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   This file documents Ediff, a comprehensive visual interface to Unix
diff and patch utilities.

   Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003,
2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Introduction::                About Ediff.
* Major Entry Points::          How to use Ediff.
* Session Commands::            Ediff commands used within a session.
* Registry of Ediff Sessions::  Keeping track of multiple Ediff sessions.
* Session Groups::              Comparing and merging directories.
* Remote and Compressed Files::  You may want to know about this.
* Customization::               How to make Ediff work the way YOU want.
* Credits::                     Thanks to those who helped.
* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Index::

File: ediff,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Major Entry Points,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction

Ediff provides a convenient way for simultaneous browsing through the
differences between a pair (or a triple) of files or buffers (which are
called `variants' for our purposes).  The files being compared, file-A,
file-B, and file-C (if applicable) are shown in separate windows (side
by side, one above the another, or in separate frames), and the
differences are highlighted as you step through them.  You can also
copy difference regions from one buffer to another (and recover old
differences if you change your mind).

   Another powerful feature is the ability to merge a pair of files
into a third buffer.  Merging with an ancestor file is also supported.
Furthermore, Ediff is equipped with directory-level capabilities that
allow the user to conveniently launch browsing or merging sessions on
groups of files in two (or three) different directories.

   In addition, Ediff can apply a patch to a file and then let you step
through both files, the patched and the original one, simultaneously,
difference-by-difference.  You can even apply a patch right out of a
mail buffer, i.e., patches received by mail don't even have to be
saved.  Since Ediff lets you copy differences between variants, you
can, in effect, apply patches selectively (i.e., you can copy a
difference region from `file.orig' to `file', thereby undoing any
particular patch that you don't like).

   Ediff even understands multi-file patches and can apply them
interactively!  (Ediff can recognize multi-file patches only if they
are in the context format or GNU unified format.  All other patches are
treated as 1-file patches.  Ediff is [hopefully] using the same
algorithm as `patch' to determine which files need to be patched.)

   Ediff is aware of version control, which lets you compare files with
their older versions.  Ediff also works with remote and compressed
files, automatically ftp'ing them over and uncompressing them.  *Note
Remote and Compressed Files::, for details.

   This package builds upon ideas borrowed from Emerge, and several of
Ediff's functions are adaptations from Emerge.  Although Ediff subsumes
and greatly extends Emerge, much of the functionality in Ediff is
influenced by Emerge.  The architecture and the interface are, of
course, drastically different.

File: ediff,  Node: Major Entry Points,  Next: Session Commands,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Major Entry Points

When Ediff starts up, it displays a small control window, which accepts
the Ediff commands, and two or three windows displaying the files to be
compared or merged. The control window can be in its own small frame or
it can be part of a bigger frame that displays other buffers. In any
case, it is important that the control window be active (i.e., be the
one receiving the keystrokes) when you use Ediff. You can switch to
other Emacs buffers at will and even edit the files currently being
compared with Ediff and then switch back to Ediff at any time by
activating the appropriate Emacs windows.

   Ediff can be invoked interactively using the following functions,
which can be run either from the minibuffer or from the menu bar.  In
the menu bar, all Ediff's entry points belong to three submenus of the
Tools menu: Compare, Merge, and Apply Patch.

     Compare two files.

     Compare a file with its backup. If there are several numerical
     backups, use the latest. If the file is itself a backup, then
     compare it with its original.

     Compare two buffers.

     Compare three files.

     Compare three buffers.

     Compare files common to two directories.

     Compare files common to three directories.

     Compare versions of files in a given directory.  Ediff selects
     only the files that are under version control.

     Merge versions of files in a given directory.  Ediff selects only
     the files that are under version control.

     Merge versions of files in a given directory using other versions
     as ancestors.  Ediff selects only the files that are under version

     Compare windows word-by-word.

     Compare windows line-by-line.

     Compare regions word-by-word.  The regions can come from the same
     buffer and they can even overlap.  You will be asked to specify
     the buffers that contain the regions, which you want to compare.
     For each buffer, you will also be asked to mark the regions to be
     compared. Pay attention to the messages that appear in the

     Similar to `ediff-windows-linewise', but compares the regions
     line-by-line. See `ediff-windows-linewise' for more details.

     Compare versions of the current buffer, if the buffer is visiting
     a file under version control.

     Patch a file or multiple files, then compare.  If the patch
     applies to just one file, Ediff will invoke a regular comparison
     session.  If it is a multi-file patch, then a session group
     interface will be used and the user will be able to patch the
     files selectively.  *Note Session Groups::, for more details.

     Since the patch might be in a buffer or a file, you will be asked
     which is the case. To avoid this extra prompt, you can invoke this
     command with a prefix argument.  With an odd prefix argument,
     Ediff assumes the patch is in a file; with an even argument, a
     buffer is assumed.

     Note that `ediff-patch-file' will actually use the `patch' utility
     to change the original files on disk.  This is not that dangerous,
     since you will always have the original contents of the file saved
     in another file that has the extension `.orig'.  Furthermore, if
     the file is under version control, then you can always back out to
     one of the previous versions (see the section on Version Control in
     the Emacs manual).

     `ediff-patch-file' is careful about versions control: if the file
     to be patched is checked in, then Ediff will offer to check it
     out, because failing to do so may result in the loss of the
     changes when the file is checked out the next time.

     If you don't intend to modify the file via the patch and just want
     to see what the patch is all about (and decide later), then
     `ediff-patch-buffer' might be a better choice.

     Patch a buffer, then compare.  The buffer being patched and the
     file visited by that buffer (if any) is _not_ modified.  The
     result of the patch appears in some other buffer that has the name
     ending with __patched_.

     This function would refuse to apply a multifile patch to a buffer.
     Use `ediff-patch-file' for that (and when you want the original
     file to be modified by the `patch' utility).

     Since the patch might be in a buffer or a file, you will be asked
     which is the case. To avoid this extra prompt, you can invoke this
     command with a prefix argument.  With an odd prefix argument,
     Ediff assumes the patch is in a file; with an even argument, a
     buffer is assumed.

     Merge two files.

     Like `ediff-merge', but with a third ancestor file.

     Merge two buffers.

     Same but with ancestor.

     Merge files common to two directories.

     Same but using files in a third directory as ancestors.   If a
     pair of files doesn't have an ancestor in the ancestor-directory,
     you  will still be able to merge them without the ancestor.

     Merge two versions of the file visited by the current buffer.

     Same but with ancestor.

     Brings up this manual.

     Brings up Ediff session registry.  This feature enables you to
     quickly find and restart active Ediff sessions.

If you want Ediff to be loaded from the very beginning of your Emacs
session, you should put this line in your `~/.emacs' file:

     (require 'ediff)

Otherwise, Ediff will be loaded automatically when you use one of the
above functions, either directly or through the menus.

   When the above functions are invoked, the user is prompted for all
the necessary information--typically the files or buffers to compare,
merge, or patch.  Ediff tries to be smart about these prompts.  For
instance, in comparing/merging files, it will offer the visible buffers
as defaults.  In prompting for files, if the user enters a directory,
the previously input file name will be appended to that directory.  In
addition, if the variable `ediff-use-last-dir' is not `nil', Ediff will
offer previously entered directories as defaults (which will be
maintained separately for each type of file, A, B, or C).

   All the above functions use the POSIX `diff' or `diff3' programs to
find differences between two files.  They process the `diff' output and
display it in a convenient form.  At present, Ediff understands only
the plain output from diff.  Options such as `-c' are not supported,
nor is the format produced by incompatible file comparison programs
such as the VMS version of `diff'.

   The functions `ediff-files', `ediff-buffers', `ediff-files3',
`ediff-buffers3' first display the coarse, line-based difference
regions, as reported by the `diff' program.  The total number of
difference regions and the current difference number are always
displayed in the mode line of the control window.

   Since `diff' may report fairly large chunks of text as being
different, even though the difference may be localized to just a few
words or even to the white space or line breaks, Ediff further
_refines_ the regions to indicate which exact words differ.  If the
only difference is in the white space and line breaks, Ediff says so.

   On a color display, fine differences are highlighted with color; on a
monochrome display, they are underlined.  *Note Highlighting Difference
Regions::, for information on how to customize this.

   The commands `ediff-windows-wordwise', `ediff-windows-linewise',
`ediff-regions-wordwise' and `ediff-regions-linewise' do comparison on
parts of existing Emacs buffers.  The commands `ediff-windows-wordwise'
and `ediff-regions-wordwise' are intended for relatively small segments
of buffers (e.g., up to 100 lines, depending on the speed of your
machine), as they perform comparison on the basis of words rather than
lines.  (Word-wise comparison of large chunks of text can be slow.)

   To compare large regions, use `ediff-regions-linewise'.  This
command displays differences much like `ediff-files' and

   The functions `ediff-patch-file' and `ediff-patch-buffer' apply a
patch to a file or a buffer and then run Ediff on the appropriate
files/buffers, displaying the difference regions.

   The entry points `ediff-directories', `ediff-merge-directories',
etc., provide a convenient interface for comparing and merging files in
different directories.  The user is presented with Dired-like interface
from which one can run a group of related Ediff sessions.

   For files under version control, `ediff-revision' lets you compare
the file visited by the current buffer to one of its checked-in
versions.  You can also compare two checked-in versions of the visited
file.  Moreover, the functions `ediff-directory-revisions',
`ediff-merge-directory-revisions', etc., let you run a group of related
Ediff sessions by taking a directory and comparing (or merging)
versions of files in that directory.

File: ediff,  Node: Session Commands,  Next: Registry of Ediff Sessions,  Prev: Major Entry Points,  Up: Top

3 Session Commands

All Ediff commands are displayed in a Quick Help window, unless you type
`?' to shrink the window to just one line.  You can redisplay the help
window by typing `?' again.  The Quick Help commands are detailed below.

   Many Ediff commands take numeric prefix arguments.  For instance, if
you type a number, say 3, and then `j' (`ediff-jump-to-difference'),
Ediff moves to the third difference region.  Typing 3 and then `a'
(`ediff-diff-to-diff') copies the 3rd difference region from variant A
to variant B.  Likewise, 4 followed by `ra' restores the 4th difference
region in buffer A (if it was previously written over via the command

   Some commands take negative prefix arguments as well.  For instance,
typing `-' and then `j' will make the last difference region current.
Typing `-2' then `j' makes the penultimate difference region current,

   Without the prefix argument, all commands operate on the currently
selected difference region.  You can make any difference region current
using the various commands explained below.

   For some commands, the actual value of the prefix argument is
immaterial.  However, if supplied, the prefix argument may modify the
command (see `ga', `gb', and `gc').

* Menu:

* Quick Help Commands::             Frequently used commands.
* Other Session Commands::          Commands that are not bound to keys.

File: ediff,  Node: Quick Help Commands,  Next: Other Session Commands,  Up: Session Commands

3.1 Quick Help Commands

     Toggles the Ediff Quick Help window ON and OFF.

     Prepares a mail buffer for sending a praise or a curse to the
     Ediff maintainer.

     Brings up the top node of this manual, where you can find further
     information on the various Ediff functions and advanced issues,
     such as customization, session groups, etc.

     Scrolls up buffers A and B (and buffer C where appropriate) in a
     coordinated fashion.

     Scrolls the buffers down.

     Scrolls the buffers to the left simultaneously.

     Scrolls buffers to the right.

     Saves the output from the diff utility, for further reference.

     With prefix argument, saves the plain output from `diff' (see
     `ediff-diff-program' and `ediff-diff-options').  Without the
     argument, it saves customized `diff' output (see
     `ediff-custom-diff-program' and `ediff-custom-diff-options'), if
     it is available.

     Saves buffer A, if it was modified.

     Saves buffer B, if it was modified.

     Saves buffer C, if it was modified (if you are in a session that
     compares three files simultaneously).

     _In comparison sessions:_ Copies the current difference region (or
     the region specified as the prefix to this command) from buffer A
     to buffer B.  Ediff saves the old contents of buffer B's region;
     it can be restored via the command `rb', which see.

     _In merge sessions:_ Copies the current difference region (or the
     region specified as the prefix to this command) from buffer A to
     the merge buffer.  The old contents of this region in buffer C can
     be restored via the command `r'.

     Works similarly, but copies the current difference region from
     buffer B to buffer A (in _comparison sessions_) or the merge
     buffer (in _merge sessions_).

     Ediff saves the old contents of the difference region copied over;
     it can be reinstated via the command `ra' in comparison sessions
     and `r' in merge sessions.

     Copies the current difference region (or the region specified as
     the prefix to this command) from buffer A to buffer B.  This (and
     the next five) command is enabled only in sessions that compare
     three files simultaneously.  The old region in buffer B is saved
     and can be restored via the command `rb'.

     Copies the difference region from buffer A to buffer C.  The old
     region in buffer C is saved and can be restored via the command

     Copies the difference region from buffer B to buffer A.  The old
     region in buffer A is saved and can be restored via the command

     Copies the difference region from buffer B to buffer C.  The
     command `rc' undoes this.

     Copies the difference region from buffer C to buffer A.  The
     command `ra' undoes this.

     Copies the difference region from buffer C to buffer B.  The
     command `rb' undoes this.

     Makes the previous difference region current.

     Makes the next difference region current.

     Makes the very first difference region current.

     `-j' makes the last region current.  Typing a number, N, and then
     `j' makes the difference region N current.  Typing -N (a negative
     number) then `j' makes current the region Last - N.

     Makes current the difference region closest to the position of the
     point in buffer A.

     However, with a prefix argument, Ediff would position all variants
     around the area indicated by the current point in buffer A: if the
     point is inside a difference region, then the variants will be
     positioned at this difference region.  If the point is not in any
     difference region, then it is in an area where all variants agree
     with each other.  In this case, the variants will be positioned so
     that each would display this area (of agreement).

     Makes current the difference region closest to the position of the
     point in buffer B.

     With a prefix argument, behaves like `ga', but with respect to
     buffer B.

     _In merge sessions:_ makes current the difference region closest
     to the point in the merge buffer.

     _In 3-file comparison sessions:_ makes current the region closest
     to the point in buffer C.

     With a prefix argument, behaves like `ga', but with respect to
     buffer C.

     Recomputes the difference regions, bringing them up to date.  This
     is often needed because it is common to do all sorts of editing
     during Ediff sessions, so after a while, the highlighted
     difference regions may no longer reflect the actual differences
     among the buffers.

     Forces refinement of the current difference region, which
     highlights the exact words of disagreement among the buffers.
     With a negative prefix argument, unhighlights the current region.

     Forceful refinement may be needed if Ediff encounters a difference
     region that is larger than `ediff-auto-refine-limit'.  In this
     situation, Ediff doesn't do automatic refinement in order to
     improve response time.  (Ediff doesn't auto-refine on dumb
     terminals as well, but `*' still works there.  However, the only
     useful piece of information it can tell you is whether or not the
     difference regions disagree only in the amount of white space.)

     This command is also useful when the highlighted fine differences
     are no longer current, due to user editing.

     Displays the current Ediff session in a frame as wide as the
     physical display.  This is useful when comparing files
     side-by-side.  Typing `m' again restores the original size of the

     Toggles the horizontal/vertical split of the Ediff display.
     Horizontal split is convenient when it is possible to compare files
     side-by-side.  If the frame in which files are displayed is too
     narrow and lines are cut off, typing `m' may help some.

     Toggles auto-refinement of difference regions (i.e., automatic
     highlighting of the exact words that differ among the variants).
     Auto-refinement is turned off on devices where Emacs doesn't
     support highlighting.

     On slow machines, it may be advantageous to turn auto-refinement
     off.  The user can always forcefully refine specific difference
     regions by typing `*'.

     Cycles between full highlighting, the mode where fine differences
     are not highlighted (but computed), and the mode where
     highlighting is done with ASCII strings.  The latter is not really
     recommended, unless on a dumb TTY.

     Restores the old contents of the region in the merge buffer.  (If
     you copied a difference region from buffer A or B into the merge
     buffer using the commands `a' or `b', Ediff saves the old contents
     of the region in case you change your mind.)

     This command is enabled in merge sessions only.

     Restores the old contents of the current difference region in
     buffer A, which was previously saved when the user invoked one of
     these commands: `b', `ba', `ca', which see.  This command is
     enabled in comparison sessions only.

     Restores the old contents of the current difference region in
     buffer B, which was previously saved when the user invoked one of
     these commands: `a', `ab', `cb', which see.  This command is
     enabled in comparison sessions only.

     Restores the old contents of the current difference region in
     buffer C, which was previously saved when the user invoked one of
     these commands: `ac', `bc', which see.  This command is enabled in
     3-file comparison sessions only.

     Tell Ediff to skip over regions that disagree among themselves
     only in the amount of white space and line breaks.

     Even though such regions will be skipped over, you can still jump
     to any one of them by typing the region number and then `j'.
     Typing `##' again puts Ediff back in the original state.

     Toggle case sensitivity in the diff program. All diffs are
     recomputed.  Case sensitivity is controlled by the variables
     `ediff-ignore-case-option', `ediff-ignore-case-option3', and
     `ediff-ignore-case', which are explained elsewhere.

     Ediff works hard to ameliorate the effects of boredom in the

     Quite often differences are due to identical replacements (e.g.,
     the word `foo' is replaced with the word `bar' everywhere).  If
     the number of regions with such boring differences exceeds your
     tolerance threshold, you may be tempted to tell Ediff to skip
     these regions altogether (you will still be able to jump to them
     via the command `j').  The above commands, `#h' and `#f', may well
     save your day!

     `#h' prompts you to specify regular expressions for each variant.
     Difference regions where each variant's region matches the
     corresponding regular expression will be skipped from then on.
     (You can also tell Ediff to skip regions where at least one
     variant matches its regular expression.)

     `#f' does dual job: it focuses on regions that match the
     corresponding regular expressions.  All other regions will be
     skipped over.  *Note Selective Browsing::, for more.

     Toggles the read-only property in buffer A.  If file A is under
     version control and is checked in, it is checked out (with your

     Toggles the read-only property in buffer B.  If file B is under
     version control and is checked in, it is checked out.

     Toggles the read-only property in buffer C (in 3-file comparison
     sessions).  If file C is under version control and is checked in,
     it is checked out.

     Swaps the windows where buffers A and B are displayed.  If you are
     comparing three buffers at once, then this command would rotate
     the windows among buffers A, B, and C.

     Displays all kinds of useful data about the current Ediff session.

     Runs `ediff-custom-diff-program' on the variants and displays the
     buffer containing the output.  This is useful when you must send
     the output to your Mom.

     With a prefix argument, displays the plain `diff' output.  *Note
     Patch and Diff Programs::, for details.

     Displays a list of currently active Ediff sessions--the Ediff
     Registry.  You can then restart any of these sessions by either
     clicking on a session record or by putting the cursor over it and
     then typing the return key.

     (Some poor souls leave so many active Ediff sessions around that
     they loose track of them completely...  The `R' command is
     designed to save these people from the recently discovered Ediff
     Proficiency Syndrome.)

     Typing `R' brings up Ediff Registry only if it is typed into an
     Ediff Control Panel.  If you don't have a control panel handy,
     type this in the minibuffer: `M-x eregistry'.  *Note Registry of
     Ediff Sessions::.

     Shows the session group buffer that invoked the current Ediff
     session.  *Note Session Groups::, for more information on session

     Suspends the current Ediff session.  (If you develop a condition
     known as Repetitive Ediff Injury--a serious but curable
     illness--you must change your current activity.  This command
     tries hard to hide all Ediff-related buffers.)

     The easiest way to resume a suspended Ediff session is through the
     registry of active sessions.  *Note Registry of Ediff Sessions::,
     for details.

     Terminates this Ediff session.  With a prefix argument
     (e.g.,`1q'), asks if you also want to delete the buffers of the
     variants.  Modified files and the results of merges are never

     Toggles narrowing in Ediff buffers.  Ediff buffers may be narrowed
     if you are comparing only parts of these buffers via the commands
     `ediff-windows-*' and `ediff-regions-*', which see.

     Restores the usual Ediff window setup.  This is the quickest way
     to resume an Ediff session, but it works only if the control panel
     of that session is visible.

     While merging with an ancestor file, Ediff is determined to reduce
     user's wear and tear by saving him and her much of unproductive,
     repetitive typing.  If it notices that, say, file A's difference
     region is identical to the same difference region in the ancestor
     file, then the merge buffer will automatically get the difference
     region taken from buffer B.  The rationale is that this difference
     region in buffer A is as old as that in the ancestor buffer, so
     the contents of that region in buffer B represents real change.

     You may want to ignore such `obvious' merges and concentrate on
     difference regions where both files `clash' with the ancestor,
     since this means that two different people have been changing this
     region independently and they had different ideas on how to do

     The above command does this for you by skipping the regions where
     only one of the variants clashes with the ancestor but the other
     variant agrees with it.  Typing `$$' again undoes this setting.

     When merging files with large number of differences, it is
     sometimes convenient to be able to skip the difference regions for
     which you already decided which variant is most appropriate.
     Typing `$*' will accomplish precisely this.

     To be more precise, this toggles the check for whether the current
     merge is identical to its default setting, as originally decided
     by Ediff.  For instance, if Ediff is merging according to the
     `combined' policy, then the merge region is skipped over if it is
     different from the combination of the regions in buffers A and B.
     (Warning: swapping buffers A and B will confuse things in this
     respect.)  If the merge region is marked as `prefer-A' then this
     region will be skipped if it differs from the current difference
     region in buffer A, etc.

     Displays the ancestor file during merges.

     In some situations, such as when one of the files agrees with the
     ancestor file on a difference region and the other doesn't, Ediff
     knows what to do: it copies the current difference region from the
     second buffer into the merge buffer.

     In other cases, the right course of action is not that clearcut,
     and Ediff would use a default action.  The above command changes
     the default action.  The default action can be `default-A' (choose
     the region from buffer A), `default-B' (choose the region from
     buffer B), or `combined' (combine the regions from the two
     buffers).  *Note Merging and diff3::, for further details.

     The command `&' also affects the regions in the merge buffers that
     have `default-A', `default-B', or `combined' status, provided they
     weren't changed with respect to the original.  For instance, if
     such a region has the status `default-A' then changing the default
     action to `default-B' will also replace this merge-buffer's region
     with the corresponding region from buffer B.

     Causes the merge window shrink to its minimum size, thereby
     exposing as much of the variant buffers as possible.  Typing `s'
     again restores the original size of that window.

     With a positive prefix argument, this command enlarges the merge
     window.  E.g., `4s' increases the size of the window by about 4
     lines, if possible.  With a negative numeric argument, the size of
     the merge window shrinks by that many lines, if possible.  Thus,
     `-s' shrinks the window by about 1 line and `-3s' by about 3 lines.

     This command is intended only for temporary viewing; therefore,
     Ediff restores window C to its original size whenever it makes any
     other change in the window configuration.  However, redisplaying
     (`C-l') or jumping to another difference does not affect window
     C's size.

     The split between the merge window and the variant windows is
     controlled by the variable `ediff-merge-window-share', which see.

     Combines the difference regions from buffers A and B and copies the
     result into the merge buffer.  *Note Merging and diff3::, and the
     variables `ediff-combine-diffs' and `ediff-combination-pattern'.

     You may run into situations when a large chunk of text in one file
     has been edited and then moved to a different place in another
     file.  In such a case, these two chunks of text are unlikely to
     belong to the same difference region, so the refinement feature of
     Ediff will not be able to tell you what exactly differs inside
     these chunks.  Since eyeballing large pieces of text is contrary
     to human nature, Ediff has a special command to help reduce the
     risk of developing a cataract.

     In other situations, the currently highlighted region might be big
     and you might want to reconcile of them interactively.

     All of this can be done with the above command, `=', which
     compares regions within Ediff buffers.  Typing `=' creates a child
     Ediff session for comparing regions in buffers A, B, or C as

     First, you will be asked whether you want to compare the fine
     differences between the currently highlighted buffers on a
     word-by-word basis. If you accept, a child Ediff session will
     start using the currently highlighted regions. Ediff will let you
     step over the differences word-wise.

     If you reject the offer, you will be asked to select regions of
     your choice.

     _If you are comparing 2 files or buffers:_ Ediff will ask you to
     select regions in buffers A and B.

     _If you are comparing 3 files or buffers simultaneously:_ Ediff
     will ask you to choose buffers and then select regions inside
     those buffers.

     _If you are merging files or buffers (with or without ancestor):_
     Ediff will ask you to choose which buffer (A or B) to compare with
     the merge buffer and then select regions in those buffers.

File: ediff,  Node: Other Session Commands,  Prev: Quick Help Commands,  Up: Session Commands

3.2 Other Session Commands

The following commands can be invoked from within any Ediff session,
although some of them are not bound to a key.

     This command brings up the registry of active Ediff sessions.
     Ediff registry is a device that can be used to resume any active
     Ediff session (which may have been postponed because the user
     switched to some other activity).  This command is also useful for
     switching between multiple active Ediff sessions that are run at
     the same time.  The function `eregistry' is an alias for
     `ediff-show-registry'.  *Note Registry of Ediff Sessions::, for
     more information on this registry.

     Changes the display from the multi-frame mode (where the quick
     help window is in a separate frame) to the single-frame mode
     (where all Ediff buffers share the same frame), and vice versa.
     See `ediff-window-setup-function' for details on how to make
     either of these modes the default one.

     This function can also be invoked from the Menubar.  However, in
     some cases, the change will take place only after you execute one
     of the Ediff commands, such as going to the next difference or

     Available in XEmacs only.  The Ediff toolbar provides quick access
     to some of the common Ediff functions.  This function toggles the
     display of the toolbar.  If invoked from the menubar, the function
     may take sometimes effect only after you execute an Ediff command,
     such as going to the next difference.

     The use of the toolbar can also be specified via the variable
     `ediff-use-toolbar-p' (default is `t').  This variable can be set
     only in `.emacs' -- do *not* change it interactively.  Use the
     function `ediff-toggle-use-toolbar' instead.

     This command reverts the buffers you are comparing and recomputes
     their differences.  It is useful when, after making changes, you
     decided to make a fresh start, or if at some point you changed the
     files being compared but want to discard any changes to comparison
     buffers that were done since then.

     This command normally asks for confirmation before reverting files.
     With a prefix argument, it reverts files without asking.

     Ediff has an admittedly primitive (but useful) facility for
     profiling Ediff's commands.  It is meant for Ediff
     maintenance--specifically, for making it run faster.  The function
     `ediff-profile' toggles profiling of ediff commands.

File: ediff,  Node: Registry of Ediff Sessions,  Next: Session Groups,  Prev: Session Commands,  Up: Top

4 Registry of Ediff Sessions

Ediff maintains a registry of all its invocations that are still
_active_.  This feature is very convenient for switching among active
Ediff sessions or for quickly restarting a suspended Ediff session.

   The focal point of this activity is a buffer called _*Ediff
Registry*_.  You can display this buffer by typing `R' in any Ediff
Control Buffer or Session Group Buffer (*note Session Groups::), or by
typing `M-x eregistry' into the Minibuffer.  The latter would be the
fastest way to bring up the registry buffer if no control or group
buffer is displayed in any of the visible Emacs windows.  If you are in
a habit of running multiple long Ediff sessions and often need to
suspend, resume, or switch between them, it may be a good idea to have
the registry buffer permanently displayed in a separate, dedicated

   The registry buffer has several convenient key bindings.  For
instance, clicking mouse button 2 or typing `RET' or `v' over any
session record resumes that session.  Session records in the registry
buffer provide a fairly complete description of each session, so it is
usually easy to identify the right session to resume.

   Other useful commands are bound to `SPC' (next registry record) and
`DEL' (previous registry record).  There are other commands as well,
but you don't need to memorize them, since they are listed at the top of
the registry buffer.

File: ediff,  Node: Session Groups,  Next: Remote and Compressed Files,  Prev: Registry of Ediff Sessions,  Up: Top

5 Session Groups

Several major entries of Ediff perform comparison and merging on
directories.  On entering `ediff-directories', `ediff-directories3',
`ediff-merge-directories', `ediff-merge-directories-with-ancestor',
`ediff-directory-revisions', `ediff-merge-directory-revisions', or
`ediff-merge-directory-revisions-with-ancestor', the user is presented
with a Dired-like buffer that lists files common to the directories
involved along with their sizes.  (The list of common files can be
further filtered through a regular expression, which the user is
prompted for.)  We call this buffer _Session Group Panel_ because all
Ediff sessions associated with the listed files will have this buffer
as a common focal point.

   Clicking button 2 or typing `RET' or `v' over a record describing
files invokes Ediff in the appropriate mode on these files.  You can
come back to the session group buffer associated with a particular
invocation of Ediff by typing `M' in Ediff control buffer of that

   Many commands are available in the session group buffer; some are
applicable only to certain types of work.  The relevant commands are
always listed at the top of each session group buffer, so there is no
need to memorize them.

   In directory comparison or merging, a session group panel displays
only the files common to all directories involved.  The differences are
kept in a separate _directory difference buffer_ and are conveniently
displayed by typing `D' to the corresponding session group panel.
Thus, as an added benefit, Ediff can be used to compare the contents of
up to three directories.

   Sometimes it is desirable to copy some files from one directory to
another without exiting Ediff. The _directory difference buffer_, which
is displayed by typing `D' as discussed above, can be used for this
purpose. If a file is, say, in Ediff's Directory A, but is missing in
Ediff's Directory B (Ediff will refuse to override existing files), then
typing `C' or clicking mouse button 2 over that file (which must be
displayed in directory difference buffer) will copy that file from
Directory A to Directory B.

   Session records in session group panels are also marked with `+', for
active sessions, and with `-', for finished sessions.

   Sometimes, it is convenient to exclude certain sessions from a group.
Usually this happens when the user doesn't intend to run Ediff of
certain files in the group, and the corresponding session records just
add clutter to the session group buffer.  To help alleviate this
problem, the user can type `h' to mark a session as a candidate for
exclusion and `x' to actually hide the marked sessions.  There actions
are reversible: with a prefix argument, `h' unmarks the session under
the cursor, and `x' brings the hidden sessions into the view (`x'
doesn't unmark them, though, so the user has to explicitly unmark the
sessions of interest).

   Group sessions also understand the command `m', which marks sessions
for future operations (other than hiding) on a group of sessions.  At
present, the only such group-level operation is the creation of a
multi-file patch.

   For group sessions created to merge files, Ediff can store all merges
automatically in a directory.  The user is asked to specify such
directory if the value of `ediff-autostore-merges' is non-`nil'.  If
the value is `nil', nothing is done to the merge buffers--it will be
the user's responsibility to save them.  If the value is `t', the user
will be asked where to save the merge buffers in all merge jobs, even
those that do not originate from a session group.  It the value is
neither `nil' nor `t', the merge buffer is saved _only_ if this merge
session was invoked from a session group.  This behavior is implemented
in the function `ediff-maybe-save-and-delete-merge', which is a hook in
`ediff-quit-merge-hook'.  The user can supply a different hook, if

   The variable `ediff-autostore-merges' is buffer-local, so it can be
set on a per-buffer basis.  Therefore, use `setq-default' to change
this variable globally.

   A multi-file patch is a concatenated output of several runs of the
Unix `diff' command (some versions of `diff' let you create a
multi-file patch in just one run).  Ediff facilitates creation of
multi-file patches as follows.  If you are in a session group buffer
created in response to `ediff-directories' or
`ediff-directory-revisions', you can mark (by typing `m') the desired
Ediff sessions and then type `P' to create a multi-file patch of those
marked sessions.  Ediff will then display a buffer containing the patch.
The patch is generated by invoking `diff' on all marked individual
sessions (represented by files) and session groups (represented by
directories).  Ediff will also recursively descend into any _unmarked_
session group and will search for marked sessions there.  In this way,
you can create multi-file patches that span file subtrees that grow out
of any given directory.

   In an `ediff-directories' session, it is enough to just mark the
requisite sessions.  In `ediff-directory-revisions' revisions, the
marked sessions must also be active, or else Ediff will refuse to
produce a multi-file patch.  This is because, in the latter-style
sessions, there are many ways to create diff output, and it is easier
to handle by running Ediff on the inactive sessions.

   Last, but not least, by typing `==', you can quickly find out which
sessions have identical entries, so you won't have to run Ediff on those
sessions.  This, however, works only on local, uncompressed files.  For
compressed or remote files, this command won't report anything.
Likewise, you can use `=h' to mark sessions with identical entries for
hiding or, with `=m', for further operations.

   The comparison operations `==', `=h', and `=m' can recurse into
subdirectories to see if they have identical contents (so the user will
not need to descend into those subdirectories manually). These commands
ask the user whether or not to do a recursive descent.

File: ediff,  Node: Remote and Compressed Files,  Next: Customization,  Prev: Session Groups,  Up: Top

6 Remote and Compressed Files

Ediff works with remote, compressed, and encrypted files.  Ediff
supports `ange-ftp.el', `jka-compr.el', `uncompress.el' and
`crypt++.el', but it may work with other similar packages as well.
This means that you can compare files residing on another machine, or
you can apply a patch to a file on another machine.  Even the patch
itself can be a remote file!

   When patching compressed or remote files, Ediff does not rename the
source file (unlike what the `patch' utility would usually do).
Instead, the source file retains its name and the result of applying
the patch is placed in a temporary file that has the suffix `_patched'
attached.  Generally, this applies to files that are handled using
black magic, such as special file handlers (ange-ftp and some
compression and encryption packages also use this method).

   Regular files are treated by the `patch' utility in the usual manner,
i.e., the original is renamed into `source-name.orig' and the result of
the patch is placed into the file source-name (`_orig' is used on
systems like DOS, etc.)

File: ediff,  Node: Customization,  Next: Credits,  Prev: Remote and Compressed Files,  Up: Top

7 Customization

Ediff has a rather self-explanatory interface, and in most cases you
won't need to change anything.  However, should the need arise, there
are extensive facilities for changing the default behavior.

   Most of the customization can be done by setting various variables
in the `.emacs' file.  Some customization (mostly window-related
customization and faces) can be done by putting appropriate lines in
`.Xdefaults', `.xrdb', or whatever X resource file is in use.

   With respect to the latter, please note that the X resource for
Ediff customization is `Ediff', _not_ `emacs'.  *Note Window and Frame
Configuration::, *Note Highlighting Difference Regions::, for further
details.  Please also refer to Emacs manual for the information on how
to set Emacs X resources.

* Menu:

* Hooks::                       Customization via the hooks.
* Quick Help Customization::    How to customize Ediff's quick help feature.
* Window and Frame Configuration::  Controlling the way Ediff displays things.
* Selective Browsing::          Advanced browsing through difference regions.
* Highlighting Difference Regions::  Controlling highlighting.
* Narrowing::                   Comparing regions, windows, etc.
* Refinement of Difference Regions::  How to control the refinement process.
* Patch and Diff Programs::     Changing the utilities that compute differences
                                and apply patches.
* Merging and diff3::           How to customize Ediff in its Merge Mode.
* Support for Version Control::  Changing the version control package.
                                 You are not likely to do that.
* Customizing the Mode Line::   Changing the look of the mode line in Ediff.
* Miscellaneous::               Other customization.
* Notes on Heavy-duty Customization::  Customization for the gurus.

File: ediff,  Node: Hooks,  Next: Quick Help Customization,  Prev: Customization,  Up: Customization

7.1 Hooks

The bulk of customization can be done via the following hooks:

     This hook can be used to change defaults after Ediff is loaded.

     Hook that is run just before Ediff rearranges windows to its
     liking.  Can be used to save windows configuration.

     This hook can be used to alter bindings in Ediff's keymap,
     `ediff-mode-map'.  These hooks are run right after the default
     bindings are set but before `ediff-load-hook'.  The regular user
     needs not be concerned with this hook--it is provided for
     implementors of other Emacs packages built on top of Ediff.

     These two hooks are called before and after Ediff sets up its
     window configuration.  These hooks are run each time Ediff
     rearranges windows to its liking. This happens whenever it detects
     that the user changed the windows setup.

     These two hooks are run when you suspend or quit Ediff.  They can
     be used to set desired window configurations, delete files Ediff
     didn't want to clean up after exiting, etc.

     By default, `ediff-quit-hook' holds one hook function,
     `ediff-cleanup-mess', which cleans after Ediff, as appropriate in
     most cases.  You probably won't want to change it, but you might
     want to add other hook functions.

     Keep in mind that hooks executing before `ediff-cleanup-mess' start
     in `ediff-control-buffer;' they should also leave
     `ediff-control-buffer' as the current buffer when they finish.
     Hooks that are executed after `ediff-cleanup-mess' should expect
     the current buffer be either buffer A or buffer B.
     `ediff-cleanup-mess' doesn't kill the buffers being compared or
     merged (see `ediff-cleanup-hook', below).

     This hook is run just before `ediff-quit-hook'.  This is a good
     place to do various cleanups, such as deleting the variant buffers.
     Ediff provides a function, `ediff-janitor', as one such possible
     hook, which you can add to `ediff-cleanup-hook' with `add-hooks'.

     This function kills buffers A, B, and, possibly, C, if these
     buffers aren't modified.  In merge jobs, buffer C is never
     deleted.  However, the side effect of using this function is that
     you may not be able to compare the same buffer in two separate
     Ediff sessions: quitting one of them will delete this buffer in
     another session as well.

     This hook is called when Ediff quits a merge job.  By default, the
     value is `ediff-maybe-save-and-delete-merge', which is a function
     that attempts to save the merge buffer according to the value of
     `ediff-autostore-merges', as described later.

     These two hooks run before and after Ediff sets up the control
     frame.  They can be used to relocate Ediff control frame when
     Ediff runs in a multiframe mode (i.e., when the control buffer is
     in its own dedicated frame).  Be aware that many variables that
     drive Ediff are local to Ediff Control Panel
     (`ediff-control-buffer'), which requires special care in writing
     these hooks.  Take a look at `ediff-default-suspend-hook' and
     `ediff-default-quit-hook' to see what's involved.

     This hook is run at the end of Ediff startup.

     This hook is run after Ediff selects the next difference region.

     This hook is run after Ediff unselects the current difference

     This hook is run for each Ediff buffer (A, B, C) right after the
     buffer is arranged.

     Ediff runs this hook each time after setting up the help message.
     It can be used to alter the help message for custom packages that
     run on top of Ediff.

     This hook is run just after Ediff mode is set up in the control
     buffer.  This is done before any Ediff window is created.  You can
     use it to set local variables that alter the look of the display.

     Hooks run after setting up the registry for all active Ediff
     session.  *Note Session Groups::, for details.

     Hooks run before setting up a control panel for a group of related
     Ediff sessions. Can be used, for example, to save window
     configuration to restore later.

     Hooks run after setting up a control panel for a group of related
     Ediff sessions.  *Note Session Groups::, for details.

     Hooks run just before exiting a session group.

     Hooks run just after setting up the `ediff-meta-buffer-map' -- the
     map that controls key bindings in the meta buffer.  Since
     `ediff-meta-buffer-map' is a local variable, you can set different
     bindings for different kinds of meta buffers.

File: ediff,  Node: Quick Help Customization,  Next: Window and Frame Configuration,  Prev: Hooks,  Up: Customization

7.2 Quick Help Customization

Ediff provides quick help using its control panel window.  Since this
window takes a fair share of the screen real estate, you can toggle it
off by typing `?'.  The control window will then shrink to just one
line and a mode line, displaying a short help message.

   The variable `ediff-use-long-help-message' tells Ediff whether you
use the short message or the long one.  By default, it is set to `nil',
meaning that the short message is used.  Set this to `t', if you want
Ediff to use the long message by default.  This property can always be
changed interactively, by typing `?' into Ediff Control Buffer.

   If you want to change the appearance of the help message on a
per-buffer basis, you must use `ediff-startup-hook' to change the value
of the variable `ediff-help-message', which is local to

File: ediff,  Node: Window and Frame Configuration,  Next: Selective Browsing,  Prev: Quick Help Customization,  Up: Customization

7.3 Window and Frame Configuration

On a non-windowing display, Ediff sets things up in one frame, splitting
it between a small control window and the windows for buffers A, B, and
C.  The split between these windows can be horizontal or vertical,
which can be changed interactively by typing `|' while the cursor is in
the control window.

   On a window display, Ediff sets up a dedicated frame for Ediff
Control Panel and then it chooses windows as follows: If one of the
buffers is invisible, it is displayed in the currently selected frame.
If a buffer is visible, it is displayed in the frame where it is
visible.  If, according to the above criteria, the two buffers fall
into the same frame, then so be it--the frame will be shared by the
two.  The same algorithm works when you type `C-l' (`ediff-recenter'),
`p' (`ediff-previous-difference'), `n' (`ediff-next-difference'), etc.

   The above behavior also depends on whether the current frame is
splittable, dedicated, etc.  Unfortunately, the margin of this book is
too narrow to present the details of this remarkable algorithm.

   The upshot of all this is that you can compare buffers in one frame
or in different frames.  The former is done by default, while the
latter can be achieved by arranging buffers A, B (and C, if applicable)
to be seen in different frames.  Ediff respects these arrangements,
automatically adapting itself to the multi-frame mode.

   Ediff uses the following variables to set up its control panel
(a.k.a. control buffer, a.k.a. quick help window):

     You can change or augment this variable including the font, color,
     etc.  The X resource name of Ediff Control Panel frames is
     `Ediff'.  Under X-windows, you can use this name to set up
     preferences in your `~/.Xdefaults', `~/.xrdb', or whatever X
     resource file is in use.  Usually this is preferable to changing
     `ediff-control-frame-parameters' directly.  For instance, you can
     specify in `~/.Xdefaults' the color of the control frame using the
     resource `Ediff*background'.

     In general, any X resource pertaining the control frame can be
     reached via the prefix `Ediff*'.

     The preferred way of specifying the position of the control frame
     is by setting the variable `ediff-control-frame-position-function'
     to an appropriate function.  The default value of this variable is
     `ediff-make-frame-position'.  This function places the control
     frame in the vicinity of the North-East corner of the frame
     displaying buffer A.

   The following variables can be used to adjust the location produced
by `ediff-make-frame-position' and for related customization.

     Specifies the number of characters for shifting the control frame
     from the rightmost edge of frame A when the control frame is
     displayed as a small window.

     Specifies the rightward shift of the control frame from the left
     edge of frame A when the control frame shows the full menu of

     Specifies the number of pixels for the upward shift of the control

     If this variable is `t', the control frame becomes iconified
     automatically when you toggle the quick help message off.  This
     saves valuable real estate on the screen.  Toggling help back will
     deiconify the control frame.

     To start Ediff with an iconified Control Panel, you should set this
     variable to `t' and `ediff-prefer-long-help-message' to `nil'
     (*note Quick Help Customization::).  This behavior is useful only
     if icons are allowed to accept keyboard input (which depends on the
     window manager and other factors).

   To make more creative changes in the way Ediff sets up windows, you
can rewrite the function `ediff-setup-windows'.  However, we believe
that detaching Ediff Control Panel from the rest and making it into a
separate frame offers an important opportunity by allowing you to
iconify that frame.  The icon will usually accept all of the Ediff
commands, but will free up valuable real estate on your screen (this may
depend on your window manager, though).

   The following variable controls how windows are set up:

     The multiframe setup is done by the
     `ediff-setup-windows-multiframe' function, which is the default on
     windowing displays.  The plain setup, one where all windows are
     always in one frame, is done by `ediff-setup-windows-plain', which
     is the default on a non-windowing display (or in an xterm window).
     In fact, under Emacs, you can switch freely between these two
     setups by executing the command `ediff-toggle-multiframe' using
     the Minibuffer of the Menubar.

     If you don't like any of these setups, write your own function.
     See the documentation for `ediff-window-setup-function' for the
     basic guidelines.  However, writing window setups is not easy, so
     you should first take a close look at `ediff-setup-windows-plain'
     and `ediff-setup-windows-multiframe'.

   You can run multiple Ediff sessions at once, by invoking Ediff
several times without exiting previous Ediff sessions.  Different
sessions may even operate on the same pair of files.

   Each session has its own Ediff Control Panel and all the regarding a
particular session is local to the associated control panel buffer.  You
can switch between sessions by suspending one session and then switching
to another control panel.  (Different control panel buffers are
distinguished by a numerical suffix, e.g., `Ediff Control Panel<3>'.)

File: ediff,  Node: Selective Browsing,  Next: Highlighting Difference Regions,  Prev: Window and Frame Configuration,  Up: Customization

7.4 Selective Browsing

Sometimes it is convenient to be able to step through only some
difference regions, those that match certain regular expressions, and
to ignore all others.  On other occasions, you may want to ignore
difference regions that match some regular expressions, and to look
only at the rest.

   The commands `#f' and `#h' let you do precisely this.

   Typing `#f' lets you specify regular expressions that match
difference regions you want to focus on.  We shall call these regular
expressions REGEXP-A, REGEXP-B and REGEXP-C.  Ediff will then start
stepping through only those difference regions where the region in
buffer A matches REGEXP-A and/or the region in buffer B matches
REGEXP-B, etc.  Whether `and' or `or' will be used depends on how you
respond to a question.

   When scanning difference regions for the aforesaid regular
expressions, Ediff narrows the buffers to those regions.  This means
that you can use the expressions `\`' and `\'' to tie search to the
beginning or end of the difference regions.

   On the other hand, typing `#h' lets you specify (hide) uninteresting
regions.  That is, if a difference region in buffer A matches REGEXP-A,
the corresponding region in buffer B matches REGEXP-B and (if
applicable) buffer C's region matches REGEXP-C, then the region will be
ignored by the commands `n'/<SPC> (`ediff-next-difference') and
`p'/<DEL> (`ediff-previous-difference') commands.

   Typing `#f' and `#h' toggles selective browsing on and off.

   Note that selective browsing affects only `ediff-next-difference'
and `ediff-previous-difference', i.e., the commands `n'/<SPC> and
`p'/<DEL>.  `#f' and `#h' do not change the position of the point in
the buffers.  And you can still jump directly (using `j')  to any
numbered difference.

   Users can supply their own functions to specify how Ediff should do
selective browsing.  To change the default Ediff function, add a
function to `ediff-load-hook' which will do the following assignments:

     (setq ediff-hide-regexp-matches-function 'your-hide-function)
     (setq ediff-focus-on-regexp-matches-function 'your-focus-function)

   *Useful hint*: To specify a regexp that matches everything, don't
simply type <RET> in response to a prompt.  Typing <RET> tells Ediff to
accept the default value, which may not be what you want.  Instead, you
should enter something like <^> or <$>.  These match every line.

   You can use the status command, `i', to find out whether selective
browsing is currently in effect.

   The regular expressions you specified are kept in the local variables
`ediff-regexp-focus-A', `ediff-regexp-focus-B', `ediff-regexp-focus-C',
`ediff-regexp-hide-A', `ediff-regexp-hide-B', `ediff-regexp-hide-C'.
Their default value is the empty string (i.e., nothing is hidden or
focused on).  To change the default, set these variables in `.emacs'
using `setq-default'.

   In addition to the ability to ignore regions that match regular
expressions, Ediff can be ordered to start skipping over certain
"uninteresting" difference regions.  This is controlled by the following

     If `t', causes Ediff to skip over "uninteresting" difference
     regions, which are the regions where the variants differ only in
     the amount of the white space and newlines.  This feature can be
     toggled on/off interactively, via the command `##'.

   *Please note:* in order for this feature to work, auto-refining of
difference regions must be on, since otherwise Ediff won't know if there
are fine differences between regions.  On devices where Emacs can
display faces, auto-refining is a default, but it is not turned on by
default on text-only terminals.  In that case, you must explicitly turn
auto-refining on (such as, by typing `@').

   *Reassurance:* If many such uninteresting regions appear in a row,
Ediff may take a long time to skip over them because it has to compute
fine differences of all intermediate regions.  This delay does not
indicate any problem.

   Finally, Ediff can be told to ignore the case of the letters. This
behavior can be toggled with `#c' and it is controlled with three
variables: `ediff-ignore-case-option', `ediff-ignore-case-option3', and

   The variable `ediff-ignore-case-option' specifies the option to pass
to the diff program for comparing two files or buffers. For GNU `diff',
this option is `"-i"'. The variable `ediff-ignore-case-option3'
specifies the option to pass to the `diff3' program in order to make it
case-insensitive. GNU `diff3' does not have such an option, so when
merging or comparing three files with this program, ignoring the letter
case is not supported.

   The variable `ediff-ignore-case' controls whether Ediff starts out by
ignoring letter case or not. It can be set in `.emacs' using

   When case sensitivity is toggled, all difference regions are

File: ediff,  Node: Highlighting Difference Regions,  Next: Narrowing,  Prev: Selective Browsing,  Up: Customization

7.5 Highlighting Difference Regions

The following variables control the way Ediff highlights difference

     These variables hold strings that Ediff uses to mark the beginning
     and the end of the differences found in files A, B, and C on
     devices where Emacs cannot display faces.  Ediff uses different
     flags to highlight regions that begin/end at the beginning/end of
     a line or in a middle of a line.

     Ediff uses these faces to highlight current differences on devices
     where Emacs can display faces.  These and subsequently described
     faces can be set either in `.emacs' or in `.Xdefaults'.  The X
     resource for Ediff is `Ediff', _not_ `emacs'.  Please refer to
     Emacs manual for the information on how to set X resources.

     Ediff uses these faces to show the fine differences between the
     current differences regions in buffers A, B, and C, respectively.

     Non-current difference regions are displayed using these
     alternating faces.  The odd and the even faces are actually
     identical on monochrome displays, because without colors options
     are limited.  So, Ediff uses italics to highlight non-current

     Ediff generally can detect when Emacs is running on a device where
     it can use highlighting with faces.  However, if it fails to
     determine that faces can be used, the user can set this variable
     to `t' to make sure that Ediff uses faces to highlight differences.

     Indicates whether--on a windowing display--Ediff should highlight
     differences using inserted strings (as on text-only terminals) or
     using colors and highlighting.  Normally, Ediff highlights all
     differences, but the selected difference is highlighted more
     visibly.  One can cycle through various modes of highlighting by
     typing `h'.  By default, Ediff starts in the mode where all
     difference regions are highlighted.  If you prefer to start in the
     mode where unselected differences are not highlighted, you should
     set `ediff-highlight-all-diffs' to `nil'.  Type `h' to restore
     highlighting for all differences.

     Ediff lets you switch between the two modes of highlighting.  That
     is, you can switch interactively from highlighting using faces to
     highlighting using string flags, and back.  Of course, switching
     has effect only under a windowing system.  On a text-only terminal
     or in an xterm window, the only available option is highlighting
     with strings.

If you want to change the default settings for `ediff-force-faces' and
`ediff-highlight-all-diffs', you must do it *before* Ediff is loaded.

   You can also change the defaults for the faces used to highlight the
difference regions.  There are two ways to do this.  The simplest and
the preferred way is to use the customization widget accessible from the
menubar.  Ediff's customization group is located under "Tools", which in
turn is under "Programming".  The faces that are used to highlight
difference regions are located in the "Highlighting" subgroup of the
Ediff customization group.

   The second, much more arcane, method to change default faces is to
include some Lisp code in `~/.emacs'.  For instance,

     (setq ediff-current-diff-face-A
           (copy-face 'bold-italic 'ediff-current-diff-face-A))

would use the pre-defined face `bold-italic' to highlight the current
difference region in buffer A (this face is not a good choice, by the

   If you are unhappy with just _some_ of the aspects of the default
faces, you can modify them when Ediff is being loaded using
`ediff-load-hook'.  For instance:

     (add-hook 'ediff-load-hook
               (lambda ()
                   ediff-current-diff-face-B "blue")
                   ediff-current-diff-face-B "red")

   *Please note:* to set Ediff's faces, use only `copy-face' or
`set/make-face-...' as shown above. Emacs' low-level face-manipulation
functions should be avoided.

File: ediff,  Node: Narrowing,  Next: Refinement of Difference Regions,  Prev: Highlighting Difference Regions,  Up: Customization

7.6 Narrowing

If buffers being compared are narrowed at the time of invocation of
Ediff, `ediff-buffers' will preserve the narrowing range.  However, if
`ediff-files' is invoked on the files visited by these buffers, that
would widen the buffers, since this command is defined to compare the
entire files.

   Calling `ediff-regions-linewise' or `ediff-windows-linewise', or the
corresponding `-wordwise' commands, narrows the variants to the
particular regions being compared.  The original accessible ranges are
restored when you quit Ediff.  During the command, you can toggle this
narrowing on and off with the `%' command.

   These two variables control this narrowing behavior:

     If `t', Ediff narrows the display to the appropriate range when it
     is invoked with an `ediff-regions...' or `ediff-windows...'
     command.  If `nil', these commands do not automatically narrow,
     but you can still toggle narrowing on and off by typing `%'.

     Controls whether on quitting Ediff should restore the accessible
     range that existed before the current invocation.

File: ediff,  Node: Refinement of Difference Regions,  Next: Patch and Diff Programs,  Prev: Narrowing,  Up: Customization

7.7 Refinement of Difference Regions

Ediff has variables to control the way fine differences are
highlighted.  This feature gives you control over the process of
refinement.  Note that refinement ignores spaces, tabs, and newlines.

     This variable controls whether fine differences within regions are
     highlighted automatically ("auto-refining").  The default is yes

     On a slow machine, automatic refinement may be painful.  In that
     case, you can turn auto-refining on or off interactively by typing
     `@'.  You can also turn off display of refining that has already
     been done.

     When auto-refining is off, fine differences are shown only for
     regions for which these differences have been computed and saved
     before.  If auto-refining and display of refining are both turned
     off, fine differences are not shown at all.

     Typing `*' computes and displays fine differences for the current
     difference region, regardless of whether auto-refining is turned

     If auto-refining is on, this variable limits the size of the
     regions to be auto-refined.  This guards against the possible
     slowdown that may be caused by extraordinary large difference

     You can always refine the current region by typing `*'.

     This variable controls how fine differences are computed.  The
     value must be a Lisp function that determines how the current
     difference region should be split into words.

     Fine differences are computed by first splitting the current
     difference region into words and then passing the result to
     `ediff-diff-program'.  For the default forward word function
     (which is `ediff-forward-word'), a word is a string consisting of
     letters, `-', or `_'; a string of punctuation symbols; a string of
     digits, or a string consisting of symbols that are neither space,
     nor a letter.

     This default behavior is controlled by four variables:
     `ediff-word-1', ..., `ediff-word-4'.  See the on-line
     documentation for these variables and for the function
     `ediff-forward-word' for an explanation of how to modify these

   Sometimes, when a region has too many differences between the
variants, highlighting of fine differences is inconvenient, especially
on color displays.  If that is the case, type `*' with a negative
prefix argument.  This unhighlights fine differences for the current

   To unhighlight fine differences in all difference regions, use the
command `@'.  Repeated typing of this key cycles through three
different states: auto-refining, no-auto-refining, and no-highlighting
of fine differences.

File: ediff,  Node: Patch and Diff Programs,  Next: Merging and diff3,  Prev: Refinement of Difference Regions,  Up: Customization

7.8 Patch and Diff Programs

This section describes variables that specify the programs to be used
for applying patches and for computing the main difference regions (not
the fine difference regions):

     These variables specify the programs to use to produce differences
     and do patching.

     These variables specify the options to pass to the above utilities.

     In `ediff-diff-options', it may be useful to specify options such
     as `-w' that ignore certain kinds of changes.  However, Ediff does
     not let you use the option `-c', as it doesn't recognize this
     format yet.

     This variable specifies the coding system to use when reading the
     output that the programs `diff3' and `diff' send to Emacs. The
     default is `raw-text', and this should work fine in Unix and in
     most cases under Windows NT/95/98/2000. There are `diff' programs
     for which the default option doesn't work under Windows. In such
     cases, `raw-text-dos' might work. If not, you will have to
     experiment with other coding systems or use GNU diff.

     The program to use to apply patches.  Since there are certain
     incompatibilities between the different versions of the patch
     program, the best way to stay out of trouble is to use a
     GNU-compatible version.  Otherwise, you may have to tune the
     values of the variables `ediff-patch-options',
     `ediff-backup-specs', and `ediff-backup-extension' as described

     Options to pass to `ediff-patch-program'.

     Note: the `-b' and `-z' options should be specified in
     `ediff-backup-specs', not in `ediff-patch-options'.

     It is recommended to pass the `-f' option to the patch program, so
     it won't ask questions.  However, some implementations don't
     accept this option, in which case the default value of this
     variable should be changed.

     Backup extension used by the patch program.  Must be specified,
     even if `ediff-backup-specs' is given.

     Backup directives to pass to the patch program.  Ediff requires
     that the old version of the file (before applying the patch) is
     saved in a file named `the-patch-file.extension'.  Usually
     `extension' is `.orig', but this can be changed by the user, and
     may also be system-dependent.  Therefore, Ediff needs to know the
     backup extension used by the patch program.

     Some versions of the patch program let the user specify `-b
     backup-extension'.  Other versions only permit `-b', which
     (usually) assumes the extension `.orig'.  Yet others force you to
     use `-z<backup-extension>'.

     Note that both `ediff-backup-extension' and `ediff-backup-specs'
     must be properly set.  If your patch program takes the option
     `-b', but not `-b extension', the variable
     `ediff-backup-extension' must still be set so Ediff will know
     which extension to use.

     Because Ediff limits the options you may want to pass to the `diff'
     program, it partially makes up for this drawback by letting you
     save the output from `diff' in your preferred format, which is
     specified via the above two variables.

     The output generated by `ediff-custom-diff-program' (which doesn't
     even have to be a standard-style `diff'!) is not used by Ediff.
     It is provided exclusively so that you can refer to it later, send
     it over email, etc.  For instance, after reviewing the
     differences, you may want to send context differences to a
     colleague.  Since Ediff ignores the `-c' option in
     `ediff-diff-program', you would have to run `diff -c' separately
     just to produce the list of differences.  Fortunately,
     `ediff-custom-diff-program' and `ediff-custom-diff-options'
     eliminate this nuisance by keeping a copy of a difference list in
     the desired format in a buffer that can be displayed via the
     command `D'.

     Specifies the default directory to look for patches.

*Warning:* Ediff does not support the output format of VMS `diff'.
Instead, make sure you are using some implementation of POSIX `diff',
such as `gnudiff'.

File: ediff,  Node: Merging and diff3,  Next: Support for Version Control,  Prev: Patch and Diff Programs,  Up: Customization

7.9 Merging and diff3

Ediff supports three-way comparison via the functions `ediff-files3' and
`ediff-buffers3'.  The interface is the same as for two-way comparison.
In three-way comparison and merging, Ediff reports if any two difference
regions are identical.  For instance, if the current region in buffer A
is the same as the region in buffer C, then the mode line of buffer A
will display `[=diff(C)]' and the mode line of buffer C will display

   Merging is done according to the following algorithm.

   If a difference region in one of the buffers, say B, differs from
the ancestor file while the region in the other buffer, A, doesn't,
then the merge buffer, C, gets B's region.  Similarly when buffer A's
region differs from the ancestor and B's doesn't, A's region is used.

   If both regions in buffers A and B differ from the ancestor file,
Ediff chooses the region according to the value of the variable
`ediff-default-variant'.  If its value is `default-A' then A's region
is chosen.  If it is `default-B' then B's region is chosen.  If it is
`combined' then the region in buffer C will look like this:

     <<<<<<< variant A
     the difference region from buffer A
     >>>>>>> variant B
     the difference region from buffer B
     ####### Ancestor
     the difference region from the ancestor buffer, if available
     ======= end

   The above is the default template for the combined region. The user
can customize this template using the variable

   The variable `ediff-combination-pattern' specifies the template that
determines how the combined merged region looks like.  The template is
represented as a list of the form `(STRING1 Symbol1 STRING2 Symbol2
STRING3 Symbol3 STRING4)'. The symbols here must be atoms of the form
`A', `B', or `Ancestor'. They determine the order in which the
corresponding difference regions (from buffers A, B, and the ancestor
buffer) are displayed in the merged region of buffer C.  The strings in
the template determine the text that separates the aforesaid regions.
The default template is

     ("<<<<<<< variant A" A ">>>>>>> variant B" B
        "####### Ancestor" Ancestor "======= end")

(this is one long line) and the corresponding combined region is shown
above. The order in which the regions are shown (and the separator
strings) can be changed by changing the above template. It is even
possible to add or delete region specifiers in this template (although
the only possibly useful such modification seems to be the deletion of
the ancestor).

   In addition to the state of the difference, Ediff displays the state
of the merge for each region.  If a difference came from buffer A by
default (because both regions A and B were different from the ancestor
and `ediff-default-variant' was set to `default-A') then `[=diff(A)
default-A]' is displayed in the mode line.  If the difference in buffer
C came, say, from buffer B because the difference region in that buffer
differs from the ancestor, but the region in buffer A does not (if
merging with an ancestor) then `[=diff(B) prefer-B]' is displayed.  The
indicators default-A/B and prefer-A/B are inspired by Emerge and have
the same meaning.

   Another indicator of the state of merge is `combined'.  It appears
with any difference region in buffer C that was obtained by combining
the difference regions in buffers A and B as explained above.

   In addition to the state of merge and state of difference
indicators, while merging with an ancestor file or buffer, Ediff
informs the user when the current difference region in the (normally
invisible) ancestor buffer is empty via the _AncestorEmpty_ indicator.
This helps determine if the changes made to the original in variants A
and B represent pure insertion or deletion of text: if the mode line
shows _AncestorEmpty_ and the corresponding region in buffers A or B is
not empty, this means that new text was inserted.  If this indicator is
not present and the difference regions in buffers A or B are non-empty,
this means that text was modified.  Otherwise, the original text was

   Although the ancestor buffer is normally invisible, Ediff maintains
difference regions there and advances the current difference region
accordingly.  All highlighting of difference regions is provided in the
ancestor buffer, except for the fine differences.  Therefore, if
desired, the user can put the ancestor buffer in a separate frame and
watch it there.  However, on a TTY, only one frame can be visible at
any given time, and Ediff doesn't support any single-frame window
configuration where all buffers, including the ancestor buffer, would
be visible.  However, the ancestor buffer can be displayed by typing
`/' to the control window.  (Type `C-l' to hide it again.)

   Note that the state-of-difference indicators `=diff(A)' and
`=diff(B)' above are not redundant, even in the presence of a
state-of-merge indicator.  In fact, the two serve different purposes.

   For instance, if the mode line displays `=diff(B) prefer(B)' and you
copy a difference region from buffer A to buffer C then `=diff(B)' will
change to `diff-A' and the mode line will display `=diff(A) prefer-B'.
This indicates that the difference region in buffer C is identical to
that in buffer A, but originally buffer C's region came from buffer B.
This is useful to know because you can recover the original difference
region in buffer C by typing `r'.

   Ediff never changes the state-of-merge indicator, except in response
to the `!' command (see below), in which case the indicator is lost.
On the other hand, the state-of-difference indicator is changed
automatically by the copying/recovery commands, `a', `b', `r', `+'.

   The `!' command loses the information about origins of the regions
in the merge buffer (default-A, prefer-B, or combined).  This is because
recomputing differences in this case means running `diff3' on buffers
A, B, and the merge buffer, not on the ancestor buffer.  (It makes no
sense to recompute differences using the ancestor file, since in the
merging mode Ediff assumes that you have not edited buffers A and B,
but that you may have edited buffer C, and these changes are to be
preserved.)  Since some difference regions may disappear as a result of
editing buffer C and others may arise, there is generally no simple way
to tell where the various regions in the merge buffer came from.

   In three-way comparison, Ediff tries to disregard regions that
consist entirely of white space.  For instance, if, say, the current
region in buffer A consists of the white space only (or if it is
empty), Ediff will not take it into account for the purpose of
computing fine differences.  The result is that Ediff can provide a
better visual information regarding the actual fine differences in the
non-white regions in buffers B and C.  Moreover, if the regions in
buffers B and C differ in the white space only, then a message to this
effect will be displayed.

   In the merge mode, the share of the split between window C (the
window displaying the merge-buffer) and the windows displaying buffers
A and B is controlled by the variable `ediff-merge-window-share'.  Its
default value is 0.5.  To make the merge-buffer window smaller, reduce
this amount.

   We don't recommend increasing the size of the merge-window to more
than half the frame (i.e., to increase the value of
`ediff-merge-window-share') to more than 0.5, since it would be hard to
see the contents of buffers A and B.

   You can temporarily shrink the merge window to just one line by
typing `s'.  This change is temporary, until Ediff finds a reason to
redraw the screen.  Typing `s' again restores the original window size.

   With a positive prefix argument, the `s' command will make the merge
window slightly taller.  This change is persistent.  With ``-'' or with
a negative prefix argument, the command `s' makes the merge window
slightly shorter.  This change also persistent.

   Ediff lets you automatically ignore the regions where only one of the
buffers A and B disagrees with the ancestor.  To do this, set the
variable `ediff-show-clashes-only' to non-`nil'.

   You can toggle this feature interactively by typing `$$'.

   Note that this variable affects only the show next/previous
difference commands.  You can still jump directly to any difference
region directly using the command `j' (with a prefix argument
specifying the difference number).

   The variable `ediff-autostore-merges' controls what happens to the
merge buffer when Ediff quits.  If the value is `nil', nothing is done
to the merge buffer--it will be the user's responsibility to save it.
If the value is `t', the user will be asked where to save the buffer
and whether to delete it afterwards.  It the value is neither `nil' nor
`t', the merge buffer is saved _only_ if this merge session was invoked
from a group of related Ediff session, such as those that result from
`ediff-merge-directories', `ediff-merge-directory-revisions', etc.
*Note Session Groups::.  This behavior is implemented in the function
`ediff-maybe-save-and-delete-merge', which is a hook in
`ediff-quit-merge-hook'.  The user can supply a different hook, if

   The variable `ediff-autostore-merges' is buffer-local, so it can be
set in a per-buffer manner.  Therefore, use `setq-default' to globally
change this variable.

   When merge buffers are saved automatically as directed by
`ediff-autostore-merges', Ediff attaches a prefix to each file, as
specified by the variable `ediff-merge-filename-prefix'. The default is
`merge_', but this can be changed by the user.

File: ediff,  Node: Support for Version Control,  Next: Customizing the Mode Line,  Prev: Merging and diff3,  Up: Customization

7.10 Support for Version Control

Ediff supports version control and lets you compare versions of files
visited by Emacs buffers via the function `ediff-revision'.  This
feature is controlled by the following variables:

     A symbol.  The default is `vc'.

     If you are like most Emacs users, Ediff will use VC as the version
     control package.  This is the standard Emacs interface to RCS,
     CVS, and SCCS.

     However, if your needs are better served by other interfaces, you
     will have to tell Ediff which version control package you are
     using, e.g.,
          (setq ediff-version-control-package 'rcs)

     Apart from the standard `vc.el', Ediff supports three other
     interfaces to version control: `rcs.el', `pcl-cvs.el' (recently
     renamed pcvs.el), and `generic-sc.el'.  The package `rcs.el' is
     written by Sebastian Kremer <skATthp.DE> and is available

   Ediff's interface to the above packages allows the user to compare
the versions of the current buffer or to merge them (with or without an
ancestor-version).  These operations can also be performed on
directories containing files under version control.

   In case of `pcl-cvs.el', Ediff can also be invoked via the function
`run-ediff-from-cvs-buffer'--see the documentation string for this

File: ediff,  Node: Customizing the Mode Line,  Next: Miscellaneous,  Prev: Support for Version Control,  Up: Customization

7.11 Customizing the Mode Line

When Ediff is running, the mode line of `Ediff Control Panel' buffer
shows the current difference number and the total number of difference
regions in the two files.

   The mode line of the buffers being compared displays the type of the
buffer (`A:', `B:', or `C:') and (usually) the file name.  Ediff tries
to be intelligent in choosing the mode line buffer identification.  In
particular, it works well with the `uniquify.el' and `mode-line.el'
packages (which improve on the default way in which Emacs displays
buffer identification).  If you don't like the way Ediff changes the
mode line, you can use `ediff-prepare-buffer-hook' to modify the mode

File: ediff,  Node: Miscellaneous,  Next: Notes on Heavy-duty Customization,  Prev: Customizing the Mode Line,  Up: Customization

7.12 Miscellaneous

Here are a few other variables for customizing Ediff:

     Controls the way you want the window be split between file-A and
     file-B (and file-C, if applicable).  It defaults to the vertical
     split (`split-window-vertically', but you can set it to
     `split-window-horizontally', if you so wish.  Ediff also lets you
     switch from vertical to horizontal split and back interactively.

     Note that if Ediff detects that all the buffers it compares are
     displayed in separate frames, it assumes that the user wants them
     to be so displayed and stops splitting windows.  Instead, it
     arranges for each buffer to be displayed in a separate frame.  You
     can switch to the one-frame mode by hiding one of the buffers

     You can also swap the windows where buffers are displayed by typing

     Controls how windows are split between buffers A and B in the
     merge mode.  This variable is like `ediff-split-window-function',
     but it defaults to `split-window-horizontally' instead of

     The value is a function to be called to widen the frame for
     displaying the Ediff buffers.  See the on-line documentation for
     `ediff-make-wide-display-function' for details.  It is also
     recommended to look into the source of the default function

     You can toggle wide/regular display by typing `m'.  In the wide
     display mode, buffers A, B (and C, when applicable) are displayed
     in a single frame that is as wide as the entire workstation
     screen.  This is useful when files are compared side-by-side.  By
     default, the display is widened without changing its height.

     Controls the way Ediff presents the default directory when it
     prompts the user for files to compare.  If `nil', Ediff uses the
     default directory of the current buffer when it prompts the user
     for file names.  Otherwise, it will use the directories it had
     previously used for files A, B, or C, respectively.

     If `t', makes `C-h' behave like the <DEL> key, i.e., it will move
     you back to the previous difference rather than invoking help.
     This is useful when, in an xterm window or a text-only terminal,
     the Backspace key is bound to `C-h' and is positioned more
     conveniently than the <DEL> key.

     This variable's value is a function that Ediff uses to toggle the
     read-only property in its buffers.

     The default function that Ediff uses simply toggles the read-only
     property, unless the file is under version control.  For a
     checked-in file under version control, Ediff first tries to check
     the file out.

`ediff-make-buffers-readonly-at-startup nil'
     If `t', all variant buffers are made read-only at Ediff startup.

     The default is `t', meaning that the buffers being compared or
     merged will be preserved when Ediff quits.  Setting this to `nil'
     causes Ediff to offer the user a chance to delete these buffers
     (if they are not modified).  Supplying a prefix argument to the
     quit command (`q') temporarily reverses the meaning of this
     variable.  This is convenient when the user prefers one of the
     behaviors most of the time, but occasionally needs the other

     However, Ediff temporarily resets this variable to `t' if it is
     invoked via one of the "buffer" jobs, such as `ediff-buffers'.
     This is because it is all too easy to loose day's work otherwise.
     Besides, in a "buffer" job, the variant buffers have already been
     loaded prior to starting Ediff, so Ediff just preserves status quo

     Using `ediff-cleanup-hook', one can make Ediff delete the variants
     unconditionally (e.g., by making `ediff-janitor' into one of these

     Default is `nil'. If `t', the versions of the files being compared
     or merged using operations such as `ediff-revision' or
     `ediff-merge-revisions' are not deleted on exit. The normal action
     is to clean up and delete these version files.

     Default is `t'.  Normally, Ediff grabs mouse and puts it in its
     control frame.  This is useful since the user can be sure that
     when he needs to type an Ediff command the focus will be in an
     appropriate Ediff's frame.  However, some users prefer to move the
     mouse by themselves.  The above variable, if set to `maybe', will
     prevent Ediff from grabbing the mouse in many situations, usually
     after commands that may take more time than usual.  In other
     situation, Ediff will continue grabbing the mouse and putting it
     where it believes is appropriate.  If the value is `nil', then
     mouse is entirely user's responsibility.  Try different settings
     and see which one is for you.

File: ediff,  Node: Notes on Heavy-duty Customization,  Prev: Miscellaneous,  Up: Customization

7.13 Notes on Heavy-duty Customization

Some users need to customize Ediff in rather sophisticated ways, which
requires different defaults for different kinds of files (e.g., SGML,
etc.).  Ediff supports this kind of customization in several ways.
First, most customization variables are buffer-local.  Those that
aren't are usually accessible from within Ediff Control Panel, so one
can make them local to the panel by calling make-local-variable from
within `ediff-startup-hook'.

   Second, the function `ediff-setup' accepts an optional sixth
argument which has the form `((VAR-NAME-1 . VAL-1) (VAR-NAME-2 . VAL-2)
...)'.  The function `ediff-setup' sets the variables in the list to
the respective values, locally in the Ediff control buffer.  This is an
easy way to throw in custom variables (which usually should be
buffer-local) that can then be tested in various hooks.

   Make sure the variable `ediff-job-name' and `ediff-word-mode' are set
properly in this case, as some things in Ediff depend on this.

   Finally, if you want custom-tailored help messages, you can set the
variables `ediff-brief-help-message-function' and
`ediff-long-help-message-function' to functions that return help

   When customizing Ediff, some other variables are useful, although
they are not user-definable.  They are local to the Ediff control
buffer, so this buffer must be current when you access these variables.
The control buffer is accessible via the variable
`ediff-control-buffer', which is also local to that buffer.  It is
usually used for checking if the current buffer is also the control

   Other variables of interest are:
     The first of the data buffers being compared.

     The second of the data buffers being compared.

     In three-way comparisons, this is the third buffer being compared.
     In merging, this is the merge buffer.  In two-way comparison, this
     variable is `nil'.

     The window displaying buffer A.  If buffer A is not visible, this
     variable is `nil' or it may be a dead window.

     The window displaying buffer B.

     The window displaying buffer C, if any.

     A dedicated frame displaying the control buffer, if it exists.  It
     is non-`nil' only if Ediff uses the multiframe display, i.e., when
     the control buffer is in its own frame.

File: ediff,  Node: Credits,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Customization,  Up: Top

8 Credits

Ediff was written by Michael Kifer <>.  It was
inspired by emerge.el written by Dale R. Worley <>.  An
idea due to Boris Goldowsky <> made it possible
to highlight fine differences in Ediff buffers.  Alastair Burt
<> ported Ediff to XEmacs, Eric Freudenthal
<> made it work with VC, Marc Paquette
<> wrote the toolbar support package for Ediff, and
Hrvoje Niksic <> adapted it to the Emacs
customization package.

   Many people provided help with bug reports, feature suggestions, and
advice.  Without them, Ediff would not be nearly as useful as it is
today.  Here is a hopefully full list of contributors:

     Adrian Aichner (,
     Drew Adams (,
     Steve Baur (,
     Neal Becker (,
     E. Jay Berkenbilt (,
     Alastair Burt (,
     Paul Bibilo (,
     Kevin Broadey (,
     Harald Boegeholz (,
     Bradley A. Bosch (,
     Michael D. Carney (,
     Jin S. Choi (,
     Scott Cummings (,
     Albert Dvornik (,
     Eric Eide (,
     Paul Eggert (,
     Urban Engberg (,
     Kevin Esler (,
     Robert Estes (,
     Jay Finger (,
     Xavier Fornari (,
     Eric Freudenthal (,
     Job Ganzevoort (,
     Felix Heinrich Gatzemeier (,
     Boris Goldowsky (,
     Allan Gottlieb (,
     Aaron Gross (,
     Thorbjoern Hansen (,
     Marcus Harnisch (,
     Steven E. Harris (,
     Aaron S. Hawley (,
     Xiaoli Huang (,
     Andreas Jaeger (,
     Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen (,
     Larry Gouge (,
     Karl Heuer (,
     David Karr (,
     Norbert Kiesel (,
     Steffen Kilb (,
     Leigh L Klotz (,
     Fritz Knabe (,
     Heinz Knutzen (,
     Andrew Koenig (,
     Hannu Koivisto (,
     Ken Laprade (,
     Will C Lauer (,
     Richard Levitte (,
     Mike Long (,
     Dave Love (,
     Martin Maechler (,
     Simon Marshall (,
     Paul C. Meuse (,
     Richard Mlynarik (,
     Stefan Monnier (,
     Chris Murphy (,
     Erik Naggum (,
     Eyvind Ness (,
     Ray Nickson (,
     Dan Nicolaescu (,
     David Petchey (,
     Benjamin Pierce (,
     Francois Pinard (,
     Tibor Polgar (,
     David Prince (,
     Paul Raines (,
     Stefan Reicher (,
     Charles Rich (,
     Bill Richter (,
     C.S. Roberson (,
     Kevin Rodgers (,
     Sandy Rutherford (,
     Heribert Schuetz (,
     Andy Scott (,
     Axel Seibert (,
     Vin Shelton (,
     Scott O. Sherman (,
     Nikolaj Schumacher (,
     Richard Stallman (,
     Richard Stanton (,
     Sam Steingold (,
     Ake Stenhoff (,
     Stig (,
     Peter Stout (,
     Chuck Thompson (,
     Ray Tomlinson (,
     Raymond Toy (,
     Stephen J. Turnbull  (,
     Jan Vroonhof (,
     Colin Walters (,
     Philippe Waroquiers (,
     Klaus Weber (,
     Ben Wing (,
     Tom Wurgler (,
     Steve Youngs (,
     Ilya Zakharevich (,
     Eli Zaretskii (

File: ediff,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Index,  Prev: Credits,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.


     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.


     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.


     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.


     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."


     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.


     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.


     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.


     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.


     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.


     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: ediff,  Node: Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top


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* ediff-before-setup-windows-hook:       Hooks.               (line  24)
* ediff-brief-help-message-function:     Notes on Heavy-duty Customization.
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* ediff-current-diff-face-A:             Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  22)
* ediff-current-diff-face-B:             Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  22)
* ediff-current-diff-face-C:             Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  22)
* ediff-custom-diff-options:             Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  78)
* ediff-custom-diff-program:             Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  78)
* ediff-default-variant:                 Merging and diff3.   (line  21)
* ediff-diff-options:                    Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  17)
* ediff-diff-program <1>:                Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  12)
* ediff-diff-program:                    Refinement of Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  42)
* ediff-diff3-options:                   Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  17)
* ediff-diff3-program:                   Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  12)
* ediff-directories:                     Major Entry Points.  (line  42)
* ediff-directories3:                    Major Entry Points.  (line  46)
* ediff-directory-revisions:             Major Entry Points.  (line  50)
* ediff-display-help-hook:               Hooks.               (line  93)
* ediff-documentation:                   Major Entry Points.  (line 165)
* ediff-even-diff-face-A:                Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  40)
* ediff-even-diff-face-B:                Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  40)
* ediff-even-diff-face-C:                Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  40)
* ediff-files:                           Major Entry Points.  (line  23)
* ediff-files3:                          Major Entry Points.  (line  35)
* ediff-fine-diff-face-A:                Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  31)
* ediff-fine-diff-face-B:                Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  31)
* ediff-fine-diff-face-C:                Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  31)
* ediff-force-faces:                     Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  47)
* ediff-forward-word:                    Refinement of Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  42)
* ediff-forward-word-function:           Refinement of Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  38)
* ediff-grab-mouse:                      Miscellaneous.       (line  98)
* ediff-help-message:                    Quick Help Customization.
                                                              (line   6)
* ediff-highlight-all-diffs:             Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  53)
* ediff-ignore-case <1>:                 Selective Browsing.  (line  87)
* ediff-ignore-case:                     Quick Help Commands. (line 231)
* ediff-ignore-case-option <1>:          Selective Browsing.  (line  87)
* ediff-ignore-case-option:              Quick Help Commands. (line 231)
* ediff-ignore-case-option3 <1>:         Selective Browsing.  (line  87)
* ediff-ignore-case-option3:             Quick Help Commands. (line 231)
* ediff-ignore-similar-regions:          Selective Browsing.  (line  70)
* ediff-janitor:                         Hooks.               (line  54)
* ediff-job-name:                        Notes on Heavy-duty Customization.
                                                              (line  27)
* ediff-keep-tmp-versions:               Miscellaneous.       (line  92)
* ediff-keep-variants:                   Miscellaneous.       (line  71)
* ediff-keymap-setup-hook:               Hooks.               (line  16)
* ediff-load-hook:                       Hooks.               (line   9)
* ediff-long-help-message-function:      Notes on Heavy-duty Customization.
                                                              (line  27)
* ediff-make-buffers-readonly-at-startup: Miscellaneous.      (line  68)
* ediff-make-frame-position:             Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line  55)
* ediff-make-wide-display-function:      Miscellaneous.       (line  32)
* ediff-maybe-save-and-delete-merge <1>: Merging and diff3.   (line 166)
* ediff-maybe-save-and-delete-merge:     Hooks.               (line  62)
* ediff-merge:                           Major Entry Points.  (line 136)
* ediff-merge-buffers:                   Major Entry Points.  (line 143)
* ediff-merge-buffers-with-ancestor:     Major Entry Points.  (line 146)
* ediff-merge-directories:               Major Entry Points.  (line 150)
* ediff-merge-directories-with-ancestor: Major Entry Points.  (line 154)
* ediff-merge-directory-revisions:       Major Entry Points.  (line  55)
* ediff-merge-directory-revisions-with-ancestor: Major Entry Points.
                                                              (line  60)
* ediff-merge-filename-prefix:           Merging and diff3.   (line 183)
* ediff-merge-files:                     Major Entry Points.  (line 136)
* ediff-merge-files-with-ancestor:       Major Entry Points.  (line 140)
* ediff-merge-revisions:                 Major Entry Points.  (line 159)
* ediff-merge-revisions-with-ancestor:   Major Entry Points.  (line 162)
* ediff-merge-split-window-function:     Miscellaneous.       (line  26)
* ediff-merge-window-share:              Merging and diff3.   (line 135)
* ediff-merge-with-ancestor:             Major Entry Points.  (line 140)
* ediff-meta-buffer-keymap-setup-hook:   Hooks.               (line 119)
* ediff-meta-buffer-map:                 Hooks.               (line 119)
* ediff-mode-hook:                       Hooks.               (line  98)
* ediff-mode-map:                        Hooks.               (line  16)
* ediff-narrow-control-frame-leftward-shift: Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line  60)
* ediff-no-emacs-help-in-control-buffer: Miscellaneous.       (line  52)
* ediff-odd-diff-face-A:                 Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  40)
* ediff-odd-diff-face-B:                 Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  40)
* ediff-odd-diff-face-C:                 Highlighting Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  40)
* ediff-patch-buffer:                    Major Entry Points.  (line 119)
* ediff-patch-default-directory:         Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  97)
* ediff-patch-file:                      Major Entry Points.  (line  88)
* ediff-patch-options:                   Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  17)
* ediff-patch-program:                   Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  12)
* ediff-prefer-iconified-control-frame:  Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line  74)
* ediff-prepare-buffer-hook <1>:         Customizing the Mode Line.
                                                              (line  17)
* ediff-prepare-buffer-hook:             Hooks.               (line  89)
* ediff-profile:                         Other Session Commands.
                                                              (line  56)
* ediff-quit-hook:                       Hooks.               (line  31)
* ediff-quit-merge-hook <1>:             Merging and diff3.   (line 166)
* ediff-quit-merge-hook:                 Hooks.               (line  62)
* ediff-quit-session-group-hook:         Hooks.               (line 116)
* ediff-quit-widened:                    Narrowing.           (line  27)
* ediff-regions-linewise:                Major Entry Points.  (line  79)
* ediff-regions-wordwise:                Major Entry Points.  (line  71)
* ediff-registry-setup-hook:             Hooks.               (line 103)
* ediff-revert-buffers-then-recompute-diffs: Other Session Commands.
                                                              (line  46)
* ediff-revision:                        Major Entry Points.  (line  83)
* ediff-save-buffer:                     Patch and Diff Programs.
                                                              (line  78)
* ediff-select-hook:                     Hooks.               (line  82)
* ediff-setup:                           Notes on Heavy-duty Customization.
                                                              (line  27)
* ediff-setup-windows:                   Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line  85)
* ediff-setup-windows-multiframe:        Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line 103)
* ediff-setup-windows-plain:             Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line 103)
* ediff-show-clashes-only:               Merging and diff3.   (line 155)
* ediff-show-registry:                   Other Session Commands.
                                                              (line  11)
* ediff-split-window-function:           Miscellaneous.       (line   9)
* ediff-start-narrowed:                  Narrowing.           (line  21)
* ediff-startup-hook <1>:                Notes on Heavy-duty Customization.
                                                              (line  27)
* ediff-startup-hook <2>:                Quick Help Customization.
                                                              (line   6)
* ediff-startup-hook:                    Hooks.               (line  79)
* ediff-suspend-hook:                    Hooks.               (line  31)
* ediff-toggle-multiframe <1>:           Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line 103)
* ediff-toggle-multiframe:               Other Session Commands.
                                                              (line  21)
* ediff-toggle-read-only-function:       Miscellaneous.       (line  59)
* ediff-toggle-use-toolbar:              Other Session Commands.
                                                              (line  33)
* ediff-unselect-hook:                   Hooks.               (line  85)
* ediff-use-last-dir <1>:                Miscellaneous.       (line  45)
* ediff-use-last-dir:                    Major Entry Points.  (line 188)
* ediff-use-long-help-message:           Quick Help Customization.
                                                              (line   6)
* ediff-use-toolbar-p:                   Other Session Commands.
                                                              (line  40)
* ediff-version-control-package:         Support for Version Control.
                                                              (line  11)
* ediff-wide-control-frame-rightward-shift: Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line  65)
* ediff-window-setup-function:           Window and Frame Configuration.
                                                              (line  96)
* ediff-windows-linewise:                Major Entry Points.  (line  68)
* ediff-windows-wordwise:                Major Entry Points.  (line  65)
* ediff-word-1:                          Refinement of Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  54)
* ediff-word-2:                          Refinement of Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  54)
* ediff-word-3:                          Refinement of Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  54)
* ediff-word-4:                          Refinement of Difference Regions.
                                                              (line  54)
* ediff-word-mode:                       Notes on Heavy-duty Customization.
                                                              (line  27)
* ediff3:                                Major Entry Points.  (line  35)
* edir-merge-revisions:                  Major Entry Points.  (line  55)
* edir-merge-revisions-with-ancestor:    Major Entry Points.  (line  60)
* edir-revisions:                        Major Entry Points.  (line  50)
* edirs:                                 Major Entry Points.  (line  42)
* edirs-merge:                           Major Entry Points.  (line 150)
* edirs-merge-with-ancestor:             Major Entry Points.  (line 154)
* edirs3:                                Major Entry Points.  (line  46)
* epatch:                                Major Entry Points.  (line  88)
* epatch-buffer:                         Major Entry Points.  (line 119)
* eregistry:                             Other Session Commands.
                                                              (line  11)
* Finding differences:                   Introduction.        (line   6)
* G:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line  10)
* ga:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line 117)
* gb:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line 129)
* gc:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line 136)
* generic-sc.el:                         Support for Version Control.
                                                              (line  29)
* h:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 191)
* i:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 279)
* j:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 110)
* M:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 306)
* m:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 169)
* Merging files and buffers:             Introduction.        (line   6)
* mode-line.el:                          Customizing the Mode Line.
                                                              (line  17)
* Multi-file patches:                    Session Groups.      (line  81)
* n:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 105)
* p:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 101)
* Patching files and buffers:            Introduction.        (line   6)
* pcl-cvs.el:                            Support for Version Control.
                                                              (line  29)
* q:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 321)
* R:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 290)
* r:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 197)
* ra:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line 205)
* rb:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line 211)
* rc:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line 217)
* rcs.el:                                Support for Version Control.
                                                              (line  29)
* s:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 396)
* SPC:                                   Quick Help Commands. (line 105)
* uniquify.el:                           Customizing the Mode Line.
                                                              (line  17)
* V:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line  23)
* v:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line  19)
* vc.el:                                 Support for Version Control.
                                                              (line  29)
* wa:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line  41)
* wb:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line  44)
* wc:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line  47)
* wd:                                    Quick Help Commands. (line  32)
* z:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 311)
* |:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 175)
* ~:                                     Quick Help Commands. (line 274)