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File: coreutils.info,  Node: echo invocation,  Next: printf invocation,  Up: Printing text

15.1 `echo': Print a line of text
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`echo' writes each given STRING to standard output, with a space
between each and a newline after the last one.  Synopsis:

     echo [OPTION]... [STRING]...

   Due to shell aliases and built-in `echo' command, using an unadorned
`echo' interactively or in a script may get you different functionality
than that described here.  Invoke it via `env' (i.e., `env echo ...')
to avoid interference from the shell.

   The program accepts the following options.  Also see *note Common
options::.  Options must precede operands, and the normally-special
argument `--' has no special meaning and is treated like any other
STRING.

`-n'
     Do not output the trailing newline.

`-e'
     Enable interpretation of the following backslash-escaped
     characters in each STRING:

    `\a'
          alert (bell)

    `\b'
          backspace

    `\c'
          produce no further output

    `\e'
          escape

    `\f'
          form feed

    `\n'
          newline

    `\r'
          carriage return

    `\t'
          horizontal tab

    `\v'
          vertical tab

    `\\'
          backslash

    `\0NNN'
          the eight-bit value that is the octal number NNN (zero to
          three octal digits), if NNN is a nine-bit value, the ninth
          bit is ignored

    `\NNN'
          the eight-bit value that is the octal number NNN (one to
          three octal digits), if NNN is a nine-bit value, the ninth
          bit is ignored

    `\xHH'
          the eight-bit value that is the hexadecimal number HH (one or
          two hexadecimal digits)

`-E'
     Disable interpretation of backslash escapes in each STRING.  This
     is the default.  If `-e' and `-E' are both specified, the last one
     given takes effect.


   If the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, then when
`echo''s first argument is not `-n' it outputs option-like arguments
instead of treating them as options.  For example, `echo -ne hello'
outputs `-ne hello' instead of plain `hello'.

   POSIX does not require support for any options, and says that the
behavior of `echo' is implementation-defined if any STRING contains a
backslash or if the first argument is `-n'.  Portable programs can use
the `printf' command if they need to omit trailing newlines or output
control characters or backslashes.  *Note printf invocation::.

   An exit status of zero indicates success, and a nonzero value
indicates failure.