.

   You can disable use of `mode-line-inactive' by setting variable
`mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' to `nil'; then all mode lines are
displayed in the `mode-line' face.

   You can customize the mode line display for each of the end-of-line
formats by setting each of the variables `eol-mnemonic-unix',
`eol-mnemonic-dos', `eol-mnemonic-mac', and `eol-mnemonic-undecided' to
the strings you prefer.

File: emacs,  Node: Text Display,  Next: Cursor Display,  Prev: Optional Mode Line,  Up: Display

18.15 How Text Is Displayed

ASCII printing characters (octal codes 040 through 0176) in Emacs
buffers are displayed with their graphics, as are non-ASCII multibyte
printing characters (octal codes above 0400).

   Some ASCII control characters are displayed in special ways.  The
newline character (octal code 012) is displayed by starting a new line.
The tab character (octal code 011) is displayed by moving to the next
tab stop column (normally every 8 columns).  The number of spaces per
tab is controlled by the variable `tab-width', which must have an
integer value between 1 and 1000, inclusive, and is made local by
changing it.  Note that how the tab character in the buffer is
displayed has nothing to do with the definition of <TAB> as a command.
The variable `default-tab-width' controls the default value of this
variable for buffers where you have not set it locally.

   Other ASCII control characters are normally displayed as a caret
(`^') followed by the non-control version of the character; thus,
control-A is displayed as `^A'.  The caret appears in face

   Non-ASCII characters 0200 through 0237 (octal) are displayed with
octal escape sequences; thus, character code 0230 (octal) is displayed
as `\230'.  The backslash appears in face `escape-glyph'.

   If the variable `ctl-arrow' is `nil', control characters in the
buffer are displayed with octal escape sequences, except for newline
and tab.  Altering the value of `ctl-arrow' makes it local to the
current buffer; until that time, the default value is in effect.  The
default is initially `t'.

   The display of character codes 0240 through 0377 (octal) may be
either as escape sequences or as graphics.  They do not normally occur
in multibyte buffers, but if they do, they are displayed as Latin-1
graphics.  In unibyte mode, if you enable European display they are
displayed using their graphics (assuming your terminal supports them),
otherwise as escape sequences.  *Note Unibyte Mode::.

   Some character sets define "no-break" versions of the space and
hyphen characters, which are used where a line should not be broken.
Emacs normally displays these characters with special faces
(respectively, `nobreak-space' and `escape-glyph') to distinguish them
from ordinary spaces and hyphens.  You can turn off this feature by
setting the variable `nobreak-char-display' to `nil'.  If you set the
variable to any other value, that means to prefix these characters with
an escape character.

   You can customize the way any particular character code is displayed
by means of a display table.  *Note Display Tables: (elisp)Display

File: emacs,  Node: Cursor Display,  Next: Line Truncation,  Prev: Text Display,  Up: Display

18.16 Displaying the Cursor

You can customize the cursor's color, and whether it blinks, using the
`cursor' Custom group (*note Easy Customization::).  On a graphical
display, the command `M-x blink-cursor-mode' enables or disables the
blinking of the cursor.  (On text terminals, the terminal itself blinks
the cursor, and Emacs has no control over it.)  You can control how the
cursor appears when it blinks off by setting the variable

   Some text terminals offer two different cursors: the normal cursor
and the very visible cursor, where the latter may be e.g. bigger or
blinking.  By default Emacs uses the very visible cursor, and switches
to it when you start or resume Emacs.  If the variable `visible-cursor'
is `nil' when Emacs starts or resumes, it doesn't switch, so it uses
the normal cursor.

   Normally, the cursor appears in non-selected windows without
blinking, with the same appearance as when the blinking cursor blinks
"off."  For a box cursor, this is a hollow box; for a bar cursor, this
is a thinner bar.  To turn off cursors in non-selected windows,
customize the variable `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' and assign it a
`nil' value.

   On graphical displays, Emacs can optionally draw the block cursor as
wide as the character under the cursor--for example, if the cursor is
on a tab character, it would cover the full width occupied by that tab
character.  To enable this feature, set the variable `x-stretch-cursor'
to a non-`nil' value.

   To make the cursor even more visible, you can use HL Line mode, a
minor mode that highlights the line containing point.  Use `M-x
hl-line-mode' to enable or disable it in the current buffer.  `M-x
global-hl-line-mode' enables or disables the same mode globally.

File: emacs,  Node: Line Truncation,  Next: Visual Line Mode,  Prev: Cursor Display,  Up: Display

18.17 Truncation of Lines

As an alternative to continuation (*note Continuation Lines::), Emacs
can display long lines by "truncation".  This means that all the
characters that do not fit in the width of the screen or window do not
appear at all.  On graphical displays, a small straight arrow in the
fringe indicates truncation at either end of the line.  On text-only
terminals, `$' appears in the first column when there is text truncated
to the left, and in the last column when there is text truncated to the

   Horizontal scrolling automatically causes line truncation (*note
Horizontal Scrolling::).  You can explicitly enable line truncation for
a particular buffer with the command `M-x toggle-truncate-lines'.  This
works by locally changing the variable `truncate-lines'.  If that
variable is non-`nil', long lines are truncated; if it is `nil', they
are continued onto multiple screen lines.  Setting the variable
`truncate-lines' in any way makes it local to the current buffer; until
that time, the default value is in effect.  The default value is
normally `nil'.

   If the variable `truncate-partial-width-windows' is non-`nil', it
forces truncation rather than continuation in any window less than the
full width of the screen or frame, regardless of the value of
`truncate-lines'.  See also *note Display: (elisp)Display.

   If the variable `overflow-newline-into-fringe' is non-`nil' on a
graphical display, then Emacs does not continue or truncate a line
which is exactly as wide as the window.  Instead, the newline overflows
into the right fringe, and the cursor appears in the fringe when
positioned on that newline.

File: emacs,  Node: Visual Line Mode,  Next: Display Custom,  Prev: Line Truncation,  Up: Display

18.18 Visual Line Mode

Another alternative to ordinary line continuation is to use "word
wrap".  Here, each long logical line is divided into two or more screen
lines, like in ordinary line continuation.  However, Emacs attempts to
wrap the line at word boundaries near the right window edge.  This
makes the text easier to read, as wrapping does not occur in the middle
of words.

   Word wrap is enabled by Visual Line mode, an optional minor mode.
To turn on Visual Line mode in the current buffer, type `M-x
visual-line-mode'; repeating this command turns it off.  You can also
turn on Visual Line mode using the menu bar: in the Options menu,
select the `Line Wrapping in this Buffer' submenu, followed by the
`Word Wrap (Visual Line Mode)' menu item.  While Visual Line mode is
enabled, the mode-line shows the string `wrap' in the mode display.
The command `M-x global-visual-line-mode' toggles Visual Line mode in
all buffers.

   In Visual Line mode, some editing commands work on screen lines
instead of logical lines: `C-a' (`beginning-of-visual-line') moves to
the beginning of the screen line, `C-e' (`end-of-visual-line') moves to
the end of the screen line, and `C-k' (`kill-visual-line') kills text
to the end of the screen line.

   To move by logical lines, use the commands `M-x next-logical-line'
and `M-x previous-logical-line'.  These move point to the next logical
line and the previous logical line respectively, regardless of whether
Visual Line mode is enabled.  If you use these commands frequently, it
may be convenient to assign key bindings to them.  *Note Init

   By default, word-wrapped lines do not display fringe indicators.
Visual Line mode is often used to edit files that contain many long
logical lines, so having a fringe indicator for each wrapped line would
be visually distracting.  You can change this by customizing the
variable `visual-line-fringe-indicators'.

File: emacs,  Node: Display Custom,  Prev: Visual Line Mode,  Up: Display

18.19 Customization of Display

This section describes variables (*note Variables::) that you can
change to customize how Emacs displays.  Beginning users can skip it.

   If the variable `inverse-video' is non-`nil', Emacs attempts to
invert all the lines of the display from what they normally are.

   If the variable `visible-bell' is non-`nil', Emacs attempts to make
the whole screen blink when it would normally make an audible bell
sound.  This variable has no effect if your terminal does not have a way
to make the screen blink.

   The variable `echo-keystrokes' controls the echoing of
multi-character keys; its value is the number of seconds of pause
required to cause echoing to start, or zero, meaning don't echo at all.
The value takes effect when there is someting to echo.  *Note Echo

   The variable `baud-rate' holds the output speed of the terminal, as
far as Emacs knows.  Setting this variable does not change the speed of
actual data transmission, but the value is used for calculations.  On
text-only terminals, it affects padding, and decisions about whether to
scroll part of the screen or redraw it instead.  It also affects the
behavior of incremental search.

   On graphical displays, `baud-rate' is only used to determine how
frequently to look for pending input during display updating.  A higher
value of `baud-rate' means that check for pending input will be done
less frequently.

   On graphical displays, Emacs can optionally display the mouse pointer
in a special shape to say that Emacs is busy.  To turn this feature on
or off, customize the group `cursor'.  You can also control the amount
of time Emacs must remain busy before the busy indicator is displayed,
by setting the variable `hourglass-delay'.

   On graphical displays, the variable `overline-margin' specifies the
vertical position of an overline above the text, including the height
of the overline itself, in pixels.  The default value is 2.

   On graphical displays, Emacs normally draws an underline at the
baseline level of the font.  If `x-underline-at-descent-line' is
non-`nil', Emacs draws the underline at the same height as the font's
descent line.

   On some text-only terminals, bold face and inverse video together
result in text that is hard to read.  Call the function
`tty-suppress-bold-inverse-default-colors' with a non-`nil' argument to
suppress the effect of bold-face in this case.

   On a text-only terminal, when you reenter Emacs after suspending,
Emacs normally clears the screen and redraws the entire display.  On
some terminals with more than one page of memory, it is possible to
arrange the termcap entry so that the `ti' and `te' strings (output to
the terminal when Emacs is entered and exited, respectively) switch
between pages of memory so as to use one page for Emacs and another
page for other output.  On such terminals, you might want to set the
variable `no-redraw-on-reenter' non-`nil'; this tells Emacs to assume,
when resumed, that the screen page it is using still contains what
Emacs last wrote there.

File: emacs,  Node: Search,  Next: Fixit,  Prev: Display,  Up: Top

19 Searching and Replacement

Like other editors, Emacs has commands to search for occurrences of a
string.  Emacs also has commands to replace occurrences of a string
with a different string.  There are also commands that do the same
thing, but search for patterns instead of fixed strings.

   You can also search multiple files under the control of a tags table
(*note Tags Search::) or through the Dired `A' command (*note Operating
on Files::), or ask the `grep' program to do it (*note Grep

* Menu:

* Incremental Search::		Search happens as you type the string.
* Nonincremental Search::	Specify entire string and then search.
* Word Search::			Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search::		Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps::			Syntax of regular expressions.
* Regexp Backslash::            Regular expression constructs starting with `\'.
* Regexp Example::              A complex regular expression explained.
* Search Case::			To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace::			Search, and replace some or all matches.
* Other Repeating Search::	Operating on all matches for some regexp.

File: emacs,  Node: Incremental Search,  Next: Nonincremental Search,  Up: Search

19.1 Incremental Search

The principal search command in Emacs is "incremental": it begins
searching as soon as you type the first character of the search string.
As you type in the search string, Emacs shows you where the string (as
you have typed it so far) would be found.  When you have typed enough
characters to identify the place you want, you can stop.  Depending on
what you plan to do next, you may or may not need to terminate the
search explicitly with <RET>.

     Incremental search forward (`isearch-forward').

     Incremental search backward (`isearch-backward').

* Menu:

* Basic Isearch::       Basic incremental search commands.
* Repeat Isearch::      Searching for the same string again.
* Error in Isearch::    When your string is not found.
* Special Isearch::     Special input in incremental search.
* Isearch Yank::        Commands that grab text into the search string
                          or else edit the search string.
* Isearch Scroll::      Scrolling during an incremental search.
* Isearch Minibuffer::  Incremental search of the minibuffer history.
* Slow Isearch::        Incremental search features for slow terminals.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Isearch,  Next: Repeat Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

19.1.1 Basics of Incremental Search

     Begin incremental search (`isearch-forward').

     Begin reverse incremental search (`isearch-backward').

   `C-s' (`isearch-forward') starts a forward incremental search.  It
reads characters from the keyboard, and moves point just past the end
of the next occurrence of those characters in the buffer.

   For instance, if you type `C-s' and then `F', that puts the cursor
after the first `F' that occurs in the buffer after the starting point.
Then if you then type `O', the cursor moves to just after the first
`FO'; the `F' in that `FO' might not be the first `F' previously found.
After another `O', the cursor moves to just after the first `FOO'.

   At each step, Emacs highlights the "current match"--the buffer text
that matches the search string--using the `isearch' face (*note
Faces::).  The current search string is also displayed in the echo area.

   If you make a mistake typing the search string, type <DEL>.  Each
<DEL> cancels the last character of the search string.

   When you are satisfied with the place you have reached, type <RET>.
This stops searching, leaving the cursor where the search brought it.
Also, any command not specially meaningful in searches stops the
searching and is then executed.  Thus, typing `C-a' exits the search
and then moves to the beginning of the line.  <RET> is necessary only
if the next command you want to type is a printing character, <DEL>,
<RET>, or another character that is special within searches (`C-q',
`C-w', `C-r', `C-s', `C-y', `M-y', `M-r', `M-c', `M-e', and some others
described below).

   As a special exception, entering <RET> when the search string is
empty launches nonincremental search (*note Nonincremental Search::).

   When you exit the incremental search, it adds the original value of
point to the mark ring, without activating the mark; you can thus use
`C-u C-<SPC>' to return to where you were before beginning the search.
*Note Mark Ring::.  It only does this if the mark was not already

   To search backwards, use `C-r' (`isearch-backward') instead of `C-s'
to start the search.  A backward search finds matches that end before
the starting point, just as a forward search finds matches that begin
after it.

File: emacs,  Node: Repeat Isearch,  Next: Error in Isearch,  Prev: Basic Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

19.1.2 Repeating Incremental Search

Suppose you search forward for `FOO' and find a match, but not the one
you expected to find: the `FOO' you were aiming for occurs later in the
buffer.  In this event, type another `C-s' to move to the next
occurrence of the search string.  You can repeat this any number of
times.  If you overshoot, you can cancel some `C-s' characters with
<DEL>.  Similarly, each `C-r' in a backward incremental search repeats
the backward search.

   If you pause for a little while during incremental search, Emacs
highlights all the other possible matches for the search string that
are present on the screen.  This helps you anticipate where you can get
to by typing `C-s' or `C-r' to repeat the search.  The other matches
are highlighted differently from the current match, using the
customizable face `lazy-highlight' (*note Faces::).  If you don't like
this feature, you can disable it by setting `isearch-lazy-highlight' to

   After exiting a search, you can search for the same string again by
typing just `C-s C-s'.  The first `C-s' is the key that invokes
incremental search, and the second `C-s' means "search again."
Similarly, `C-r C-r' searches backward for the last search string.  In
determining the last search string, it doesn't matter whether the
string was searched for with `C-s' or `C-r'.

   If you are searching forward but you realize you were looking for
something before the starting point, type `C-r' to switch to a backward
search, leaving the search string unchanged.  Similarly, `C-s' in a
backward search switches to a forward search.

   If a search is failing and you ask to repeat it by typing another
`C-s', it starts again from the beginning of the buffer.  Repeating a
failing reverse search with `C-r' starts again from the end.  This is
called "wrapping around", and `Wrapped' appears in the search prompt
once this has happened.  If you keep on going past the original
starting point of the search, it changes to `Overwrapped', which means
that you are revisiting matches that you have already seen.

   To reuse earlier search strings, use the "search ring".  The
commands `M-p' and `M-n' move through the ring to pick a search string
to reuse.  These commands leave the selected search ring element in the
minibuffer, where you can edit it.  To edit the current search string
in the minibuffer without replacing it with items from the search ring,
type `M-e'.  Type `C-s' or `C-r' to terminate editing the string and
search for it.

File: emacs,  Node: Error in Isearch,  Next: Special Isearch,  Prev: Repeat Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

19.1.3 Errors in Incremental Search

If your string is not found at all, the echo area says `Failing
I-Search'.  The cursor is after the place where Emacs found as much of
your string as it could.  Thus, if you search for `FOOT', and there is
no `FOOT', you might see the cursor after the `FOO' in `FOOL'.  In the
echo area, the part of the search string that failed to match is
highlighted using the customizable face `isearch-fail'.

   At this point, there are several things you can do.  If your string
was mistyped, you can use <DEL> to erase some of it and correct it.  If
you like the place you have found, you can type <RET> to remain there.
Or you can type `C-g', which removes from the search string the
characters that could not be found (the `T' in `FOOT'), leaving those
that were found (the `FOO' in `FOOT').  A second `C-g' at that point
cancels the search entirely, returning point to where it was when the
search started.

   The quit command, `C-g', does special things during searches; just
what it does depends on the status of the search.  If the search has
found what you specified and is waiting for input, `C-g' cancels the
entire search, moving the cursor back to where you started the search.
If `C-g' is typed when there are characters in the search string that
have not been found--because Emacs is still searching for them, or
because it has failed to find them--then the search string characters
which have not been found are discarded from the search string.  With
them gone, the search is now successful and waiting for more input, so
a second `C-g' will cancel the entire search.

File: emacs,  Node: Special Isearch,  Next: Isearch Yank,  Prev: Error in Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

19.1.4 Special Input for Incremental Search

Some of the characters you type during incremental search have special

   If the search string you entered contains only lower-case letters,
the search is case-insensitive; as long as an upper-case letter exists
in the search string, the search becomes case-sensitive.  If you delete
the upper-case character from the search string, it ceases to have this
effect.  *Note Search Case::.

   To search for a newline character, type `C-j'.

   To search for other control characters, such as <control-S>, quote
it by typing `C-q' first (*note Inserting Text::).  To search for
non-ASCII characters, you can either use `C-q' and enter its octal
code, or use an input method (*note Input Methods::).  If an input
method is enabled in the current buffer when you start the search, you
can use it in the search string also.  While typing the search string,
you can toggle the input method with the command `C-\'
(`isearch-toggle-input-method').  You can also turn on a non-default
input method with `C-^' (`isearch-toggle-specified-input-method'),
which prompts for the name of the input method.  When an input method
is active during incremental search, the search prompt includes the
input method mnemonic, like this:

     I-search [IM]:

where IM is the mnemonic of the active input method.  Any input method
you enable during incremental search remains enabled in the current
buffer afterwards.

   Typing `M-%' in incremental search invokes `query-replace' or
`query-replace-regexp' (depending on search mode) with the current
search string used as the string to replace.  *Note Query Replace::.

   Typing `M-<TAB>' in incremental search invokes `isearch-complete',
which attempts to complete the search string using the search ring as a
list of completion alternatives.  *Note Completion::.  In many
operating systems, the `M-<TAB>' key sequence is captured by the window
manager; you then need to rebind `isearch-complete' to another key
sequence if you want to use it (*note Rebinding::).

   When incremental search is active, you can type `C-h C-h' to access
interactive help options, including a list of special keybindings.
These keybindings are part of the keymap `isearch-mode-map' (*note

File: emacs,  Node: Isearch Yank,  Next: Isearch Scroll,  Prev: Special Isearch,  Up: Incremental Search

19.1.5 Isearch Yanking

Within incremental search, you can use `C-w' and `C-y' to grab text
from the buffer into the search string.  This makes it convenient to
search for another occurrence of text at point.

   `C-w' copies the character or word after point and adds it to the
search string, advancing point over it.  (The decision, whether to copy
a character or a word, is heuristic.)

   `C-y' is similar to `C-w' but copies all the rest of the current
line into the search string.  If point is already at the end of a line,
it grabs the entire next line.  If the search is currently
case-insensitive, both `C-y' and `C-w' convert the text they copy to
lower case, so that the search remains case-insensitive.

   `C-M-w' and `C-M-y' modify the search string by only one character
at a time: `C-M-w' deletes the last character from the search string
and `C-M-y' copies the character after point to the end of the search
string.  An alternative method to add the character after point into
the search string is to enter the minibuffer by `M-e' and to type `C-f'
at the end of the search string in the minibuffer.

   The character `M-y' copies text from the kill ring into the search
string.  It uses the same text that `C-y' would yank.  `Mouse-2' in the
echo area does the same.  *Note Yanking::.

File: emacs,  Node: Isearch Scroll,  Next: Isearch Minibuffer,  Prev: Isearch Yank,  Up: Incremental Search

19.1.6 Scrolling During Incremental Search

You can enable the use of vertical scrolling during incremental search
(without exiting the search) by setting the customizable variable
`isearch-allow-scroll' to a non-`nil' value.  This applies to using the
vertical scroll-bar and to certain keyboard commands such as <prior>
(`scroll-down'), <next> (`scroll-up') and `C-l' (`recenter').  You must
run these commands via their key sequences to stay in the search--typing
`M-x' will terminate the search.  You can give prefix arguments to
these commands in the usual way.

   This feature won't let you scroll the current match out of
visibility, however.

   The feature also affects some other commands, such as `C-x 2'
(`split-window-vertically') and `C-x ^' (`enlarge-window') which don't
exactly scroll but do affect where the text appears on the screen.  In
general, it applies to any command whose name has a non-`nil'
`isearch-scroll' property.  So you can control which commands are
affected by changing these properties.

   For example, to make `C-h l' usable within an incremental search in
all future Emacs sessions, use `C-h c' to find what command it runs.
(You type `C-h c C-h l'; it says `view-lossage'.)  Then you can put the
following line in your `.emacs' file (*note Init File::):

     (put 'view-lossage 'isearch-scroll t)

This feature can be applied to any command that doesn't permanently
change point, the buffer contents, the match data, the current buffer,
or the selected window and frame.  The command must not itself attempt
an incremental search.

File: emacs,  Node: Isearch Minibuffer,  Next: Slow Isearch,  Prev: Isearch Scroll,  Up: Incremental Search

19.1.7 Searching the Minibuffer

If you start an incremental search while the minibuffer is active,
Emacs searches the contents of the minibuffer.  Unlike searching an
ordinary buffer, the search string is not shown in the echo area,
because that is used to display the minibuffer.

   If an incremental search fails in the minibuffer, it tries searching
the minibuffer history.  *Note Minibuffer History::.  You can visualize
the minibuffer and its history as a series of "pages", with the
earliest history element on the first page and the current minibuffer
on the last page.  A forward search, `C-s', searches forward to later
pages; a reverse search, `C-r', searches backwards to earlier pages.
Like in ordinary buffer search, a failing search can wrap around, going
from the last page to the first page or vice versa.

   When the current match is on a history element, that history element
is pulled into the minibuffer.  If you exit the incremental search
normally (e.g. by typing <RET>), it remains in the minibuffer
afterwards.  Cancelling the search, with `C-g', restores the contents
of the minibuffer when you began the search.

File: emacs,  Node: Slow Isearch,  Prev: Isearch Minibuffer,  Up: Incremental Search

19.1.8 Slow Terminal Incremental Search

Incremental search on a slow terminal uses a modified style of display
that is designed to take less time.  Instead of redisplaying the buffer
at each place the search gets to, it creates a new single-line window
and uses that to display the line that the search has found.  The
single-line window comes into play as soon as point moves outside of
the text that is already on the screen.

   When you terminate the search, the single-line window is removed.
Emacs then redisplays the window in which the search was done, to show
its new position of point.

   The slow terminal style of display is used when the terminal baud
rate is less than or equal to the value of the variable
`search-slow-speed', initially 1200.  See also the discussion of the
variable `baud-rate' (*note Customization of Display: baud-rate.).

   The number of lines to use in slow terminal search display is
controlled by the variable `search-slow-window-lines'.  Its normal
value is 1.

File: emacs,  Node: Nonincremental Search,  Next: Word Search,  Prev: Incremental Search,  Up: Search

19.2 Nonincremental Search

Emacs also has conventional nonincremental search commands, which
require you to type the entire search string before searching begins.

     Search for STRING.

     Search backward for STRING.

   To start a nonincremental search, first type `C-s <RET>'.  This
enters the minibuffer to read the search string; terminate the string
with <RET>, and then the search takes place.  If the string is not
found, the search command signals an error.

   When you type `C-s <RET>', the `C-s' invokes incremental search as
usual.  That command is specially programmed to invoke nonincremental
search, `search-forward', if the string you specify is empty.  (Such an
empty argument would otherwise be useless.)  `C-r <RET>' does likewise,
for a reverse incremental search.

   Forward and backward nonincremental searches are implemented by the
commands `search-forward' and `search-backward'.  These commands may be
bound to other keys in the usual manner.

File: emacs,  Node: Word Search,  Next: Regexp Search,  Prev: Nonincremental Search,  Up: Search

19.3 Word Search

A "word search" finds a sequence of words without regard to the type of
punctuation between them.  For instance, if you enter a search string
that consists of two words separated by a single space, the search
matches any sequence of those two words separated by one or more
spaces, newlines, or other punctuation characters.  This is
particularly useful for searching text documents, because you don't
have to worry whether the words you are looking for are separated by
newlines or spaces.

`M-s w'
     If incremental search is active, toggle word search mode
     (`isearch-toggle-word'); otherwise, begin an incremental forward
     word search (`isearch-forward-word').

`M-s w <RET> WORDS <RET>'
     Search for WORDS, using a forward nonincremental word search.

`M-s w C-r <RET> WORDS <RET>'
     Search backward for WORDS, using a nonincremental word search.

   To begin a forward incremental word search, type `M-s w'.  If
incremental search is not already active, this runs the command
`isearch-forward-word'.  If incremental search is already active
(whether a forward or backward search), `M-s w' switches to a word
search while keeping the direction of the search and the current search
string unchanged.  You can toggle word search back off by typing `M-s
w' again.

   To begin a nonincremental word search, type `M-s w <RET>' for a
forward search, or `M-s w C-r <RET>' for a backward search.  These run
the commands `word-search-forward' and `word-search-backward'

   A nonincremental word search differs slightly from the incremental
version in the way it finds a match: the last word in the search string
must be an exact match for a whole word.  In an incremental word
search, the last word in the search string can match part of a word;
this allows the matching to proceed incrementally as you type.

File: emacs,  Node: Regexp Search,  Next: Regexps,  Prev: Word Search,  Up: Search

19.4 Regular Expression Search

A "regular expression" (or "regexp" for short) is a pattern that
denotes a class of alternative strings to match.  GNU Emacs provides
both incremental and nonincremental ways to search for a match for a
regexp.  The syntax of regular expressions is explained in the
following section.

     Begin incremental regexp search (`isearch-forward-regexp').

     Begin reverse incremental regexp search

   Incremental search for a regexp is done by typing `C-M-s'
(`isearch-forward-regexp'), by invoking `C-s' with a prefix argument
(whose value does not matter), or by typing `M-r' within a forward
incremental search.  This command reads a search string incrementally
just like `C-s', but it treats the search string as a regexp rather
than looking for an exact match against the text in the buffer.  Each
time you add text to the search string, you make the regexp longer, and
the new regexp is searched for.  To search backward for a regexp, use
`C-M-r' (`isearch-backward-regexp'), `C-r' with a prefix argument, or
`M-r' within a backward incremental search.

   All of the special key sequences in an ordinary incremental search
do similar things in an incremental regexp search.  For instance,
typing `C-s' immediately after starting the search retrieves the last
incremental search regexp used and searches forward for it.
Incremental regexp and non-regexp searches have independent defaults.
They also have separate search rings, which you can access with `M-p'
and `M-n'.

   If you type <SPC> in incremental regexp search, it matches any
sequence of whitespace characters, including newlines.  If you want to
match just a space, type `C-q <SPC>'.  You can control what a bare
space matches by setting the variable `search-whitespace-regexp' to the
desired regexp.

   In some cases, adding characters to the regexp in an incremental
regexp search can make the cursor move back and start again.  For
example, if you have searched for `foo' and you add `\|bar', the cursor
backs up in case the first `bar' precedes the first `foo'.  *Note

   Forward and backward regexp search are not symmetrical, because
regexp matching in Emacs always operates forward, starting with the
beginning of the regexp.  Thus, forward regexp search scans forward,
trying a forward match at each possible starting position.  Backward
regexp search scans backward, trying a forward match at each possible
starting position.  These search methods are not mirror images.

   Nonincremental search for a regexp is done by the functions
`re-search-forward' and `re-search-backward'.  You can invoke these
with `M-x', or by way of incremental regexp search with `C-M-s <RET>'
and `C-M-r <RET>'.

   If you use the incremental regexp search commands with a prefix
argument, they perform ordinary string search, like `isearch-forward'
and `isearch-backward'.  *Note Incremental Search::.

File: emacs,  Node: Regexps,  Next: Regexp Backslash,  Prev: Regexp Search,  Up: Search

19.5 Syntax of Regular Expressions

This manual describes regular expression features that users typically
want to use.  There are additional features that are mainly used in
Lisp programs; see *note Regular Expressions: (elisp)Regular

   Regular expressions have a syntax in which a few characters are
special constructs and the rest are "ordinary".  An ordinary character
is a simple regular expression which matches that same character and
nothing else.  The special characters are `$', `^', `.', `*', `+', `?',
`[', and `\'.  The character `]' is special if it ends a character
alternative (see later).  The character `-' is special inside a
character alternative.  Any other character appearing in a regular
expression is ordinary, unless a `\' precedes it.  (When you use
regular expressions in a Lisp program, each `\' must be doubled, see
the example near the end of this section.)

   For example, `f' is not a special character, so it is ordinary, and
therefore `f' is a regular expression that matches the string `f' and
no other string.  (It does _not_ match the string `ff'.)  Likewise, `o'
is a regular expression that matches only `o'.  (When case distinctions
are being ignored, these regexps also match `F' and `O', but we
consider this a generalization of "the same string," rather than an

   Any two regular expressions A and B can be concatenated.  The result
is a regular expression which matches a string if A matches some amount
of the beginning of that string and B matches the rest of the string.

   As a simple example, we can concatenate the regular expressions `f'
and `o' to get the regular expression `fo', which matches only the
string `fo'.  Still trivial.  To do something nontrivial, you need to
use one of the special characters.  Here is a list of them.

`.' (Period)
     is a special character that matches any single character except a
     newline.  Using concatenation, we can make regular expressions
     like `a.b', which matches any three-character string that begins
     with `a' and ends with `b'.

     is not a construct by itself; it is a postfix operator that means
     to match the preceding regular expression repetitively as many
     times as possible.  Thus, `o*' matches any number of `o's
     (including no `o's).

     `*' always applies to the _smallest_ possible preceding
     expression.  Thus, `fo*' has a repeating `o', not a repeating
     `fo'.  It matches `f', `fo', `foo', and so on.

     The matcher processes a `*' construct by matching, immediately, as
     many repetitions as can be found.  Then it continues with the rest
     of the pattern.  If that fails, backtracking occurs, discarding
     some of the matches of the `*'-modified construct in case that
     makes it possible to match the rest of the pattern.  For example,
     in matching `ca*ar' against the string `caaar', the `a*' first
     tries to match all three `a's; but the rest of the pattern is `ar'
     and there is only `r' left to match, so this try fails.  The next
     alternative is for `a*' to match only two `a's.  With this choice,
     the rest of the regexp matches successfully.

     is a postfix operator, similar to `*' except that it must match
     the preceding expression at least once.  So, for example, `ca+r'
     matches the strings `car' and `caaaar' but not the string `cr',
     whereas `ca*r' matches all three strings.

     is a postfix operator, similar to `*' except that it can match the
     preceding expression either once or not at all.  For example,
     `ca?r' matches `car' or `cr'; nothing else.

`*?', `+?', `??'
     are non-greedy variants of the operators above.  The normal
     operators `*', `+', `?' are "greedy" in that they match as much as
     they can, as long as the overall regexp can still match.  With a
     following `?', they are non-greedy: they will match as little as

     Thus, both `ab*' and `ab*?' can match the string `a' and the
     string `abbbb'; but if you try to match them both against the text
     `abbb', `ab*' will match it all (the longest valid match), while
     `ab*?'  will match just `a' (the shortest valid match).

     Non-greedy operators match the shortest possible string starting
     at a given starting point; in a forward search, though, the
     earliest possible starting point for match is always the one
     chosen.  Thus, if you search for `a.*?$' against the text `abbab'
     followed by a newline, it matches the whole string.  Since it
     _can_ match starting at the first `a', it does.

     is a postfix operator that specifies repetition N times--that is,
     the preceding regular expression must match exactly N times in a
     row.  For example, `x\{4\}' matches the string `xxxx' and nothing

     is a postfix operator that specifies repetition between N and M
     times--that is, the preceding regular expression must match at
     least N times, but no more than M times.  If M is omitted, then
     there is no upper limit, but the preceding regular expression must
     match at least N times.
     `\{0,1\}' is equivalent to `?'.
     `\{0,\}' is equivalent to `*'.
     `\{1,\}' is equivalent to `+'.

`[ ... ]'
     is a "character set", which begins with `[' and is terminated by
     `]'.  In the simplest case, the characters between the two
     brackets are what this set can match.

     Thus, `[ad]' matches either one `a' or one `d', and `[ad]*'
     matches any string composed of just `a's and `d's (including the
     empty string), from which it follows that `c[ad]*r' matches `cr',
     `car', `cdr', `caddaar', etc.

     You can also include character ranges in a character set, by
     writing the starting and ending characters with a `-' between
     them.  Thus, `[a-z]' matches any lower-case ASCII letter.  Ranges
     may be intermixed freely with individual characters, as in
     `[a-z$%.]', which matches any lower-case ASCII letter or `$', `%'
     or period.

     Note that the usual regexp special characters are not special
     inside a character set.  A completely different set of special
     characters exists inside character sets: `]', `-' and `^'.

     To include a `]' in a character set, you must make it the first
     character.  For example, `[]a]' matches `]' or `a'.  To include a
     `-', write `-' as the first or last character of the set, or put
     it after a range.  Thus, `[]-]' matches both `]' and `-'.

     To include `^' in a set, put it anywhere but at the beginning of
     the set.  (At the beginning, it complements the set--see below.)

     When you use a range in case-insensitive search, you should write
     both ends of the range in upper case, or both in lower case, or
     both should be non-letters.  The behavior of a mixed-case range
     such as `A-z' is somewhat ill-defined, and it may change in future
     Emacs versions.

`[^ ... ]'
     `[^' begins a "complemented character set", which matches any
     character except the ones specified.  Thus, `[^a-z0-9A-Z]' matches
     all characters _except_ ASCII letters and digits.

     `^' is not special in a character set unless it is the first
     character.  The character following the `^' is treated as if it
     were first (in other words, `-' and `]' are not special there).

     A complemented character set can match a newline, unless newline is
     mentioned as one of the characters not to match.  This is in
     contrast to the handling of regexps in programs such as `grep'.

     is a special character that matches the empty string, but only at
     the beginning of a line in the text being matched.  Otherwise it
     fails to match anything.  Thus, `^foo' matches a `foo' that occurs
     at the beginning of a line.

     For historical compatibility reasons, `^' can be used with this
     meaning only at the beginning of the regular expression, or after
     `\(' or `\|'.

     is similar to `^' but matches only at the end of a line.  Thus,
     `x+$' matches a string of one `x' or more at the end of a line.

     For historical compatibility reasons, `$' can be used with this
     meaning only at the end of the regular expression, or before `\)'
     or `\|'.

     has two functions: it quotes the special characters (including
     `\'), and it introduces additional special constructs.

     Because `\' quotes special characters, `\$' is a regular
     expression that matches only `$', and `\[' is a regular expression
     that matches only `[', and so on.

     See the following section for the special constructs that begin
     with `\'.

   Note: for historical compatibility, special characters are treated as
ordinary ones if they are in contexts where their special meanings make
no sense.  For example, `*foo' treats `*' as ordinary since there is no
preceding expression on which the `*' can act.  It is poor practice to
depend on this behavior; it is better to quote the special character
anyway, regardless of where it appears.

   As a `\' is not special inside a character alternative, it can never
remove the special meaning of `-' or `]'.  So you should not quote
these characters when they have no special meaning either.  This would
not clarify anything, since backslashes can legitimately precede these
characters where they _have_ special meaning, as in `[^\]' (`"[^\\]"'
for Lisp string syntax), which matches any single character except a

File: emacs,  Node: Regexp Backslash,  Next: Regexp Example,  Prev: Regexps,  Up: Search

19.6 Backslash in Regular Expressions

For the most part, `\' followed by any character matches only that
character.  However, there are several exceptions: two-character
sequences starting with `\' that have special meanings.  The second
character in the sequence is always an ordinary character when used on
its own.  Here is a table of `\' constructs.

     specifies an alternative.  Two regular expressions A and B with
     `\|' in between form an expression that matches some text if
     either A matches it or B matches it.  It works by trying to match
     A, and if that fails, by trying to match B.

     Thus, `foo\|bar' matches either `foo' or `bar' but no other string.

     `\|' applies to the largest possible surrounding expressions.
     Only a surrounding `\( ... \)' grouping can limit the grouping
     power of `\|'.

     Full backtracking capability exists to handle multiple uses of

`\( ... \)'
     is a grouping construct that serves three purposes:

       1. To enclose a set of `\|' alternatives for other operations.
          Thus, `\(foo\|bar\)x' matches either `foox' or `barx'.

       2. To enclose a complicated expression for the postfix operators
          `*', `+' and `?' to operate on.  Thus, `ba\(na\)*' matches
          `bananana', etc., with any (zero or more) number of `na'

       3. To record a matched substring for future reference.

     This last application is not a consequence of the idea of a
     parenthetical grouping; it is a separate feature that is assigned
     as a second meaning to the same `\( ... \)' construct.  In practice
     there is usually no conflict between the two meanings; when there
     is a conflict, you can use a "shy" group.

`\(?: ... \)'
     specifies a "shy" group that does not record the matched substring;
     you can't refer back to it with `\D'.  This is useful in
     mechanically combining regular expressions, so that you can add
     groups for syntactic purposes without interfering with the
     numbering of the groups that are meant to be referred to.

     matches the same text that matched the Dth occurrence of a `\( ...
     \)' construct.  This is called a "back reference".

     After the end of a `\( ... \)' construct, the matcher remembers
     the beginning and end of the text matched by that construct.  Then,
     later on in the regular expression, you can use `\' followed by the
     digit D to mean "match the same text matched the Dth time by the
     `\( ... \)' construct."

     The strings matching the first nine `\( ... \)' constructs
     appearing in a regular expression are assigned numbers 1 through 9
     in the order that the open-parentheses appear in the regular
     expression.  So you can use `\1' through `\9' to refer to the text
     matched by the corresponding `\( ... \)' constructs.

     For example, `\(.*\)\1' matches any newline-free string that is
     composed of two identical halves.  The `\(.*\)' matches the first
     half, which may be anything, but the `\1' that follows must match
     the same exact text.

     If a particular `\( ... \)' construct matches more than once
     (which can easily happen if it is followed by `*'), only the last
     match is recorded.

     matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of the string
     or buffer (or its accessible portion) being matched against.

     matches the empty string, but only at the end of the string or
     buffer (or its accessible portion) being matched against.

     matches the empty string, but only at point.

     matches the empty string, but only at the beginning or end of a
     word.  Thus, `\bfoo\b' matches any occurrence of `foo' as a
     separate word.  `\bballs?\b' matches `ball' or `balls' as a
     separate word.

     `\b' matches at the beginning or end of the buffer regardless of
     what text appears next to it.

     matches the empty string, but _not_ at the beginning or end of a

     matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of a word.
     `\<' matches at the beginning of the buffer only if a
     word-constituent character follows.

     matches the empty string, but only at the end of a word.  `\>'
     matches at the end of the buffer only if the contents end with a
     word-constituent character.

     matches any word-constituent character.  The syntax table
     determines which characters these are.  *Note Syntax::.

     matches any character that is not a word-constituent.

     matches the empty string, but only at the beginning of a symbol.
     A symbol is a sequence of one or more symbol-constituent
     characters.  A symbol-constituent character is a character whose
     syntax is either `w' or `_'.  `\_<' matches at the beginning of the
     buffer only if a symbol-constituent character follows.

     matches the empty string, but only at the end of a symbol.  `\_>'
     matches at the end of the buffer only if the contents end with a
     symbol-constituent character.

     matches any character whose syntax is C.  Here C is a character
     that designates a particular syntax class: thus, `w' for word
     constituent, `-' or ` ' for whitespace, `.' for ordinary
     punctuation, etc.  *Note Syntax::.

     matches any character whose syntax is not C.

     matches any character that belongs to the category C.  For
     example, `\cc' matches Chinese characters, `\cg' matches Greek
     characters, etc.  For the description of the known categories,
     type `M-x describe-categories <RET>'.

     matches any character that does _not_ belong to category C.

   The constructs that pertain to words and syntax are controlled by the
setting of the syntax table (*note Syntax::).

File: emacs,  Node: Regexp Example,  Next: Search Case,  Prev: Regexp Backslash,  Up: Search

19.7 Regular Expression Example

Here is an example of a regexp--the regexp that Emacs uses, by default,
to recognize the end of a sentence, not including the following space
(i.e., the variable `sentence-end-base'):


This contains two parts in succession: a character set matching period,
`?', or `!', and a character set matching close-brackets, quotes, or
parentheses, repeated zero or more times.

File: emacs,  Node: Search Case,  Next: Replace,  Prev: Regexp Example,  Up: Search

19.8 Searching and Case

Searches in Emacs normally ignore the case of the text they are
searching through, if you specify the text in lower case.  Thus, if you
specify searching for `foo', then `Foo' and `foo' are also considered a
match.  Regexps, and in particular character sets, are included: `[ab]'
would match `a' or `A' or `b' or `B'.

   An upper-case letter anywhere in the incremental search string makes
the search case-sensitive.  Thus, searching for `Foo' does not find
`foo' or `FOO'.  This applies to regular expression search as well as
to string search.  The effect ceases if you delete the upper-case
letter from the search string.

   Typing `M-c' within an incremental search toggles the case
sensitivity of that search.  The effect does not extend beyond the
current incremental search to the next one, but it does override the
effect of adding or removing an upper-case letter in the current search.

   If you set the variable `case-fold-search' to `nil', then all
letters must match exactly, including case.  This is a per-buffer
variable; altering the variable affects only the current buffer, but
there is a default value in `default-case-fold-search' that you can
also set.  *Note Locals::.  This variable applies to nonincremental
searches also, including those performed by the replace commands (*note
Replace::) and the minibuffer history matching commands (*note
Minibuffer History::).

   Several related variables control case-sensitivity of searching and
matching for specific commands or activities.  For instance,
`tags-case-fold-search' controls case sensitivity for `find-tag'.  To
find these variables, do `M-x apropos-variable <RET> case-fold-search

File: emacs,  Node: Replace,  Next: Other Repeating Search,  Prev: Search Case,  Up: Search

19.9 Replacement Commands

Emacs provides several commands for performing search-and-replace
operations.  In addition to the simple `M-x replace-string' command,
there is `M-%' (`query-replace'), which presents each occurrence of the
pattern and asks you whether to replace it.

   The replace commands normally operate on the text from point to the
end of the buffer.  When the mark is active, they operate on the region
instead (*note Mark::).  The basic replace commands replace one "search
string" (or regexp) with one "replacement string".  It is possible to
perform several replacements in parallel, using the command
`expand-region-abbrevs' (*note Expanding Abbrevs::).

* Menu:

* Unconditional Replace::	Replacing all matches for a string.
* Regexp Replace::		Replacing all matches for a regexp.
* Replacement and Case::	How replacements preserve case of letters.
* Query Replace::		How to use querying.

File: emacs,  Node: Unconditional Replace,  Next: Regexp Replace,  Prev: Replace,  Up: Replace

19.9.1 Unconditional Replacement

`M-x replace-string <RET> STRING <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
     Replace every occurrence of STRING with NEWSTRING.

   To replace every instance of `foo' after point with `bar', use the
command `M-x replace-string' with the two arguments `foo' and `bar'.
Replacement happens only in the text after point, so if you want to
cover the whole buffer you must go to the beginning first.  All
occurrences up to the end of the buffer are replaced; to limit
replacement to part of the buffer, activate the region around that
part.  When the region is active, replacement is limited to the region
(*note Mark::).

   When `replace-string' exits, it leaves point at the last occurrence
replaced.  It adds the prior position of point (where the
`replace-string' command was issued) to the mark ring, without
activating the mark; use `C-u C-<SPC>' to move back there.  *Note Mark

   A prefix argument restricts replacement to matches that are
surrounded by word boundaries.  The argument's value doesn't matter.

   *Note Replacement and Case::, for details about case-sensitivity in
replace commands.

File: emacs,  Node: Regexp Replace,  Next: Replacement and Case,  Prev: Unconditional Replace,  Up: Replace

19.9.2 Regexp Replacement

The `M-x replace-string' command replaces exact matches for a single
string.  The similar command `M-x replace-regexp' replaces any match
for a specified pattern.

`M-x replace-regexp <RET> REGEXP <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
     Replace every match for REGEXP with NEWSTRING.

   In `replace-regexp', the NEWSTRING need not be constant: it can
refer to all or part of what is matched by the REGEXP.  `\&' in
NEWSTRING stands for the entire match being replaced.  `\D' in
NEWSTRING, where D is a digit, stands for whatever matched the Dth
parenthesized grouping in REGEXP.  (This is called a "back reference.")
`\#' refers to the count of replacements already made in this command,
as a decimal number.  In the first replacement, `\#' stands for `0'; in
the second, for `1'; and so on.  For example,

     M-x replace-regexp <RET> c[ad]+r <RET> \&-safe <RET>

replaces (for example) `cadr' with `cadr-safe' and `cddr' with

     M-x replace-regexp <RET> \(c[ad]+r\)-safe <RET> \1 <RET>

performs the inverse transformation.  To include a `\' in the text to
replace with, you must enter `\\'.

   If you want to enter part of the replacement string by hand each
time, use `\?' in the replacement string.  Each replacement will ask
you to edit the replacement string in the minibuffer, putting point
where the `\?' was.

   The remainder of this subsection is intended for specialized tasks
and requires knowledge of Lisp.  Most readers can skip it.

   You can use Lisp expressions to calculate parts of the replacement
string.  To do this, write `\,' followed by the expression in the
replacement string.  Each replacement calculates the value of the
expression and converts it to text without quoting (if it's a string,
this means using the string's contents), and uses it in the replacement
string in place of the expression itself.  If the expression is a
symbol, one space in the replacement string after the symbol name goes
with the symbol name, so the value replaces them both.

   Inside such an expression, you can use some special sequences.  `\&'
and `\N' refer here, as usual, to the entire match as a string, and to
a submatch as a string.  N may be multiple digits, and the value of
`\N' is `nil' if subexpression N did not match.  You can also use `\#&'
and `\#N' to refer to those matches as numbers (this is valid when the
match or submatch has the form of a numeral).  `\#' here too stands for
the number of already-completed replacements.

   Repeating our example to exchange `x' and `y', we can thus do it
also this way:

     M-x replace-regexp <RET> \(x\)\|y <RET>
     \,(if \1 "y" "x") <RET>

   For computing replacement strings for `\,', the `format' function is
often useful (*note Formatting Strings: (elisp)Formatting Strings.).
For example, to add consecutively numbered strings like `ABC00042' to
columns 73 to 80 (unless they are already occupied), you can use

     M-x replace-regexp <RET> ^.\{0,72\}$ <RET>
     \,(format "%-72sABC%05d" \& \#) <RET>

File: emacs,  Node: Replacement and Case,  Next: Query Replace,  Prev: Regexp Replace,  Up: Replace

19.9.3 Replace Commands and Case

If the first argument of a replace command is all lower case, the
command ignores case while searching for occurrences to
replace--provided `case-fold-search' is non-`nil'.  If
`case-fold-search' is set to `nil', case is always significant in all

   In addition, when the NEWSTRING argument is all or partly lower
case, replacement commands try to preserve the case pattern of each
occurrence.  Thus, the command

     M-x replace-string <RET> foo <RET> bar <RET>

replaces a lower case `foo' with a lower case `bar', an all-caps `FOO'
with `BAR', and a capitalized `Foo' with `Bar'.  (These three
alternatives--lower case, all caps, and capitalized, are the only ones
that `replace-string' can distinguish.)

   If upper-case letters are used in the replacement string, they remain
upper case every time that text is inserted.  If upper-case letters are
used in the first argument, the second argument is always substituted
exactly as given, with no case conversion.  Likewise, if either
`case-replace' or `case-fold-search' is set to `nil', replacement is
done without case conversion.

File: emacs,  Node: Query Replace,  Prev: Replacement and Case,  Up: Replace

19.9.4 Query Replace

`M-x query-replace <RET> STRING <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
     Replace some occurrences of STRING with NEWSTRING.

`M-x query-replace-regexp <RET> REGEXP <RET> NEWSTRING <RET>'
     Replace some matches for REGEXP with NEWSTRING.

   If you want to change only some of the occurrences of `foo' to
`bar', not all of them, use `M-%' (`query-replace').  This command
finds occurrences of `foo' one by one, displays each occurrence and
asks you whether to replace it.  Aside from querying, `query-replace'
works just like `replace-string' (*note Unconditional Replace::).  In
particular, it preserves case provided `case-replace' is non-`nil', as
it normally is (*note Replacement and Case::).  A numeric argument
means consider only occurrences that are bounded by word-delimiter

   `C-M-%' performs regexp search and replace (`query-replace-regexp').
It works like `replace-regexp' except that it queries like

   These commands highlight the current match using the face
`query-replace'.  They highlight other matches using `lazy-highlight'
just like incremental search (*note Incremental Search::).  By default,
`query-replace-regexp' will show substituted replacement string for the
current match in the minibuffer.  If you want to keep special sequences
`\&' and `\N' unexpanded, customize `query-replace-show-replacement'

   The characters you can type when you are shown a match for the string
or regexp are:

     to replace the occurrence with NEWSTRING.

     to skip to the next occurrence without replacing this one.

`, (Comma)'
     to replace this occurrence and display the result.  You are then
     asked for another input character to say what to do next.  Since
     the replacement has already been made, <DEL> and <SPC> are
     equivalent in this situation; both move to the next occurrence.

     You can type `C-r' at this point (see below) to alter the replaced
     text.  You can also type `C-x u' to undo the replacement; this
     exits the `query-replace', so if you want to do further
     replacement you must use `C-x <ESC> <ESC> <RET>' to restart (*note

     to exit without doing any more replacements.

`. (Period)'
     to replace this occurrence and then exit without searching for more

     to replace all remaining occurrences without asking again.

     to go back to the position of the previous occurrence (or what
     used to be an occurrence), in case you changed it by mistake or
     want to reexamine it.

     to enter a recursive editing level, in case the occurrence needs
     to be edited rather than just replaced with NEWSTRING.  When you
     are done, exit the recursive editing level with `C-M-c' to proceed
     to the next occurrence.  *Note Recursive Edit::.

     to delete the occurrence, and then enter a recursive editing level
     as in `C-r'.  Use the recursive edit to insert text to replace the
     deleted occurrence of STRING.  When done, exit the recursive
     editing level with `C-M-c' to proceed to the next occurrence.

     to edit the replacement string in the minibuffer.  When you exit
     the minibuffer by typing <RET>, the minibuffer contents replace the
     current occurrence of the pattern.  They also become the new
     replacement string for any further occurrences.

     to redisplay the screen.  Then you must type another character to
     specify what to do with this occurrence.

     to display a message summarizing these options.  Then you must type
     another character to specify what to do with this occurrence.

   Some other characters are aliases for the ones listed above: `y',
`n' and `q' are equivalent to <SPC>, <DEL> and <RET>.

   Aside from this, any other character exits the `query-replace', and
is then reread as part of a key sequence.  Thus, if you type `C-k', it
exits the `query-replace' and then kills to end of line.

   To restart a `query-replace' once it is exited, use `C-x <ESC>
<ESC>', which repeats the `query-replace' because it used the
minibuffer to read its arguments.  *Note C-x ESC ESC: Repetition.

   *Note Operating on Files::, for the Dired `Q' command which performs
query replace on selected files.  See also *note Transforming File
Names::, for Dired commands to rename, copy, or link files by replacing
regexp matches in file names.

File: emacs,  Node: Other Repeating Search,  Prev: Replace,  Up: Search

19.10 Other Search-and-Loop Commands

Here are some other commands that find matches for a regular
expression.  They all ignore case in matching, if the pattern contains
no upper-case letters and `case-fold-search' is non-`nil'.  Aside from
`occur' and its variants, all operate on the text from point to the end
of the buffer, or on the region if it is active.

`M-x occur <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     Display a list showing each line in the buffer that contains a
     match for REGEXP.  To limit the search to part of the buffer,
     narrow to that part (*note Narrowing::).  A numeric argument N
     specifies that N lines of context are to be displayed before and
     after each matching line.  Currently, `occur' can not correctly
     handle multiline matches.

     The buffer `*Occur*' containing the output serves as a menu for
     finding the occurrences in their original context.  Click
     `Mouse-2' on an occurrence listed in `*Occur*', or position point
     there and type <RET>; this switches to the buffer that was
     searched and moves point to the original of the chosen occurrence.
     `o' and `C-o' display the match in another window; `C-o' does not
     select it.

     After using `M-x occur', you can use `next-error' to visit the
     occurrences found, one by one.  *note Compilation Mode::.

`M-s o'
     Run `occur' using the search string of the last incremental string
     search.  You can also run `M-s o' when an incremental search is
     active; this uses the current search string.

`M-x list-matching-lines'
     Synonym for `M-x occur'.

`M-x multi-occur <RET> BUFFERS <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     This function is just like `occur', except it is able to search
     through multiple buffers.  It asks you to specify the buffer names
     one by one.

`M-x multi-occur-in-matching-buffers <RET> BUFREGEXP <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     This function is similar to `multi-occur', except the buffers to
     search are specified by a regular expression that matches visited
     file names.  With a prefix argument, it uses the regular
     expression to match buffer names instead.

`M-x how-many <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     Print the number of matches for REGEXP that exist in the buffer
     after point.  If the region is active, this operates on the region

`M-x flush-lines <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     This command deletes each line that contains a match for REGEXP,
     operating on the text after point; it deletes the current line if
     it contains a match starting after point.  If the region is
     active, it operates on the region instead; if a line partially
     contained in the region contains a match entirely contained in the
     region, it is deleted.

     If a match is split across lines, `flush-lines' deletes all those
     lines.  It deletes the lines before starting to look for the next
     match; hence, it ignores a match starting on the same line at which
     another match ended.

`M-x keep-lines <RET> REGEXP <RET>'
     This command deletes each line that _does not_ contain a match for
     REGEXP, operating on the text after point; if point is not at the
     beginning of a line, it always keeps the current line.  If the
     region is active, the command operates on the region instead; it
     never deletes lines that are only partially contained in the
     region (a newline that ends a line counts as part of that line).

     If a match is split across lines, this command keeps all those

File: emacs,  Node: Fixit,  Next: Keyboard Macros,  Prev: Search,  Up: Top

20 Commands for Fixing Typos

In this chapter we describe the commands that are especially useful
when you catch a mistake in your text after you have made it, or change
your mind while composing text on the fly.

   The most fundamental command for correcting erroneous editing is the
undo command `C-/' (which is also bound to `C-x u' and `C-_').  This
undoes a single command, or a part of a command (as in the case of
`query-replace'), or several consecutive self-inserting characters.
Consecutive repetitions of `C-/' undo earlier and earlier changes, back
to the limit of the undo information available.

   Aside from the commands described here, you can erase text using
deletion commands such as <DEL> (`delete-backward-char').  These were
described earlier in this manual.  *Note Erasing::.

* Menu:

* Undo::        The Undo commands.
* Transpose::   Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
* Fixing Case:: Correcting case of last word entered.
* Spelling::    Apply spelling checker to a word, or a whole file.

File: emacs,  Node: Undo,  Next: Transpose,  Up: Fixit

20.1 Undo

The "undo" command reverses recent changes in the buffer's text.  Each
buffer records changes individually, and the undo command always
applies to the current buffer.  You can undo all the changes in a
buffer for as far as back its records go.  Usually, each editing
command makes a separate entry in the undo records, but some commands
such as `query-replace' divide their changes into multiple entries for
flexibility in undoing.  Consecutive character insertion commands are
usually grouped together into a single undo record, to make undoing
less tedious.

`C-x u'
     Undo one entry in the current buffer's undo records (`undo').

   To begin to undo, type `C-/' (or its aliases, `C-_' or `C-x u')(1).
This undoes the most recent change in the buffer, and moves point back
to where it was before that change.

   Consecutive repetitions of `C-/' (or its aliases) undo earlier and
earlier changes in the current buffer.  If all the recorded changes
have already been undone, the undo command signals an error.

   Any command other than an undo command breaks the sequence of undo
commands.  Starting from that moment, the entire sequence of undo
commands that you have just performed are themselves placed into the
undo record, as a single set of changes.  Therefore, to re-apply
changes you have undone, type `C-f' or any other command that
harmlessly breaks the sequence of undoing; then type `C-/' to undo the
undo command.

   On the other hand, if you want to resume undoing, without redoing
previous undo commands, use `M-x undo-only'.  This is like `undo', but
will not redo changes you have just undone.

   If you notice that a buffer has been modified accidentally, the
easiest way to recover is to type `C-/' repeatedly until the stars
disappear from the front of the mode line (*note Mode Line::).
Whenever an undo command makes the stars disappear from the mode line,
it means that the buffer contents are the same as they were when the
file was last read in or saved.  If you do not remember whether you
changed the buffer deliberately, type `C-/' once.  When you see the
last change you made undone, you will see whether it was an intentional
change.  If it was an accident, leave it undone.  If it was deliberate,
redo the change as described above.

   When there is an active region, any use of `undo' performs
"selective undo": it undoes the most recent change within the region,
instead of the entire buffer.  However, when Transient Mark mode is off
(*note Persistent Mark::), `C-/' always operates on the entire buffer,
ignoring the region.  In this case, you can perform selective undo by
supplying a prefix argument to the `undo' command: `C-u C-/'.  To undo
further changes in the same region, repeat the `undo' command (no
prefix argument is needed).

   Some specialized buffers do not make undo records.  Buffers whose
names start with spaces never do; these buffers are used internally by
Emacs to hold text that users don't normally look at or edit.

   When the undo records for a buffer becomes too large, Emacs discards
the oldest undo records from time to time (during "garbage
collection").  You can specify how much undo records to keep by setting
the variables `undo-limit', `undo-strong-limit', and
`undo-outer-limit'.  Their values are expressed in bytes.

   The variable `undo-limit' sets a soft limit: Emacs keeps undo data
for enough commands to reach this size, and perhaps exceed it, but does
not keep data for any earlier commands beyond that.  Its default value
is 80000.  The variable `undo-strong-limit' sets a stricter limit: any
previous command (though not the most recent one) that pushes the size
past this amount is forgotten.  The default value of
`undo-strong-limit' is 120000.

   Regardless of the values of those variables, the most recent change
is never discarded unless it gets bigger than `undo-outer-limit'
(normally 12,000,000).  At that point, Emacs discards the undo data and
warns you about it.  This is the only situation in which you cannot
undo the last command.  If this happens, you can increase the value of
`undo-outer-limit' to make it even less likely to happen in the future.
But if you didn't expect the command to create such large undo data,
then it is probably a bug and you should report it.  *Note Reporting
Bugs: Bugs.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Aside from `C-/', the `undo' command is also bound to `C-x u'
because that is more straightforward for beginners to remember: `u'
stands for "undo".  It is also bound to `C-_' because typing `C-/' on
some text-only terminals actually enters `C-_'.

File: emacs,  Node: Transpose,  Next: Fixing Case,  Prev: Undo,  Up: Fixit

20.2 Transposing Text

     Transpose two characters (`transpose-chars').

     Transpose two words (`transpose-words').

     Transpose two balanced expressions (`transpose-sexps').

`C-x C-t'
     Transpose two lines (`transpose-lines').

   The common error of transposing two characters can be fixed, when
they are adjacent, with the `C-t' command (`transpose-chars').
Normally, `C-t' transposes the two characters on either side of point.
When given at the end of a line, rather than transposing the last
character of the line with the newline, which would be useless, `C-t'
transposes the last two characters on the line.  So, if you catch your
transposition error right away, you can fix it with just a `C-t'.  If
you don't catch it so fast, you must move the cursor back between the
two transposed characters before you type `C-t'.  If you transposed a
space with the last character of the word before it, the word motion
commands are a good way of getting there.  Otherwise, a reverse search
(`C-r') is often the best way.  *Note Search::.

   `M-t' transposes the word before point with the word after point
(`transpose-words').  It moves point forward over a word, dragging the
word preceding or containing point forward as well.  The punctuation
characters between the words do not move.  For example, `FOO, BAR'
transposes into `BAR, FOO' rather than `BAR FOO,'.

   `C-M-t' (`transpose-sexps') is a similar command for transposing two
expressions (*note Expressions::), and `C-x C-t' (`transpose-lines')
exchanges lines.  They work like `M-t' except as regards what units of
text they transpose.

   A numeric argument to a transpose command serves as a repeat count:
it tells the transpose command to move the character (word, expression,
line) before or containing point across several other characters (words,
expressions, lines).  For example, `C-u 3 C-t' moves the character
before point forward across three other characters.  It would change
`f-!-oobar' into `oobf-!-ar'.  This is equivalent to repeating `C-t'
three times.  `C-u - 4 M-t' moves the word before point backward across
four words.  `C-u - C-M-t' would cancel the effect of plain `C-M-t'.

   A numeric argument of zero is assigned a special meaning (because
otherwise a command with a repeat count of zero would do nothing): to
transpose the character (word, expression, line) ending after point
with the one ending after the mark.

File: emacs,  Node: Fixing Case,  Next: Spelling,  Prev: Transpose,  Up: Fixit

20.3 Case Conversion

`M-- M-l'
     Convert last word to lower case.  Note `Meta--' is Meta-minus.

`M-- M-u'
     Convert last word to all upper case.

`M-- M-c'
     Convert last word to lower case with capital initial.

   A very common error is to type words in the wrong case.  Because of
this, the word case-conversion commands `M-l', `M-u' and `M-c' have a
special feature when used with a negative argument: they do not move the
cursor.  As soon as you see you have mistyped the last word, you can
simply case-convert it and go on typing.  *Note Case::.

File: emacs,  Node: Spelling,  Prev: Fixing Case,  Up: Fixit

20.4 Checking and Correcting Spelling

This section describes the commands to check the spelling of a single
word or of a portion of a buffer.  These commands only work if the
spelling checker program Aspell, Ispell or Hunspell is installed.
Aspell, Ispell or Hunspell are not part of Emacs, but one or the other
is usually installed in GNU/Linux and other free operating systems.
*Note Aspell: (aspell)Top.

     Check and correct spelling of the active region or the word at
     point (`ispell-word').

`M-x ispell'
     Check and correct spelling in the active region or the entire

`M-x ispell-buffer'
     Check and correct spelling in the buffer.

`M-x ispell-region'
     Check and correct spelling in the region.

`M-x ispell-message'
     Check and correct spelling in a draft mail message, excluding cited

`M-x ispell-change-dictionary <RET> DICT <RET>'
     Restart the Aspell/Ispell/Hunspell process, using DICT as the

`M-x ispell-kill-ispell'
     Kill the Aspell/Ispell/Hunspell subprocess.

`<ESC> <TAB>'
     Complete the word before point based on the spelling dictionary

`M-x flyspell-mode'
     Enable Flyspell mode, which highlights all misspelled words.

`M-x flyspell-prog-mode'
     Enable Flyspell mode for comments and strings only.

   To check the spelling of the word around or before point, and
optionally correct it as well, type `M-$' (`ispell-word').  If a region
is active, `M-$' checks the spelling of all words within the region.
*Note Mark::.  (When Transient Mark mode is off, `M-$' always acts on
the word around or before point, ignoring the region.  *Note Persistent

   Similarly, the command `M-x ispell' performs spell-checking in the
region if one is active, or in the entire buffer otherwise.  The
commands `M-x ispell-buffer' and `M-x ispell-region' explicitly perform
spell-checking on the entire buffer or the region respectively.  To
check spelling in an email message you are writing, use `M-x
ispell-message'; that command checks the whole buffer, except for
material that is indented or appears to be cited from other messages.
*Note Sending Mail::.

   When one of these commands encounters what appears to be an
incorrect word, it asks you what to do.  It usually displays a list of
numbered "near-misses"--words that are close to the incorrect word.
Then you must type a single-character response.  Here are the valid

     Replace the word, just this time, with one of the displayed
     near-misses.  Each near-miss is listed with a digit; type that
     digit to select it.

     Skip this word--continue to consider it incorrect, but don't
     change it here.

`r NEW <RET>'
     Replace the word, just this time, with NEW.  (The replacement
     string will be rescanned for more spelling errors.)

     Replace the word with NEW, and do a `query-replace' so you can
     replace it elsewhere in the buffer if you wish.  (The replacements
     will be rescanned for more spelling errors.)

     Accept the incorrect word--treat it as correct, but only in this
     editing session.

     Accept the incorrect word--treat it as correct, but only in this
     editing session and for this buffer.

     Insert this word in your private dictionary file so that Aspell or
     Ispell or Hunspell will consider it correct from now on, even in
     future sessions.

     Like `i', but you can also specify dictionary completion

     Insert the lower-case version of this word in your private
     dictionary file.

`l WORD <RET>'
     Look in the dictionary for words that match WORD.  These words
     become the new list of "near-misses"; you can select one of them as
     the replacement by typing a digit.  You can use `*' in WORD as a

     Quit interactive spell checking, leaving point at the word that was
     being checked.  You can restart checking again afterward with `C-u

     Quit interactive spell checking and move point back to where it was
     when you started spell checking.

     Quit interactive spell checking and kill the Aspell/Ispell/Hunspell

     Show the list of options.

   In Text mode and related modes, the command `M-<TAB>'
(`ispell-complete-word') shows a list of completions based on spelling
correction.  Insert the beginning of a word, and then type `M-<TAB>';
the command displays a completion list window.  (If your window manager
intercepts `M-<TAB>', type `<ESC> <TAB>' or `C-M-i'.)  To choose one of
the completions listed, click `Mouse-2' or `Mouse-1' fast on it, or
move the cursor there in the completions window and type <RET>.  *Note
Text Mode::.

   Once started, the Aspell or Ispell or Hunspell subprocess continues
to run, waiting for something to do, so that subsequent spell checking
commands complete more quickly.  If you want to get rid of the process,
use `M-x ispell-kill-ispell'.  This is not usually necessary, since the
process uses no time except when you do spelling correction.

   Ispell, Aspell and Hunspell use two dictionaries together for spell
checking: the standard dictionary and your private dictionary.  The
standard dictionary is specified by `ispell-local-dictionary' or, if
`nil', by `ispell-dictionary'.  If both are `nil' the default
dictionary is selected.  The command `M-x ispell-change-dictionary'
sets the standard dictionary for the buffer and then restarts the
subprocess, so that it will use a different standard dictionary.
Personal dictionary is specified by `ispell-personal-dictionary'.  If
`nil', default value is used.

   Set variable `ispell-dictionary' to select a specific default
dictionary for all your documents. Set variable
`ispell-local-dictionary' in the local variables section to select a
specific dictionary for a given document.

   A separate dictionary is used for word completion.  The variable
`ispell-complete-word-dict' specifies the file name of this dictionary.
The completion dictionary must be different because it cannot use root
and affix information.  For some languages, there is a spell checking
dictionary but no word completion dictionary.

   Flyspell mode is a fully-automatic way to check spelling as you edit
in Emacs.  It operates by checking words as you change or insert them.
When it finds a word that it does not recognize, it highlights that
word.  This does not interfere with your editing, but when you see the
highlighted word, you can move to it and fix it.  Type `M-x
flyspell-mode' to enable or disable this mode in the current buffer.  To
enable `flyspell-mode' in all text mode buffers, add `turn-on-flyspell'
to `text-mode-hook'.

   When Flyspell mode highlights a word as misspelled, you can click on
it with `Mouse-2' to display a menu of possible corrections and
actions.  You can also correct the word by editing it manually in any
way you like.

   Flyspell Prog mode works just like ordinary Flyspell mode, except
that it only checks words in comments and string constants.  This
feature is useful for editing programs.  Type `M-x flyspell-prog-mode'
to enable or disable this mode in the current buffer.

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macros,  Next: Files,  Prev: Fixit,  Up: Top

21 Keyboard Macros

In this chapter we describe how to record a sequence of editing
commands so you can repeat it conveniently later.

   A "keyboard macro" is a command defined by an Emacs user to stand for
another sequence of keys.  For example, if you discover that you are
about to type `C-n M-d C-d' forty times, you can speed your work by
defining a keyboard macro to do `C-n M-d C-d', and then executing it 39
more times.

   You define a keyboard macro by executing and recording the commands
which are its definition.  Put differently, as you define a keyboard
macro, the definition is being executed for the first time.  This way,
you can see the effects of your commands, so that you don't have to
figure them out in your head.  When you close the definition, the
keyboard macro is defined and also has been, in effect, executed once.
You can then do the whole thing over again by invoking the macro.

   Keyboard macros differ from ordinary Emacs commands in that they are
written in the Emacs command language rather than in Lisp.  This makes
it easier for the novice to write them, and makes them more convenient
as temporary hacks.  However, the Emacs command language is not powerful
enough as a programming language to be useful for writing anything
intelligent or general.  For such things, Lisp must be used.

* Menu:

* Basic Keyboard Macro::     Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Ring::      Where previous keyboard macros are saved.
* Keyboard Macro Counter::   Inserting incrementing numbers in macros.
* Keyboard Macro Query::     Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
* Save Keyboard Macro::      Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Edit Keyboard Macro::      Editing keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Step-Edit:: Interactively executing and editing a keyboard

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Keyboard Macro,  Next: Keyboard Macro Ring,  Up: Keyboard Macros

21.1 Basic Use

     Start defining a keyboard macro

     If a keyboard macro is being defined, end the definition;
     otherwise, execute the most recent keyboard macro

`C-u <F3>'
     Re-execute last keyboard macro, then append keys to its definition.

`C-u C-u <F3>'
     Append keys to the last keyboard macro without re-executing it.

`C-x C-k r'
     Run the last keyboard macro on each line that begins in the region

   To start defining a keyboard macro, type <F3>.  From then on, your
keys continue to be executed, but also become part of the definition of
the macro.  `Def' appears in the mode line to remind you of what is
going on.  When you are finished, type <F4>
(`kmacro-end-or-call-macro') to terminate the definition.  For example,

     <F3> M-f foo <F4>

defines a macro to move forward a word and then insert `foo'.  Note
that <F3> and <F4> do not become part of the macro.

   After defining the macro, you can call it with <F4>.  For the above
example, this has the same effect as typing `M-f foo' again.  (Note the
two roles of the <F4> command: it ends the macro if you are in the
process of defining one, or calls the last macro otherwise.)  You can
also supply <F4> with a numeric prefix argument `n', which means to
invoke the macro `n' times.  An argument of zero repeats the macro
indefinitely, until it gets an error or you type `C-g' (or, on MS-DOS,

   The above example demonstrates a handy trick that you can employ
with keyboard macros: if you wish to repeat an operation at regularly
spaced places in the text, include a motion command as part of the
macro.  In this case, repeating the macro inserts the string `foo'
after each successive word.

   After terminating the definition of a keyboard macro, you can append
more keystrokes to its definition by typing `C-u <F3>'.  This is
equivalent to plain <F3> followed by retyping the whole definition so
far.  As a consequence, it re-executes the macro as previously defined.
If you change the variable `kmacro-execute-before-append' to `nil', the
existing macro will not be re-executed before appending to it (the
default is `t').  You can also add to the end of the definition of the
last keyboard macro without re-executing it by typing `C-u C-u <F3>'.

   When a command reads an argument with the minibuffer, your
minibuffer input becomes part of the macro along with the command.  So
when you replay the macro, the command gets the same argument as when
you entered the macro.  For example,

     <F3> C-a C-k C-x b foo <RET> C-y C-x b <RET> <F4>

defines a macro that kills the current line, yanks it into the buffer
`foo', then returns to the original buffer.

   Most keyboard commands work as usual in a keyboard macro definition,
with some exceptions.  Typing `C-g' (`keyboard-quit') quits the
keyboard macro definition.  Typing `C-M-c' (`exit-recursive-edit') can
be unreliable: it works as you'd expect if exiting a recursive edit
that started within the macro, but if it exits a recursive edit that
started before you invoked the keyboard macro, it also necessarily
exits the keyboard macro too.  Mouse events are also unreliable, even
though you can use them in a keyboard macro: when the macro replays the
mouse event, it uses the original mouse position of that event, the
position that the mouse had while you were defining the macro.  The
effect of this may be hard to predict.

   The command `C-x C-k r' (`apply-macro-to-region-lines') repeats the
last defined keyboard macro on each line that begins in the region.  It
does this line by line, by moving point to the beginning of the line
and then executing the macro.

   In addition to the <F3> and <F4> commands described above, Emacs
also supports an older set of keybindings for defining and executing
keyboard macros.  To begin a macro definition, type `C-x ('
(`kmacro-start-macro'); as with <F3>, a prefix argument appends this
definition to the last keyboard macro.  To end a macro definition, type
`C-x )' (`kmacro-end-macro').  To execute the most recent macro, type
`C-x e' (`kmacro-end-and-call-macro').  If you enter `C-x e' while
defining a macro, the macro is terminated and executed immediately.
Immediately after typing `C-x e', you can type <e> repeatedly to
immediately repeat the macro one or more times.  You can also give `C-x
e' a repeat argument, just like <F4>.

   `C-x )' can be given a repeat count as an argument.  This means to
repeat the macro right after defining it.  The macro definition itself
counts as the first repetition, since it is executed as you define it,
so `C-u 4 C-x )' executes the macro immediately 3 additional times.

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macro Ring,  Next: Keyboard Macro Counter,  Prev: Basic Keyboard Macro,  Up: Keyboard Macros

21.2 The Keyboard Macro Ring

All defined keyboard macros are recorded in the "keyboard macro ring".
There is only one keyboard macro ring, shared by all buffers.

`C-x C-k C-k'
     Execute the keyboard macro at the head of the ring

`C-x C-k C-n'
     Rotate the keyboard macro ring to the next macro (defined earlier)

`C-x C-k C-p'
     Rotate the keyboard macro ring to the previous macro (defined
     later) (`kmacro-cycle-ring-previous').

   All commands which operate on the keyboard macro ring use the same
`C-x C-k' prefix.  Most of these commands can be executed and repeated
immediately after each other without repeating the `C-x C-k' prefix.
For example,

     C-x C-k C-p C-p C-k C-k C-k C-n C-n C-k C-p C-k C-d

will rotate the keyboard macro ring to the "second previous" macro,
execute the resulting head macro three times, rotate back to the
original head macro, execute that once, rotate to the "previous" macro,
execute that, and finally delete it from the macro ring.

   The command `C-x C-k C-k' (`kmacro-end-or-call-macro-repeat')
executes the keyboard macro at the head of the macro ring.  You can
repeat the macro immediately by typing another `C-k', or you can rotate
the macro ring immediately by typing `C-n' or `C-p'.

   When a keyboard macro is being defined, `C-x C-k C-k' behaves like
<F4> except that, immediately afterward, you can use most key bindings
of this section without the `C-x C-k' prefix.  For instance, another
`C-k' will re-execute the macro.

   The commands `C-x C-k C-n' (`kmacro-cycle-ring-next') and `C-x C-k
C-p' (`kmacro-cycle-ring-previous') rotate the macro ring, bringing the
next or previous keyboard macro to the head of the macro ring.  The
definition of the new head macro is displayed in the echo area.  You
can continue to rotate the macro ring immediately by repeating just
`C-n' and `C-p' until the desired macro is at the head of the ring.  To
execute the new macro ring head immediately, just type `C-k'.

   Note that Emacs treats the head of the macro ring as the "last
defined keyboard macro."  For instance, <F4> will execute that macro,
and `C-x C-k n' will give it a name.

   The maximum number of macros stored in the keyboard macro ring is
determined by the customizable variable `kmacro-ring-max'.

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macro Counter,  Next: Keyboard Macro Query,  Prev: Keyboard Macro Ring,  Up: Keyboard Macros

21.3 The Keyboard Macro Counter

Each keyboard macro has an associated counter, which is initialized to
0 when you start defining the macro.  This counter allows you to insert
a number into the buffer that depends on the number of times the macro
has been called.  The counter is incremented each time its value is
inserted into the buffer.

     In a keyboard macro definition, insert the keyboard macro counter
     value in the buffer (`kmacro-start-macro-or-insert-counter').

`C-x C-k C-i'
     Insert the keyboard macro counter value in the buffer

`C-x C-k C-c'
     Set the keyboard macro counter (`kmacro-set-counter').

`C-x C-k C-a'
     Add the prefix arg to the keyboard macro counter

`C-x C-k C-f'
     Specify the format for inserting the keyboard macro counter

   When you are defining a keyboard macro, the command <F3>
(`kmacro-start-macro-or-insert-counter') inserts the current value of
the keyboard macro's counter into the buffer, and increments the
counter by 1.  (If you are not defining a macro, <F3> begins a macro
definition instead.  *Note Basic Keyboard Macro::.)  You can use a
numeric prefix argument to specify a different increment.  If you just
specify a `C-u' prefix, that is the same as an increment of zero: it
inserts the current counter value without changing it.

   As an example, let us show how the keyboard macro counter can be
used to build a numbered list.  Consider the following key sequence:

     <F3> C-a <F3> . <SPC> <F4>

As part of this keyboard macro definition, the string `0. ' was
inserted into the beginning of the current line.  If you now move
somewhere else in the buffer and type <F4> to invoke the macro, the
string `1. ' is inserted at the beginning of that line.  Subsequent
invocations insert `2. ', `3. ', and so forth.

   The command `C-x C-k C-i' (`kmacro-insert-counter') does the same
thing as <F3>, but it can be used outside a keyboard macro definition.
When no keyboard macro is being defined or executed, it inserts and
increments the counter of the macro at the head of the keyboard macro

   The command `C-x C-k C-c' (`kmacro-set-counter') sets the current
macro counter to the value of the numeric argument.  If you use it
inside the macro, it operates on each repetition of the macro.  If you
specify just `C-u' as the prefix, while executing the macro, that
resets the counter to the value it had at the beginning of the current
repetition of the macro (undoing any increments so far in this

   The command `C-x C-k C-a' (`kmacro-add-counter') adds the prefix
argument to the current macro counter.  With just `C-u' as argument, it
resets the counter to the last value inserted by any keyboard macro.
(Normally, when you use this, the last insertion will be in the same
macro and it will be the same counter.)

   The command `C-x C-k C-f' (`kmacro-set-format') prompts for the
format to use when inserting the macro counter.  The default format is
`%d', which means to insert the number in decimal without any padding.
You can exit with empty minibuffer to reset the format to this default.
You can specify any format string that the `format' function accepts
and that makes sense with a single integer extra argument (*note
Formatting Strings: (elisp)Formatting Strings.).  Do not put the format
string inside double quotes when you insert it in the minibuffer.

   If you use this command while no keyboard macro is being defined or
executed, the new format affects all subsequent macro definitions.
Existing macros continue to use the format in effect when they were
defined.  If you set the format while defining a keyboard macro, this
affects the macro being defined from that point on, but it does not
affect subsequent macros.  Execution of the macro will, at each step,
use the format in effect at that step during its definition.  Changes
to the macro format during execution of a macro, like the corresponding
changes during its definition, have no effect on subsequent macros.

   The format set by `C-x C-k C-f' does not affect insertion of numbers
stored in registers.

   If you use a register as a counter, incrementing it on each
repetition of the macro, that accomplishes the same thing as a keyboard
macro counter.  *Note RegNumbers::.  For most purposes, it is simpler
to use a keyboard macro counter.

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macro Query,  Next: Save Keyboard Macro,  Prev: Keyboard Macro Counter,  Up: Keyboard Macros

21.4 Executing Macros with Variations

In a keyboard macro, you can create an effect similar to that of
`query-replace', in that the macro asks you each time around whether to
make a change.

`C-x q'
     When this point is reached during macro execution, ask for
     confirmation (`kbd-macro-query').

   While defining the macro, type `C-x q' at the point where you want
the query to occur.  During macro definition, the `C-x q' does nothing,
but when you run the macro later, `C-x q' asks you interactively
whether to continue.

   The valid responses when `C-x q' asks are:

<SPC> (or `y')
     Continue executing the keyboard macro.

<DEL> (or `n')
     Skip the remainder of this repetition of the macro, and start right
     away with the next repetition.

<RET> (or `q')
     Skip the remainder of this repetition and cancel further

     Enter a recursive editing level, in which you can perform editing
     which is not part of the macro.  When you exit the recursive edit
     using `C-M-c', you are asked again how to continue with the
     keyboard macro.  If you type a <SPC> at this time, the rest of the
     macro definition is executed.  It is up to you to leave point and
     the text in a state such that the rest of the macro will do what
     you want.

   `C-u C-x q', which is `C-x q' with a numeric argument, performs a
completely different function.  It enters a recursive edit reading
input from the keyboard, both when you type it during the definition of
the macro, and when it is executed from the macro.  During definition,
the editing you do inside the recursive edit does not become part of
the macro.  During macro execution, the recursive edit gives you a
chance to do some particularized editing on each repetition.  *Note
Recursive Edit::.

File: emacs,  Node: Save Keyboard Macro,  Next: Edit Keyboard Macro,  Prev: Keyboard Macro Query,  Up: Keyboard Macros

21.5 Naming and Saving Keyboard Macros

`C-x C-k n'
     Give a command name (for the duration of the Emacs session) to the
     most recently defined keyboard macro (`kmacro-name-last-macro').

`C-x C-k b'
     Bind the most recently defined keyboard macro to a key sequence
     (for the duration of the session) (`kmacro-bind-to-key').

`M-x insert-kbd-macro'
     Insert in the buffer a keyboard macro's definition, as Lisp code.

   If you wish to save a keyboard macro for later use, you can give it
a name using `C-x C-k n' (`kmacro-name-last-macro').  This reads a name
as an argument using the minibuffer and defines that name to execute
the last keyboard macro, in its current form.  (If you later add to the
definition of this macro, that does not alter the name's definition as
a macro.)  The macro name is a Lisp symbol, and defining it in this way
makes it a valid command name for calling with `M-x' or for binding a
key to with `global-set-key' (*note Keymaps::).  If you specify a name
that has a prior definition other than a keyboard macro, an error
message is shown and nothing is changed.

   You can also bind the last keyboard macro (in its current form) to a
key, using `C-x C-k b' (`kmacro-bind-to-key') followed by the key
sequence you want to bind.  You can bind to any key sequence in the
global keymap, but since most key sequences already have other
bindings, you should select the key sequence carefully.  If you try to
bind to a key sequence with an existing binding (in any keymap), this
command asks you for confirmation before replacing the existing binding.

   To avoid problems caused by overriding existing bindings, the key
sequences `C-x C-k 0' through `C-x C-k 9' and `C-x C-k A' through `C-x
C-k Z' are reserved for your own keyboard macro bindings.  In fact, to
bind to one of these key sequences, you only need to type the digit or
letter rather than the whole key sequences.  For example,

     C-x C-k b 4

will bind the last keyboard macro to the key sequence `C-x C-k 4'.

   Once a macro has a command name, you can save its definition in a
file.  Then it can be used in another editing session.  First, visit
the file you want to save the definition in.  Then use this command:

     M-x insert-kbd-macro <RET> MACRONAME <RET>

This inserts some Lisp code that, when executed later, will define the
same macro with the same definition it has now.  (You need not
understand Lisp code to do this, because `insert-kbd-macro' writes the
Lisp code for you.)  Then save the file.  You can load the file later
with `load-file' (*note Lisp Libraries::).  If the file you save in is
your init file `~/.emacs' (*note Init File::) then the macro will be
defined each time you run Emacs.

   If you give `insert-kbd-macro' a numeric argument, it makes
additional Lisp code to record the keys (if any) that you have bound to
MACRONAME, so that the macro will be reassigned the same keys when you
load the file.

File: emacs,  Node: Edit Keyboard Macro,  Next: Keyboard Macro Step-Edit,  Prev: Save Keyboard Macro,  Up: Keyboard Macros

21.6 Editing a Keyboard Macro

`C-x C-k C-e'
     Edit the last defined keyboard macro (`kmacro-edit-macro').

`C-x C-k e NAME <RET>'
     Edit a previously defined keyboard macro NAME (`edit-kbd-macro').

`C-x C-k l'
     Edit the last 300 keystrokes as a keyboard macro

   You can edit the last keyboard macro by typing `C-x C-k C-e' or `C-x
C-k RET' (`kmacro-edit-macro').  This formats the macro definition in a
buffer and enters a specialized major mode for editing it.  Type `C-h
m' once in that buffer to display details of how to edit the macro.
When you are finished editing, type `C-c C-c'.

   You can edit a named keyboard macro or a macro bound to a key by
typing `C-x C-k e' (`edit-kbd-macro').  Follow that with the keyboard
input that you would use to invoke the macro--`C-x e' or `M-x NAME' or
some other key sequence.

   You can edit the last 300 keystrokes as a macro by typing `C-x C-k
l' (`kmacro-edit-lossage').

File: emacs,  Node: Keyboard Macro Step-Edit,  Prev: Edit Keyboard Macro,  Up: Keyboard Macros

21.7 Stepwise Editing a Keyboard Macro

You can interactively replay and edit the last keyboard macro, one
command at a time, by typing `C-x C-k SPC' (`kmacro-step-edit-macro').
Unless you quit the macro using `q' or `C-g', the edited macro replaces
the last macro on the macro ring.

   This macro editing feature shows the last macro in the minibuffer
together with the first (or next) command to be executed, and prompts
you for an action.  You can enter `?' to get a summary of your options.
These actions are available:

   * `SPC' and `y' execute the current command, and advance to the next
     command in the keyboard macro.

   * `n', `d', and `DEL' skip and delete the current command.

   * `f' skips the current command in this execution of the keyboard
     macro, but doesn't delete it from the macro.

   * `<TAB>' executes the current command, as well as all similar
     commands immediately following the current command; for example,
     <TAB> may be used to insert a sequence of characters
     (corresponding to a sequence of `self-insert-command' commands).

   * `c' continues execution (without further editing) until the end of
     the keyboard macro.  If execution terminates normally, the edited
     macro replaces the original keyboard macro.

   * `C-k' skips and deletes the rest of the keyboard macro, terminates
     step-editing, and replaces the original keyboard macro with the
     edited macro.

   * `q' and `C-g' cancels the step-editing of the keyboard macro;
     discarding any changes made to the keyboard macro.

   * `i KEY... C-j' reads and executes a series of key sequences (not
     including the final `C-j'), and inserts them before the current
     command in the keyboard macro, without advancing over the current

   * `I KEY...' reads one key sequence, executes it, and inserts it
     before the current command in the keyboard macro, without advancing
     over the current command.

   * `r KEY... C-j' reads and executes a series of key sequences (not
     including the final `C-j'), and replaces the current command in
     the keyboard macro with them, advancing over the inserted key

   * `R KEY...' reads one key sequence, executes it, and replaces the
     current command in the keyboard macro with that key sequence,
     advancing over the inserted key sequence.

   * `a KEY... C-j' executes the current command, then reads and
     executes a series of key sequences (not including the final
     `C-j'), and inserts them after the current command in the keyboard
     macro; it then advances over the current command and the inserted
     key sequences.

   * `A KEY... C-j' executes the rest of the commands in the keyboard
     macro, then reads and executes a series of key sequences (not
     including the final `C-j'), and appends them at the end of the
     keyboard macro; it then terminates the step-editing and replaces
     the original keyboard macro with the edited macro.

File: emacs,  Node: Files,  Next: Buffers,  Prev: Keyboard Macros,  Up: Top

22 File Handling

The operating system stores data permanently in named "files", so most
of the text you edit with Emacs comes from a file and is ultimately
stored in a file.

   To edit a file, you must tell Emacs to read the file and prepare a
buffer containing a copy of the file's text.  This is called "visiting"
the file.  Editing commands apply directly to text in the buffer; that
is, to the copy inside Emacs.  Your changes appear in the file itself
only when you "save" the buffer back into the file.

   In addition to visiting and saving files, Emacs can delete, copy,
rename, and append to files, keep multiple versions of them, and operate
on file directories.

* Menu:

* File Names::          How to type and edit file-name arguments.
* Visiting::            Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
* Saving::              Saving makes your changes permanent.
* Reverting::           Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.

* Autorevert::          Auto Reverting non-file buffers.
* Auto Save::           Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
* File Aliases::        Handling multiple names for one file.
* Directories::         Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
* Comparing Files::     Finding where two files differ.
* Diff Mode::           Mode for editing file differences.
* Misc File Ops::       Other things you can do on files.
* Compressed Files::    Accessing compressed files.
* File Archives::       Operating on tar, zip, jar etc. archive files.
* Remote Files::        Accessing files on other sites.
* Quoted File Names::   Quoting special characters in file names.
* File Name Cache::     Completion against a list of files you often use.
* File Conveniences::   Convenience Features for Finding Files.
* Filesets::            Handling sets of files.

File: emacs,  Node: File Names,  Next: Visiting,  Up: Files

22.1 File Names

Many Emacs commands that operate on a file require you to specify the
file name, using the minibuffer (*note Minibuffer::).  You can use
"completion" to specify long file names (*note Completion::).  Note
that file name completion ignores file names whose extensions appear in
the variable `completion-ignored-extensions' (*note Completion

   For most operations, there is a "default file name" which is used if
you type just <RET> to enter an empty argument.  Normally, the default
file name is the name of the file visited in the current buffer.

   Each buffer has a "default directory" which is normally the same as
the directory of the file visited in that buffer.  For example, if the
default file name is `/u/rms/gnu/gnu.tasks', the default directory is
normally `/u/rms/gnu/'.  The default directory is kept in the variable
`default-directory', which has a separate value in every buffer.  When
a command reads a file name using the minibuffer, the default directory
usually serves as the initial contents of the minibuffer.  To inhibit
the insertion of the default directory, set the variable
`insert-default-directory' to `nil'.

   If you enter a file name without a directory, that specifies a file
in the default directory.  If you specify a directory in a relative
fashion, with a name that does not start with a slash, it is
interpreted with respect to the default directory.  For example,
suppose the default directory is `/u/rms/gnu/'.  Entering just `foo' in
the minibuffer, with a directory omitted, specifies the file
`/u/rms/gnu/foo'; entering `../.login' specifies `/u/rms/.login'; and
entering `new/foo' specifies `/u/rms/gnu/new/foo'.

   When typing a file name into the minibuffer, you can make use of a
couple of shortcuts: a double slash is interpreted as "ignore
everything before the second slash in the pair," and `~/' is
interpreted as your home directory.  *Note Minibuffer File::, for more
information about these shortcuts.

   The command `M-x pwd' displays the default directory, and the
command `M-x cd' sets it to a value read using the minibuffer.  A
buffer's default directory changes only when the `cd' command is used.
A file-visiting buffer's default directory is initialized to the
directory of the file it visits.  If you create a buffer with `C-x b',
its default directory is copied from that of the buffer that was
current at the time (*note Select Buffer::).

   The character `$' is used to substitute an environment variable into
a file name.  The name of the environment variable consists of all the
alphanumeric characters after the `$'; alternatively, it can be
enclosed in braces after the `$'.  For example, if you have used the
shell command `export FOO=rms/hacks' to set up an environment variable
named `FOO', then both `/u/$FOO/test.c' and `/u/${FOO}/test.c' are
abbreviations for `/u/rms/hacks/test.c'.  If the environment variable
is not defined, no substitution occurs, so that the character `$' stands
for itself.

   Note that environment variables affect Emacs only if they are
applied before Emacs is started.

   To access a file with `$' in its name, if the `$' causes expansion,
type `$$'.  This pair is converted to a single `$' at the same time
that variable substitution is performed for a single `$'.
Alternatively, quote the whole file name with `/:' (*note Quoted File
Names::).  File names which begin with a literal `~' should also be
quoted with `/:'.

   You can include non-ASCII characters in file names if you set the
variable `file-name-coding-system' to a non-`nil' value.  *Note File
Name Coding::.

File: emacs,  Node: Visiting,  Next: Saving,  Prev: File Names,  Up: Files

22.2 Visiting Files

`C-x C-f'
     Visit a file (`find-file').

`C-x C-r'
     Visit a file for viewing, without allowing changes to it

`C-x C-v'
     Visit a different file instead of the one visited last

`C-x 4 f'
     Visit a file, in another window (`find-file-other-window').  Don't
     alter what is displayed in the selected window.

`C-x 5 f'
     Visit a file, in a new frame (`find-file-other-frame').  Don't
     alter what is displayed in the selected frame.

`M-x find-file-literally'
     Visit a file with no conversion of the contents.

   "Visiting" a file means reading its contents into an Emacs buffer so
you can edit them.  Emacs makes a new buffer for each file that you

   Emacs normally constructs the buffer name from the file name,
omitting the directory name.  For example, a file named
`/usr/rms/emacs.tex' is visited in a buffer named `emacs.tex'.  If
there is already a buffer with that name, Emacs constructs a unique
name; the normal method is to append `<2>', `<3>', and so on, but you
can select other methods.  *Note Uniquify::.

   Each window's mode line shows the name of the buffer that is being
displayed in that window, so you can always tell what buffer you are
editing.  *note Mode Line::.

   The changes you make with editing commands are made in the Emacs
buffer.  They do not take effect in the file that you visited, or any
permanent place, until you "save" the buffer (*note Saving::).

   If a buffer contains changes that have not been saved, we say the
buffer is "modified".  This implies that some changes will be lost if
the buffer is not saved.  The mode line displays two stars near the
left margin to indicate that the buffer is modified.

   To visit a file, type `C-x C-f' (`find-file') and use the minibuffer
to enter the name of the desired file.  The usual defaulting and
completion behavior is available in this minibuffer (*note Minibuffer
File::).  Note, also, that completion ignores certain file names (*note
Completion Options::).  While in the minibuffer, you can abort `C-x
C-f' by typing `C-g'.

   Your can tell that `C-x C-f' has completed successfully by the
appearance of new text on the screen and a new buffer name in the mode
line.  If the specified file does not exist and you could not create
it, or exists but you can't read it, an error message is displayed in
the echo area.

   If you visit a file that is already in Emacs, `C-x C-f' does not make
another copy.  It selects the existing buffer containing that file.
However, before doing so, it checks whether the file itself has changed
since you visited or saved it last.  If the file has changed, Emacs
offers to reread it.

   If you try to visit a file larger than
`large-file-warning-threshold' (the default is 10000000, which is about
10 megabytes), Emacs asks you for confirmation first.  You can answer
`y' to proceed with visiting the file.  Note, however, that Emacs
cannot visit files that are larger than the maximum Emacs buffer size,
which is around 256 megabytes on 32-bit machines (*note Buffers::).  If
you try, Emacs will display an error message saying that the maximum
buffer size has been exceeded.

   If the file name you specify contains shell-style wildcard
characters, Emacs visits all the files that match it.  (On
case-insensitive filesystems, Emacs matches the wildcards disregarding
the letter case.)  Wildcards include `?', `*', and `[...]' sequences.
To enter the wild card `?' in a file name in the minibuffer, you need
to type `C-q ?'.  *Note Quoted File Names::, for information on how to
visit a file whose name actually contains wildcard characters.  You can
disable the wildcard feature by customizing `find-file-wildcards'.

   On graphical displays, there are two additional methods for visiting
files.  Firstly, when Emacs is built with a suitable GUI toolkit,
commands invoked with the mouse (by clicking on the menu bar or tool
bar) use the toolkit's standard "File Selection" dialog instead of
prompting for the file name in the minibuffer.  On GNU/Linux and Unix
platforms, Emacs does this when built with GTK, LessTif, and Motif
toolkits; on MS-Windows and Mac, the GUI version does that by default.
For information on how to customize this, see *note Dialog Boxes::.

   Secondly, Emacs supports "drag and drop": dropping a file into an
ordinary Emacs window visits the file using that window.  As an
exception, dropping a file into a window displaying a Dired buffer
moves or copies the file into the displayed directory.  For details,
see *note Drag and Drop::, and *note Misc Dired Features::.

   What if you want to create a new file?  Just visit it.  Emacs
displays `(New file)' in the echo area, but in other respects behaves
as if you had visited an existing empty file.  If you make changes and
save them, the file is created.

   When <TAB> completion results in a nonexistent file name and you
type <RET> immediately to visit it, Emacs asks for confirmation; this
is because it's possible that you expected completion to go further and
give you an existing file's name.  The string `[Confirm]' appears for a
short time after the file name to indicate the need to confirm in this
way.  Type <RET> to confirm and visit the nonexistent file.  The
variable `confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer' controls whether Emacs
asks for confirmation before visiting a new file.  The default value,
`after-completion', gives the behavior we have just described.  If the
value is `nil', Emacs never asks for confirmation; for any other
non-`nil' value, Emacs always asks for confirmation.  This variable
also affects the `switch-to-buffer' command (*note Select Buffer::).
*Note Completion::, for more information about completion.

   If you visit a nonexistent file unintentionally (because you typed
the wrong file name), type `C-x C-v' (`find-alternate-file') to visit
the file you really wanted.  `C-x C-v' is similar to `C-x C-f', but it
kills the current buffer (after first offering to save it if it is
modified).  When `C-x C-v' reads the file name to visit, it inserts the
entire default file name in the buffer, with point just after the
directory part; this is convenient if you made a slight error in typing
the name.

   If you "visit" a file that is actually a directory, Emacs invokes
Dired, the Emacs directory browser; this lets you "edit" the contents
of the directory.  *Note Dired::.  You can disable this behavior by
setting the variable `find-file-run-dired' to `nil'; in that case, it
is an error to try to visit a directory.

   Files which are actually collections of other files, or "file
archives", are visited in special modes which invoke a Dired-like
environment to allow operations on archive members.  *Note File
Archives::, for more about these features.

   If you visit a file that the operating system won't let you modify,
or that is marked read-only, Emacs makes the buffer read-only too, so
that you won't go ahead and make changes that you'll have trouble
saving afterward.  You can make the buffer writable with `C-x C-q'
(`toggle-read-only').  *Note Misc Buffer::.

   If you want to visit a file as read-only in order to protect
yourself from entering changes accidentally, visit it with the command
`C-x C-r' (`find-file-read-only') instead of `C-x C-f'.

   `C-x 4 f' (`find-file-other-window') is like `C-x C-f' except that
the buffer containing the specified file is selected in another window.
The window that was selected before `C-x 4 f' continues to show the
same buffer it was already showing.  If this command is used when only
one window is being displayed, that window is split in two, with one
window showing the same buffer as before, and the other one showing the
newly requested file.  *Note Windows::.

   `C-x 5 f' (`find-file-other-frame') is similar, but opens a new
frame, or makes visible any existing frame showing the file you seek.
This feature is available only when you are using a window system.
*Note Frames::.

   Emacs recognizes from the contents of a file which end-of-line
convention it uses to separate lines--newline (used on GNU/Linux and on
Unix), carriage-return linefeed (used on Microsoft systems), or just
carriage-return (used on the Macintosh)--and automatically converts the
contents to the normal Emacs convention, which is that the newline
character separates lines.  This is a part of the general feature of
coding system conversion (*note Coding Systems::), and makes it
possible to edit files imported from different operating systems with
equal convenience.  If you change the text and save the file, Emacs
performs the inverse conversion, changing newlines back into
carriage-return linefeed or just carriage-return if appropriate.

   If you wish to edit a file as a sequence of ASCII characters with no
special encoding or conversion, use the `M-x find-file-literally'
command.  This visits a file, like `C-x C-f', but does not do format
conversion (*note Formatted Text::), character code conversion (*note
Coding Systems::), or automatic uncompression (*note Compressed
Files::), and does not add a final newline because of
`require-final-newline' (*note Customize Save::).  If you have already
visited the same file in the usual (non-literal) manner, this command
asks you whether to visit it literally instead.

   Two special hook variables allow extensions to modify the operation
of visiting files.  Visiting a file that does not exist runs the
functions in the list `find-file-not-found-functions'; this variable
holds a list of functions, and the functions are called one by one
(with no arguments) until one of them returns non-`nil'.  This is not a
normal hook, and the name ends in `-functions' rather than `-hook' to
indicate that fact.

   Successful visiting of any file, whether existing or not, calls the
functions in the list `find-file-hook', with no arguments.  This
variable is a normal hook.  In the case of a nonexistent file, the
`find-file-not-found-functions' are run first.  *Note Hooks::.

   There are several ways to specify automatically the major mode for
editing the file (*note Choosing Modes::), and to specify local
variables defined for that file (*note File Variables::).

File: emacs,  Node: Saving,  Next: Reverting,  Prev: Visiting,  Up: Files

22.3 Saving Files

"Saving" a buffer in Emacs means writing its contents back into the file
that was visited in the buffer.

* Menu:

* Save Commands::       Commands for saving files.
* Backup::              How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
* Customize Save::      Customizing the saving of files.
* Interlocking::        How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing
                          of one file by two users.
* Shadowing: File Shadowing.  Copying files to "shadows" automatically.
* Time Stamps::         Emacs can update time stamps on saved files.

File: emacs,  Node: Save Commands,  Next: Backup,  Up: Saving

22.3.1 Commands for Saving Files

These are the commands that relate to saving and writing files.

`C-x C-s'
     Save the current buffer in its visited file on disk

`C-x s'
     Save any or all buffers in their visited files

     Forget that the current buffer has been changed (`not-modified').
     With prefix argument (`C-u'), mark the current buffer as changed.

`C-x C-w'
     Save the current buffer with a specified file name (`write-file').

`M-x set-visited-file-name'
     Change the file name under which the current buffer will be saved.

   When you wish to save the file and make your changes permanent, type
`C-x C-s' (`save-buffer').  After saving is finished, `C-x C-s'
displays a message like this:

     Wrote /u/rms/gnu/gnu.tasks

If the selected buffer is not modified (no changes have been made in it
since the buffer was created or last saved), saving is not really done,
because it would have no effect.  Instead, `C-x C-s' displays a message
like this in the echo area:

     (No changes need to be saved)

   With a prefix argument, `C-u C-x C-s', Emacs also marks the buffer
to be backed up when the next save is done.  *Note Backup::.

   The command `C-x s' (`save-some-buffers') offers to save any or all
modified buffers.  It asks you what to do with each buffer.  The
possible responses are analogous to those of `query-replace':

     Save this buffer and ask about the rest of the buffers.

     Don't save this buffer, but ask about the rest of the buffers.

     Save this buffer and all the rest with no more questions.

     Terminate `save-some-buffers' without any more saving.

     Save this buffer, then exit `save-some-buffers' without even asking
     about other buffers.

     View the buffer that you are currently being asked about.  When
     you exit View mode, you get back to `save-some-buffers', which
     asks the question again.

     Diff the buffer against its corresponding file, so you can see what
     changes you would be saving.  This calls the command
     `diff-buffer-with-file' (*note Comparing Files::).

     Display a help message about these options.

   `C-x C-c', the key sequence to exit Emacs, invokes
`save-some-buffers' and therefore asks the same questions.

   If you have changed a buffer but do not wish to save the changes,
you should take some action to prevent it.  Otherwise, each time you
use `C-x s' or `C-x C-c', you are liable to save this buffer by
mistake.  One thing you can do is type `M-~' (`not-modified'), which
clears out the indication that the buffer is modified.  If you do this,
none of the save commands will believe that the buffer needs to be
saved.  (`~' is often used as a mathematical symbol for `not'; thus
`M-~' is `not', metafied.)  Alternatively, you can cancel all the
changes made since the file was visited or saved, by reading the text
from the file again.  This is called "reverting".  *Note Reverting::.
(You could also undo all the changes by repeating the undo command `C-x
u' until you have undone all the changes; but reverting is easier.)

   `M-x set-visited-file-name' alters the name of the file that the
current buffer is visiting.  It reads the new file name using the
minibuffer.  Then it marks the buffer as visiting that file name, and
changes the buffer name correspondingly.  `set-visited-file-name' does
not save the buffer in the newly visited file; it just alters the
records inside Emacs in case you do save later.  It also marks the
buffer as "modified" so that `C-x C-s' in that buffer _will_ save.

   If you wish to mark the buffer as visiting a different file and save
it right away, use `C-x C-w' (`write-file').  This is equivalent to
`set-visited-file-name' followed by `C-x C-s', except that `C-x C-w'
asks for confirmation if the file exists.  `C-x C-s' used on a buffer
that is not visiting a file has the same effect as `C-x C-w'; that is,
it reads a file name, marks the buffer as visiting that file, and saves
it there.  The default file name in a buffer that is not visiting a
file is made by combining the buffer name with the buffer's default
directory (*note File Names::).

   If the new file name implies a major mode, then `C-x C-w' switches
to that major mode, in most cases.  The command `set-visited-file-name'
also does this.  *Note Choosing Modes::.

   If Emacs is about to save a file and sees that the date of the latest
version on disk does not match what Emacs last read or wrote, Emacs
notifies you of this fact, because it probably indicates a problem
caused by simultaneous editing and requires your immediate attention.
*Note Simultaneous Editing: Interlocking.

File: emacs,  Node: Backup,  Next: Customize Save,  Prev: Save Commands,  Up: Saving

22.3.2 Backup Files

On most operating systems, rewriting a file automatically destroys all
record of what the file used to contain.  Thus, saving a file from Emacs
throws away the old contents of the file--or it would, except that
Emacs carefully copies the old contents to another file, called the
"backup" file, before actually saving.

   Emacs makes a backup for a file only the first time the file is
saved from a buffer.  No matter how many times you subsequently save
the file, its backup remains unchanged.  However, if you kill the
buffer and then visit the file again, a new backup file will be made.

   For most files, the variable `make-backup-files' determines whether
to make backup files.  On most operating systems, its default value is
`t', so that Emacs does write backup files.

   For files managed by a version control system (*note Version
Control::), the variable `vc-make-backup-files' determines whether to
make backup files.  By default it is `nil', since backup files are
redundant when you store all the previous versions in a version control
system.  *Note General VC Options::.

   At your option, Emacs can keep either a single backup for each file,
or make a series of numbered backup files for each file that you edit.
*Note Backup Names::.

   The default value of the `backup-enable-predicate' variable prevents
backup files being written for files in the directories used for
temporary files, specified by `temporary-file-directory' or

   You can explicitly tell Emacs to make another backup file from a
buffer, even though that buffer has been saved before.  If you save the
buffer with `C-u C-x C-s', the version thus saved will be made into a
backup file if you save the buffer again.  `C-u C-u C-x C-s' saves the
buffer, but first makes the previous file contents into a new backup
file.  `C-u C-u C-u C-x C-s' does both things: it makes a backup from
the previous contents, and arranges to make another from the newly
saved contents if you save again.

* Menu:

* Names: Backup Names.		How backup files are named.
* Deletion: Backup Deletion.	Emacs deletes excess numbered backups.
* Copying: Backup Copying.	Backups can be made by copying or renaming.

File: emacs,  Node: Backup Names,  Next: Backup Deletion,  Up: Backup Single or Numbered Backups

When Emacs makes a backup file, its name is normally constructed by
appending `~' to the file name being edited; thus, the backup file for
`eval.c' would be `eval.c~'.

   If access control stops Emacs from writing backup files under the
usual names, it writes the backup file as `%backup%~' in your home
directory.  Only one such file can exist, so only the most recently
made such backup is available.

   Emacs can also make "numbered backup files".  Numbered backup file
names contain `.~', the number, and another `~' after the original file
name.  Thus, the backup files of `eval.c' would be called `eval.c.~1~',
`eval.c.~2~', and so on, all the way through names like `eval.c.~259~'
and beyond.

   The variable `version-control' determines whether to make single
backup files or multiple numbered backup files.  Its possible values

     Make numbered backups for files that have numbered backups already.
     Otherwise, make single backups.  This is the default.

     Make numbered backups.

     Never make numbered backups; always make single backups.

The usual way to set this variable is globally, through your `.emacs'
file or the customization buffer.  However, you can set
`version-control' locally in an individual buffer to control the making
of backups for that buffer's file (*note Locals::).  You can have Emacs
set `version-control' locally whenever you visit a given file (*note
File Variables::).  Some modes, such as Rmail mode, set this variable.

   If you set the environment variable `VERSION_CONTROL', to tell
various GNU utilities what to do with backup files, Emacs also obeys the
environment variable by setting the Lisp variable `version-control'
accordingly at startup.  If the environment variable's value is `t' or
`numbered', then `version-control' becomes `t'; if the value is `nil'
or `existing', then `version-control' becomes `nil'; if it is `never'
or `simple', then `version-control' becomes `never'.

   You can customize the variable `backup-directory-alist' to specify
that files matching certain patterns should be backed up in specific
directories.  This variable applies to both single and numbered
backups.  A typical use is to add an element `("."  . DIR)' to make all
backups in the directory with absolute name DIR; Emacs modifies the
backup file names to avoid clashes between files with the same names
originating in different directories.  Alternatively, adding, `("." .
".~")' would make backups in the invisible subdirectory `.~' of the
original file's directory.  Emacs creates the directory, if necessary,
to make the backup.

   If you define the variable `make-backup-file-name-function' to a
suitable Lisp function, that overrides the usual way Emacs constructs
backup file names.

File: emacs,  Node: Backup Deletion,  Next: Backup Copying,  Prev: Backup Names,  Up: Backup Automatic Deletion of Backups

To prevent excessive consumption of disk space, Emacs can delete
numbered backup versions automatically.  Generally Emacs keeps the
first few backups and the latest few backups, deleting any in between.
This happens every time a new backup is made.

   The two variables `kept-old-versions' and `kept-new-versions'
control this deletion.  Their values are, respectively, the number of
oldest (lowest-numbered) backups to keep and the number of newest
(highest-numbered) ones to keep, each time a new backup is made.  The
backups in the middle (excluding those oldest and newest) are the
excess middle versions--those backups are deleted.  These variables'
values are used when it is time to delete excess versions, just after a
new backup version is made; the newly made backup is included in the
count in `kept-new-versions'.  By default, both variables are 2.

   If `delete-old-versions' is `t', Emacs deletes the excess backup
files silently.  If it is `nil', the default, Emacs asks you whether it
should delete the excess backup versions.  If it has any other value,
then Emacs never automatically deletes backups.

   Dired's `.' (Period) command can also be used to delete old versions.
*Note Dired Deletion::.

File: emacs,  Node: Backup Copying,  Prev: Backup Deletion,  Up: Backup Copying vs. Renaming

Backup files can be made by copying the old file or by renaming it.
This makes a difference when the old file has multiple names (hard
links).  If the old file is renamed into the backup file, then the
alternate names become names for the backup file.  If the old file is
copied instead, then the alternate names remain names for the file that
you are editing, and the contents accessed by those names will be the
new contents.

   The method of making a backup file may also affect the file's owner
and group.  If copying is used, these do not change.  If renaming is
used, you become the file's owner, and the file's group becomes the
default (different operating systems have different defaults for the

   Having the owner change is usually a good idea, because then the
owner always shows who last edited the file.  Also, the owners of the
backups show who produced those versions.  Occasionally there is a file
whose owner should not change; it is a good idea for such files to
contain local variable lists to set `backup-by-copying-when-mismatch'
locally (*note File Variables::).

   The choice of renaming or copying is controlled by four variables.
Renaming is the default choice.  If the variable `backup-by-copying' is
non-`nil', copying is used.  Otherwise, if the variable
`backup-by-copying-when-linked' is non-`nil', then copying is used for
files that have multiple names, but renaming may still be used when the
file being edited has only one name.  If the variable
`backup-by-copying-when-mismatch' is non-`nil', then copying is used if
renaming would cause the file's owner or group to change.
`backup-by-copying-when-mismatch' is `t' by default if you start Emacs
as the superuser.  The fourth variable,
`backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch', gives the highest numeric
user-id for which `backup-by-copying-when-mismatch' will be forced on.
This is useful when low-numbered user-ids are assigned to special
system users, such as `root', `bin', `daemon', etc., which must
maintain ownership of files.

   When a file is managed with a version control system (*note Version
Control::), Emacs does not normally make backups in the usual way for
that file.  But check-in and check-out are similar in some ways to
making backups.  One unfortunate similarity is that these operations
typically break hard links, disconnecting the file name you visited from
any alternate names for the same file.  This has nothing to do with
Emacs--the version control system does it.

File: emacs,  Node: Customize Save,  Next: Interlocking,  Prev: Backup,  Up: Saving

22.3.3 Customizing Saving of Files

If the value of the variable `require-final-newline' is `t', saving or
writing a file silently puts a newline at the end if there isn't
already one there.  If the value is `visit', Emacs adds a newline at
the end of any file that doesn't have one, just after it visits the
file.  (This marks the buffer as modified, and you can undo it.)  If
the value is `visit-save', that means to add newlines both on visiting
and on saving.  If the value is `nil', Emacs leaves the end of the file
unchanged; if it's neither `nil' nor `t', Emacs asks you whether to add
a newline.  The default is `nil'.

   Many major modes are designed for specific kinds of files that are
always supposed to end in newlines.  These major modes set the variable
`require-final-newline' according to `mode-require-final-newline'.  By
setting the latter variable, you can control how these modes handle
final newlines.

   When Emacs saves a file, it invokes the `fsync' system call to force
the data immediately out to disk.  This is important for safety if the
system crashes or in case of power outage.  However, it can be
disruptive on laptops using power saving, because it requires the disk
to spin up each time you save a file.  Setting
`write-region-inhibit-fsync' to a non-`nil' value disables this
synchronization.  Be careful--this means increased risk of data loss.

File: emacs,  Node: Interlocking,  Next: File Shadowing,  Prev: Customize Save,  Up: Saving

22.3.4 Protection against Simultaneous Editing

Simultaneous editing occurs when two users visit the same file, both
make changes, and then both save them.  If nobody were informed that
this was happening, whichever user saved first would later find that his
changes were lost.

   On some systems, Emacs notices immediately when the second user
starts to change the file, and issues an immediate warning.  On all
systems, Emacs checks when you save the file, and warns if you are
about to overwrite another user's changes.  You can prevent loss of the
other user's work by taking the proper corrective action instead of
saving the file.

   When you make the first modification in an Emacs buffer that is
visiting a file, Emacs records that the file is "locked" by you.  (It
does this by creating a specially-named symbolic link in the same
directory.)  Emacs removes the lock when you save the changes.  The
idea is that the file is locked whenever an Emacs buffer visiting it
has unsaved changes.

   If you begin to modify the buffer while the visited file is locked by
someone else, this constitutes a "collision".  When Emacs detects a
collision, it asks you what to do, by calling the Lisp function
`ask-user-about-lock'.  You can redefine this function for the sake of
customization.  The standard definition of this function asks you a
question and accepts three possible answers:

     Steal the lock.  Whoever was already changing the file loses the
     lock, and you gain the lock.

     Proceed.  Go ahead and edit the file despite its being locked by
     someone else.

     Quit.  This causes an error (`file-locked'), and the buffer
     contents remain unchanged--the modification you were trying to make
     does not actually take place.

   Note that locking works on the basis of a file name; if a file has
multiple names, Emacs does not realize that the two names are the same
file and cannot prevent two users from editing it simultaneously under
different names.  However, basing locking on names means that Emacs can
interlock the editing of new files that will not really exist until
they are saved.

   Some systems are not configured to allow Emacs to make locks, and
there are cases where lock files cannot be written.  In these cases,
Emacs cannot detect trouble in advance, but it still can detect the
collision when you try to save a file and overwrite someone else's
changes.  Every time Emacs saves a buffer, it first checks the
last-modification date of the existing file on disk to verify that it
has not changed since the file was last visited or saved.  If the date
does not match, it implies that changes were made in the file in some
other way, and these changes are about to be lost if Emacs actually
does save.  To prevent this, Emacs displays a warning message and asks
for confirmation before saving.  Occasionally you will know why the
file was changed and know that it does not matter; then you can answer
`yes' and proceed.  Otherwise, you should cancel the save with `C-g'
and investigate the situation.

   If Emacs or the operating system crashes, this may leave behind lock
files which are stale, so you may occasionally get warnings about
spurious collisions.  When you determine that the collision is spurious,
just use `p' to tell Emacs to go ahead anyway.

   The first thing you should do when notified that simultaneous editing
has already taken place is to list the directory with `C-u C-x C-d'
(*note Directories::).  This shows the file's current author.  You
should attempt to contact him to warn him not to continue editing.
Often the next step is to save the contents of your Emacs buffer under a
different name, and use `diff' to compare the two files.

File: emacs,  Node: File Shadowing,  Next: Time Stamps,  Prev: Interlocking,  Up: Saving

22.3.5 Shadowing Files

`M-x shadow-initialize'
     Set up file shadowing.

`M-x shadow-define-literal-group'
     Declare a single file to be shared between sites.

`M-x shadow-define-regexp-group'
     Make all files that match each of a group of files be shared
     between hosts.

`M-x shadow-define-cluster <RET> NAME <RET>'
     Define a shadow file cluster NAME.

`M-x shadow-copy-files'
     Copy all pending shadow files.

`M-x shadow-cancel'
     Cancel the instruction to shadow some files.

   You can arrange to keep identical "shadow" copies of certain files
in more than one place--possibly on different machines.  To do this,
first you must set up a "shadow file group", which is a set of
identically-named files shared between a list of sites.  The file group
is permanent and applies to further Emacs sessions as well as the
current one.  Once the group is set up, every time you exit Emacs, it
will copy the file you edited to the other files in its group.  You can
also do the copying without exiting Emacs, by typing `M-x

   To set up a shadow file group, use `M-x shadow-define-literal-group'
or `M-x shadow-define-regexp-group'.  See their documentation strings
for further information.

   Before copying a file to its shadows, Emacs asks for confirmation.
You can answer "no" to bypass copying of this file, this time.  If you
want to cancel the shadowing permanently for a certain file, use `M-x
shadow-cancel' to eliminate or change the shadow file group.

   A "shadow cluster" is a group of hosts that share directories, so
that copying to or from one of them is sufficient to update the file on
all of them.  Each shadow cluster has a name, and specifies the network
address of a primary host (the one we copy files to), and a regular
expression that matches the host names of all the other hosts in the
cluster.  You can define a shadow cluster with `M-x

File: emacs,  Node: Time Stamps,  Prev: File Shadowing,  Up: Saving

22.3.6 Updating Time Stamps Automatically

You can arrange to put a time stamp in a file, so that it will be
updated automatically each time you edit and save the file.  The time
stamp has to be in the first eight lines of the file, and you should
insert it like this:

     Time-stamp: <>

or like this:

     Time-stamp: " "

   Then add the hook function `time-stamp' to the hook
`before-save-hook'; that hook function will automatically update the
time stamp, inserting the current date and time when you save the file.
You can also use the command `M-x time-stamp' to update the time stamp
manually.  For other customizations, see the Custom group `time-stamp'.
Note that non-numeric fields in the time stamp are formatted according
to your locale setting (*note Environment::).

File: emacs,  Node: Reverting,  Next: Autorevert,  Prev: Saving,  Up: Files

22.4 Reverting a Buffer

If you have made extensive changes to a file and then change your mind
about them, you can get rid of them by reading in the previous version
of the file.  To do this, use `M-x revert-buffer', which operates on
the current buffer.  Since reverting a buffer unintentionally could lose
a lot of work, you must confirm this command with `yes'.

   `revert-buffer' tries to position point in such a way that, if the
file was edited only slightly, you will be at approximately the same
piece of text after reverting as before.  However, if you have made
drastic changes, point may wind up in a totally different piece of text.

   Reverting marks the buffer as "not modified".

   Some kinds of buffers that are not associated with files, such as
Dired buffers, can also be reverted.  For them, reverting means
recalculating their contents.  Buffers created explicitly with `C-x b'
cannot be reverted; `revert-buffer' reports an error if you try.

   When you edit a file that changes automatically and frequently--for
example, a log of output from a process that continues to run--it may
be useful for Emacs to revert the file without querying you.  To
request this behavior, set the variable `revert-without-query' to a
list of regular expressions.  When a file name matches one of these
regular expressions, `find-file' and `revert-buffer' will revert it
automatically if it has changed--provided the buffer itself is not
modified.  (If you have edited the text, it would be wrong to discard
your changes.)

   In addition, you can tell Emacs to periodically revert a buffer by
typing `M-x auto-revert-mode'.  This turns on Auto-Revert mode, a minor
mode that makes Emacs automatically revert the current buffer every
five seconds.  You can change this interval through the variable
`auto-revert-interval'.  Typing `M-x global-auto-revert-mode' enables
Global Auto-Revert mode, which does the same for all file buffers.
Auto-Revert mode and Global Auto-Revert modes do not check or revert
remote files, because that is usually too slow.

   One use of Auto-Revert mode is to "tail" a file such as a system
log, so that changes made to that file by other programs are
continuously displayed.  To do this, just move the point to the end of
the buffer, and it will stay there as the file contents change.
However, if you are sure that the file will only change by growing at
the end, use Auto-Revert Tail mode instead (`auto-revert-tail-mode').
It is more efficient for this.

   *Note VC Mode Line::, for Auto Revert peculiarities in buffers that
visit files under version control.

File: emacs,  Node: Autorevert,  Next: Auto Save,  Prev: Reverting,  Up: Files

22.5 Auto Reverting Non-File Buffers

Global Auto Revert Mode normally only reverts file buffers.  There are
two ways to auto-revert certain non-file buffers: enabling Auto Revert
Mode in those buffers (using `M-x auto-revert-mode'); and setting
`global-auto-revert-non-file-buffers' non-`nil'.  The latter enables
Auto Reverting for all types of buffers for which it is implemented
(listed in the menu below).

   Like file buffers, non-file buffers should normally not revert while
you are working on them, or while they contain information that might
get lost after reverting.  Therefore, they do not revert if they are
"modified".  This can get tricky, because deciding when a non-file
buffer should be marked modified is usually more difficult than for
file buffers.

   Another tricky detail is that, for efficiency reasons, Auto Revert
often does not try to detect all possible changes in the buffer, only
changes that are "major" or easy to detect.  Hence, enabling
auto-reverting for a non-file buffer does not always guarantee that all
information in the buffer is up-to-date, and does not necessarily make
manual reverts useless.

   At the other extreme, certain buffers automatically revert every
`auto-revert-interval' seconds.  (This currently only applies to the
Buffer Menu.)  In this case, Auto Revert does not print any messages
while reverting, even when `auto-revert-verbose' is non-`nil'.

   The details depend on the particular types of buffers and are
explained in the corresponding sections.

* Menu:

* Auto Reverting the Buffer Menu:: Auto Revert of the Buffer Menu.
* Auto Reverting Dired::           Auto Revert of Dired buffers.
* Supporting additional buffers::  How to add more Auto Revert support.

File: emacs,  Node: Auto Reverting the Buffer Menu,  Next: Auto Reverting Dired,  Up: Autorevert

22.5.1 Auto Reverting the Buffer Menu

If auto-reverting of non-file buffers is enabled, the Buffer Menu
automatically reverts every `auto-revert-interval' seconds, whether
there is a need for it or not.  (It would probably take longer to check
whether there is a need than to actually revert.)

   If the Buffer Menu inappropriately gets marked modified, just revert
it manually using `g' and auto-reverting will resume.  However, if you
marked certain buffers to get deleted or to be displayed, you have to
be careful, because reverting erases all marks.  The fact that adding
marks sets the buffer's modified flag prevents Auto Revert from
automatically erasing the marks.

File: emacs,  Node: Auto Reverting Dired,  Next: Supporting additional buffers,  Prev: Auto Reverting the Buffer Menu,  Up: Autorevert

22.5.2 Auto Reverting Dired buffers

Auto-reverting Dired buffers currently works on GNU or Unix style
operating systems.  It may not work satisfactorily on some other

   Dired buffers only auto-revert when the file list of the buffer's
main directory changes (e.g. when a new file is added).  They do not
auto-revert when information about a particular file changes (e.g. when
the size changes) or when inserted subdirectories change.  To be sure
that _all_ listed information is up to date, you have to manually
revert using `g', _even_ if auto-reverting is enabled in the Dired
buffer.  Sometimes, you might get the impression that modifying or
saving files listed in the main directory actually does cause
auto-reverting.  This is because making changes to a file, or saving
it, very often causes changes in the directory itself; for instance,
through backup files or auto-save files.  However, this is not

   If the Dired buffer is marked modified and there are no changes you
want to protect, then most of the time you can make auto-reverting
resume by manually reverting the buffer using `g'.  There is one
exception.  If you flag or mark files, you can safely revert the
buffer.  This will not erase the flags or marks (unless the marked file
has been deleted, of course).  However, the buffer will stay modified,
even after reverting, and auto-reverting will not resume.  This is
because, if you flag or mark files, you may be working on the buffer
and you might not want the buffer to change without warning.  If you
want auto-reverting to resume in the presence of marks and flags, mark
the buffer non-modified using `M-~'.  However, adding, deleting or
changing marks or flags will mark it modified again.

   Remote Dired buffers are not auto-reverted (because it may be slow).
Neither are Dired buffers for which you used shell wildcards or file
arguments to list only some of the files.  `*Find*' and `*Locate*'
buffers do not auto-revert either.

File: emacs,  Node: Supporting additional buffers,  Prev: Auto Reverting Dired,  Up: Autorevert

22.5.3 Adding Support for Auto-Reverting additional Buffers.

This section is intended for Elisp programmers who would like to add
support for auto-reverting new types of buffers.

   To support auto-reverting the buffer must first of all have a
`revert-buffer-function'.  *Note Reverting: (elisp)Definition of

   In addition, it _must_ have a `buffer-stale-function'.

 -- Variable: buffer-stale-function
     The value of this variable is a function to check whether a
     non-file buffer needs reverting.  This should be a function with
     one optional argument NOCONFIRM.  The function should return
     non-`nil' if the buffer should be reverted.  The buffer is current
     when this function is called.

     While this function is mainly intended for use in auto-reverting,
     it could be used for other purposes as well.  For instance, if
     auto-reverting is not enabled, it could be used to warn the user
     that the buffer needs reverting.  The idea behind the NOCONFIRM
     argument is that it should be `t' if the buffer is going to be
     reverted without asking the user and `nil' if the function is just
     going to be used to warn the user that the buffer is out of date.
     In particular, for use in auto-reverting, NOCONFIRM is `t'.  If
     the function is only going to be used for auto-reverting, you can
     ignore the NOCONFIRM argument.

     If you just want to automatically auto-revert every
     `auto-revert-interval' seconds (like the Buffer Menu), use:

          (set (make-local-variable 'buffer-stale-function)
               #'(lambda (&optional noconfirm) 'fast))

     in the buffer's mode function.

     The special return value `fast' tells the caller that the need for
     reverting was not checked, but that reverting the buffer is fast.
     It also tells Auto Revert not to print any revert messages, even if
     `auto-revert-verbose' is non-`nil'.  This is important, as getting
     revert messages every `auto-revert-interval' seconds can be very
     annoying.  The information provided by this return value could
     also be useful if the function is consulted for purposes other than

   Once the buffer has a `revert-buffer-function' and a
`buffer-stale-function', several problems usually remain.

   The buffer will only auto-revert if it is marked unmodified.  Hence,
you will have to make sure that various functions mark the buffer
modified if and only if either the buffer contains information that
might be lost by reverting, or there is reason to believe that the user
might be inconvenienced by auto-reverting, because he is actively
working on the buffer.  The user can always override this by manually
adjusting the modified status of the buffer.  To support this, calling
the `revert-buffer-function' on a buffer that is marked unmodified
should always keep the buffer marked unmodified.

   It is important to assure that point does not continuously jump
around as a consequence of auto-reverting.  Of course, moving point
might be inevitable if the buffer radically changes.

   You should make sure that the `revert-buffer-function' does not
print messages that unnecessarily duplicate Auto Revert's own messages,
displayed if `auto-revert-verbose' is `t', and effectively override a
`nil' value for `auto-revert-verbose'.  Hence, adapting a mode for
auto-reverting often involves getting rid of such messages.  This is
especially important for buffers that automatically revert every
`auto-revert-interval' seconds.

   If the new auto-reverting is part of Emacs, you should mention it in
the documentation string of `global-auto-revert-non-file-buffers'.

   Similarly, you should add a node to this chapter's menu.  This node
should at the very least make clear whether enabling auto-reverting for
the buffer reliably assures that all information in the buffer is
completely up to date (or will be after `auto-revert-interval' seconds).

File: emacs,  Node: Auto Save,  Next: File Aliases,  Prev: Autorevert,  Up: Files

22.6 Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters

From time to time, Emacs automatically saves each visited file in a
separate file, without altering the file you actually use.  This is
called "auto-saving".  It prevents you from losing more than a limited
amount of work if the system crashes.

   When Emacs determines that it is time for auto-saving, it considers
each buffer, and each is auto-saved if auto-saving is enabled for it
and it has been changed since the last time it was auto-saved.  The
message `Auto-saving...' is displayed in the echo area during
auto-saving, if any files are actually auto-saved.  Errors occurring
during auto-saving are caught so that they do not interfere with the
execution of commands you have been typing.

* Menu:

* Files: Auto Save Files.       The file where auto-saved changes are
                                  actually made until you save the file.
* Control: Auto Save Control.   Controlling when and how often to auto-save.
* Recover::		        Recovering text from auto-save files.

File: emacs,  Node: Auto Save Files,  Next: Auto Save Control,  Up: Auto Save

22.6.1 Auto-Save Files

Auto-saving does not normally save in the files that you visited,
because it can be very undesirable to save a change that you did not
want to make permanent.  Instead, auto-saving is done in a different
file called the "auto-save file", and the visited file is changed only
when you request saving explicitly (such as with `C-x C-s').

   Normally, the auto-save file name is made by appending `#' to the
front and rear of the visited file name.  Thus, a buffer visiting file
`foo.c' is auto-saved in a file `#foo.c#'.  Most buffers that are not
visiting files are auto-saved only if you request it explicitly; when
they are auto-saved, the auto-save file name is made by appending `#'
to the front and rear of buffer name, then adding digits and letters at
the end for uniqueness.  For example, the `*mail*' buffer in which you
compose messages to be sent might be auto-saved in a file named
`#*mail*#704juu'.  Auto-save file names are made this way unless you
reprogram parts of Emacs to do something different (the functions
`make-auto-save-file-name' and `auto-save-file-name-p').  The file name
to be used for auto-saving in a buffer is calculated when auto-saving
is turned on in that buffer.

   The variable `auto-save-file-name-transforms' allows a degree of
control over the auto-save file name.  It lets you specify a series of
regular expressions and replacements to transform the auto save file
name.  The default value puts the auto-save files for remote files
(*note Remote Files::) into the temporary file directory on the local

   When you delete a substantial part of the text in a large buffer,
auto save turns off temporarily in that buffer.  This is because if you
deleted the text unintentionally, you might find the auto-save file more
useful if it contains the deleted text.  To reenable auto-saving after
this happens, save the buffer with `C-x C-s', or use `C-u 1 M-x

   If you want auto-saving to be done in the visited file rather than
in a separate auto-save file, set the variable
`auto-save-visited-file-name' to a non-`nil' value.  In this mode,
there is no real difference between auto-saving and explicit saving.

   A buffer's auto-save file is deleted when you save the buffer in its
visited file.  (You can inhibit this by setting the variable
`delete-auto-save-files' to `nil'.)  Changing the visited file name
with `C-x C-w' or `set-visited-file-name' renames any auto-save file to
go with the new visited name.

File: emacs,  Node: Auto Save Control,  Next: Recover,  Prev: Auto Save Files,  Up: Auto Save

22.6.2 Controlling Auto-Saving

Each time you visit a file, auto-saving is turned on for that file's
buffer if the variable `auto-save-default' is non-`nil' (but not in
batch mode; *note Entering Emacs::).  The default for this variable is
`t', so auto-saving is the usual practice for file-visiting buffers.
Auto-saving can be turned on or off for any existing buffer with the
command `M-x auto-save-mode'.  Like other minor mode commands, `M-x
auto-save-mode' turns auto-saving on with a positive argument, off with
a zero or negative argument; with no argument, it toggles.

   Emacs does auto-saving periodically based on counting how many
characters you have typed since the last time auto-saving was done.
The variable `auto-save-interval' specifies how many characters there
are between auto-saves.  By default, it is 300.  Emacs doesn't accept
values that are too small: if you customize `auto-save-interval' to a
value less than 20, Emacs will behave as if the value is 20.

   Auto-saving also takes place when you stop typing for a while.  The
variable `auto-save-timeout' says how many seconds Emacs should wait
before it does an auto save (and perhaps also a garbage collection).
(The actual time period is longer if the current buffer is long; this
is a heuristic which aims to keep out of your way when you are editing
long buffers, in which auto-save takes an appreciable amount of time.)
Auto-saving during idle periods accomplishes two things: first, it
makes sure all your work is saved if you go away from the terminal for
a while; second, it may avoid some auto-saving while you are actually

   Emacs also does auto-saving whenever it gets a fatal error.  This
includes killing the Emacs job with a shell command such as `kill
%emacs', or disconnecting a phone line or network connection.

   You can request an auto-save explicitly with the command `M-x

File: emacs,  Node: Recover,  Prev: Auto Save Control,  Up: Auto Save

22.6.3 Recovering Data from Auto-Saves

You can use the contents of an auto-save file to recover from a loss of
data with the command `M-x recover-file <RET> FILE <RET>'.  This visits
FILE and then (after your confirmation) restores the contents from its
auto-save file `#FILE#'.  You can then save with `C-x C-s' to put the
recovered text into FILE itself.  For example, to recover file `foo.c'
from its auto-save file `#foo.c#', do:

     M-x recover-file <RET> foo.c <RET>
     yes <RET>
     C-x C-s

   Before asking for confirmation, `M-x recover-file' displays a
directory listing describing the specified file and the auto-save file,
so you can compare their sizes and dates.  If the auto-save file is
older, `M-x recover-file' does not offer to read it.

   If Emacs or the computer crashes, you can recover all the files you
were editing from their auto save files with the command `M-x
recover-session'.  This first shows you a list of recorded interrupted
sessions.  Move point to the one you choose, and type `C-c C-c'.

   Then `recover-session' asks about each of the files that were being
edited during that session, asking whether to recover that file.  If
you answer `y', it calls `recover-file', which works in its normal
fashion.  It shows the dates of the original file and its auto-save
file, and asks once again whether to recover that file.

   When `recover-session' is done, the files you've chosen to recover
are present in Emacs buffers.  You should then save them.  Only
this--saving them--updates the files themselves.

   Emacs records information about interrupted sessions for later
recovery in files named
`~/.emacs.d/auto-save-list/.saves-PID-HOSTNAME'.  The directory used,
`~/.emacs.d/auto-save-list/', is determined by the variable
`auto-save-list-file-prefix'.  You can record sessions in a different
place by customizing that variable.  If you set
`auto-save-list-file-prefix' to `nil' in your `.emacs' file, sessions
are not recorded for recovery.

File: emacs,  Node: File Aliases,  Next: Directories,  Prev: Auto Save,  Up: Files

22.7 File Name Aliases

Symbolic links and hard links both make it possible for several file
names to refer to the same file.  Hard links are alternate names that
refer directly to the file; all the names are equally valid, and no one
of them is preferred.  By contrast, a symbolic link is a kind of defined
alias: when `foo' is a symbolic link to `bar', you can use either name
to refer to the file, but `bar' is the real name, while `foo' is just
an alias.  More complex cases occur when symbolic links point to

   Normally, if you visit a file which Emacs is already visiting under
a different name, Emacs displays a message in the echo area and uses
the existing buffer visiting that file.  This can happen on systems
that support hard or symbolic links, or if you use a long file name on
a system that truncates long file names, or on a case-insensitive file
system.  You can suppress the message by setting the variable
`find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings' to a non-`nil' value.  You can
disable this feature entirely by setting the variable
`find-file-existing-other-name' to `nil': then if you visit the same
file under two different names, you get a separate buffer for each file

   If the variable `find-file-visit-truename' is non-`nil', then the
file name recorded for a buffer is the file's "truename" (made by
replacing all symbolic links with their target names), rather than the
name you specify.  Setting `find-file-visit-truename' also implies the
effect of `find-file-existing-other-name'.

File: emacs,  Node: Directories,  Next: Comparing Files,  Prev: File Aliases,  Up: Files

22.8 File Directories

The file system groups files into "directories".  A "directory listing"
is a list of all the files in a directory.  Emacs provides commands to
create and delete directories, and to make directory listings in brief
format (file names only) and verbose format (sizes, dates, and authors
included).  Emacs also includes a directory browser feature called
Dired; see *note Dired::.

     Display a brief directory listing (`list-directory').

     Display a verbose directory listing.

`M-x make-directory <RET> DIRNAME <RET>'
     Create a new directory named DIRNAME.

`M-x delete-directory <RET> DIRNAME <RET>'
     Delete the directory named DIRNAME.  It must be empty, or you get
     an error.

   The command to display a directory listing is `C-x C-d'
(`list-directory').  It reads using the minibuffer a file name which is
either a directory to be listed or a wildcard-containing pattern for
the files to be listed.  For example,

     C-x C-d /u2/emacs/etc <RET>

lists all the files in directory `/u2/emacs/etc'.  Here is an example
of specifying a file name pattern:

     C-x C-d /u2/emacs/src/*.c <RET>

   Normally, `C-x C-d' displays a brief directory listing containing
just file names.  A numeric argument (regardless of value) tells it to
make a verbose listing including sizes, dates, and owners (like `ls

   The text of a directory listing is mostly obtained by running `ls'
in an inferior process.  Two Emacs variables control the switches
passed to `ls': `list-directory-brief-switches' is a string giving the
switches to use in brief listings (`"-CF"' by default), and
`list-directory-verbose-switches' is a string giving the switches to
use in a verbose listing (`"-l"' by default).

   In verbose directory listings, Emacs adds information about the
amount of free space on the disk that contains the directory.  To do
this, it runs the program specified by `directory-free-space-program'
with arguments `directory-free-space-args'.

   The command `M-x delete-directory' prompts for a directory name
using the minibuffer, and deletes the directory if it is empty.  If the
directory is not empty, this signals an error.  On systems that have a
"Trash" or "Recycle Bin" feature, you can make this command move the
specified directory to the Trash or Recycle Bin, instead of deleting it
outright, by changing the variable `delete-by-moving-to-trash' to `t'.
*Note Misc File Ops::, for more information about using the Trash.

File: emacs,  Node: Comparing Files,  Next: Diff Mode,  Prev: Directories,  Up: Files

22.9 Comparing Files

The command `M-x diff' prompts for two file names, using the
minibuffer, and displays the differences between the two files in a
buffer named `*diff*'.  This works by running the `diff' program, using
options taken from the variable `diff-switches'.  The value of
`diff-switches' should be a string; the default is `"-c"' to specify a
context diff.  *Note Diff: (diff)Top, for more information about `diff'
output formats.

   The output of the `diff' command is shown using a major mode called
Diff mode.  *Note Diff Mode::.

   The command `M-x diff-backup' compares a specified file with its
most recent backup.  If you specify the name of a backup file,
`diff-backup' compares it with the source file that it is a backup of.
In all other respects, this behaves like `M-x diff'.

   The command `M-x diff-buffer-with-file' compares a specified buffer
with its corresponding file.  This shows you what changes you would
make to the file if you save the buffer.

   The command `M-x compare-windows' compares the text in the current
window with that in the next window.  (For more information about
windows in Emacs, *note Windows::.)  Comparison starts at point in each
window, after pushing each initial point value on the mark ring in its
respective buffer.  Then it moves point forward in each window, one
character at a time, until it reaches characters that don't match.
Then the command exits.

   If point in the two windows is followed by non-matching text when
the command starts, `M-x compare-windows' tries heuristically to
advance up to matching text in the two windows, and then exits.  So if
you use `M-x compare-windows' repeatedly, each time it either skips one
matching range or finds the start of another.

   With a numeric argument, `compare-windows' ignores changes in
whitespace.  If the variable `compare-ignore-case' is non-`nil', the
comparison ignores differences in case as well.  If the variable
`compare-ignore-whitespace' is non-`nil', `compare-windows' normally
ignores changes in whitespace, and a prefix argument turns that off.

   You can use `M-x smerge-mode' to turn on Smerge mode, a minor mode
for editing output from the `diff3' program.  This is typically the
result of a failed merge from a version control system "update" outside
VC, due to conflicting changes to a file.  Smerge mode provides
commands to resolve conflicts by selecting specific changes.

   *Note Emerge::, for the Emerge facility, which provides a powerful
interface for merging files.

File: emacs,  Node: Diff Mode,  Next: Misc File Ops,  Prev: Comparing Files,  Up: Files

22.10 Diff Mode

Diff mode is a major mode used for the output of `M-x diff' and other
similar commands, as well as the output of the `diff' program.  This
kind of output is called a "patch", because it can be passed to the
`patch' command to automatically apply the specified changes.  To
select Diff mode manually, type `M-x diff-mode'.

   The changes specified in a patch are grouped into "hunks", which are
contiguous chunks of text that contain one or more changed lines.
Hunks can also include unchanged lines to provide context for the
changes.  Each hunk is preceded by a "hunk header", which specifies the
old and new line numbers at which the hunk occurs.  Diff mode
highlights each hunk header, to distinguish it from the actual contents
of the hunk.

   You can edit a Diff mode buffer like any other buffer.  (If it is
read-only, you need to make it writable first.  *Note Misc Buffer::.)
Whenever you change a hunk, Diff mode attempts to automatically correct
the line numbers in the hunk headers, to ensure that the diff remains
"correct".  To disable automatic line number correction, change the
variable `diff-update-on-the-fly' to `nil'.

   Diff mode treats each hunk as an "error message," similar to
Compilation mode.  Thus, you can use commands such as `C-x '' to visit
the corresponding source locations.  *Note Compilation Mode::.

   In addition, Diff mode provides the following commands to navigate,
manipulate and apply parts of patches:

     Move to the next hunk-start (`diff-hunk-next').

     Move to the previous hunk-start (`diff-hunk-prev').

     Move to the next file-start, in a multi-file patch

     Move to the previous file-start, in a multi-file patch

     Kill the hunk at point (`diff-hunk-kill').

     In a multi-file patch, kill the current file part.

`C-c C-a'
     Apply this hunk to its target file (`diff-apply-hunk').  With a
     prefix argument of `C-u', revert this hunk.

`C-c C-b'
     Highlight the changes of the hunk at point with a finer granularity
     (`diff-refine-hunk').  This allows you to see exactly which parts
     of each changed line were actually changed.

`C-c C-c'
     Go to the source file and line corresponding to this hunk

`C-c C-e'
     Start an Ediff session with the patch (`diff-ediff-patch').  *Note
     Ediff: (ediff)Top.

`C-c C-n'
     Restrict the view to the current hunk (`diff-restrict-view').
     *Note Narrowing::.  With a prefix argument of `C-u', restrict the
     view to the current file of a multiple-file patch.  To widen again,
     use `C-x n w' (`widen').

`C-c C-r'
     Reverse the direction of comparison for the entire buffer

`C-c C-s'
     Split the hunk at point (`diff-split-hunk').  This is for manually
     editing patches, and only works with the "unified diff format"
     produced by the `-u' or `--unified' options to the `diff' program.
     If you need to split a hunk in the "context diff format" produced
     by the `-c' or `--context' options to `diff', first convert the
     buffer to the unified diff format with `C-c C-u'.

`C-c C-d'
     Convert the entire buffer to the "context diff format"
     (`diff-unified->context').  With a prefix argument, convert only
     the text within the region.

`C-c C-u'
     Convert the entire buffer to unified diff format
     (`diff-context->unified').  With a prefix argument, convert
     unified format to context format.  When the mark is active, convert
     only the text within the region.

`C-c C-w'
     Refine the current hunk so that it disregards changes in whitespace

`C-x 4 A'
     Generate a ChangeLog entry, like `C-x 4 a' does (*note Change
     Log::), for each one of the hunks
     (`diff-add-change-log-entries-other-window').  This creates a
     skeleton of the log of changes that you can later fill with the
     actual descriptions of the changes.  `C-x 4 a' itself in Diff mode
     operates on behalf of the current hunk's file, but gets the
     function name from the patch itself.  This is useful for making
     log entries for functions that are deleted by the patch.

`M-x diff-show-trailing-whitespaces RET'
     Highlight trailing whitespace characters, except for those used by
     the patch syntax (*note Useless Whitespace::).

File: emacs,  Node: Misc File Ops,  Next: Compressed Files,  Prev: Diff Mode,  Up: Files

22.11 Miscellaneous File Operations

Emacs has commands for performing many other operations on files.  All
operate on one file; they do not accept wildcard file names.

   `M-x view-file' allows you to scan or read a file by sequential
screenfuls.  It reads a file name argument using the minibuffer.  After
reading the file into an Emacs buffer, `view-file' displays the
beginning.  You can then type <SPC> to scroll forward one windowful, or
<DEL> to scroll backward.  Various other commands are provided for
moving around in the file, but none for changing it; type `?' while
viewing for a list of them.  They are mostly the same as normal Emacs
cursor motion commands.  To exit from viewing, type `q'.  The commands
for viewing are defined by a special minor mode called View mode.

   A related command, `M-x view-buffer', views a buffer already present
in Emacs.  *Note Misc Buffer::.

   `M-x insert-file' (also `C-x i') inserts a copy of the contents of
the specified file into the current buffer at point, leaving point
unchanged before the contents.  The position after the inserted
contents is added to the mark ring, without activating the mark (*note
Mark Ring::).

   `M-x insert-file-literally' is like `M-x insert-file', except the
file is inserted "literally": it is treated as a sequence of ASCII
characters with no special encoding or conversion, similar to the `M-x
find-file-literally' command (*note Visiting::).

   `M-x write-region' is the inverse of `M-x insert-file'; it copies
the contents of the region into the specified file.  `M-x
append-to-file' adds the text of the region to the end of the specified
file.  *Note Accumulating Text::.  The variable
`write-region-inhibit-fsync' applies to these commands, as well as
saving files; see *note Customize Save::.

   `M-x delete-file' deletes the specified file, like the `rm' command
in the shell.  If you are deleting many files in one directory, it may
be more convenient to use Dired rather than `delete-file'.  *Note

   On some systems, there is a facility called the "Trash" (or "Recycle
Bin"); "deleting" a file normally means moving it into the Trash, and
you can bring the file back from the Trash if you later change your
mind.  By default, Emacs does _not_ use the Trash for file
deletion--when Emacs deletes a file, it is gone forever.  You can tell
Emacs to use the Trash by changing the variable
`delete-by-moving-to-trash' to `t'.  This applies to file deletion via
`M-x delete-file', as well as `M-x delete-directory' (*note
Directories::) and file deletion in Dired (*note Dired Deletion::).  In
addition, you can explicitly move a file into the Trash with the
command `M-x move-file-to-trash'.

   `M-x rename-file' reads two file names OLD and NEW using the
minibuffer, then renames file OLD as NEW.  If the file name NEW already
exists, you must confirm with `yes' or renaming is not done; this is
because renaming causes the old meaning of the name NEW to be lost.  If
OLD and NEW are on different file systems, the file OLD is copied and

   If the argument NEW is just a directory name, the real new name is
in that directory, with the same non-directory component as OLD.  For
example, `M-x rename-file RET ~/foo RET /tmp RET' renames `~/foo' to
`/tmp/foo'.  The same rule applies to all the remaining commands in
this section.  All of them ask for confirmation when the new file name
already exists, too.

   The similar command `M-x add-name-to-file' is used to add an
additional name to an existing file without removing its old name.  The
new name is created as a "hard link" to the existing file.  The new
name must belong on the same file system that the file is on.  On
MS-Windows, this command works only if the file resides in an NTFS file
system.  On MS-DOS, it works by copying the file.

   `M-x copy-file' reads the file OLD and writes a new file named NEW
with the same contents.

   `M-x make-symbolic-link' reads two file names TARGET and LINKNAME,
then creates a symbolic link named LINKNAME, which points at TARGET.
The effect is that future attempts to open file LINKNAME will refer to
whatever file is named TARGET at the time the opening is done, or will
get an error if the name TARGET is nonexistent at that time.  This
command does not expand the argument TARGET, so that it allows you to
specify a relative name as the target of the link.

   Not all systems support symbolic links; on systems that don't
support them, this command is not defined.

   `M-x set-file-modes' reads a file name followed by a "file mode",
and applies that file mode to the specified file.  File modes, also
called "file permissions", determine whether a file can be read,
written to, or executed, and by whom.  This command reads file modes
using the same symbolic or octal format accepted by the `chmod'
command; for instance, `u+x' means to add execution permission for the
user who owns the file.  It has no effect on operating systems that do
not support file modes.  `chmod' is a convenience alias for this

File: emacs,  Node: Compressed Files,  Next: File Archives,  Prev: Misc File Ops,  Up: Files

22.12 Accessing Compressed Files

Emacs automatically uncompresses compressed files when you visit them,
and automatically recompresses them if you alter them and save them.
Emacs recognizes compressed files by their file names.  File names
ending in `.gz' indicate a file compressed with `gzip'.  Other endings
indicate other compression programs.

   Automatic uncompression and compression apply to all the operations
in which Emacs uses the contents of a file.  This includes visiting it,
saving it, inserting its contents into a buffer, loading it, and byte
compiling it.

   To disable this feature, type the command `M-x
auto-compression-mode'.  You can disable it permanently by customizing
the variable `auto-compression-mode'.

File: emacs,  Node: File Archives,  Next: Remote Files,  Prev: Compressed Files,  Up: Files

22.13 File Archives

A file whose name ends in `.tar' is normally an "archive" made by the
`tar' program.  Emacs views these files in a special mode called Tar
mode which provides a Dired-like list of the contents (*note Dired::).
You can move around through the list just as you would in Dired, and
visit the subfiles contained in the archive.  However, not all Dired
commands are available in Tar mode.

   If Auto Compression mode is enabled (*note Compressed Files::), then
Tar mode is used also for compressed archives--files with extensions
`.tgz', `.tar.Z' and `.tar.gz'.

   The keys `e', `f' and <RET> all extract a component file into its
own buffer.  You can edit it there, and if you save the buffer, the
edited version will replace the version in the Tar buffer.  `v'
extracts a file into a buffer in View mode.  `o' extracts the file and
displays it in another window, so you could edit the file and operate
on the archive simultaneously.  `d' marks a file for deletion when you
later use `x', and `u' unmarks a file, as in Dired.  `C' copies a file
from the archive to disk and `R' renames a file within the archive.
`g' reverts the buffer from the archive on disk.

   The keys `M', `G', and `O' change the file's permission bits, group,
and owner, respectively.

   If your display supports colors and the mouse, moving the mouse
pointer across a file name highlights that file name, indicating that
you can click on it.  Clicking `Mouse-2' on the highlighted file name
extracts the file into a buffer and displays that buffer.

   Saving the Tar buffer writes a new version of the archive to disk
with the changes you made to the components.

   You don't need the `tar' program to use Tar mode--Emacs reads the
archives directly.  However, accessing compressed archives requires the
appropriate uncompression program.

   A separate but similar Archive mode is used for archives produced by
the programs `arc', `jar', `lzh', `zip', `rar', and `zoo', which have
extensions corresponding to the program names.  Archive mode also works
for those `exe' files that are self-extracting executables.

   The key bindings of Archive mode are similar to those in Tar mode,
with the addition of the `m' key which marks a file for subsequent
operations, and `M-<DEL>' which unmarks all the marked files.  Also,
the `a' key toggles the display of detailed file information, for those
archive types where it won't fit in a single line.  Operations such as
renaming a subfile, or changing its mode or owner, are supported only
for some of the archive formats.

   Unlike Tar mode, Archive mode runs the archiving program to unpack
and repack archives.  Details of the program names and their options
can be set in the `Archive' Customize group.  However, you don't need
these programs to look at the archive table of contents, only to
extract or manipulate the subfiles in the archive.

File: emacs,  Node: Remote Files,  Next: Quoted File Names,  Prev: File Archives,  Up: Files

22.14 Remote Files

You can refer to files on other machines using a special file name


To carry out this request, Emacs uses a remote-login program such as
`ftp', `ssh', `rlogin', or `telnet'.  You can always specify in the
file name which method to use--for example, `/ftp:USER@HOST:FILENAME'
uses FTP, whereas `/ssh:USER@HOST:FILENAME' uses `ssh'.  When you don't
specify a method in the file name, Emacs chooses the method as follows:

  1. If the host name starts with `ftp.' (with dot), then Emacs uses

  2. If the user name is `ftp' or `anonymous', then Emacs uses FTP.

  3. If the variable `tramp-default-method' is set to `ftp', then Emacs
     uses FTP.

  4. If `ssh-agent' is running, then Emacs uses `scp'.

  5. Otherwise, Emacs uses `ssh'.

You can entirely turn off the remote file name feature by setting the
variable `tramp-mode' to `nil'.  You can turn off the feature in
individual cases by quoting the file name with `/:' (*note Quoted File

   Remote file access through FTP is handled by the Ange-FTP package,
which is documented in the following.  Remote file access through the
other methods is handled by the Tramp package, which has its own manual.
*Note The Tramp Manual: (tramp)Top.

   When the Ange-FTP package is used, Emacs logs in through FTP using
your user name or the name USER.  It may ask you for a password from
time to time (*note Passwords::); this is used for logging in on HOST.
The form using PORT allows you to access servers running on a
non-default TCP port.

   If you want to disable backups for remote files, set the variable
`ange-ftp-make-backup-files' to `nil'.

   By default, the auto-save files (*note Auto Save Files::) for remote
files are made in the temporary file directory on the local machine.
This is achieved using the variable `auto-save-file-name-transforms'.

   Normally, if you do not specify a user name in a remote file name,
that means to use your own user name.  But if you set the variable
`ange-ftp-default-user' to a string, that string is used instead.

   To visit files accessible by anonymous FTP, you use special user
names `anonymous' or `ftp'.  Passwords for these user names are handled
specially.  The variable `ange-ftp-generate-anonymous-password'
controls what happens: if the value of this variable is a string, then
that string is used as the password; if non-`nil' (the default), then
the value of `user-mail-address' is used; if `nil', then Emacs prompts
you for a password as usual (*note Passwords::).

   Sometimes you may be unable to access files on a remote machine
because a "firewall" in between blocks the connection for security
reasons.  If you can log in on a "gateway" machine from which the
target files _are_ accessible, and whose FTP server supports gatewaying
features, you can still use remote file names; all you have to do is
specify the name of the gateway machine by setting the variable
`ange-ftp-gateway-host', and set `ange-ftp-smart-gateway' to `t'.
Otherwise you may be able to make remote file names work, but the
procedure is complex.  You can read the instructions by typing `M-x
finder-commentary <RET> ange-ftp <RET>'.

File: emacs,  Node: Quoted File Names,  Next: File Name Cache,  Prev: Remote Files,  Up: Files

22.15 Quoted File Names

You can "quote" an absolute file name to prevent special characters and
syntax in it from having their special effects.  The way to do this is
to add `/:' at the beginning.

   For example, you can quote a local file name which appears remote, to
prevent it from being treated as a remote file name.  Thus, if you have
a directory named `/foo:' and a file named `bar' in it, you can refer
to that file in Emacs as `/:/foo:/bar'.

   `/:' can also prevent `~' from being treated as a special character
for a user's home directory.  For example, `/:/tmp/~hack' refers to a
file whose name is `~hack' in directory `/tmp'.

   Quoting with `/:' is also a way to enter in the minibuffer a file
name that contains `$'.  In order for this to work, the `/:' must be at
the beginning of the minibuffer contents.  (You can also double each
`$'; see *note File Names with $::.)

   You can also quote wildcard characters with `/:', for visiting.  For
example, `/:/tmp/foo*bar' visits the file `/tmp/foo*bar'.

   Another method of getting the same result is to enter
`/tmp/foo[*]bar', which is a wildcard specification that matches only
`/tmp/foo*bar'.  However, in many cases there is no need to quote the
wildcard characters because even unquoted they give the right result.
For example, if the only file name in `/tmp' that starts with `foo' and
ends with `bar' is `foo*bar', then specifying `/tmp/foo*bar' will visit
only `/tmp/foo*bar'.

File: emacs,  Node: File Name Cache,  Next: File Conveniences,  Prev: Quoted File Names,  Up: Files

22.16 File Name Cache

You can use the "file name cache" to make it easy to locate a file by
name, without having to remember exactly where it is located.  When
typing a file name in the minibuffer, `C-<tab>'
(`file-cache-minibuffer-complete') completes it using the file name
cache.  If you repeat `C-<tab>', that cycles through the possible
completions of what you had originally typed.  (However, note that the
`C-<tab>' character cannot be typed on most text-only terminals.)

   The file name cache does not fill up automatically.  Instead, you
load file names into the cache using these commands:

`M-x file-cache-add-directory <RET> DIRECTORY <RET>'
     Add each file name in DIRECTORY to the file name cache.

`M-x file-cache-add-directory-using-find <RET> DIRECTORY <RET>'
     Add each file name in DIRECTORY and all of its nested
     subdirectories to the file name cache.

`M-x file-cache-add-directory-using-locate <RET> DIRECTORY <RET>'
     Add each file name in DIRECTORY and all of its nested
     subdirectories to the file name cache, using `locate' to find them

`M-x file-cache-add-directory-list <RET> VARIABLE <RET>'
     Add each file name in each directory listed in VARIABLE to the
     file name cache.  VARIABLE should be a Lisp variable such as
     `load-path' or `exec-path', whose value is a list of directory

`M-x file-cache-clear-cache <RET>'
     Clear the cache; that is, remove all file names from it.

   The file name cache is not persistent: it is kept and maintained
only for the duration of the Emacs session.  You can view the contents
of the cache with the `file-cache-display' command.

File: emacs,  Node: File Conveniences,  Next: Filesets,  Prev: File Name Cache,  Up: Files

22.17 Convenience Features for Finding Files

In this section, we introduce some convenient facilities for finding
recently-opened files, reading file names from a buffer, and viewing
image files.

   If you enable Recentf mode, with `M-x recentf-mode', the `File' menu
includes a submenu containing a list of recently opened files.  `M-x
recentf-save-list' saves the current `recent-file-list' to a file, and
`M-x recentf-edit-list' edits it.

   The `M-x ffap' command generalizes `find-file' with more powerful
heuristic defaults (*note FFAP::), often based on the text at point.
Partial Completion mode offers other features extending `find-file',
which can be used with `ffap'.  *Note Completion Options::.

   Visiting image files automatically selects Image mode.  This major
mode allows you to toggle between displaying the file as an image in
the Emacs buffer, and displaying its underlying text representation,
using the command `C-c C-c' (`image-toggle-display').  This works only
when Emacs can display the specific image type.  If the displayed image
is wider or taller than the frame, the usual point motion keys (`C-f',
`C-p', and so forth) cause different parts of the image to be displayed.

   See also the Image-Dired package (*note Image-Dired::) for viewing
images as thumbnails.

File: emacs,  Node: Filesets,  Prev: File Conveniences,  Up: Files

22.18 Filesets

If you regularly edit a certain group of files, you can define them as
a "fileset".  This lets you perform certain operations, such as
visiting, `query-replace', and shell commands on all the files at once.
To make use of filesets, you must first add the expression
`(filesets-init)' to your `.emacs' file (*note Init File::).  This adds
a `Filesets' menu to the menu bar.

   The simplest way to define a fileset is by adding files to it one at
a time.  To add a file to fileset NAME, visit the file and type `M-x
filesets-add-buffer RET NAME RET'.  If there is no fileset NAME, this
creates a new one, which initially creates only the current file.  The
command `M-x filesets-remove-buffer' removes the current file from a

   You can also edit the list of filesets directly, with `M-x
filesets-edit' (or by choosing `Edit Filesets' from the `Filesets'
menu).  The editing is performed in a Customize buffer (*note Easy
Customization::).  Filesets need not be a simple list of files--you can
also define filesets using regular expression matching file names.
Some examples of these more complicated filesets are shown in the
Customize buffer.  Remember to select `Save for future sessions' if you
want to use the same filesets in future Emacs sessions.

   You can use the command `M-x filesets-open' to visit all the files
in a fileset, and `M-x filesets-close' to close them.  Use `M-x
filesets-run-cmd' to run a shell command on all the files in a fileset.
These commands are also available from the `Filesets' menu, where each
existing fileset is represented by a submenu.

   Emacs uses the concept of a fileset elsewhere *note Version
Control:: to describe sets of files to be treated as a group for
purposes of version control operations.  Those filesets are unnamed and
do not persist across Emacs sessions.

File: emacs,  Node: Buffers,  Next: Windows,  Prev: Files,  Up: Top

23 Using Multiple Buffers

The text you are editing in Emacs resides in an object called a
"buffer".  Each time you visit a file, a buffer is created to hold the
file's text.  Each time you invoke Dired, a buffer is created to hold
the directory listing.  If you send a message with `C-x m', a buffer
named `*mail*' is used to hold the text of the message.  When you ask
for a command's documentation, that appears in a buffer called `*Help*'.

   Each buffer has a unique name, which can be of any length.  When a
buffer is displayed in a window, its name is shown in the mode line
(*note Mode Line::).  The distinction between upper and lower case
matters in buffer names.  Most buffers are made by visiting files, and
their names are derived from the files' names; however, you can also
create an empty buffer with any name you want.  A newly started Emacs
has a buffer named `*scratch*', which is not associated with any file
and can be used for evaluating Lisp expressions in Emacs (*note Lisp

   At any time, one and only one buffer is "current".  This is also
called the "selected buffer".  We often say that a command operates on
"the buffer"; this really means that the command operates on the
current buffer (most commands do).  When there is only one Emacs
window, the buffer displayed in that window is current.  When there are
multiple windows present, the buffer displayed in the "selected window"
is current.  *Note Windows::.

   Each buffer records individually what file it is visiting (if any),
whether it is modified, and what major mode and minor modes are in
effect (*note Major Modes::).  Any Emacs variable can be made "local
to" a particular buffer, meaning its value in that buffer can be
different from the value in other buffers.  *Note Locals::.

   A buffer's size cannot be larger than some maximum, which is defined
by the largest buffer position representable by the "Emacs integer"
data type.  This is because Emacs tracks buffer positions using that
data type.  For 32-bit machines, the largest buffer size is 256

* Menu:

* Select Buffer::       Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
* List Buffers::        Getting a list of buffers that exist.
* Misc Buffer::	        Renaming; changing read-onlyness; copying text.
* Kill Buffer::	        Killing buffers you no longer need.
* Several Buffers::     How to go through the list of all buffers
			  and operate variously on several of them.
* Indirect Buffers::    An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.
* Buffer Convenience::  Convenience and customization features for
                          buffer handling.

File: emacs,  Node: Select Buffer,  Next: List Buffers,  Up: Buffers

23.1 Creating and Selecting Buffers

`C-x b BUFFER <RET>'
     Select or create a buffer named BUFFER (`switch-to-buffer').

`C-x 4 b BUFFER <RET>'
     Similar, but select BUFFER in another window

`C-x 5 b BUFFER <RET>'
     Similar, but select BUFFER in a separate frame

`C-x <LEFT>'
     Select the previous buffer in the list of existing buffers.

`C-x <RIGHT>'
     Select the next buffer in the list of existing buffers.

`C-u M-g M-g'
`C-u M-g g'
     Read a number N and move to line N in the most recently selected
     buffer other than the current buffer.

   To select the buffer named BUFNAME, type `C-x b BUFNAME <RET>'.
This runs the command `switch-to-buffer' with argument BUFNAME.  While
entering the buffer name, you can use the usual minibuffer completion
and history commands (*note Minibuffer::).  An empty argument to `C-x
b' specifies the buffer that was current most recently among those not
now displayed in any window.

   If you specify a buffer that does not exist, `C-x b' creates a new,
empty buffer that is not visiting any file, and selects it for editing.
First, however, Emacs might prompt you for confirmation, in case you
entered the wrong buffer name.  Emacs asks for confirmation only if the
last key you typed, before submitting the minibuffer input with <RET>,
was <TAB> (`minibuffer-complete').  This catches a common mistake, in
which one types <RET> before realizing that <TAB> did not complete far
enough to yield the desired buffer name (*note Completion::).  Emacs
asks for confirmation by putting the message `[Confirm]' in the
minibuffer; type <RET> again to confirm and visit the buffer.

   The variable `confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer' controls whether
Emacs asks for confirmation before visiting a buffer that did not
previously exist.  The default value, `after-completion', gives the
behavior we have just described.  If the value is `nil', Emacs never
asks for confirmation; for any other non-`nil' value, Emacs always asks
for confirmation.  This variable also affects the `find-file' command
(*note Visiting::).

   One reason to create a new buffer is to use it for making temporary
notes.  If you try to save it, Emacs asks for the file name to use.
The variable `default-major-mode' determines the new buffer's major
mode; the default value is Fundamental mode.  *Note Major Modes::.

   For conveniently switching between a few buffers, use the commands
`C-x <LEFT>' and `C-x <RIGHT>'.  `C-x <RIGHT>' (`previous-buffer')
selects the previous buffer (following the order of most recent
selection in the current frame), while `C-x <LEFT>' (`next-buffer')
moves through buffers in the reverse direction.

   To select a buffer in a window other than the current one, type `C-x
4 b' (`switch-to-buffer-other-window').  This prompts for a buffer name
using the minibuffer, displays that buffer in another window, and
selects that window.  By default, if displaying the buffer causes two
vertically adjacent windows to be displayed, the heights of those
windows are evened out; to countermand that and preserve the window
configuration, set the variable `even-window-heights' to `nil'.

   Similarly, `C-x 5 b' (`switch-to-buffer-other-frame') prompts for a
buffer name, displays that buffer in another frame, and selects that

   In addition, `C-x C-f', and any other command for visiting a file,
can also be used to switch to an existing file-visiting buffer.  *Note

   You can control how certain buffers are handled by these commands by
customizing the variables `special-display-buffer-names',
`special-display-regexps', `same-window-buffer-names', and
`same-window-regexps'.  See *note Force Same Window::, and *note
Special Buffer Frames::, for more about these variables.  In addition,
if the value of `display-buffer-reuse-frames' is non-`nil', and the
buffer you want to switch to is already displayed in some frame, Emacs
will just raise that frame.

   `C-u M-g M-g', that is `goto-line' with a plain prefix argument,
reads a number N using the minibuffer, selects the most recently
selected buffer other than the current buffer in another window, and
then moves point to the beginning of line number N in that buffer.
This is mainly useful in a buffer that refers to line numbers in
another buffer: if point is on or just after a number, `goto-line' uses
that number as the default for N.  Note that prefix arguments other
than just `C-u' behave differently.  `C-u 4 M-g M-g' goes to line 4 in
the _current_ buffer, without reading a number from the minibuffer.
(Remember that `M-g M-g' without prefix argument reads a number N and
then moves to line number N in the current buffer.  *Note Moving

   Emacs uses buffer names that start with a space for internal
purposes.  It treats these buffers specially in minor ways--for
example, by default they do not record undo information.  It is best to
avoid using such buffer names yourself.

File: emacs,  Node: List Buffers,  Next: Misc Buffer,  Prev: Select Buffer,  Up: Buffers

23.2 Listing Existing Buffers

`C-x C-b'
     List the existing buffers (`list-buffers').

   To display a list of existing buffers, type `C-x C-b'.  Each line in
the list shows one buffer's name, major mode and visited file.  The
buffers are listed in the order that they were current; the buffers
that were current most recently come first.

   `.' in the first field of a line indicates that the buffer is
current.  `%' indicates a read-only buffer.  `*' indicates that the
buffer is "modified."  If several buffers are modified, it may be time
to save some with `C-x s' (*note Save Commands::).  Here is an example
of a buffer list:

     CRM Buffer                Size  Mode              File
     . * .emacs                3294  Emacs-Lisp        ~/.emacs
      %  *Help*                 101  Help
         search.c             86055  C                 ~/cvs/emacs/src/search.c
      %  src                  20959  Dired by name     ~/cvs/emacs/src/
       * *mail*                  42  Mail
      %  HELLO                 1607  Fundamental       ~/cvs/emacs/etc/HELLO
      %  NEWS                481184  Outline           ~/cvs/emacs/etc/NEWS
         *scratch*              191  Lisp Interaction
       * *Messages*            1554  Fundamental

The buffer `*Help*' was made by a help request (*note Help::); it is
not visiting any file.  The buffer `src' was made by Dired on the
directory `~/cvs/emacs/src/'.  You can list only buffers that are
visiting files by giving the command a prefix argument, as in `C-u C-x

   `list-buffers' omits buffers whose names begin with a space, unless
they visit files: such buffers are used internally by Emacs.

File: emacs,  Node: Misc Buffer,  Next: Kill Buffer,  Prev: List Buffers,  Up: Buffers

23.3 Miscellaneous Buffer Operations

`C-x C-q'
     Toggle read-only status of buffer (`toggle-read-only').

`M-x rename-buffer <RET> NAME <RET>'
     Change the name of the current buffer.

`M-x rename-uniquely'
     Rename the current buffer by adding `<NUMBER>' to the end.

`M-x view-buffer <RET> BUFFER <RET>'
     Scroll through buffer BUFFER.

   A buffer can be "read-only", which means that commands to change its
contents are not allowed.  The mode line indicates read-only buffers
with `%%' or `%*' near the left margin.  Read-only buffers are usually
made by subsystems such as Dired and Rmail that have special commands
to operate on the text; also by visiting a file whose access control
says you cannot write it.

   If you wish to make changes in a read-only buffer, use the command
`C-x C-q' (`toggle-read-only').  It makes a read-only buffer writable,
and makes a writable buffer read-only.  This works by setting the
variable `buffer-read-only', which has a local value in each buffer and
makes the buffer read-only if its value is non-`nil'.  If you have
files under version control, you may find it convenient to bind `C-x
C-q' to `vc-toggle-read-only' instead.  This will guard you against an
operation that will confuse most modern version-conmtrol systems. *Note
Version Control::.

   `M-x rename-buffer' changes the name of the current buffer.  You
specify the new name as a minibuffer argument; there is no default.  If
you specify a name that is in use for some other buffer, an error
happens and no renaming is done.

   `M-x rename-uniquely' renames the current buffer to a similar name
with a numeric suffix added to make it both different and unique.  This
command does not need an argument.  It is useful for creating multiple
shell buffers: if you rename the `*shell*' buffer, then do `M-x shell'
again, it makes a new shell buffer named `*shell*'; meanwhile, the old
shell buffer continues to exist under its new name.  This method is
also good for mail buffers, compilation buffers, and most Emacs
features that create special buffers with particular names.  (With some
of these features, such as `M-x compile', `M-x grep' an `M-x info', you
need to switch to some other buffer before using the command, in order
for it to make a different buffer.)

   `M-x view-buffer' is much like `M-x view-file' (*note Misc File
Ops::) except that it examines an already existing Emacs buffer.  View
mode provides commands for scrolling through the buffer conveniently
but not for changing it.  When you exit View mode with `q', that
switches back to the buffer (and the position) which was previously
displayed in the window.  Alternatively, if you exit View mode with
`e', the buffer and the value of point that resulted from your perusal
remain in effect.

   The commands `M-x append-to-buffer' and `M-x insert-buffer' can be
used to copy text from one buffer to another.  *Note Accumulating

File: emacs,  Node: Kill Buffer,  Next: Several Buffers,  Prev: Misc Buffer,  Up: Buffers

23.4 Killing Buffers

If you continue an Emacs session for a while, you may accumulate a
large number of buffers.  You may then find it convenient to "kill" the
buffers you no longer need.  On most operating systems, killing a
buffer releases its space back to the operating system so that other
programs can use it.  Here are some commands for killing buffers:

     Kill buffer BUFNAME (`kill-buffer').

`M-x kill-some-buffers'
     Offer to kill each buffer, one by one.

`M-x kill-matching-buffers'
     Offer to kill all buffers matching a regular expression.

   `C-x k' (`kill-buffer') kills one buffer, whose name you specify in
the minibuffer.  The default, used if you type just <RET> in the
minibuffer, is to kill the current buffer.  If you kill the current
buffer, another buffer becomes current: one that was current in the
recent past but is not displayed in any window now.  If you ask to kill
a file-visiting buffer that is modified, then you must confirm with
`yes' before the buffer is killed.

   The command `M-x kill-some-buffers' asks about each buffer, one by
one.  An answer of `y' means to kill the buffer, just like
`kill-buffer'.  This command ignores buffers whose names begin with a
space, which are used internally by Emacs.

   The command `M-x kill-matching-buffers' prompts for a regular
expression and kills all buffers whose names match that expression.
*Note Regexps::.  Like `kill-some-buffers', it asks for confirmation
before each kill.  This command normally ignores buffers whose names
begin with a space, which are used internally by Emacs.  To kill
internal buffers as well, call `kill-matching-buffers' with a prefix

   The buffer menu feature is also convenient for killing various
buffers.  *Note Several Buffers::.

   If you want to do something special every time a buffer is killed,
you can add hook functions to the hook `kill-buffer-hook' (*note

   If you run one Emacs session for a period of days, as many people do,
it can fill up with buffers that you used several days ago.  The command
`M-x clean-buffer-list' is a convenient way to purge them; it kills all
the unmodified buffers that you have not used for a long time.  An
ordinary buffer is killed if it has not been displayed for three days;
however, you can specify certain buffers that should never be killed
automatically, and others that should be killed if they have been unused
for a mere hour.

   You can also have this buffer purging done for you, every day at
midnight, by enabling Midnight mode.  Midnight mode operates each day
at midnight; at that time, it runs `clean-buffer-list', or whichever
functions you have placed in the normal hook `midnight-hook' (*note
Hooks::).  To enable Midnight mode, use the Customization buffer to set
the variable `midnight-mode' to `t'.  *Note Easy Customization::.

File: emacs,  Node: Several Buffers,  Next: Indirect Buffers,  Prev: Kill Buffer,  Up: Buffers

23.5 Operating on Several Buffers

`M-x buffer-menu'
     Begin editing a buffer listing all Emacs buffers.

`M-x buffer-menu-other-window.'
     Similar, but do it in another window.

   The "buffer menu" opened by `C-x C-b' (*note List Buffers::) does
not merely list buffers.  It also allows you to perform various
operations on buffers, through an interface similar to Dired (*note
Dired::).  You can save buffers, kill them (here called "deleting"
them, for consistency with Dired), or display them.

   To use the buffer menu, type `C-x C-b' and switch to the window
displaying the `*Buffer List*' buffer.  You can also type `M-x
buffer-menu' to open the buffer menu in the selected window.
Alternatively, the command `M-x buffer-menu-other-window' opens the
buffer menu in another window, and selects that window.

   The buffer menu is a read-only buffer, and can be changed only
through the special commands described in this section.  The usual
Emacs cursor motion commands can be used in this buffer.  The following
commands apply to the buffer described on the current line:

     Request to delete (kill) the buffer, then move down.  The request
     shows as a `D' on the line, before the buffer name.  Requested
     deletions take place when you type the `x' command.

     Like `d' but move up afterwards instead of down.

     Request to save the buffer.  The request shows as an `S' on the
     line.  Requested saves take place when you type the `x' command.
     You may request both saving and deletion for the same buffer.

     Perform previously requested deletions and saves.

     Remove any request made for the current line, and move down.

     Move to previous line and remove any request made for that line.

   The `d', `C-d', `s' and `u' commands to add or remove flags also
move down (or up) one line.  They accept a numeric argument as a repeat

   These commands operate immediately on the buffer listed on the
current line:

     Mark the buffer "unmodified."  The command `~' does this
     immediately when you type it.

     Toggle the buffer's read-only flag.  The command `%' does this
     immediately when you type it.

     Visit the buffer as a tags table.  *Note Select Tags Table::.

   There are also commands to select another buffer or buffers:

     Quit the buffer menu--immediately display the most recent formerly
     visible buffer in its place.

     Immediately select this line's buffer in place of the `*Buffer
     List*' buffer.

     Immediately select this line's buffer in another window as if by
     `C-x 4 b', leaving `*Buffer List*' visible.

     Immediately display this line's buffer in another window, but don't
     select the window.

     Immediately select this line's buffer in a full-screen window.

     Immediately set up two windows, with this line's buffer selected in
     one, and the previously current buffer (aside from the buffer
     `*Buffer List*') displayed in the other.

     Bury the buffer listed on this line.

     Mark this line's buffer to be displayed in another window if you
     exit with the `v' command.  The request shows as a `>' at the
     beginning of the line.  (A single buffer may not have both a delete
     request and a display request.)

     Immediately select this line's buffer, and also display in other
     windows any buffers previously marked with the `m' command.  If
     you have not marked any buffers, this command is equivalent to `1'.

   There is also a command that affects the entire buffer list:

     Delete, or reinsert, lines for non-file buffers.  This command
     toggles the inclusion of such buffers in the buffer list.

   What `buffer-menu' actually does is create and switch to a suitable
buffer, and turn on Buffer Menu mode in it.  Everything else described
above is implemented by the special commands provided in Buffer Menu
mode.  One consequence of this is that you can switch from the `*Buffer
List*' buffer to another Emacs buffer, and edit there.  You can
reselect the `*Buffer List*' buffer later, to perform the operations
already requested, or you can kill it, or pay no further attention to

   Normally, the buffer `*Buffer List*' is not updated automatically
when buffers are created and killed; its contents are just text.  If
you have created, deleted or renamed buffers, the way to update
`*Buffer List*' to show what you have done is to type `g'
(`revert-buffer').  You can make this happen regularly every
`auto-revert-interval' seconds if you enable Auto Revert mode in this
buffer, as long as it is not marked modified.  Global Auto Revert mode
applies to the `*Buffer List*' buffer only if
`global-auto-revert-non-file-buffers' is non-`nil'.  *Note
global-auto-revert-non-file-buffers: Autorevert, for details.

File: emacs,  Node: Indirect Buffers,  Next: Buffer Convenience,  Prev: Several Buffers,  Up: Buffers

23.6 Indirect Buffers

An "indirect buffer" shares the text of some other buffer, which is
called the "base buffer" of the indirect buffer.  In some ways it is
the analogue, for buffers, of a symbolic link between files.

`M-x make-indirect-buffer <RET> BASE-BUFFER <RET> INDIRECT-NAME <RET>'
     Create an indirect buffer named INDIRECT-NAME whose base buffer is

`M-x clone-indirect-buffer <RET>'
     Create an indirect buffer that is a twin copy of the current

`C-x 4 c'
     Create an indirect buffer that is a twin copy of the current
     buffer, and select it in another window

   The text of the indirect buffer is always identical to the text of
its base buffer; changes made by editing either one are visible
immediately in the other.  But in all other respects, the indirect
buffer and its base buffer are completely separate.  They can have
different names, different values of point, different narrowing,
different markers, different major modes, and different local variables.

   An indirect buffer cannot visit a file, but its base buffer can.  If
you try to save the indirect buffer, that actually works by saving the
base buffer.  Killing the base buffer effectively kills the indirect
buffer, but killing an indirect buffer has no effect on its base buffer.

   One way to use indirect buffers is to display multiple views of an
outline.  *Note Outline Views::.

   A quick and handy way to make an indirect buffer is with the command
`M-x clone-indirect-buffer'.  It creates and selects an indirect buffer
whose base buffer is the current buffer.  With a numeric argument, it
prompts for the name of the indirect buffer; otherwise it uses the name
of the current buffer, with a `<N>' suffix added.  `C-x 4 c'
(`clone-indirect-buffer-other-window') works like `M-x
clone-indirect-buffer', but it selects the new buffer in another
window.  These functions run the hook `clone-indirect-buffer-hook'
after creating the indirect buffer.

   The more general way to make an indirect buffer is with the command
`M-x make-indirect-buffer'.  It creates an indirect buffer from buffer
BASE-BUFFER, under the name INDIRECT-NAME.  It prompts for both
BASE-BUFFER and INDIRECT-NAME using the minibuffer.

File: emacs,  Node: Buffer Convenience,  Prev: Indirect Buffers,  Up: Buffers

23.7 Convenience Features and Customization of Buffer Handling

This section describes several modes and features that make it more
convenient to switch between buffers.

* Menu:

* Uniquify::               Making buffer names unique with directory parts.
* Iswitchb::               Switching between buffers with substrings.
* Buffer Menus::           Configurable buffer menu.

File: emacs,  Node: Uniquify,  Next: Iswitchb,  Up: Buffer Convenience

23.7.1 Making Buffer Names Unique

When several buffers visit identically-named files, Emacs must give the
buffers distinct names.  The usual method for making buffer names
unique adds `<2>', `<3>', etc. to the end of the buffer names (all but
one of them).

   Other methods work by adding parts of each file's directory to the
buffer name.  To select one, customize the variable
`uniquify-buffer-name-style' (*note Easy Customization::).

   To begin with, the `forward' naming method includes part of the
file's directory name at the beginning of the buffer name; using this
method, buffers visiting the files `/u/rms/tmp/Makefile' and
`/usr/projects/zaphod/Makefile' would be named `tmp/Makefile' and
`zaphod/Makefile', respectively (instead of `Makefile' and

   In contrast, the `post-forward' naming method would call the buffers
`Makefile|tmp' and `Makefile|zaphod', and the `reverse' naming method
would call them `Makefile\tmp' and `Makefile\zaphod'.  The nontrivial
difference between `post-forward' and `reverse' occurs when just one
directory name is not enough to distinguish two files; then `reverse'
puts the directory names in reverse order, so that `/top/middle/file'
becomes `file\middle\top', while `post-forward' puts them in forward
order after the file name, as in `file|top/middle'.

   Which rule to follow for putting the directory names in the buffer
name is not very important if you are going to _look_ at the buffer
names before you type one.  But as an experienced user, if you know the
rule, you won't have to look.  And then you may find that one rule or
another is easier for you to remember and apply quickly.

File: emacs,  Node: Iswitchb,  Next: Buffer Menus,  Prev: Uniquify,  Up: Buffer Convenience

23.7.2 Switching Between Buffers using Substrings

Iswitchb global minor mode provides convenient switching between
buffers using substrings of their names.  It replaces the normal
definitions of `C-x b', `C-x 4 b', `C-x 5 b', and `C-x 4 C-o' with
alternative commands that are somewhat "smarter."

   When one of these commands prompts you for a buffer name, you can
type in just a substring of the name you want to choose.  As you enter
the substring, Iswitchb mode continuously displays a list of buffers
that match the substring you have typed.

   At any time, you can type <RET> to select the first buffer in the
list.  So the way to select a particular buffer is to make it the first
in the list.  There are two ways to do this.  You can type more of the
buffer name and thus narrow down the list, excluding unwanted buffers
above the desired one.  Alternatively, you can use `C-s' and `C-r' to
rotate the list until the desired buffer is first.

   <TAB> while entering the buffer name performs completion on the
string you have entered, based on the displayed list of buffers.

   To enable Iswitchb mode, type `M-x iswitchb-mode', or customize the
variable `iswitchb-mode' to `t' (*note Easy Customization::).

File: emacs,  Node: Buffer Menus,  Prev: Iswitchb,  Up: Buffer Convenience

23.7.3 Customizing Buffer Menus

`M-x bs-show'
     Make a list of buffers similarly to `M-x list-buffers' but

   `M-x bs-show' pops up a buffer list similar to the one normally
displayed by `C-x C-b' but which you can customize.  If you prefer this
to the usual buffer list, you can bind this command to `C-x C-b'.  To
customize this buffer list, use the `bs' Custom group (*note Easy

   MSB global minor mode ("MSB" stands for "mouse select buffer")
provides a different and customizable mouse buffer menu which you may
prefer.  It replaces the bindings of `mouse-buffer-menu', normally on
`C-Down-Mouse-1', and the menu bar buffer menu.  You can customize the
menu in the `msb' Custom group.

File: emacs,  Node: Windows,  Next: Frames,  Prev: Buffers,  Up: Top

24 Multiple Windows

Emacs can split a frame into two or many windows.  Multiple windows can
display parts of different buffers, or different parts of one buffer.
Multiple frames always imply multiple windows, because each frame has
its own set of windows.  Each window belongs to one and only one frame.

* Menu:

* Basic Window::        Introduction to Emacs windows.
* Split Window::        New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
* Other Window::        Moving to another window or doing something to it.
* Pop Up Window::       Finding a file or buffer in another window.
* Force Same Window::   Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected
                          window rather than in another window.
* Change Window::       Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
* Window Convenience::  Convenience functions for window handling.

File: emacs,  Node: Basic Window,  Next: Split Window,  Up: Windows

24.1 Concepts of Emacs Windows

Each Emacs window displays one Emacs buffer at any time.  A single
buffer may appear in more than one window; if it does, any changes in
its text are displayed in all the windows where it appears.  But these
windows can show different parts of the buffer, because each window has
its own value of point.

   At any time, one Emacs window is the "selected window"; the buffer
this window is displaying is the current buffer.  The terminal's cursor
shows the location of point in this window.  Each other window has a
location of point as well.  On text-only terminals, there is no way to
show where those locations are, since the terminal has only one cursor.
On a graphical display, the location of point in a non-selected window
is indicated by a hollow box; the cursor in the selected window is
blinking or solid.

   Commands to move point affect the value of point for the selected
Emacs window only.  They do not change the value of point in other Emacs
windows, even those showing the same buffer.  The same is true for
commands such as `C-x b' to switch buffers in the selected window; they
do not affect other windows at all.  However, there are other commands
such as `C-x 4 b' that select a different window and switch buffers in
it.  Also, all commands that display information in a window, including
(for example) `C-h f' (`describe-function') and `C-x C-b'
(`list-buffers'), work by switching buffers in a nonselected window
without affecting the selected window.

   When multiple windows show the same buffer, they can have different
regions, because they can have different values of point.  However,
they all have the same value for the mark, because each buffer has only
one mark position.

   Each window has its own mode line, which displays the buffer name,
modification status and major and minor modes of the buffer that is
displayed in the window.  The selected window's mode line appears in a
different color.  *Note Mode Line::, for full details on the mode line.

File: emacs,  Node: Split Window,  Next: Other Window,  Prev: Basic Window,  Up: Windows

24.2 Splitting Windows

`C-x 2'
     Split the selected window into two windows, one above the other

`C-x 3'
     Split the selected window into two windows positioned side by side

     In the mode line or scroll bar of a window, split that window.

   The command `C-x 2' (`split-window-vertically') breaks the selected
window into two windows, one above the other.  Both windows start out
displaying the same buffer, with the same value of point.  By default
the two windows each get half the height of the window that was split; a
numeric argument specifies how many lines to give to the top window.

   `C-x 3' (`split-window-horizontally') breaks the selected window
into two side-by-side windows.  A numeric argument specifies how many
columns to give the one on the left.  If you are not using scrollbars,
a vertical line separates the two windows.  You can customize its color
with the face `vertical-border'.  Windows that are not the full width
of the screen have mode lines, but they are truncated.  On terminals
where Emacs does not support highlighting, truncated mode lines
sometimes do not appear in inverse video.

   You can split a window horizontally or vertically by clicking
`C-Mouse-2' in the mode line or the scroll bar.  The line of splitting
goes through the place where you click: if you click on the mode line,
the new scroll bar goes above the spot; if you click in the scroll bar,
the mode line of the split window is side by side with your click.

   When a window occupies less than the full width of the frame, it may
become too narrow for most of the text lines in its buffer.  If most of
its lines are continued (*note Continuation Lines::), the buffer may
become difficult to read.  Therefore, Emacs automatically truncates
lines if the window width becomes narrower than 50 columns.  This
truncation occurs regardless of the value of the variable
`truncate-lines' (*note Line Truncation::); it is instead controlled by
the variable `truncate-partial-width-windows'.  If the value of
`truncate-partial-width-windows' is a positive integer (the default is
50), that specifies the minimum width for a partial-width window before
automatic line truncation occurs; if the value is `nil', automatic line
truncation is disabled; and for any other non-`nil' value, Emacs
truncates lines in every partial-width window regardless of its width.

   Horizontal scrolling is often used in side-by-side windows.  *Note
Horizontal Scrolling::.

   If `split-window-keep-point' is non-`nil', the default, both of the
windows resulting from `C-x 2' inherit the value of point from the
window that was split.  This means that scrolling is inevitable.  If
this variable is `nil', then `C-x 2' tries to avoid scrolling the text
currently visible on the screen, by putting point in each window at a
position already visible in the window.  It also selects whichever
window contains the screen line that the cursor was previously on.
Some users prefer that mode on slow terminals.

File: emacs,  Node: Other Window,  Next: Pop Up Window,  Prev: Split Window,  Up: Windows

24.3 Using Other Windows

`C-x o'
     Select another window (`other-window').  That is `o', not zero.

     Scroll the next window (`scroll-other-window').

`M-x compare-windows'
     Find next place where the text in the selected window does not
     match the text in the next window.

     `Mouse-1', in a window's mode line, selects that window but does
     not move point in it (`mouse-select-window').

   To select a different window, click with `Mouse-1' on its mode line.
With the keyboard, you can switch windows by typing `C-x o'
(`other-window').  That is an `o', for "other," not a zero.  When there
are more than two windows, this command moves through all the windows
in a cyclic order, generally top to bottom and left to right.  After
the rightmost and bottommost window, it goes back to the one at the
upper left corner.  A numeric argument means to move several steps in
the cyclic order of windows.  A negative argument moves around the
cycle in the opposite order.  When the minibuffer is active, the
minibuffer is the last window in the cycle; you can switch from the
minibuffer window to one of the other windows, and later switch back and
finish supplying the minibuffer argument that is requested.  *Note
Minibuffer Edit::.

   The usual scrolling commands (*note Display::) apply to the selected
window only, but there is one command to scroll the next window.
`C-M-v' (`scroll-other-window') scrolls the window that `C-x o' would
select.  It takes arguments, positive and negative, like `C-v'.  (In
the minibuffer, `C-M-v' scrolls the window that contains the minibuffer
help display, if any, rather than the next window in the standard
cyclic order.)

   The command `M-x compare-windows' lets you compare two files or
buffers visible in two windows, by moving through them to the next
mismatch.  *Note Comparing Files::, for details.

   If you set `mouse-autoselect-window' to a non-`nil' value, moving
the mouse into a different window selects that window.  This feature is
off by default.

File: emacs,  Node: Pop Up Window,  Next: Force Same Window,  Prev: Other Window,  Up: Windows

24.4 Displaying in Another Window

`C-x 4' is a prefix key for commands that select another window
(splitting the window if there is only one) and select a buffer in that
window.  Different `C-x 4' commands have different ways of finding the
buffer to select.

`C-x 4 b BUFNAME <RET>'
     Select buffer BUFNAME in another window.  This runs

`C-x 4 C-o BUFNAME <RET>'
     Display buffer BUFNAME in another window, but don't select that
     buffer or that window.  This runs `display-buffer'.

`C-x 4 f FILENAME <RET>'
     Visit file FILENAME and select its buffer in another window.  This
     runs `find-file-other-window'.  *Note Visiting::.

     Select a Dired buffer for directory DIRECTORY in another window.
     This runs `dired-other-window'.  *Note Dired::.

`C-x 4 m'
     Start composing a mail message in another window.  This runs
     `mail-other-window'; its same-window analogue is `C-x m' (*note
     Sending Mail::).

`C-x 4 .'
     Find a tag in the current tags table, in another window.  This runs
     `find-tag-other-window', the multiple-window variant of `M-.'
     (*note Tags::).

`C-x 4 r FILENAME <RET>'
     Visit file FILENAME read-only, and select its buffer in another
     window.  This runs `find-file-read-only-other-window'.  *Note

   By default, these commands split the window vertically when there is
only one.  You can customize the variables `split-height-threshold' and
`split-width-threshold' to split the window horizontally instead.

File: emacs,  Node: Force Same Window,  Next: Change Window,  Prev: Pop Up Window,  Up: Windows

24.5 Forcing Display in the Same Window

Certain Emacs commands switch to a specific buffer with special
contents.  For example, `M-x shell' switches to a buffer named
`*shell*'.  By convention, all these commands are written to pop up the
buffer in a separate window.  But you can specify that certain of these
buffers should appear in the selected window.

   If you add a buffer name to the list `same-window-buffer-names', the
effect is that such commands display that particular buffer by
switching to it in the selected window.  For example, if you add the
element `"*grep*"' to the list, the `grep' command will display its
output buffer in the selected window.

   The default value of `same-window-buffer-names' is not `nil': it
specifies buffer names `*info*', `*mail*' and `*shell*' (as well as
others used by more obscure Emacs packages).  This is why `M-x shell'
normally switches to the `*shell*' buffer in the selected window.  If
you delete this element from the value of `same-window-buffer-names',
the behavior of `M-x shell' will change--it will pop up the buffer in
another window instead.

   You can specify these buffers more generally with the variable
`same-window-regexps'.  Set it to a list of regular expressions; then
any buffer whose name matches one of those regular expressions is
displayed by switching to it in the selected window.  (Once again, this
applies only to buffers that normally get displayed for you in a
separate window.)  The default value of this variable specifies Telnet
and rlogin buffers.

   An analogous feature lets you specify buffers which should be
displayed in their own individual frames.  *Note Special Buffer

File: emacs,  Node: Change Window,  Next: Window Convenience,  Prev: Force Same Window,  Up: Windows

24.6 Deleting and Rearranging Windows

`C-x 0'
     Delete the selected window (`delete-window').  The last character
     in this key sequence is a zero.

`C-x 1'
     Delete all windows in the selected frame except the selected window

`C-x 4 0'
     Delete the selected window and kill the buffer that was showing in
     it (`kill-buffer-and-window').  The last character in this key
     sequence is a zero.

`C-x ^'
     Make selected window taller (`enlarge-window').

`C-x }'
     Make selected window wider (`enlarge-window-horizontally').

`C-x {'
     Make selected window narrower (`shrink-window-horizontally').

`C-x -'
     Shrink this window if its buffer doesn't need so many lines

`C-x +'
     Make all windows the same height (`balance-windows').

   To delete a window, type `C-x 0' (`delete-window').  (That is a
zero.)  The space occupied by the deleted window is given to an
adjacent window (but not the minibuffer window, even if that is active
at the time).  Once a window is deleted, its attributes are forgotten;
only restoring a window configuration can bring it back.  Deleting the
window has no effect on the buffer it used to display; the buffer
continues to exist, and you can select it in any window with `C-x b'.

   `C-x 4 0' (`kill-buffer-and-window') is a stronger command than `C-x
0'; it kills the current buffer and then deletes the selected window.

   `C-x 1' (`delete-other-windows') is more powerful in a different
way; it deletes all the windows except the selected one (and the
minibuffer); the selected window expands to use the whole frame except
for the echo area.

   To readjust the division of space among vertically adjacent windows,
use `C-x ^' (`enlarge-window').  It makes the currently selected window
one line bigger, or as many lines as is specified with a numeric
argument.  With a negative argument, it makes the selected window
smaller.  `C-x }' (`enlarge-window-horizontally') makes the selected
window wider by the specified number of columns.  `C-x {'
(`shrink-window-horizontally') makes the selected window narrower by
the specified number of columns.

   When you make a window bigger, the space comes from its peers.  If
this makes any window too small, it is deleted and its space is given
to an adjacent window.  The minimum size is specified by the variables
`window-min-height' and `window-min-width'.

   The command `C-x -' (`shrink-window-if-larger-than-buffer') reduces
the height of the selected window, if it is taller than necessary to
show the whole text of the buffer it is displaying.  It gives the extra
lines to other windows in the frame.

   You can also use `C-x +' (`balance-windows') to even out the heights
of all the windows in the selected frame.

   Mouse clicks on the mode line provide another way to change window
heights and to delete windows.  *Note Mode Line Mouse::.

File: emacs,  Node: Window Convenience,  Prev: Change Window,  Up: Windows

24.7 Window Handling Convenience Features and Customization

`M-x winner-mode' is a global minor mode that records the changes in
the window configuration (i.e. how the frames are partitioned into
windows), so that you can "undo" them.  To undo, use `C-c left'
(`winner-undo').  If you change your mind while undoing, you can redo
the changes you had undone using `C-c right' (`M-x winner-redo').
Another way to enable Winner mode is by customizing the variable

   The Windmove commands move directionally between neighboring windows
in a frame.  `M-x windmove-right' selects the window immediately to the
right of the currently selected one, and similarly for the "left," "up,"
and "down" counterparts.  `M-x windmove-default-keybindings' binds
these commands to `S-right' etc.  (Not all terminals support shifted
arrow keys, however.)

   Follow minor mode (`M-x follow-mode') synchronizes several windows
on the same buffer so that they always display adjacent sections of
that buffer.  *Note Follow Mode::.

   `M-x scroll-all-mode' provides commands to scroll all visible
windows together.  You can also turn it on by customizing the variable
`scroll-all-mode'.  The commands provided are `M-x
scroll-all-scroll-down-all', `M-x scroll-all-page-down-all' and their
corresponding "up" equivalents.  To make this mode useful, you should
bind these commands to appropriate keys.

File: emacs,  Node: Frames,  Next: International,  Prev: Windows,  Up: Top

25 Frames and Graphical Displays

When using a graphical display, you can create multiple system-level
"windows" in a single Emacs session.  We refer to these system-level
windows as "frames".  A frame initially contains a single Emacs window;
however, you can subdivide this Emacs window into smaller windows, all
fitting into the same frame.  Each frame normally contains its own echo
area and minibuffer.

   To avoid confusion, we reserve the word "window" for the
subdivisions that Emacs implements, and never use it to refer to a

   Any editing you do in one frame affects the other frames.  For
instance, if you put text in the kill ring in one frame, you can yank
it in another frame.  If you exit Emacs through `C-x C-c' in one frame,
it terminates all the frames.  To delete just one frame, use `C-x 5 0'
(that is zero, not `o').

   Emacs compiled for MS-DOS emulates some windowing functionality, so
that you can use many of the features described in this chapter.  *Note
MS-DOS Mouse::.

* Menu:

* Cut and Paste::       Mouse commands for cut and paste.
* Mouse References::    Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
* Menu Mouse Clicks::   Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
* Mode Line Mouse::     Mouse clicks on the mode line.
* Creating Frames::     Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
* Frame Commands::      Iconifying, deleting, and switching frames.
* Speedbar::            How to make and use a speedbar frame.
* Multiple Displays::   How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
* Special Buffer Frames::  You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
* Frame Parameters::    Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
* Scroll Bars::	        How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
* Wheeled Mice::        Using mouse wheels for scrolling.
* Drag and Drop::       Using drag and drop to open files and insert text.
* Menu Bars::	        Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
* Tool Bars::           Enabling and disabling the tool bar.
* Dialog Boxes::        Controlling use of dialog boxes.
* Tooltips::            Displaying information at the current mouse position.
* Mouse Avoidance::     Moving the mouse pointer out of the way.
* Non-Window Terminals::  Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
* Text-Only Mouse::     Using the mouse in text-only terminals.

File: emacs,  Node: Cut and Paste,  Next: Mouse References,  Up: Frames

25.1 Killing and Yanking on Graphical Displays

This section describes commands for selecting a region, killing, and
yanking using the mouse.

* Menu:

* Mouse Commands::      Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse.
* Word and Line Mouse:: Mouse commands for selecting whole words or lines.
* Cut/Paste Other App:: Transfering text between Emacs and other apps.
* Secondary Selection:: Cutting without altering point and mark.
* Clipboard::           Using the clipboard for selections.

File: emacs,  Node: Mouse Commands,  Next: Word and Line Mouse,  Up: Cut and Paste

25.1.1 Mouse Commands for Editing

     Move point to where you click (`mouse-set-point').

     Activate the region around the text selected by dragging, and copy
     it to the kill ring (`mouse-set-region').

     Yank the last killed text at the click position

     If the region is active, move the nearer end of the region to the
     click position; otherwise, set mark at the current value of point
     and point at the click position.  Save the resulting region in the
     kill ring; on a second click, kill it (`mouse-save-then-kill').

   The most basic mouse command is `mouse-set-point', which is called
by clicking with the left mouse button, `Mouse-1', in the text area of
a window.  This moves point to the position where you clicked.

   Normally, Emacs does not distinguish between ordinary mouse clicks
and clicks that select a frame.  When you click on a frame to select
it, that also changes the selected window and cursor position according
to the mouse click position.  On the X window system, you can change
this behavior by setting the variable
`x-mouse-click-focus-ignore-position' to `t'.  Then the first click
selects the frame, but does not affect the selected window or cursor
position.  If you click again in the same place, that click will be in
the selected frame, so it will change the window or cursor position.

   Holding down `Mouse-1' and "dragging" the mouse over a stretch of
text activates the region around that text (`mouse-set-region').  *Note
Mark::.  Emacs places the mark where you started holding down the mouse
button, and point where you release it.  In addition, the region is
copied into the kill ring (*note Kill Ring::).  If you don't want Emacs
to copy the region, change the variable `mouse-drag-copy-region' to

   If you move the mouse off the top or bottom of the window while
dragging, the window scrolls at a steady rate until you move the mouse
back into the window.  This way, you can select regions that don't fit
entirely on the screen.  The number of lines scrolled per step depends
on how far away from the window edge the mouse has gone; the variable
`mouse-scroll-min-lines' specifies a minimum step size.

   Clicking with the middle mouse button, `Mouse-2', moves point to the
position where you clicked and performs a yank (`mouse-yank-at-click').
*Note Yanking::.  If you change the variable `mouse-yank-at-point' to a
non-`nil' value, `Mouse-2' does not move point.  Then it does not
matter where you click, or even which of the frame's windows you click
on; the yank occurs at the existing point.  This variable also affects
yanking the primary and secondary selections (*note Cut/Paste Other

   Clicking with the right mouse button, `Mouse-3', runs the command
`mouse-save-then-kill'.  This performs several actions depending on
where you click and the status of the region:

   * If no region is active, clicking `Mouse-3' activates the region,
     placing the mark where point was and point at the clicked position.
     In addition, the text in the region is copied to the kill ring.

   * If a region is active, clicking `Mouse-3' adjusts the nearer end
     of the region by moving it to the clicked position.  The adjusted
     region's text is copied to the kill ring; if the text in the
     original region was already on the kill ring, it replaces it there.

   * If you originally specified the region using a double or triple
     `Mouse-1', so that the region is defined to consist of entire
     words or lines, then adjusting the region with `Mouse-3' also
     proceeds by entire words or lines.

   * If you use `Mouse-3' a second time consecutively, at the same
     place, that kills the region already selected.  Thus, the simplest
     way to kill text with the mouse is to click `Mouse-1' at one end,
     then click `Mouse-3' twice at the other end.  To copy the text
     into the kill ring without deleting it from the buffer, press
     `Mouse-3' just once--or just drag across the text with `Mouse-1'.
     Then you can copy it elsewhere by yanking it.

   Whenever you set the region using any of the mouse commands
described above, the mark will be deactivated by any subsequent
unshifted cursor motion command, in addition to the usual ways of
deactivating the mark.  *Note Shift Selection::.  While the region
remains active, typing <Backspace> or <Delete> deletes the text in that
region and deactivates the mark; this behavior follows a convention
established by other graphical programs, and it does _not_ apply when
you set the region any other way, including shift-selection (*note
Shift Selection::).

   Many graphical applications also follow the convention that
insertion while text is selected deletes the selected text.  You can
make Emacs behave this way by enabling Delete Selection mode.  *Note
Using Region::.

File: emacs,  Node: Word and Line Mouse,  Next: Cut/Paste Other App,  Prev: Mouse Commands,  Up: Cut and Paste

25.1.2 Mouse Commands for Words and Lines

These variants of `Mouse-1' select entire words or lines at a time.
Emacs activates the region around the selected text, which is also
copied to the kill ring.

     Select the text around the word which you click on.

     Double-clicking on a character with "symbol" syntax (such as
     underscore, in C mode) selects the symbol surrounding that
     character.  Double-clicking on a character with open- or
     close-parenthesis syntax selects the parenthetical grouping which
     that character starts or ends.  Double-clicking on a character
     with string-delimiter syntax (such as a singlequote or doublequote
     in C) selects the string constant (Emacs uses heuristics to figure
     out whether that character is the beginning or the end of it).

     Select the text you drag across, in the form of whole words.

     Select the line you click on.

     Select the text you drag across, in the form of whole lines.

File: emacs,  Node: Cut/Paste Other App,  Next: Secondary Selection,  Prev: Word and Line Mouse,  Up: Cut and Paste

25.1.3 Cut and Paste with Other Window Applications

When running Emacs under the X window system, you can easily transfer
text between Emacs and other X applications using the "primary
selection" (also called the "X selection").  This is _not_ the same
thing as the "clipboard", which is a separate facility used on desktop
environments such as Gnome, and on operating systems such as Microsoft
Windows (*note Clipboard::).

   Under X, whenever you select some text in Emacs by dragging or
clicking the mouse (*note Mouse Commands::), it is also saved in the
primary selection.  You can then "paste" that text into any other X
application, usually by clicking `Mouse-2' in that application.  Unlike
the Emacs kill ring (*note Kill Ring::), the primary selection has no
"memory": each time you save something in the primary selection, either
in Emacs or in another X application, the previous contents of the
primary selection are lost.

   Whenever you kill some text using a command such as `C-w'
(`kill-region'), or copy it into the kill ring using a command such as
`M-w' (`kill-ring-save'), that text is also saved in the primary
selection.  *Note Killing::.

   Whenever Emacs saves some text to the primary selection, it may also
save it to the "cut buffer".  The cut buffer is an obsolete predecessor
to the primary selection; most modern applications do not make use of
it.  Because saving text to the cut buffer is slow and inefficient,
Emacs only does it if the text is shorter than the value of
`x-cut-buffer-max' (the default is 20000 characters).

   You can yank the primary selection into Emacs using the usual yank
commands, such as `C-y' (`yank') and `Mouse-2' (`mouse-yank-at-click').
These commands actually check the primary selection before referring to
the kill ring; if no primary selection is available, the kill ring
contents are used.  To prevent yank commands from accessing the primary
selection, set the variable `x-select-enable-primary' to `nil'.

   The standard coding system for the primary selection is
`compound-text-with-extensions'.  You may find that the pasted text is
not what you expected.  In such a case, you can specify another coding
system for the selection by typing `C-x <RET> x' or `C-x <RET> X'.
Alternatively, you can request a different data type by modifying the
variable `x-select-request-type'.  *Note Communication Coding::.

File: emacs,  Node: Secondary Selection,  Next: Clipboard,  Prev: Cut/Paste Other App,  Up: Cut and Paste

25.1.4 Secondary Selection

In addition to the primary selection, the X Window System provides a
second similar facility known as the "secondary selection".  Nowadays,
few X applications make use of the secondary selection, but you can
access it using the following Emacs commands:

     Set the secondary selection, with one end at the place where you
     press down the button, and the other end at the place where you
     release it (`mouse-set-secondary').  The selected text is
     highlighted, using the `secondary-selection' face, as you drag.
     The window scrolls automatically if you drag the mouse off the top
     or bottom of the window, just like `mouse-set-region' (*note Mouse

     This command does not alter the kill ring.

     Set one endpoint for the "secondary selection"

     Set the secondary selection, with one end at the position clicked
     and the other at the position specified with `M-Mouse-1'
     (`mouse-secondary-save-then-kill').  This also puts the selected
     text in the kill ring.  A second `M-Mouse-3' at the same place
     kills the secondary selection just made.

     Insert the secondary selection where you click, placing point at
     the end of the yanked text (`mouse-yank-secondary').

   Double or triple clicking of `M-Mouse-1' operates on words and
lines, much like `Mouse-1'.

   If `mouse-yank-at-point' is non-`nil', `M-Mouse-2' yanks at point.
Then it does not matter precisely where you click, or even which of the
frame's windows you click on.  *Note Mouse Commands::.

File: emacs,  Node: Clipboard,  Prev: Secondary Selection,  Up: Cut and Paste

25.1.5 Using the Clipboard

In desktop environments such as Gnome, and operating systems such as
Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X, you can transfer data (usually text)
between different applications using the "clipboard".  The clipboard is
distinct from the primary selection and secondary selection discussed
earlier.  You can access the clipboard through the `Edit' menu of the
menu bar (*note Menu Bar::).

   The command `clipboard-kill-region', which is bound to the `Cut'
menu item, kills the region and saves it in the clipboard.

   The command `clipboard-kill-ring-save', which is bound to the `Copy'
menu item, copies the region to the kill ring and saves it in the

   The `Paste' menu item in the Edit menu yanks the contents of the
clipboard at point (`clipboard-yank').

   You can customize the variable `x-select-enable-clipboard' to make
the Emacs yank functions consult the clipboard before the primary
selection, and to make the kill functions to store in the clipboard as
well as the primary selection.  Otherwise, these commands do not access
the clipboard at all.  Using the clipboard is the default on MS-Windows
and Mac OS, but not on other systems.

File: emacs,  Node: Mouse References,  Next: Menu Mouse Clicks,  Prev: Cut and Paste,  Up: Frames

25.2 Following References with the Mouse

Some Emacs buffers include "buttons".  A button is a piece of text that
performs some action when you activate it, such as following a
reference.  Usually, a button's text is visually highlighted: it is
underlined, or a box is drawn around it.  If you move the mouse over a
button, the shape of the mouse cursor changes and the button lights up
(if you change the variable `mouse-highlight' to `nil', Emacs disables
this highlighting).

   You can activate a button by moving point to it and typing <RET>, or
by clicking either `Mouse-1' or `Mouse-2' on the button.  For example,
typing <RET> or clicking on a file name in a Dired buffer visits that
file (*note Dired::).  Doing it on an error message in the
`*Compilation*' buffer goes to the source code for that error message
(*note Compilation::).  Doing it on a completion in the `*Completions*'
buffer chooses that completion (*note Completion::).

   Although clicking `Mouse-1' on a button usually activates that
button, if you hold the mouse button down for a short period of time
before releasing it (specifically, for more than 450 milliseconds),
then Emacs moves point where you clicked instead.  This behavior allows
you to use the mouse to move point over a button without following it.
Dragging--moving the mouse while it is held down--has its usual
behavior of setting the region, even if you drag from or onto a button.

   Normally, clicking `Mouse-1' on a button activates the button even
if it is in a nonselected window.  If you change the variable
`mouse-1-click-in-non-selected-windows' to `nil', clicking `Mouse-1' on
a button in an un-selected window moves point to the clicked position
and selects that window, without activating the button.

   In Emacs versions before 22, only `Mouse-2' activates buttons and
`Mouse-1' always sets point.  If you prefer this older behavior, set
the variable `mouse-1-click-follows-link' to `nil'.  This variable also
lets you choose various other alternatives for following links with the
mouse.  Type `C-h v mouse-1-click-follows-link <RET>' for more details.

File: emacs,  Node: Menu Mouse Clicks,  Next: Mode Line Mouse,  Prev: Mouse References,  Up: Frames

25.3 Mouse Clicks for Menus

Several mouse clicks with the <CTRL> and <SHIFT> modifiers bring up

     This menu is for selecting a buffer.

     The MSB ("mouse select buffer") global minor mode makes this menu
     smarter and more customizable.  *Note Buffer Menus::.

     This menu is for specifying faces and other text properties for
     editing formatted text.  *Note Formatted Text::.

     This menu is mode-specific.  For most modes if Menu-bar mode is on,
     this menu has the same items as all the mode-specific menu-bar
     menus put together.  Some modes may specify a different menu for
     this button.(1)  If Menu-bar mode is off, this menu contains all
     the items which would be present in the menu bar--not just the
     mode-specific ones--so that you can access them without having to
     display the menu bar.

     This menu is for changing the default face within the window's
     buffer.  *Note Temporary Face Changes::.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Some systems use `Mouse-3' for a mode-specific menu.  We took a
survey of users, and found they preferred to keep `Mouse-3' for
selecting and killing regions.  Hence the decision to use `C-Mouse-3'
for this menu.  To use `Mouse-3' instead, do `(global-set-key [mouse-3]

File: emacs,  Node: Mode Line Mouse,  Next: Creating Frames,  Prev: Menu Mouse Clicks,  Up: Frames

25.4 Mode Line Mouse Commands

You can use mouse clicks on window mode lines to select and manipulate

   Some areas of the mode line, such as the buffer name, and major and
minor mode names, have their own special mouse bindings.  These areas
are highlighted when you hold the mouse over them, and information about
the special bindings will be displayed (*note Tooltips::).  This
section's commands do not apply in those areas.

     `Mouse-1' on a mode line selects the window it belongs to.  By
     dragging `Mouse-1' on the mode line, you can move it, thus
     changing the height of the windows above and below.  Changing
     heights with the mouse in this way never deletes windows, it just
     refuses to make any window smaller than the minimum height.

     `Mouse-2' on a mode line expands that window to fill its frame.

     `Mouse-3' on a mode line deletes the window it belongs to.  If the
     frame has only one window, it buries the current buffer instead,
     and switches to another buffer.

     `C-Mouse-2' on a mode line splits the window above horizontally,
     above the place in the mode line where you click.

   Using `Mouse-1' on the divider between two side-by-side mode lines,
you can move the vertical boundary left or right.  Using `C-Mouse-2' on
a scroll bar splits the corresponding window vertically.  *Note Split

File: emacs,  Node: Creating Frames,  Next: Frame Commands,  Prev: Mode Line Mouse,  Up: Frames

25.5 Creating Frames

The prefix key `C-x 5' is analogous to `C-x 4', with parallel
subcommands.  The difference is that `C-x 5' commands create a new
frame rather than just a new window in the selected frame (*note Pop Up
Window::).  If an existing visible or iconified ("minimized") frame
already displays the requested material, these commands use the
existing frame, after raising or deiconifying ("un-minimizing") as

   The various `C-x 5' commands differ in how they find or create the
buffer to select:

`C-x 5 2'
     Create a new frame (`make-frame-command').

`C-x 5 b BUFNAME <RET>'
     Select buffer BUFNAME in another frame.  This runs

`C-x 5 f FILENAME <RET>'
     Visit file FILENAME and select its buffer in another frame.  This
     runs `find-file-other-frame'.  *Note Visiting::.

     Select a Dired buffer for directory DIRECTORY in another frame.
     This runs `dired-other-frame'.  *Note Dired::.

`C-x 5 m'
     Start composing a mail message in another frame.  This runs
     `mail-other-frame'.  It is the other-frame variant of `C-x m'.
     *Note Sending Mail::.

`C-x 5 .'
     Find a tag in the current tag table in another frame.  This runs
     `find-tag-other-frame', the multiple-frame variant of `M-.'.
     *Note Tags::.

`C-x 5 r FILENAME <RET>'
     Visit file FILENAME read-only, and select its buffer in another
     frame.  This runs `find-file-read-only-other-frame'.  *Note

   You can control the appearance of new frames you create by setting
the frame parameters in `default-frame-alist'.  You can use the
variable `initial-frame-alist' to specify parameters that affect only
the initial frame.  *Note Initial Parameters: (elisp)Initial
Parameters, for more information.

   For instance, one way to specify the principal font for all your
Emacs frames is to modify `default-frame-alist' to specify the `font'
parameter (*note Font X::):

     (add-to-list 'default-frame-alist '(font . "10x20"))

Here's a similar example for specifying a foreground color:

     (add-to-list 'default-frame-alist '(foreground-color . "blue"))

By putting such customizations in your init file, you can control the
appearance of all the frames Emacs creates, including the initial one.
*Note Init File::.

File: emacs,  Node: Frame Commands,  Next: Speedbar,  Prev: Creating Frames,  Up: Frames

25.6 Frame Commands

The following commands let you create, delete and operate on frames:

     Iconify ("minimize") the selected Emacs frame
     (`iconify-or-deiconify-frame').  *Note Exiting::.

`C-x 5 0'
     Delete the selected frame (`delete-frame').  This is not allowed
     if there is only one frame.

`C-x 5 o'
     Select another frame, raise it, and warp the mouse to it.  If you
     repeat this command, it cycles through all the frames on your

`C-x 5 1'
     Delete all frames except the selected one.

   To make the command `C-x 5 o' work properly, you should tell Emacs
how the system (or the window manager) handles focus-switching between
windows.  There are two possibilities: either simply moving the mouse
onto a window selects it (gives it focus), or you have to click on it
to do so.  On X, this focus policy also affects whether the focus is
given to a frame that Emacs raises.  Unfortunately there is no way
Emacs can find out automatically which way the system handles this, so
you have to explicitly say, by setting the variable
`focus-follows-mouse'.  If just moving the mouse onto a window selects
it, that variable should be `t'; if a click is necessary, the variable
should be `nil'.  The default is `t'.

   The window manager that is part of MS-Windows always gives focus to
a frame that raises, so this variable has no effect in the native
MS-Windows build of Emacs.

File: emacs,  Node: Speedbar,  Next: Multiple Displays,  Prev: Frame Commands,  Up: Frames

25.7 Speedbar Frames

The "speedbar" is a special frame for conveniently navigating in or
operating on another frame.  The speedbar, when it exists, is always
associated with a specific frame, called its "attached frame"; all
speedbar operations act on that frame.

   Type `M-x speedbar' to create the speedbar and associate it with the
current frame.  To dismiss the speedbar, type `M-x speedbar' again, or
select the speedbar and type `q'.  (You can also delete the speedbar
frame like any other Emacs frame.)  If you wish to associate the
speedbar with a different frame, dismiss it and call `M-x speedbar'
from that frame.

   The speedbar can operate in various modes.  Its default mode is
"File Display" mode, which shows the files in the current directory of
the selected window of the attached frame, one file per line.  Clicking
on a file name visits that file in the selected window of the attached
frame, and clicking on a directory name shows that directory in the
speedbar (*note Mouse References::).  Each line also has a box, `[+]'
or `<+>', that you can click on to "expand" the contents of that item.
Expanding a directory adds the contents of that directory to the
speedbar display, underneath the directory's own line.  Expanding an
ordinary file adds a list of the tags in that file to the speedbar
display; you can click on a tag name to jump to that tag in the
selected window of the attached frame.  When a file or directory is
expanded, the `[+]' changes to `[-]'; you can click on that box to
"contract" the item, hiding its contents.

   You navigate through the speedbar using the keyboard, too.  Typing
`RET' while point is on a line in the speedbar is equivalent to
clicking the item on the current line, and `SPC' expands or contracts
the item.  `U' displays the parent directory of the current directory.
To copy, delete, or rename the file on the current line, type `C', `D',
and `R' respectively.  To create a new directory, type `M'.

   Another general-purpose speedbar mode is "Buffer Display" mode; in
this mode, the speedbar displays a list of Emacs buffers.  To switch to
this mode, type `b' in the speedbar.  To return to File Display mode,
type `f'.  You can also change the display mode by clicking `mouse-3'
anywhere in the speedbar window (or `mouse-1' on the mode-line) and
selecting `Displays' in the pop-up menu.

   Some major modes, including Rmail mode, Info, and GUD, have
specialized ways of putting useful items into the speedbar for you to
select.  For example, in Rmail mode, the speedbar shows a list of Rmail
files, and lets you move the current message to another Rmail file by
clicking on its `<M>' box.

   For more details on using and programming the speedbar, *Note
Speedbar: (speedbar)Top.

File: emacs,  Node: Multiple Displays,  Next: Special Buffer Frames,  Prev: Speedbar,  Up: Frames

25.8 Multiple Displays

A single Emacs can talk to more than one X display.  Initially, Emacs
uses just one display--the one specified with the `DISPLAY' environment
variable or with the `--display' option (*note Initial Options::).  To
connect to another display, use the command `make-frame-on-display':

`M-x make-frame-on-display <RET> DISPLAY <RET>'
     Create a new frame on display DISPLAY.

   A single X server can handle more than one screen.  When you open
frames on two screens belonging to one server, Emacs knows they share a
single keyboard, and it treats all the commands arriving from these
screens as a single stream of input.

   When you open frames on different X servers, Emacs makes a separate
input stream for each server.  Each server also has its own selected
frame.  The commands you enter with a particular X server apply to that
server's selected frame.

   It is even possible to use this feature to let two or more users
type simultaneously on the two displays, within the same Emacs job.  In
practice, however, the different users can easily interfere with each
others' edits if they are not careful.

File: emacs,  Node: Special Buffer Frames,  Next: Frame Parameters,  Prev: Multiple Displays,  Up: Frames

25.9 Special Buffer Frames

You can make certain chosen buffers, which Emacs normally displays in
"another window," appear in special frames of their own.  To do this,
set the variable `special-display-buffer-names' to a list of buffer
names; any buffer whose name is in that list automatically gets a
special frame, when an Emacs command wants to display it "in another

   For example, if you set the variable this way,

     (setq special-display-buffer-names
           '("*Completions*" "*grep*" "*tex-shell*"))

then completion lists, `grep' output and the TeX mode shell buffer get
individual frames of their own.  These frames, and the windows in them,
are never automatically split or reused for any other buffers.  They
continue to show the buffers they were created for, unless you alter
them by hand.  Killing the special buffer deletes its frame

   More generally, you can set `special-display-regexps' to a list of
regular expressions; then a buffer gets its own frame if its name
matches any of those regular expressions.  (Once again, this applies
only to buffers that normally get displayed for you in "another

   The variable `special-display-frame-alist' specifies the frame
parameters for these frames.  It has a default value, so you don't need
to set it.

   For those who know Lisp, an element of
`special-display-buffer-names' or `special-display-regexps' can also be
a list.  Then the first element is the buffer name or regular
expression; the rest of the list specifies how to create the frame.  It
can be an association list specifying frame parameter values; these
values take precedence over parameter values specified in
`special-display-frame-alist'.  If you specify the symbol `same-window'
as a "frame parameter" in this list, with a non-`nil' value, that means
to use the selected window if possible.  If you use the symbol
`same-frame' as a "frame parameter" in this list, with a non-`nil'
value, that means to use the selected frame if possible.

   Alternatively, the value can have this form:


where FUNCTION is a symbol.  Then the frame is constructed by calling
FUNCTION; its first argument is the buffer, and its remaining arguments
are ARGS.

   An analogous feature lets you specify buffers which should be
displayed in the selected window.  *Note Force Same Window::.  The
same-window feature takes precedence over the special-frame feature;
therefore, if you add a buffer name to `special-display-buffer-names'
and it has no effect, check to see whether that feature is also in use
for the same buffer name.

File: emacs,  Node: Frame Parameters,  Next: Scroll Bars,  Prev: Special Buffer Frames,  Up: Frames

25.10 Setting Frame Parameters

These commands are available for controlling the window management
behavior of the selected frame:

`M-x auto-raise-mode'
     Toggle whether or not the selected frame should auto-raise.
     Auto-raise means that every time you move the mouse onto the
     frame, it raises the frame.

     Some window managers also implement auto-raise.  If you enable
     auto-raise for Emacs frames in your window manager, it will work,
     but it is beyond Emacs' control, so `auto-raise-mode' has no effect
     on it.

`M-x auto-lower-mode'
     Toggle whether or not the selected frame should auto-lower.
     Auto-lower means that every time you move the mouse off the frame,
     the frame moves to the bottom of the stack on the screen.

     The command `auto-lower-mode' has no effect on auto-lower
     implemented by the window manager.  To control that, you must use
     the appropriate window manager features.

   In Emacs versions that use an X toolkit, the color-setting and
font-setting functions don't affect menus and the menu bar, since they
are displayed by their own widget classes.  To change the appearance of
the menus and menu bar, you must use X resources (*note Resources::).
*Note Colors::, regarding colors.  *Note Font X::, regarding choice of

   Colors, fonts, and other attributes of the frame's display can also
be customized by setting frame parameters in the variable
`default-frame-alist' (*note Creating Frames::).  For a detailed
description of frame parameters and customization, see *note Frame
Parameters: (elisp)Frame Parameters.

File: emacs,  Node: Scroll Bars,  Next: Wheeled Mice,  Prev: Frame Parameters,  Up: Frames

25.11 Scroll Bars

On graphical displays, Emacs normally makes a "scroll bar" at the left
of each Emacs window, running the height of the window.(1)

   When Emacs is compiled with GTK+ support on the X window system, or
in operating systems such as Microsoft Windows or Mac OS, you can use
the scroll bar as you do in other graphical applications.  If you click
`Mouse-1' on the scroll bar's up and down buttons, that scrolls the
window by one line at a time.  Clicking `Mouse-1' above or below the
scroll bar's inner box scrolls the window by nearly the entire height
of the window, like `M-v' and `C-v' respectively (*note Moving
Point::).  Dragging the inner box with `Mouse-1' scrolls the window

   If Emacs is compiled without GTK+ support on the X window system,
the scroll bar behaves differently.  The scroll bar's inner box is
drawn to represent the portion of the buffer currently displayed, with
the entire height of the scroll bar representing the entire length of
the buffer.  `Mouse-1' anywhere on the scroll bar scrolls forward like
`C-v', and `Mouse-3' scrolls backward like `M-v'.  Clicking `Mouse-2'
in the scroll bar lets you move or drag the inner box up and down.

   You can also click `C-Mouse-2' in the scroll bar to split a window
vertically.  The split occurs on the line where you click.

   You can toggle the use of the scroll bar with the command `M-x
scroll-bar-mode'.  With a prefix argument, this command turns use of
scroll bars on if and only if the argument is positive.  This command
applies to all frames, including frames yet to be created.  Customize
the variable `scroll-bar-mode' to control the use of scroll bars at
startup.  You can use it to specify that they are placed at the right
of windows if you prefer that.  You have to set this variable through
the `Customize' interface (*note Easy Customization::), or it will not
work properly.  You can also use the X resource `verticalScrollBars' to
control the initial setting of Scroll Bar mode.  *Note Resources::.

   To enable or disable scroll bars for just the selected frame, use the
command `M-x toggle-scroll-bar'.

   You can control the scroll bar width by changing the value of the
`scroll-bar-width' frame parameter.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Placing it at the left is usually more useful with overlapping
frames with text starting at the left margin.

File: emacs,  Node: Wheeled Mice,  Next: Drag and Drop,  Prev: Scroll Bars,  Up: Frames

25.12 Scrolling With "Wheeled" Mice

Some mice have a "wheel" instead of a third button.  You can usually
click the wheel to act as either `Mouse-2' or `Mouse-3', depending on
the setup.  You can also use the wheel to scroll windows instead of
using the scroll bar or keyboard commands.  Mouse wheel support only
works if the system generates appropriate events; whenever possible, it
is turned on by default.  To toggle this feature, use `M-x

   The two variables `mouse-wheel-follow-mouse' and
`mouse-wheel-scroll-amount' determine where and by how much buffers are
scrolled.  The variable `mouse-wheel-progressive-speed' determines
whether the scroll speed is linked to how fast you move the wheel.

File: emacs,  Node: Drag and Drop,  Next: Menu Bars,  Prev: Wheeled Mice,  Up: Frames

25.13 Drag and Drop

Emacs supports "drag and drop" using the mouse.  For instance, dropping
text onto an Emacs frame inserts the text where it is dropped.
Dropping a file onto an Emacs frame visits that file.  As a special
case, dropping the file on a Dired buffer moves or copies the file
(according to the conventions of the application it came from) into the
directory displayed in that buffer.

   Dropping a file normally visits it in the window you drop it on.  If
you prefer to visit the file in a new window in such cases, customize
the variable `dnd-open-file-other-window'.

   The XDND and Motif drag and drop protocols, and the old KDE 1.x
protocol, are currently supported.

File: emacs,  Node: Menu Bars,  Next: Tool Bars,  Prev: Drag and Drop,  Up: Frames

25.14 Menu Bars

You can turn display of menu bars on or off with `M-x menu-bar-mode' or
by customizing the variable `menu-bar-mode'.  With no argument, this
command toggles Menu Bar mode, a minor mode.  With an argument, the
command turns Menu Bar mode on if the argument is positive, off if the
argument is not positive.  You can use the X resource `menuBarLines' to
control the initial setting of Menu Bar mode.  *Note Resources::.

   Expert users often turn off the menu bar, especially on text-only
terminals, where this makes one additional line available for text.  If
the menu bar is off, you can still pop up a menu of its contents with
`C-Mouse-3' on a display which supports pop-up menus.  *Note Menu Mouse

   *Note Menu Bar::, for information on how to invoke commands with the
menu bar.  *Note X Resources::, for how to customize the menu bar
menus' visual appearance.

File: emacs,  Node: Tool Bars,  Next: Dialog Boxes,  Prev: Menu Bars,  Up: Frames

25.15 Tool Bars

The "tool bar" is a line (or lines) of icons at the top of the Emacs
window, just below the menu bar.  You can click on these icons with the
mouse to do various jobs.

   The global tool bar contains general commands.  Some major modes
define their own tool bars to replace it.  A few "special" modes that
are not designed for ordinary editing remove some items from the global
tool bar.

   Tool bars work only on a graphical display.  The tool bar uses
colored XPM icons if Emacs was built with XPM support.  Otherwise, the
tool bar uses monochrome icons (PBM or XBM format).

   You can turn display of tool bars on or off with `M-x tool-bar-mode'
or by customizing the option `tool-bar-mode'.

File: emacs,  Node: Dialog Boxes,  Next: Tooltips,  Prev: Tool Bars,  Up: Frames

25.16 Using Dialog Boxes

A dialog box is a special kind of menu for asking you a yes-or-no
question or some other special question.  Many Emacs commands use a
dialog box to ask a yes-or-no question, if you used the mouse to invoke
the command that led to the question.

   To disable the use of dialog boxes, change the variable
`use-dialog-box' to `nil'.  In that case, Emacs always performs
yes-or-no prompts using the echo area and keyboard input.  This
variable also controls whether to use file selection windows (but those
are not supported on all platforms).

   A file selection window is a special kind of dialog box for asking
for file names.  You can customize the variable `use-file-dialog' to
suppress the use of file selection windows, even if you still want
other kinds of dialogs.  This variable has no effect if you have
suppressed all dialog boxes with the variable `use-dialog-box'.

   When Emacs is compiled with GTK+ support, it uses the GTK+ "file
chooser" dialog.  Emacs adds an additional toggle button to this
dialog, which you can use to enable or disable the display of hidden
files (files starting with a dot) in that dialog.  If you want this
toggle to be activated by default, change the variable
`x-gtk-show-hidden-files' to `t'.  In addition, Emacs adds help text to
the GTK+ file chooser dialog; to disable this help text, change the
variable `x-gtk-file-dialog-help-text' to `nil'.

   In GTK+ versions 2.4 through 2.10, you can choose to use an older
version of the GTK+ file dialog by setting the variable
`x-gtk-use-old-file-dialog' to a non-`nil' value.  If Emacs is built
with a GTK+ version that has only one file dialog, this variable has no

File: emacs,  Node: Tooltips,  Next: Mouse Avoidance,  Prev: Dialog Boxes,  Up: Frames

25.17 Tooltips

"Tooltips" are small windows that display text information at the
current mouse position.  They activate when there is a pause in mouse
movement.  There are two types of tooltip: help tooltips and GUD

   "Help tooltips" typically display over text--including the mode
line--but are also available for other parts of the Emacs frame, such
as the tool bar and menu items.

   You can toggle display of help tooltips (Tooltip mode) with the
command `M-x tooltip-mode'.  When Tooltip mode is disabled, the help
text is displayed in the echo area instead.

   "GUD tooltips" show values of variables.  They are useful when you
are debugging a program.  *Note Debugger Operation::.

   The variables `tooltip-delay' specifies how long Emacs should wait
before displaying a tooltip.  For additional customization options for
displaying tooltips, use `M-x customize-group <RET> tooltip <RET>'.
*Note X Resources::, for information on customizing the windows that
display tooltips.

File: emacs,  Node: Mouse Avoidance,  Next: Non-Window Terminals,  Prev: Tooltips,  Up: Frames

25.18 Mouse Avoidance

Mouse Avoidance mode keeps the mouse pointer away from point, to avoid
obscuring text you want to edit.  Whenever it moves the mouse, it also
raises the frame.  To use Mouse Avoidance mode, customize the variable
`mouse-avoidance-mode'.  You can set this to various values to move the
mouse in several ways:

     Move the mouse to the upper-right corner on any key-press;

     Move the mouse to the corner only if the cursor gets too close,
     and allow it to return once the cursor is out of the way;

     If the cursor gets too close to the mouse, displace the mouse a
     random distance & direction;

     As `jump', but shows steps along the way for illusion of motion;

     The same as `animate';

     As `animate', but changes the shape of the mouse pointer too.

   You can also use the command `M-x mouse-avoidance-mode' to enable
the mode.

File: emacs,  Node: Non-Window Terminals,  Next: Text-Only Mouse,  Prev: Mouse Avoidance,  Up: Frames

25.19 Non-Window Terminals

On a text-only terminal, Emacs can display only one Emacs frame at a
time.  However, you can still create multiple Emacs frames, and switch
between them.  Switching frames on these terminals is much like
switching between different window configurations.

   Use `C-x 5 2' to create a new frame and switch to it; use `C-x 5 o'
to cycle through the existing frames; use `C-x 5 0' to delete the
current frame.

   Each frame has a number to distinguish it.  If your terminal can
display only one frame at a time, the selected frame's number N appears
near the beginning of the mode line, in the form `FN'.

   `FN' is in fact the frame's initial name.  You can give frames more
meaningful names if you wish, and you can select a frame by its name.
Use the command `M-x set-frame-name <RET> NAME <RET>' to specify a new
name for the selected frame, and use `M-x select-frame-by-name <RET>
NAME <RET>' to select a frame according to its name.  The name you
specify appears in the mode line when the frame is selected.

File: emacs,  Node: Text-Only Mouse,  Prev: Non-Window Terminals,  Up: Frames

25.20 Using a Mouse in Terminal Emulators

Some text-only terminals support mouse clicks in the terminal window.

   In a terminal emulator which is compatible with `xterm', you can use
`M-x xterm-mouse-mode' to give Emacs control over simple use of the
mouse--basically, only non-modified single clicks are supported.  The
normal `xterm' mouse functionality for such clicks is still available
by holding down the `SHIFT' key when you press the mouse button.  Xterm
Mouse mode is a global minor mode (*note Minor Modes::).  Repeating the
command turns the mode off again.

   In the console on GNU/Linux, you can use `M-x gpm-mouse-mode' to
enable terminal mouse support.  You must have the gpm package installed
and running on your system in order for this to work.

File: emacs,  Node: International,  Next: Major Modes,  Prev: Frames,  Up: Top

26 International Character Set Support

Emacs supports a wide variety of international character sets,
including European and Vietnamese variants of the Latin alphabet, as
well as Cyrillic, Devanagari (for Hindi and Marathi), Ethiopic, Greek,
Han (for Chinese and Japanese), Hangul (for Korean), Hebrew, IPA,
Kannada, Lao, Malayalam, Tamil, Thai, Tibetan, and Vietnamese scripts.
Emacs also supports various encodings of these characters used by other
internationalized software, such as word processors and mailers.

   Emacs allows editing text with international characters by supporting
all the related activities:

   * You can visit files with non-ASCII characters, save non-ASCII
     text, and pass non-ASCII text between Emacs and programs it
     invokes (such as compilers, spell-checkers, and mailers).  Setting
     your language environment (*note Language Environments::) takes
     care of setting up the coding systems and other options for a
     specific language or culture.  Alternatively, you can specify how
     Emacs should encode or decode text for each command; see *note
     Text Coding::.

   * You can display non-ASCII characters encoded by the various
     scripts.  This works by using appropriate fonts on graphics
     displays (*note Defining Fontsets::), and by sending special codes
     to text-only displays (*note Terminal Coding::).  If some
     characters are displayed incorrectly, refer to *note Undisplayable
     Characters::, which describes possible problems and explains how
     to solve them.

   * You can insert non-ASCII characters or search for them.  To do
     that, you can specify an input method (*note Select Input
     Method::) suitable for your language, or use the default input
     method set up when you set your language environment.  If your
     keyboard can produce non-ASCII characters, you can select an
     appropriate keyboard coding system (*note Terminal Coding::), and
     Emacs will accept those characters.  Latin-1 characters can also
     be input by using the `C-x 8' prefix, see *note Unibyte Mode::.

     On X Window systems, your locale should be set to an appropriate
     value to make sure Emacs interprets keyboard input correctly; see
     *note locales: Language Environments.

   The rest of this chapter describes these issues in detail.

* Menu:

* International Chars::     Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
* Enabling Multibyte::      Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Language Environments::   Setting things up for the language you use.
* Input Methods::           Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
* Select Input Method::     Specifying your choice of input methods.
* Coding Systems::          Character set conversion when you read and
                              write files, and so on.
* Recognize Coding::        How Emacs figures out which conversion to use.
* Specify Coding::          Specifying a file's coding system explicitly.
* Output Coding::           Choosing coding systems for output.
* Text Coding::             Choosing conversion to use for file text.
* Communication Coding::    Coding systems for interprocess communication.
* File Name Coding::        Coding systems for file _names_.
* Terminal Coding::         Specifying coding systems for converting
                              terminal input and output.
* Fontsets::                Fontsets are collections of fonts
                              that cover the whole spectrum of characters.
* Defining Fontsets::       Defining a new fontset.
* Modifying Fontsets::      Modifying an existing fontset.
* Undisplayable Characters:: When characters don't display.
* Unibyte Mode::            You can pick one European character set
                              to use without multibyte characters.
* Charsets::                How Emacs groups its internal character codes.

File: emacs,  Node: International Chars,  Next: Enabling Multibyte,  Up: International

26.1 Introduction to International Character Sets

The users of international character sets and scripts have established
many more-or-less standard coding systems for storing files.  These
coding systems are typically "multibyte", meaning that sequences of two
or more bytes are used to represent individual non-ASCII characters.

   Internally, Emacs uses its own multibyte character encoding, which
is a superset of the "Unicode" standard.  This internal encoding allows
characters from almost every known script to be intermixed in a single
buffer or string.  Emacs translates between the multibyte character
encoding and various other coding systems when reading and writing
files, and when exchanging data with subprocesses.

   The command `C-h h' (`view-hello-file') displays the file
`etc/HELLO', which shows how to say "hello" in many languages.  This
illustrates various scripts.  If some characters can't be displayed on
your terminal, they appear as `?' or as hollow boxes (*note
Undisplayable Characters::).

   Keyboards, even in the countries where these character sets are
used, generally don't have keys for all the characters in them.  You
can insert characters that your keyboard does not support, using `C-q'
(`quoted-insert') or `C-x 8 <RET>' (`ucs-insert').  *Note Inserting
Text::.  Emacs also supports various "input methods", typically one for
each script or language, which make it easier to type characters in the
script.  *Note Input Methods::.

   The prefix key `C-x <RET>' is used for commands that pertain to
multibyte characters, coding systems, and input methods.

   The command `C-x =' (`what-cursor-position') shows information about
the character at point.  In addition to the character position, which
was described in *note Position Info::, this command displays how the
character is encoded.  For instance, it displays the following line in
the echo area for the character `c':

     Char: c (99, #o143, #x63) point=28062 of 36168 (78%) column=53

   The four values after `Char:' describe the character that follows
point, first by showing it and then by giving its character code in
decimal, octal and hex.  For a non-ASCII multibyte character, these are
followed by `file' and the character's representation, in hex, in the
buffer's coding system, if that coding system encodes the character
safely and with a single byte (*note Coding Systems::).  If the
character's encoding is longer than one byte, Emacs shows `file ...'.

   As a special case, if the character lies in the range 128 (0200
octal) through 159 (0237 octal), it stands for a "raw" byte that does
not correspond to any specific displayable character.  Such a
"character" lies within the `eight-bit-control' character set, and is
displayed as an escaped octal character code.  In this case, `C-x ='
shows `part of display ...' instead of `file'.

   With a prefix argument (`C-u C-x ='), this command displays a
detailed description of the character in a window:

   * The character set name, and the codes that identify the character
     within that character set; ASCII characters are identified as
     belonging to the `ascii' character set.

   * The character's syntax and categories.

   * The character's encodings, both internally in the buffer, and
     externally if you were to save the file.

   * What keys to type to input the character in the current input
     method (if it supports the character).

   * If you are running Emacs on a graphical display, the font name and
     glyph code for the character.  If you are running Emacs on a
     text-only terminal, the code(s) sent to the terminal.

   * The character's text properties (*note Text Properties:
     (elisp)Text Properties.), including any non-default faces used to
     display the character, and any overlays containing it (*note
     Overlays: (elisp)Overlays.).

   Here's an example showing the Latin-1 character A with grave accent,
in a buffer whose coding system is `utf-8-unix':

             character: A` (192, #o300, #xc0)
     preferred charset: unicode (Unicode (ISO10646))
            code point: 0xC0
                syntax: w 	which means: word
              category: j:Japanese l:Latin v:Vietnamese
           buffer code: #xC3 #x80
             file code: not encodable by coding system undecided-unix
               display: by this font (glyph code)
         xft:-unknown-DejaVu Sans Mono-normal-normal-normal-*-13-*-*-*-m-0-iso10646-1 (#x82)

     Character code properties: customize what to show
       general-category: Lu (Letter, Uppercase)
       decomposition: (65 768) ('A' '̀')

     There are text properties here:
       auto-composed        t

File: emacs,  Node: Enabling Multibyte,  Next: Language Environments,  Prev: International Chars,  Up: International

26.2 Enabling Multibyte Characters

By default, Emacs starts in multibyte mode: it stores the contents of
buffers and strings using an internal encoding that represents
non-ASCII characters using multi-byte sequences.  Multibyte mode allows
you to use all the supported languages and scripts without limitations.

   Under very special circumstances, you may want to disable multibyte
character support, either for Emacs as a whole, or for a single buffer.
When multibyte characters are disabled in a buffer, we call that
"unibyte mode".  In unibyte mode, each character in the buffer has a
character code ranging from 0 through 255 (0377 octal); 0 through 127
(0177 octal) represent ASCII characters, and 128 (0200 octal) through
255 (0377 octal) represent non-ASCII characters.

   To edit a particular file in unibyte representation, visit it using
`find-file-literally'.  *Note Visiting::.  You can convert a multibyte
buffer to unibyte by saving it to a file, killing the buffer, and
visiting the file again with `find-file-literally'.  Alternatively, you
can use `C-x <RET> c' (`universal-coding-system-argument') and specify
`raw-text' as the coding system with which to visit or save a file.
*Note Text Coding::.  Unlike `find-file-literally', finding a file as
`raw-text' doesn't disable format conversion, uncompression, or auto
mode selection.

   To turn off multibyte character support by default, start Emacs with
the `--unibyte' option (*note Initial Options::), or set the
environment variable `EMACS_UNIBYTE'.  You can also customize
`enable-multibyte-characters' or, equivalently, directly set the
variable `default-enable-multibyte-characters' to `nil' in your init
file to have basically the same effect as `--unibyte'.  With
`--unibyte', multibyte strings are not created during initialization
from the values of environment variables, `/etc/passwd' entries etc.,
even if those contain non-ASCII characters.

   Emacs normally loads Lisp files as multibyte, regardless of whether
you used `--unibyte'.  This includes the Emacs initialization file,
`.emacs', and the initialization files of Emacs packages such as Gnus.
However, you can specify unibyte loading for a particular Lisp file, by
putting `-*-unibyte: t;-*-' in a comment on the first line (*note File
Variables::).  Then that file is always loaded as unibyte text.  The
motivation for these conventions is that it is more reliable to always
load any particular Lisp file in the same way.  However, you can load a
Lisp file as unibyte, on any one occasion, by typing `C-x <RET> c
raw-text <RET>' immediately before loading it.

   The mode line indicates whether multibyte character support is
enabled in the current buffer.  If it is, there are two or more
characters (most often two dashes) near the beginning of the mode line,
before the indication of the visited file's end-of-line convention
(colon, backslash, etc.).  When multibyte characters are not enabled,
nothing precedes the colon except a single dash.  *Note Mode Line::,
for more details about this.

   To convert a unibyte session to a multibyte session, set
`default-enable-multibyte-characters' to `t'.  Buffers which were
created in the unibyte session before you turn on multibyte support
will stay unibyte.  You can turn on multibyte support in a specific
buffer by invoking the command `toggle-enable-multibyte-characters' in
that buffer.

File: emacs,  Node: Language Environments,  Next: Input Methods,  Prev: Enabling Multibyte,  Up: International

26.3 Language Environments

All supported character sets are supported in Emacs buffers whenever
multibyte characters are enabled; there is no need to select a
particular language in order to display its characters in an Emacs
buffer.  However, it is important to select a "language environment" in
order to set various defaults.  Roughly speaking, the language
environment represents a choice of preferred script rather than a
choice of language.

   The language environment controls which coding systems to recognize
when reading text (*note Recognize Coding::).  This applies to files,
incoming mail, and any other text you read into Emacs.  It may also
specify the default coding system to use when you create a file.  Each
language environment also specifies a default input method.

   To select a language environment, customize the variable
`current-language-environment' or use the command `M-x
set-language-environment'.  It makes no difference which buffer is
current when you use this command, because the effects apply globally
to the Emacs session.  The supported language environments include:

     ASCII, Belarusian, Bengali, Brazilian Portuguese, Bulgarian,
     Chinese-BIG5, Chinese-CNS, Chinese-EUC-TW, Chinese-GB, Chinese-GBK,
     Chinese-GB18030, Croatian, Cyrillic-ALT, Cyrillic-ISO,
     Cyrillic-KOI8, Czech, Devanagari, Dutch, English, Esperanto,
     Ethiopic, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, IPA,
     Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Khmer, Korean, Lao, Latin-1, Latin-2,
     Latin-3, Latin-4, Latin-5, Latin-6, Latin-7, Latin-8 (Celtic),
     Latin-9 (updated Latin-1 with the Euro sign), Latvian, Lithuanian,
     Malayalam, Oriya, Polish, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Sinhala,
     Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, TaiViet, Tajik, Tamil,
     Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, UTF-8 (for a setup which prefers
     Unicode characters and files encoded in UTF-8), Ukrainian,
     Vietnamese, Welsh, and Windows-1255 (for a setup which prefers
     Cyrillic characters and files encoded in Windows-1255).

   To display the script(s) used by your language environment on a
graphical display, you need to have a suitable font.  If some of the
characters appear as empty boxes, you should install the GNU Intlfonts
package, which includes fonts for most supported scripts.(1) *Note
Fontsets::, for more details about setting up your fonts.

   Some operating systems let you specify the character-set locale you
are using by setting the locale environment variables `LC_ALL',
`LC_CTYPE', or `LANG'.(2)  During startup, Emacs looks up your
character-set locale's name in the system locale alias table, matches
its canonical name against entries in the value of the variables
`locale-charset-language-names' and `locale-language-names', and
selects the corresponding language environment if a match is found.
(The former variable overrides the latter.)  It also adjusts the display
table and terminal coding system, the locale coding system, the
preferred coding system as needed for the locale, and--last but not
least--the way Emacs decodes non-ASCII characters sent by your keyboard.

   If you modify the `LC_ALL', `LC_CTYPE', or `LANG' environment
variables while running Emacs, you may want to invoke the
`set-locale-environment' function afterwards to readjust the language
environment from the new locale.

   The `set-locale-environment' function normally uses the preferred
coding system established by the language environment to decode system
messages.  But if your locale matches an entry in the variable
`locale-preferred-coding-systems', Emacs uses the corresponding coding
system instead.  For example, if the locale `ja_JP.PCK' matches
`japanese-shift-jis' in `locale-preferred-coding-systems', Emacs uses
that encoding even though it might normally use `japanese-iso-8bit'.

   You can override the language environment chosen at startup with
explicit use of the command `set-language-environment', or with
customization of `current-language-environment' in your init file.

   To display information about the effects of a certain language
environment LANG-ENV, use the command `C-h L LANG-ENV <RET>'
(`describe-language-environment').  This tells you which languages this
language environment is useful for, and lists the character sets,
coding systems, and input methods that go with it.  It also shows some
sample text to illustrate scripts used in this language environment.
If you give an empty input for LANG-ENV, this command describes the
chosen language environment.    You can customize any language
environment with the normal hook `set-language-environment-hook'.  The
command `set-language-environment' runs that hook after setting up the
new language environment.  The hook functions can test for a specific
language environment by checking the variable
`current-language-environment'.  This hook is where you should put
non-default settings for specific language environment, such as coding
systems for keyboard input and terminal output, the default input
method, etc.

   Before it starts to set up the new language environment,
`set-language-environment' first runs the hook
`exit-language-environment-hook'.  This hook is useful for undoing
customizations that were made with `set-language-environment-hook'.
For instance, if you set up a special key binding in a specific language
environment using `set-language-environment-hook', you should set up
`exit-language-environment-hook' to restore the normal binding for that

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) If you run Emacs on X, you need to inform the X server about the
location of the newly installed fonts with the following commands:

      xset fp+ /usr/local/share/emacs/fonts
      xset fp rehash

   (2) If more than one of these is set, the first one that is nonempty
specifies your locale for this purpose.

File: emacs,  Node: Input Methods,  Next: Select Input Method,  Prev: Language Environments,  Up: International

26.4 Input Methods

An "input method" is a kind of character conversion designed
specifically for interactive input.  In Emacs, typically each language
has its own input method; sometimes several languages which use the same
characters can share one input method.  A few languages support several
input methods.

   The simplest kind of input method works by mapping ASCII letters
into another alphabet; this allows you to use one other alphabet
instead of ASCII.  The Greek and Russian input methods work this way.

   A more powerful technique is composition: converting sequences of
characters into one letter.  Many European input methods use composition
to produce a single non-ASCII letter from a sequence that consists of a
letter followed by accent characters (or vice versa).  For example, some
methods convert the sequence `a'' into a single accented letter.  These
input methods have no special commands of their own; all they do is
compose sequences of printing characters.

   The input methods for syllabic scripts typically use mapping followed
by composition.  The input methods for Thai and Korean work this way.
First, letters are mapped into symbols for particular sounds or tone
marks; then, sequences of these which make up a whole syllable are
mapped into one syllable sign.

   Chinese and Japanese require more complex methods.  In Chinese input
methods, first you enter the phonetic spelling of a Chinese word (in
input method `chinese-py', among others), or a sequence of portions of
the character (input methods `chinese-4corner' and `chinese-sw', and
others).  One input sequence typically corresponds to many possible
Chinese characters.  You select the one you mean using keys such as
`C-f', `C-b', `C-n', `C-p', and digits, which have special meanings in
this situation.

   The possible characters are conceptually arranged in several rows,
with each row holding up to 10 alternatives.  Normally, Emacs displays
just one row at a time, in the echo area; `(I/J)' appears at the
beginning, to indicate that this is the Ith row out of a total of J
rows.  Type `C-n' or `C-p' to display the next row or the previous row.

   Type `C-f' and `C-b' to move forward and backward among the
alternatives in the current row.  As you do this, Emacs highlights the
current alternative with a special color; type `C-<SPC>' to select the
current alternative and use it as input.  The alternatives in the row
are also numbered; the number appears before the alternative.  Typing a
digit N selects the Nth alternative of the current row and uses it as

   <TAB> in these Chinese input methods displays a buffer showing all
the possible characters at once; then clicking `Mouse-2' on one of them
selects that alternative.  The keys `C-f', `C-b', `C-n', `C-p', and
digits continue to work as usual, but they do the highlighting in the
buffer showing the possible characters, rather than in the echo area.

   In Japanese input methods, first you input a whole word using
phonetic spelling; then, after the word is in the buffer, Emacs
converts it into one or more characters using a large dictionary.  One
phonetic spelling corresponds to a number of different Japanese words;
to select one of them, use `C-n' and `C-p' to cycle through the

   Sometimes it is useful to cut off input method processing so that the
characters you have just entered will not combine with subsequent
characters.  For example, in input method `latin-1-postfix', the
sequence `e '' combines to form an `e' with an accent.  What if you
want to enter them as separate characters?

   One way is to type the accent twice; this is a special feature for
entering the separate letter and accent.  For example, `e ' '' gives
you the two characters `e''.  Another way is to type another letter
after the `e'--something that won't combine with that--and immediately
delete it.  For example, you could type `e e <DEL> '' to get separate
`e' and `''.

   Another method, more general but not quite as easy to type, is to use
`C-\ C-\' between two characters to stop them from combining.  This is
the command `C-\' (`toggle-input-method') used twice.  *Note Select
Input Method::.

   `C-\ C-\' is especially useful inside an incremental search, because
it stops waiting for more characters to combine, and starts searching
for what you have already entered.

   To find out how to input the character after point using the current
input method, type `C-u C-x ='.  *Note Position Info::.

   The variables `input-method-highlight-flag' and
`input-method-verbose-flag' control how input methods explain what is
happening.  If `input-method-highlight-flag' is non-`nil', the partial
sequence is highlighted in the buffer (for most input methods--some
disable this feature).  If `input-method-verbose-flag' is non-`nil',
the list of possible characters to type next is displayed in the echo
area (but not when you are in the minibuffer).

File: emacs,  Node: Select Input Method,  Next: Coding Systems,  Prev: Input Methods,  Up: International

26.5 Selecting an Input Method

     Enable or disable use of the selected input method.

`C-x <RET> C-\ METHOD <RET>'
     Select a new input method for the current buffer.

`C-h C-\ METHOD <RET>'
     Describe the input method METHOD (`describe-input-method').  By
     default, it describes the current input method (if any).  This
     description should give you the full details of how to use any
     particular input method.

`M-x list-input-methods'
     Display a list of all the supported input methods.

   To choose an input method for the current buffer, use `C-x <RET>
C-\' (`set-input-method').  This command reads the input method name
from the minibuffer; the name normally starts with the language
environment that it is meant to be used with.  The variable
`current-input-method' records which input method is selected.

   Input methods use various sequences of ASCII characters to stand for
non-ASCII characters.  Sometimes it is useful to turn off the input
method temporarily.  To do this, type `C-\' (`toggle-input-method').
To reenable the input method, type `C-\' again.

   If you type `C-\' and you have not yet selected an input method, it
prompts for you to specify one.  This has the same effect as using `C-x
<RET> C-\' to specify an input method.

   When invoked with a numeric argument, as in `C-u C-\',
`toggle-input-method' always prompts you for an input method,
suggesting the most recently selected one as the default.

   Selecting a language environment specifies a default input method for
use in various buffers.  When you have a default input method, you can
select it in the current buffer by typing `C-\'.  The variable
`default-input-method' specifies the default input method (`nil' means
there is none).

   In some language environments, which support several different input
methods, you might want to use an input method different from the
default chosen by `set-language-environment'.  You can instruct Emacs
to select a different default input method for a certain language
environment, if you wish, by using `set-language-environment-hook'
(*note set-language-environment-hook: Language Environments.).  For

     (defun my-chinese-setup ()
       "Set up my private Chinese environment."
       (if (equal current-language-environment "Chinese-GB")
           (setq default-input-method "chinese-tonepy")))
     (add-hook 'set-language-environment-hook 'my-chinese-setup)

This sets the default input method to be `chinese-tonepy' whenever you
choose a Chinese-GB language environment.

   You can instruct Emacs to activate a certain input method
automatically.  For example:

     (add-hook 'text-mode-hook
       (lambda () (set-input-method "german-prefix")))

This activates the input method "german-prefix" automatically in the
Text mode.

   Some input methods for alphabetic scripts work by (in effect)
remapping the keyboard to emulate various keyboard layouts commonly used
for those scripts.  How to do this remapping properly depends on your
actual keyboard layout.  To specify which layout your keyboard has, use
the command `M-x quail-set-keyboard-layout'.

   You can use the command `M-x quail-show-key' to show what key (or
key sequence) to type in order to input the character following point,
using the selected keyboard layout.  The command `C-u C-x =' also shows
that information in addition to the other information about the

   To see a list of all the supported input methods, type `M-x
list-input-methods'.  The list gives information about each input
method, including the string that stands for it in the mode line.

File: emacs,  Node: Coding Systems,  Next: Recognize Coding,  Prev: Select Input Method,  Up: International

26.6 Coding Systems

Users of various languages have established many more-or-less standard
coding systems for representing them.  Emacs does not use these coding
systems internally; instead, it converts from various coding systems to
its own system when reading data, and converts the internal coding
system to other coding systems when writing data.  Conversion is
possible in reading or writing files, in sending or receiving from the
terminal, and in exchanging data with subprocesses.

   Emacs assigns a name to each coding system.  Most coding systems are
used for one language, and the name of the coding system starts with
the language name.  Some coding systems are used for several languages;
their names usually start with `iso'.  There are also special coding
systems, such as `no-conversion', `raw-text', and `emacs-internal'.

   A special class of coding systems, collectively known as
"codepages", is designed to support text encoded by MS-Windows and
MS-DOS software.  The names of these coding systems are `cpNNNN', where
NNNN is a 3- or 4-digit number of the codepage.  You can use these
encodings just like any other coding system; for example, to visit a
file encoded in codepage 850, type `C-x <RET> c cp850 <RET> C-x C-f

   In addition to converting various representations of non-ASCII
characters, a coding system can perform end-of-line conversion.  Emacs
handles three different conventions for how to separate lines in a file:
newline, carriage-return linefeed, and just carriage-return.

     Describe coding system CODING.

`C-h C <RET>'
     Describe the coding systems currently in use.

`M-x list-coding-systems'
     Display a list of all the supported coding systems.

   The command `C-h C' (`describe-coding-system') displays information
about particular coding systems, including the end-of-line conversion
specified by those coding systems.  You can specify a coding system
name as the argument; alternatively, with an empty argument, it
describes the coding systems currently selected for various purposes,
both in the current buffer and as the defaults, and the priority list
for recognizing coding systems (*note Recognize Coding::).

   To display a list of all the supported coding systems, type `M-x
list-coding-systems'.  The list gives information about each coding
system, including the letter that stands for it in the mode line (*note
Mode Line::).

   Each of the coding systems that appear in this list--except for
`no-conversion', which means no conversion of any kind--specifies how
and whether to convert printing characters, but leaves the choice of
end-of-line conversion to be decided based on the contents of each file.
For example, if the file appears to use the sequence carriage-return
linefeed to separate lines, DOS end-of-line conversion will be used.

   Each of the listed coding systems has three variants which specify
exactly what to do for end-of-line conversion:

     Don't do any end-of-line conversion; assume the file uses newline
     to separate lines.  (This is the convention normally used on Unix
     and GNU systems.)

     Assume the file uses carriage-return linefeed to separate lines,
     and do the appropriate conversion.  (This is the convention
     normally used on Microsoft systems.(1))

     Assume the file uses carriage-return to separate lines, and do the
     appropriate conversion.  (This is the convention normally used on
     the Macintosh system.)

   These variant coding systems are omitted from the
`list-coding-systems' display for brevity, since they are entirely
predictable.  For example, the coding system `iso-latin-1' has variants
`iso-latin-1-unix', `iso-latin-1-dos' and `iso-latin-1-mac'.

   The coding systems `unix', `dos', and `mac' are aliases for
`undecided-unix', `undecided-dos', and `undecided-mac', respectively.
These coding systems specify only the end-of-line conversion, and leave
the character code conversion to be deduced from the text itself.

   The coding system `raw-text' is good for a file which is mainly
ASCII text, but may contain byte values above 127 which are not meant
to encode non-ASCII characters.  With `raw-text', Emacs copies those
byte values unchanged, and sets `enable-multibyte-characters' to `nil'
in the current buffer so that they will be interpreted properly.
`raw-text' handles end-of-line conversion in the usual way, based on
the data encountered, and has the usual three variants to specify the
kind of end-of-line conversion to use.

   In contrast, the coding system `no-conversion' specifies no
character code conversion at all--none for non-ASCII byte values and
none for end of line.  This is useful for reading or writing binary
files, tar files, and other files that must be examined verbatim.  It,
too, sets `enable-multibyte-characters' to `nil'.

   The easiest way to edit a file with no conversion of any kind is with
the `M-x find-file-literally' command.  This uses `no-conversion', and
also suppresses other Emacs features that might convert the file
contents before you see them.  *Note Visiting::.

   The coding system `emacs-internal' (or `utf-8-emacs', which is
equivalent) means that the file contains non-ASCII characters stored
with the internal Emacs encoding.  This coding system handles
end-of-line conversion based on the data encountered, and has the usual
three variants to specify the kind of end-of-line conversion.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) It is also specified for MIME `text/*' bodies and in other
network transport contexts.  It is different from the SGML reference
syntax record-start/record-end format which Emacs doesn't support

File: emacs,  Node: Recognize Coding,  Next: Specify Coding,  Prev: Coding Systems,  Up: International

26.7 Recognizing Coding Systems

Whenever Emacs reads a given piece of text, it tries to recognize which
coding system to use.  This applies to files being read, output from
subprocesses, text from X selections, etc.  Emacs can select the right
coding system automatically most of the time--once you have specified
your preferences.

   Some coding systems can be recognized or distinguished by which byte
sequences appear in the data.  However, there are coding systems that
cannot be distinguished, not even potentially.  For example, there is no
way to distinguish between Latin-1 and Latin-2; they use the same byte
values with different meanings.

   Emacs handles this situation by means of a priority list of coding
systems.  Whenever Emacs reads a file, if you do not specify the coding
system to use, Emacs checks the data against each coding system,
starting with the first in priority and working down the list, until it
finds a coding system that fits the data.  Then it converts the file
contents assuming that they are represented in this coding system.

   The priority list of coding systems depends on the selected language
environment (*note Language Environments::).  For example, if you use
French, you probably want Emacs to prefer Latin-1 to Latin-2; if you use
Czech, you probably want Latin-2 to be preferred.  This is one of the
reasons to specify a language environment.

   However, you can alter the coding system priority list in detail
with the command `M-x prefer-coding-system'.  This command reads the
name of a coding system from the minibuffer, and adds it to the front
of the priority list, so that it is preferred to all others.  If you
use this command several times, each use adds one element to the front
of the priority list.

   If you use a coding system that specifies the end-of-line conversion
type, such as `iso-8859-1-dos', what this means is that Emacs should
attempt to recognize `iso-8859-1' with priority, and should use DOS
end-of-line conversion when it does recognize `iso-8859-1'.

   Sometimes a file name indicates which coding system to use for the
file.  The variable `file-coding-system-alist' specifies this
correspondence.  There is a special function
`modify-coding-system-alist' for adding elements to this list.  For
example, to read and write all `.txt' files using the coding system
`chinese-iso-8bit', you can execute this Lisp expression:

     (modify-coding-system-alist 'file "\\.txt\\'" 'chinese-iso-8bit)

The first argument should be `file', the second argument should be a
regular expression that determines which files this applies to, and the
third argument says which coding system to use for these files.

   Emacs recognizes which kind of end-of-line conversion to use based on
the contents of the file: if it sees only carriage-returns, or only
carriage-return linefeed sequences, then it chooses the end-of-line
conversion accordingly.  You can inhibit the automatic use of
end-of-line conversion by setting t