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File: ccmode,  Node: Top,  Next: Introduction,  Prev: (dir),  Up: (dir)

CC Mode

CC Mode is a GNU Emacs mode for editing files containing C, C++,
Objective-C, Java, CORBA IDL (and the variants PSDL and CIDL), Pike and
AWK code.  It provides syntax-based indentation, font locking, and has
several handy commands and some minor modes to make the editing easier.
It does not provide tools to look up and navigate between functions,
classes etc - there are other packages for that.

   This manual is for CC Mode in Emacs.

   Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003,
2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009  Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual", and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License".

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

* Menu:

* Introduction::
* Overview::
* Getting Started::
* Commands::
* Font Locking::
* Config Basics::
* Custom Filling and Breaking::
* Custom Auto-newlines::
* Clean-ups::
* Indentation Engine Basics::
* Customizing Indentation::
* Custom Macros::
* Odds and Ends::
* Sample .emacs File::
* Performance Issues::
* Limitations and Known Bugs::
* FAQ::
* Updating CC Mode::
* Mailing Lists and Bug Reports::
* GNU Free Documentation License::
* Command and Function Index::
* Variable Index::
* Concept and Key Index::

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---


* Indentation Commands::
* Comment Commands::
* Movement Commands::
* Filling and Breaking::
* Minor Modes::
* Electric Keys::
* Auto-newlines::
* Hungry WS Deletion::
* Subword Movement::
* Other Commands::

Font Locking

* Font Locking Preliminaries::
* Faces::
* Doc Comments::
* AWK Mode Font Locking::

Configuration Basics

* CC Hooks::
* Style Variables::
* Styles::


* Built-in Styles::
* Choosing a Style::
* Adding Styles::
* File Styles::

Customizing Auto-newlines

* Hanging Braces::
* Hanging Colons::
* Hanging Semicolons and Commas::

Hanging Braces

* Custom Braces::

Indentation Engine Basics

* Syntactic Analysis::
* Syntactic Symbols::
* Indentation Calculation::

Syntactic Symbols

* Function Symbols::
* Class Symbols::
* Conditional Construct Symbols::
* Switch Statement Symbols::
* Brace List Symbols::
* External Scope Symbols::
* Paren List Symbols::
* Literal Symbols::
* Multiline Macro Symbols::
* Objective-C Method Symbols::
* Anonymous Class Symbol::
* Statement Block Symbols::
* K&R Symbols::

Customizing Indentation

* c-offsets-alist::
* Interactive Customization::
* Line-Up Functions::
* Custom Line-Up::
* Other Indentation::

Line-Up Functions

* Brace/Paren Line-Up::
* List Line-Up::
* Operator Line-Up::
* Comment Line-Up::
* Misc Line-Up::

File: ccmode,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Overview,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction

Welcome to CC Mode, a GNU Emacs mode for editing files containing C,
C++, Objective-C, Java, CORBA IDL (and the variants CORBA PSDL and
CIDL), Pike and AWK code.  This incarnation of the mode is descended
from `c-mode.el' (also called "Boring Old C Mode" or BOCM :-),
`c++-mode.el' version 2, which Barry Warsaw had been maintaining since
1992, and `awk-mode.el', a long neglected mode in the (X)Emacs base.

   Late in 1997, Martin Stjernholm joined Barry on the CC Mode
Maintainers Team, and implemented the Pike support.  In 2000 Martin
took over as the sole maintainer.  In 2001 Alan Mackenzie joined the
team, implementing AWK support in version 5.30.  CC Mode did not
originally contain the font lock support for its languages -- that was
added in version 5.30.

   This manual describes CC Mode version 5.31.

   CC Mode supports the editing of K&R and ANSI C, C++, Objective-C,
Java, CORBA's Interface Definition Language, Pike(1) and AWK files.  In
this way, you can easily set up consistent font locking and coding
styles for use in editing all of these languages, although AWK is not
yet as uniformly integrated as the other languages.

   Note that the name of this package is "CC Mode", but there is no top
level `cc-mode' entry point.  All of the variables, commands, and
functions in CC Mode are prefixed with `c-THING', and `c-mode',
`c++-mode', `objc-mode', `java-mode', `idl-mode', `pike-mode', and
`awk-mode' entry points are provided.  This package is intended to be a
replacement for `c-mode.el', `c++-mode.el' and `awk-mode.el'.

   A special word of thanks goes to Krishna Padmasola for his work in
converting the original `README' file to Texinfo format.  I'd also like
to thank all the CC Mode victims who help enormously during the early
beta stages of CC Mode's development.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) A C-like scripting language with its roots in the LPC language
used in some MUD engines.  See `'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Overview,  Next: Getting Started,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Overview of the Manual

The manual starts with several introductory chapters (including this

The next chunk of the manual describes the day to day _use_ of CC Mode
(as contrasted with how to customize it).

   * The chapter "Commands" describes in detail how to use (nearly) all
     of CC Mode's features.  There are extensive cross-references from
     here to the corresponding sections later in the manual which tell
     you how to customize these features.

   * "Font Locking" describes how "syntax highlighting" is applied to
     your buffers.  It is mainly background information and can be
     skipped over at a first reading.

The next chunk of the manual describes how to _customize_ CC Mode.
Typically, an overview of a topic is given at the chapter level, then
the sections and subsections describe the material in increasing detail.

   * The chapter "Configuration Basics" tells you _how_ to write
     customizations - whether in hooks, in styles, in both, or in
     neither, depending on your needs.  It describes the CC Mode style
     system and lists the standard styles that CC Mode supplies.

   * The next few chapters describe in detail how to customize the
     various features of CC Mode.

   * Finally, there is a sample `.emacs' fragment, which might help you
     in creating your own customization.

The manual ends with "this and that", things that don't fit cleanly
into any of the previous chunks.

   * Two chapters discuss the performance of CC Mode and known

   * The FAQ contains a list of common problems and questions.

   * The next two chapters tell you how to get in touch with the CC Mode
     project - whether for updating CC Mode or submitting bug reports.

Finally, there are the customary indices.

File: ccmode,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: Commands,  Prev: Overview,  Up: Top

3 Getting Started

If you got this version of CC Mode with Emacs or XEmacs, it should work
just fine right out of the box.  Note however that you might not have
the latest CC Mode release and might want to upgrade your copy (see

   You should probably start by skimming through the entire Commands
chapter (*note Commands::) to get an overview of CC Mode's capabilities.

   After trying out some commands, you may dislike some aspects of CC
Mode's default configuration.  Here is an outline of how to change some
of the settings that newcomers to CC Mode most often want to change:

     This Lisp variable holds an integer, the number of columns CC Mode
     indents nested code.  To set this value to 6, customize
     `c-basic-offset' or put this into your `.emacs':

          (setq c-basic-offset 6)

The (indentation) style
     The basic "shape" of indentation created by CC Mode--by default,
     this is `gnu' style (except for Java and AWK buffers).  A list of
     the available styles and their descriptions can be found in *note
     Built-in Styles::.  A complete specification of the CC Mode style
     system, including how to create your own style, can be found in
     the chapter *note Styles::.  To set your style to `linux', either
     customize `c-default-style' or put this into your `.emacs':

          (setq c-default-style '((java-mode . "java")
                                  (awk-mode . "awk")
                                  (other . "linux")))

Electric Indentation
     Normally, when you type "punctuation" characters such as `;' or
     `{', CC Mode instantly reindents the current line.  This can be
     disconcerting until you get used to it.  To disable "electric
     indentation" in the current buffer, type `C-c C-l'.  Type the same
     thing to enable it again.  To have electric indentation disabled by
     default, put the following into your `.emacs' file(1):

          (setq-default c-electric-flag nil)

     Details of this and other similar "Minor Modes" appear in the
     section *note Minor Modes::.

Making the <RET> key indent the new line
     The standard Emacs binding for <RET> just adds a new line.  If you
     want it to reindent the new line as well, rebind the key.  Note
     that the action of rebinding would fail if the pertinent keymap
     didn't yet exist--we thus need to delay the action until after CC
     Mode has been loaded.  Put the following code into your `.emacs':

          (defun my-make-CR-do-indent ()
            (define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'c-context-line-break))
          (add-hook 'c-initialization-hook 'my-make-CR-do-indent)

     This example demonstrates the use of a very powerful CC Mode (and
     Emacs) facility, the hook.  The use of CC Mode's hooks is described
     in *note CC Hooks::.

   All these settings should occur in your `.emacs' _before_ any CC
Mode buffers get loaded--in particular, before any call of

   As you get to know the mode better, you may want to make more
ambitious changes to your configuration.  For this, you should start
reading the chapter *note Config Basics::.

   If you are upgrading an existing CC Mode installation, please see
the `README' file for installation details.  In particular, if you are
going to be editing AWK files, `README' describes how to configure your
(X)Emacs so that CC Mode will supersede the obsolete `awk-mode.el'
which might have been supplied with your (X)Emacs.  CC Mode might not
work with older versions of Emacs or XEmacs.  See the CC Mode release
notes at `' for the latest information on
Emacs version and package compatibility (*note Updating CC Mode::).

 -- Command: c-version
     You can find out what version of CC Mode you are using by visiting
     a C file and entering `M-x c-version RET'.  You should see this
     message in the echo area:

          Using CC Mode version 5.XX

     where `XX' is the minor release number.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) There is no "easy customization" facility for making this change.

File: ccmode,  Node: Commands,  Next: Font Locking,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Top

4 Commands

This chapter specifies all of CC Mode's commands, and thus contains
nearly everything you need to know to _use_ CC Mode (as contrasted with
configuring it).  "Commands" here means both control key sequences and
"electric keys", these being characters such as `;' which, as well as
inserting themselves into the buffer, also do other things.

   You might well want to review *note Moving by Parens: (emacs)Moving
by Parens, which describes commands for moving around brace and
parenthesis structures.

* Menu:

* Indentation Commands::
* Comment Commands::
* Movement Commands::
* Filling and Breaking::
* Minor Modes::
* Electric Keys::
* Auto-newlines::
* Hungry WS Deletion::
* Subword Movement::
* Other Commands::

File: ccmode,  Node: Indentation Commands,  Next: Comment Commands,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Commands

4.1 Indentation Commands

The following commands reindent C constructs.  Note that when you
change your coding style, either interactively or through some other
means, your file does _not_ automatically get reindented.  You will
need to execute one of the following commands to see the effects of
your changes.

   Also, variables like `c-hanging-*' and `c-cleanup-list' (*note
Custom Auto-newlines::) only affect how on-the-fly code is formatted.
Changing the "hanginess" of a brace and then reindenting, will not move
the brace to a different line.  For this, you're better off getting an
external program like GNU `indent', which will rearrange brace
location, amongst other things.

   Preprocessor directives are handled as syntactic whitespace from
other code, i.e. they can be interspersed anywhere without affecting the
indentation of the surrounding code, just like comments.

   The code inside macro definitions is, by default, still analyzed
syntactically so that you get relative indentation there just as you'd
get if the same code was outside a macro.  However, since there is no
hint about the syntactic context, i.e. whether the macro expands to an
expression, to some statements, or perhaps to whole functions, the
syntactic recognition can be wrong.  CC Mode manages to figure it out
correctly most of the time, though.

   Reindenting large sections of code can take a long time.  When CC
Mode reindents a region of code, it is essentially equivalent to
hitting <TAB> on every line of the region.

   These commands indent code:

`<TAB>' (`c-indent-command')
     This command indents the current line.  That is all you need to
     know about it for normal use.

     `c-indent-command' does different things, depending on the setting
     of `c-syntactic-indentation' (*note Indentation Engine Basics::):

        * When it's non-`nil' (which it normally is), the command
          indents the line according to its syntactic context.  With a
          prefix argument (`C-u <TAB>'), it will re-indent the entire
          expression(1) that begins at the line's left margin.

        * When it's `nil', the command indents the line by an extra
          `c-basic-offset' columns.  A prefix argument acts as a
          multiplier.  A bare prefix (`C-u <TAB>') is equivalent to -1,
          removing `c-basic-offset' columns from the indentation.

     The precise behavior is modified by several variables: With
     `c-tab-always-indent', you can make <TAB> insert whitespace in
     some circumstances--`c-insert-tab-function' then defines precisely
     what sort of "whitespace" this will be.  Set the standard Emacs
     variable `indent-tabs-mode' to `t' if you want real `tab'
     characters to be used in the indentation, to `nil' if you want
     only spaces.  *Note Just Spaces: (emacs)Just Spaces.

      -- User Option: c-tab-always-indent
          This variable modifies how <TAB> operates.
             * When it is `t' (the default), <TAB> simply indents the
               current line.

             * When it is `nil', <TAB> (re)indents the line only if
               point is to the left of the first non-whitespace
               character on the line.  Otherwise it inserts some
               whitespace (a tab or an equivalent number of spaces -
               see below) at point.

             * With some other value, the line is reindented.
               Additionally, if point is within a string or comment,
               some whitespace is inserted.

      -- User Option: c-insert-tab-function
          When "some whitespace" is inserted as described above, what
          actually happens is that the function stored in
          `c-insert-tab-function' is called.  Normally, this is
          `insert-tab', which inserts a real tab character or the
          equivalent number of spaces (depending on
          `indent-tabs-mode').  Some people, however, set
          `c-insert-tab-function' to `tab-to-tab-stop' so as to get
          hard tab stops when indenting.

The kind of indentation the next five commands do depends on the
setting of `c-syntactic-indentation' (*note Indentation Engine
   * when it is non-`nil' (the default), the commands indent lines
     according to their syntactic context;

   * when it is `nil', they just indent each line the same amount as
     the previous non-blank line.  The commands that indent a region
     aren't very useful in this case.

`C-j' (`newline-and-indent')
     Inserts a newline and indents the new blank line, ready to start
     typing.  This is a standard (X)Emacs command.

`C-M-q' (`c-indent-exp')
     Indents an entire balanced brace or parenthesis expression.  Note
     that point must be on the opening brace or parenthesis of the
     expression you want to indent.

`C-c C-q' (`c-indent-defun')
     Indents the entire top-level function, class or macro definition
     encompassing point.  It leaves point unchanged.  This function
     can't be used to reindent a nested brace construct, such as a
     nested class or function, or a Java method.  The top-level
     construct being reindented must be complete, i.e. it must have
     both a beginning brace and an ending brace.

`C-M-\' (`indent-region')
     Indents an arbitrary region of code.  This is a standard Emacs
     command, tailored for C code in a CC Mode buffer.  Note, of
     course, that point and mark must delineate the region you want to

`C-M-h' (`c-mark-function')
     While not strictly an indentation command, this is useful for
     marking the current top-level function or class definition as the
     current region.  As with `c-indent-defun', this command operates on
     top-level constructs, and can't be used to mark say, a Java method.

   These variables are also useful when indenting code:

 -- User Option: indent-tabs-mode
     This is a standard Emacs variable that controls how line
     indentation is composed.  When it's non-`nil', tabs can be used in
     a line's indentation, otherwise only spaces are used.

 -- User Option: c-progress-interval
     When indenting large regions of code, this variable controls how
     often a progress message is displayed.  Set this variable to `nil'
     to inhibit the progress messages, or set it to an integer which is
     how often (in seconds) progress messages are to be displayed.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) this is only useful for a line starting with a comment opener or
an opening brace, parenthesis, or string quote.

File: ccmode,  Node: Comment Commands,  Next: Movement Commands,  Prev: Indentation Commands,  Up: Commands

4.2 Comment Commands

`C-c C-c' (`comment-region')
     This command comments out the lines that start in the region.
     With a negative argument, it does the opposite - it deletes the
     comment delimiters from these lines.  *Note Multi-Line Comments:
     (emacs)Multi-Line Comments, for fuller details.  `comment-region'
     isn't actually part of CC Mode - it is given a CC Mode binding for

`M-;' (`comment-dwim' or `indent-for-comment' (1))
     Insert a comment at the end of the current line, if none is there
     already.  Then reindent the comment according to `comment-column'
     (*note Options for Comments: (emacs)Options for Comments.)  and
     the variables below.  Finally, position the point after the
     comment starter.  `C-u M-;' kills any comment on the current line,
     together with any whitespace before it.  This is a standard Emacs
     command, but CC Mode enhances it a bit with two variables:

      -- User Option: c-indent-comment-alist
          This style variable allows you to vary the column that `M-;'
          puts the comment at, depending on what sort of code is on the
          line, and possibly the indentation of any similar comment on
          the preceding line.  It is an association list that maps
          different types of lines to actions describing how they
          should be handled.  If a certain line type isn't present on
          the list then the line is indented to the column specified by

          See the documentation string for a full description of this
          variable (use `C-h v c-indent-comment-alist').

      -- User Option: c-indent-comments-syntactically-p
          Normally, when this style variable is `nil', `M-;' will
          indent comment-only lines according to
          `c-indent-comment-alist', just as it does with lines where
          other code precede the comments.  However, if you want it to
          act just like <TAB> for comment-only lines you can get that
          by setting `c-indent-comments-syntactically-p' to non-`nil'.

          If `c-indent-comments-syntactically-p' is non-`nil' then
          `c-indent-comment-alist' won't be consulted at all for
          comment-only lines.

---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The name of this command varies between (X)Emacs versions.

File: ccmode,  Node: Movement Commands,  Next: Filling and Breaking,  Prev: Comment Commands,  Up: Commands

4.3 Movement Commands

CC Mode contains some useful commands for moving around in C code.

`C-M-a' (`c-beginning-of-defun')
`C-M-e' (`c-end-of-defun')
     Move to the beginning or end of the current or next function.
     Other constructs (such as a structs or classes) which have a brace
     block also count as "functions" here.  To move over several
     functions, you can give these commands a repeat count.

     The start of a function is at its header.  The end of the function
     is after its closing brace, or after the semicolon of a construct
     (such as a `struct') which doesn't end at the brace.  These two
     commands try to leave point at the beginning of a line near the
     actual start or end of the function.  This occasionally causes
     point not to move at all.

     These functions are analogous to the Emacs built-in commands
     `beginning-of-defun' and `end-of-defun', except they eliminate the
     constraint that the top-level opening brace of the defun must be
     in column zero.  See *note Defuns: (emacs)Defuns, for more

`C-M-a' (AWK Mode) (`c-awk-beginning-of-defun')
`C-M-e' (AWK Mode) (`c-awk-end-of-defun')
     Move to the beginning or end of the current or next AWK defun.
     These commands can take prefix-arguments, their functionality
     being entirely equivalent to `beginning-of-defun' and

     AWK Mode "defuns" are either pattern/action pairs (either of which
     might be implicit) or user defined functions.  Having the `{' and
     `}' (if there are any) in column zero, as is suggested for some
     modes, is neither necessary nor helpful in AWK mode.

`M-a' (`c-beginning-of-statement')
`M-e' (`c-end-of-statement')
     Move to the beginning or end of the innermost C statement.  If
     point is already there, move to the next beginning or end of a
     statement, even if that means moving into a block.  (Use `C-M-b' or
     `C-M-f' to move over a balanced block.)  A prefix argument N means
     move over N statements.

     If point is within or next to a comment or a string which spans
     more than one line, these commands move by sentences instead of

     When called from a program, these functions take three optional
     arguments: the repetition count, a buffer position limit which is
     the farthest back to search for the syntactic context, and a flag
     saying whether to do sentence motion in or near comments and
     multiline strings.

`C-c C-u' (`c-up-conditional')
     Move back to the containing preprocessor conditional, leaving the
     mark behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a
     negative argument, move forward to the end of the containing
     preprocessor conditional.

     `#elif' is treated like `#else' followed by `#if', so the function
     stops at them when going backward, but not when going forward.

     This key sequence is not bound in AWK Mode, which doesn't have
     preprocessor statements.

`M-x c-up-conditional-with-else'
     A variety of `c-up-conditional' that also stops at `#else' lines.
     Normally those lines are ignored.

`M-x c-down-conditional'
     Move forward into the next nested preprocessor conditional, leaving
     the mark behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a
     negative argument, move backward into the previous nested
     preprocessor conditional.

     `#elif' is treated like `#else' followed by `#if', so the function
     stops at them when going forward, but not when going backward.

`M-x c-down-conditional-with-else'
     A variety of `c-down-conditional' that also stops at `#else'
     lines.  Normally those lines are ignored.

`C-c C-p' (`c-backward-conditional')
`C-c C-n' (`c-forward-conditional')
     Move backward or forward across a preprocessor conditional, leaving
     the mark behind.  A prefix argument acts as a repeat count.  With a
     negative argument, move in the opposite direction.

     These key sequences are not bound in AWK Mode, which doesn't have
     preprocessor statements.

`M-x c-backward-into-nomenclature'
`M-x c-forward-into-nomenclature'
     A popular programming style, especially for object-oriented
     languages such as C++ is to write symbols in a mixed case format,
     where the first letter of each word is capitalized, and not
     separated by underscores.  E.g.

     These commands move backward or forward to the beginning of the
     next capitalized word.  With prefix argument N, move N times.  If
     N is negative, move in the opposite direction.

     Note that these two commands have been superseded by
     `c-subword-mode', which you should use instead.  *Note Subword
     Movement::.  They might be removed from a future release of CC

File: ccmode,  Node: Filling and Breaking,  Next: Minor Modes,  Prev: Movement Commands,  Up: Commands

4.4 Filling and Line Breaking Commands

Since there's a lot of normal text in comments and string literals, CC
Mode provides features to edit these like in text mode.  The goal is to
do it seamlessly, i.e. you can use auto fill mode, sentence and
paragraph movement, paragraph filling, adaptive filling etc. wherever
there's a piece of normal text without having to think much about it.
CC Mode keeps the indentation, fixes suitable comment line prefixes,
and so on.

   You can configure the exact way comments get filled and broken, and
where Emacs does auto-filling (see *note Custom Filling and
Breaking::).  Typically, the style system (*note Styles::) will have
set this up for you, so you probably won't have to bother.

   Line breaks are by default handled (almost) the same regardless of
whether they are made by auto fill mode (*note Auto Fill: (emacs)Auto
Fill.), by paragraph filling (e.g. with `M-q'), or explicitly with
`M-j' or similar methods.  In string literals, the new line gets the
same indentation as the previous nonempty line.(1).

`M-q' (`c-fill-paragraph')
     This command fills multiline string literals and both block and
     line style comments.  In Java buffers, the Javadoc markup words
     are recognized as paragraph starters.  The line oriented Pike
     autodoc markup words are recognized in the same way in Pike mode.

     The formatting of the starters (`/*') and enders (`*/') of block
     comments are kept as they were before the filling.  I.e., if
     either the starter or ender were on a line of its own, then it
     stays on its own line; conversely, if the delimiter has comment
     text on its line, it keeps at least one word of that text with it
     on the line.

     This command is the replacement for `fill-paragraph' in CC Mode

`M-j' (`c-indent-new-comment-line')
     This breaks the current line at point and indents the new line.  If
     point was in a comment, the new line gets the proper comment line
     prefix.  If point was inside a macro, a backslash is inserted
     before the line break.  It is the replacement for

`M-x c-context-line-break'
     Insert a line break suitable to the context: If the point is
     inside a comment, the new line gets the suitable indentation and
     comment line prefix like `c-indent-new-comment-line'.  In normal
     code it's indented like `newline-and-indent' would do.  In macros
     it acts like `newline-and-indent' but additionally inserts and
     optionally aligns the line ending backslash so that the macro
     remains unbroken.  *Note Custom Macros::, for details about the
     backslash alignment.  In a string, a backslash is inserted only if
     the string is within a macro(2).

     This function is not bound to a key by default, but it's intended
     to be used on the `RET' key.  If you like the behavior of
     `newline-and-indent' on `RET', you should consider switching to
     this function.  *Note Sample .emacs File::.

`M-x c-context-open-line'
     This is to `C-o' (`M-x open-line') as `c-context-line-break' is to
     `RET'.  I.e. it works just like `c-context-line-break' but leaves
     the point before the inserted line break.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) You can change this default by setting the `string' syntactic
symbol (*note Syntactic Symbols:: and *note Customizing Indentation::)

   (2) In GCC, unescaped line breaks within strings are valid.

File: ccmode,  Node: Minor Modes,  Next: Electric Keys,  Prev: Filling and Breaking,  Up: Commands

4.5 Minor Modes

CC Mode contains several minor-mode-like features that you might find
useful while writing new code or editing old code:

electric mode
     When this is enabled, certain visible characters cause
     reformatting as they are typed.  This is normally helpful, but can
     be a nuisance when editing chaotically formatted code.  It can
     also be disconcerting, especially for users who are new to CC Mode.

auto-newline mode
     This automatically inserts newlines where you'd probably want to
     type them yourself, e.g. after typing `}'s.  Its action is
     suppressed when electric mode is disabled.

hungry-delete mode
     This lets you delete a contiguous block of whitespace with a single
     key - for example, the newline and indentation just inserted by
     auto-newline when you want to back up and write a comment after the
     last statement.

subword mode
     This mode makes basic word movement commands like `M-f'
     (`forward-word') and `M-b' (`backward-word') treat the parts of
     sillycapsed symbols as different words.  E.g. `NSGraphicsContext'
     is treated as three words `NS', `Graphics', and `Context'.

syntactic-indentation mode
     When this is enabled (which it normally is), indentation commands
     such as `C-j' indent lines of code according to their syntactic
     structure.  Otherwise, a line is simply indented to the same level
     as the previous one and `<TAB>' adjusts the indentation in steps
     of `c-basic-offset'.

   Full details on how these minor modes work are at *note Electric
Keys::, *note Auto-newlines::, *note Hungry WS Deletion::, *note
Subword Movement::, and *note Indentation Engine Basics::.

   You can toggle each of these minor modes on and off, and you can
configure CC Mode so that it starts up with your favourite combination
of them (*note Sample .emacs File::).  By default, when you initialize
a buffer, electric mode and syntactic-indentation mode are enabled but
the other two modes are disabled.

   CC Mode displays the current state of the first four of these minor
modes on the modeline by appending letters to the major mode's name,
one letter for each enabled minor mode - `l' for electric mode, `a' for
auto-newline mode, `h' for hungry delete mode, and `w' for subword
mode.  If all these modes were enabled, you'd see `C/lahw'(1).

   Here are the commands to toggle these modes:

`C-c C-l' (`c-toggle-electric-state')
     Toggle electric minor mode.  When the command turns the mode off,
     it also suppresses auto-newline mode.

`C-c C-a' (`c-toggle-auto-newline')
     Toggle auto-newline minor mode.  When the command turns the mode
     on, it also enables electric minor mode.

`M-x c-toggle-hungry-state'(2)
     Toggle hungry-delete minor mode.

`M-x c-toggle-auto-hungry-state'(3)
     Toggle both auto-newline and hungry delete minor modes.

`C-c C-w' (`M-x c-subword-mode')
     Toggle subword mode.

`M-x c-toggle-syntactic-indentation'
     Toggle syntactic-indentation mode.

   Common to all the toggle functions above is that if they are called
programmatically, they take an optional numerical argument.  A positive
value will turn on the minor mode (or both of them in the case of
`c-toggle-auto-hungry-state') and a negative value will turn it (or
them) off.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The `C' would be replaced with the name of the language in
question for the other languages CC Mode supports.

   (2) Prior to CC Mode 5.31, this command was bound to `C-c C-d'.

   (3) Prior to CC Mode 5.31, this command was bound to `C-c C-t'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Electric Keys,  Next: Auto-newlines,  Prev: Minor Modes,  Up: Commands

4.6 Electric Keys and Keywords

Most punctuation keys provide "electric" behavior - as well as
inserting themselves they perform some other action, such as
reindenting the line.  This reindentation saves you from having to
reindent a line manually after typing, say, a `}'.  A few keywords,
such as `else', also trigger electric action.

   You can inhibit the electric behavior described here by disabling
electric minor mode (*note Minor Modes::).

   Common to all these keys is that they only behave electrically when
used in normal code (as contrasted with getting typed in a string
literal or comment).  Those which cause re-indentation do so only when
`c-syntactic-indentation' has a non-`nil' value (which it does by

   These keys and keywords are:

     Pound (bound to `c-electric-pound') is electric when typed as the
     first non-whitespace character on a line and not within a macro
     definition.  In this case, the variable `c-electric-pound-behavior'
     is consulted for the electric behavior.  This variable takes a list
     value, although the only element currently defined is `alignleft',
     which tells this command to force the `#' character into column
     zero.  This is useful for entering preprocessor macro definitions.

     Pound is not electric in AWK buffers, where `#' starts a comment,
     and is bound to `self-insert-command' like any typical printable

     A star (bound to `c-electric-star') or a slash
     (`c-electric-slash') causes reindentation when you type it as the
     second component of a C style block comment opener (`/*') or a C++
     line comment opener (`//') respectively, but only if the comment
     opener is the first thing on the line (i.e. there's only
     whitespace before it).

     Additionally, you can configure CC Mode so that typing a slash at
     the start of a line within a block comment will terminate the
     comment.  You don't need to have electric minor mode enabled to get
     this behavior.  *Note Clean-ups::.

     In AWK mode, `*' and `/' do not delimit comments and are not

     A less-than or greater-than sign (bound to `c-electric-lt-gt') is
     electric in two circumstances: when it is an angle bracket in a C++
     `template' declaration (and similar constructs in other languages)
     and when it is the second of two `<' or `>' characters in a C++
     style stream operator.  In either case, the line is reindented.
     Angle brackets in C `#include' directives are not electric.

     The normal parenthesis characters `(' and `)' (bound to
     `c-electric-paren') reindent the current line.  This is useful for
     getting the closing parenthesis of an argument list aligned

     You can also configure CC Mode to insert a space automatically
     between a function name and the `(' you've just typed, and to
     remove it automatically after typing `)', should the argument list
     be empty.  You don't need to have electric minor mode enabled to
     get these actions.  *Note Clean-ups::.

     Typing a brace (bound to `c-electric-brace') reindents the current
     line.  Also, one or more newlines might be inserted if
     auto-newline minor mode is enabled.  *Note Auto-newlines::.
     Additionally, you can configure CC Mode to compact excess
     whitespace inserted by auto-newline mode in certain circumstances.
     *Note Clean-ups::.

     Typing a colon (bound to `c-electric-colon') reindents the current
     line.  Additionally, one or more newlines might be inserted if
     auto-newline minor mode is enabled.  *Note Auto-newlines::.  If you
     type a second colon immediately after such an auto-newline, by
     default the whitespace between the two colons is removed, leaving
     a C++ scope operator.  *Note Clean-ups::.

     If you prefer, you can insert `::' in a single operation, avoiding
     all these spurious reindentations, newlines, and clean-ups.  *Note
     Other Commands::.

     Typing a semicolon or comma (bound to `c-electric-semi&comma')
     reindents the current line.  Also, a newline might be inserted if
     auto-newline minor mode is enabled.  *Note Auto-newlines::.
     Additionally, you can configure CC Mode so that when auto-newline
     has inserted whitespace after a `}', it will be removed again when
     you type a semicolon or comma just after it.  *Note Clean-ups::.

 -- Command: c-electric-continued-statement
     Certain keywords are electric, causing reindentation when they are
     preceded only by whitespace on the line.  The keywords are those
     that continue an earlier statement instead of starting a new one:
     `else', `while', `catch' (only in C++ and Java) and `finally'
     (only in Java).

     An example:

          for (i = 0; i < 17; i++)
            if (a[i])
              res += a[i]->offset;

     Here, the `else' should be indented like the preceding `if', since
     it continues that statement. CC Mode will automatically reindent
     it after the `else' has been typed in full, since only then is it
     possible to decide whether it's a new statement or a continuation
     of the preceding `if'.

     CC Mode uses Abbrev mode (*note Abbrevs: (emacs)Abbrevs.)  to
     accomplish this. It's therefore turned on by default in all
     language modes except IDL mode, since CORBA IDL doesn't have any

File: ccmode,  Node: Auto-newlines,  Next: Hungry WS Deletion,  Prev: Electric Keys,  Up: Commands

4.7 Auto-newline Insertion

When you have "Auto-newline minor mode" enabled (*note Minor Modes::),
CC Mode inserts newlines for you automatically (in certain syntactic
contexts) when you type a left or right brace, a colon, a semicolon, or
a comma.  Sometimes a newline appears before the character you type,
sometimes after it, sometimes both.

   Auto-newline only triggers when the following conditions hold:

   * Auto-newline minor mode is enabled, as evidenced by the indicator
     `a' after the mode name on the modeline (e.g. `C/a' or `C/la').

   * The character was typed at the end of a line, or with only
     whitespace after it, and possibly a `\' escaping the newline.

   * The character is not on its own line already.  (This applies only
     to insertion of a newline _before_ the character.)

   * The character was not typed inside of a literal (1).

   * No numeric argument was supplied to the command (i.e. it was typed
     as normal, with no `C-u' prefix).

   You can configure the precise circumstances in which newlines get
inserted (see *note Custom Auto-newlines::).  Typically, the style
system (*note Styles::) will have set this up for you, so you probably
won't have to bother.

   Sometimes CC Mode inserts an auto-newline where you don't want one,
such as after a `}' when you're about to type a `;'.  Hungry deletion
can help here (*note Hungry WS Deletion::), or you can activate an
appropriate "clean-up", which will remove the excess whitespace after
you've typed the `;'.  See *note Clean-ups:: for a full description.
See also *note Electric Keys:: for a summary of clean-ups listed by key.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) A "literal" is defined as any comment, string, or preprocessor
macro definition.  These constructs are also known as "syntactic
whitespace" since they are usually ignored when scanning C code.

File: ccmode,  Node: Hungry WS Deletion,  Next: Subword Movement,  Prev: Auto-newlines,  Up: Commands

4.8 Hungry Deletion of Whitespace

If you want to delete an entire block of whitespace at point, you can
use "hungry deletion".  This deletes all the contiguous whitespace
either before point or after point in a single operation.  "Whitespace"
here includes tabs and newlines, but not comments or preprocessor
commands.  Hungry deletion can markedly cut down on the number of times
you have to hit deletion keys when, for example, you've made a mistake
on the preceding line and have already pressed `C-j'.

   Hungry deletion is a simple feature that some people find extremely
useful.  In fact, you might find yourself wanting it in *all* your
editing modes!

   Loosely speaking, in what follows, "<DEL>" means "the backspace key"
and "<DELETE>" means "the forward delete key".  This is discussed in
more detail below.

   There are two different ways you can use hungry deletion:

Using "Hungry Delete Mode" with `<DEL>' and `C-d'
     Here you toggle Hungry Delete minor mode with `M-x
     c-toggle-hungry-state'(1) (*note Minor Modes::.)  This makes
     `<DEL>' and `C-d' do backwards and forward hungry deletion.

    `<DEL>' (`c-electric-backspace')
          This command is run by default when you hit the `DEL' key.
          When hungry delete mode is enabled, it deletes any amount of
          whitespace in the backwards direction.  Otherwise, or when
          used with a prefix argument or in a literal (*note
          Auto-newlines::), the command just deletes backwards in the
          usual way.  (More precisely, it calls the function contained
          in the variable `c-backspace-function', passing it the prefix
          argument, if any.)

          Hook that gets called by `c-electric-backspace' when it
          doesn't do an "electric" deletion of the preceding
          whitespace.  The default value is
          `backward-delete-char-untabify' (*note Deletion:
          (elisp)Deletion, the function which deletes a single

    `C-d' (`c-electric-delete-forward')
          This function, which is bound to `C-d' by default, works just
          like `c-electric-backspace' but in the forward direction.
          When it doesn't do an "electric" deletion of the following
          whitespace, it just does `delete-char', more or less.
          (Strictly speaking, it calls the function in
          `c-delete-function' with the prefix argument.)

          Hook that gets called by `c-electric-delete-forward' when it
          doesn't do an "electric" deletion of the following
          whitespace.  The default value is `delete-char'.

Using Distinct Bindings
     The other (newer and recommended) way to use hungry deletion is to
     perform `c-hungry-delete-backwards' and `c-hungry-delete-forward'
     directly through their key sequences rather than using the minor
     mode toggling.

    `C-c C-<DEL>', or `C-c <DEL>' (`c-hungry-delete-backwards')(2)
          Delete any amount of whitespace in the backwards direction
          (regardless whether hungry-delete mode is enabled or not).
          This command is bound to both `C-c C-<DEL>' and `C-c <DEL>',
          since the more natural one, `C-c C-<DEL>', is sometimes
          difficult to type at a character terminal.

    `C-c C-d', `C-c C-<DELETE>', or `C-c <DELETE>' (`c-hungry-delete-forward')
          Delete any amount of whitespace in the forward direction
          (regardless whether hungry-delete mode is enabled or not).
          This command is bound to both `C-c C-<DELETE>' and `C-c
          <DELETE>' for the same reason as for <DEL> above.

   When we talk about `<DEL>', and `<DELETE>' above, we actually do so
without connecting them to the physical keys commonly known as
<Backspace> and <Delete>.  The default bindings to those two keys
depends on the flavor of (X)Emacs you are using.

   In XEmacs 20.3 and beyond, the <Backspace> key is bound to
`c-electric-backspace' and the <Delete> key is bound to
`c-electric-delete'.  You control the direction it deletes in by
setting the variable `delete-key-deletes-forward', a standard XEmacs
variable.  When this variable is non-`nil', `c-electric-delete' will do
forward deletion with `c-electric-delete-forward', otherwise it does
backward deletion with `c-electric-backspace'.  Similarly, `C-c
<Delete>' and `C-c C-<Delete>' are bound to `c-hungry-delete' which is
controlled in the same way by `delete-key-deletes-forward'.

   Emacs 21 and later automatically binds <Backspace> and <Delete> to
`DEL' and `C-d' according to your environment, and CC Mode extends
those bindings to `C-c C-<Backspace>' etc.  If you need to change the
bindings through `normal-erase-is-backspace-mode' then CC Mode will
also adapt its extended bindings accordingly.

   In earlier (X)Emacs versions, CC Mode doesn't bind either
<Backspace> or <Delete> directly.  Only the key codes `DEL' and `C-d'
are bound, and it's up to the default bindings to map the physical keys
to them.  You might need to modify this yourself if the defaults are

   Getting your <Backspace> and <Delete> keys properly set up can
sometimes be tricky.  The information in *note DEL Does Not Delete:
(emacs)DEL Does Not Delete, might be helpful if you're having trouble
with this in GNU Emacs.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Prior to CC Mode 5.31, this command was bound to `C-c C-d'.
`C-c C-d' is now the default binding for `c-hungry-delete-forward'.

   (2) This command was formerly known as `c-hungry-backspace'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Subword Movement,  Next: Other Commands,  Prev: Hungry WS Deletion,  Up: Commands

4.9 Subword Movement and Editing

In spite of the GNU Coding Standards, it is popular to name a symbol by
mixing uppercase and lowercase letters, e.g. `GtkWidget',
`EmacsFrameClass', or `NSGraphicsContext'.  Here we call these mixed
case symbols "nomenclatures".  Also, each capitalized (or completely
uppercase) part of a nomenclature is called a "subword".  Here are some

Nomenclature          Subwords
`GtkWindow'           `Gtk' and `Window'
`EmacsFrameClass'     `Emacs', `Frame', and `Class'
`NSGraphicsContext'   `NS', `Graphics', and `Context'

   The subword minor mode replaces the basic word oriented movement and
editing commands with variants that recognize subwords in a
nomenclature and treat them as separate words:

Key            Word oriented command         Subword oriented command
`M-f'          `forward-word'                `c-forward-subword'
`M-b'          `backward-word'               `c-backward-subword'
`M-@'          `mark-word'                   `c-mark-subword'
`M-d'          `kill-word'                   `c-kill-subword'
`M-DEL'        `backward-kill-word'          `c-backward-kill-subword'
`M-t'          `transpose-words'             `c-transpose-subwords'
`M-c'          `capitalize-word'             `c-capitalize-subword'
`M-u'          `upcase-word'                 `c-upcase-subword'
`M-l'          `downcase-word'               `c-downcase-subword'

   Note that if you have changed the key bindings for the word oriented
commands in your `.emacs' or a similar place, the keys you have
configured are also used for the corresponding subword oriented

   Type `C-c C-w' to toggle subword mode on and off.  To make the mode
turn on automatically, put the following code in your `.emacs':

     (add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook
               (lambda () (c-subword-mode 1)))

   As a bonus, you can also use `c-subword-mode' in non-CC Mode buffers
by typing `M-x c-subword-mode'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Other Commands,  Prev: Subword Movement,  Up: Commands

4.10 Other Commands

Here are the various other commands that didn't fit anywhere else:

`C-c .' (`c-set-style')
     Switch to the specified style in the current buffer.  Use like

          C-c . STYLE-NAME <RET>

     You can use the <TAB> in the normal way to do completion on the
     style name.  Note that all style names are case insensitive, even
     the ones you define yourself.

     Setting a style in this way does _not_ automatically reindent your
     file.  For commands that you can use to view the effect of your
     changes, see *note Indentation Commands:: and *note Filling and

     For details of the CC Mode style system, see *note Styles::.

`C-c :' (`c-scope-operator')
     In C++, it is also sometimes desirable to insert the double-colon
     scope operator without performing the electric behavior of colon
     insertion.  `C-c :' does just this.

`C-c C-\' (`c-backslash-region')
     This function inserts and aligns or deletes end-of-line
     backslashes in the current region.  These are typically used in
     multi-line macros.

     With no prefix argument, it inserts any missing backslashes and
     aligns them according to the `c-backslash-column' and
     `c-backslash-max-column' variables.  With a prefix argument, it
     deletes any backslashes.

     The function does not modify blank lines at the start of the
     region.  If the region ends at the start of a line, it always
     deletes the backslash (if any) at the end of the previous line.

     To customize the precise workings of this command, *note Custom

The recommended line breaking function, `c-context-line-break' (*note
Filling and Breaking::), is especially nice if you edit multiline
macros frequently.  When used inside a macro, it automatically inserts
and adjusts the mandatory backslash at the end of the line to keep the
macro together, and it leaves the point at the right indentation column
for the code.  Thus you can write code inside macros almost exactly as
you can elsewhere, without having to bother with the trailing

`C-c C-e' (`c-macro-expand')
     This command expands C, C++, Objective C or Pike macros in the
     region, using an appropriate external preprocessor program.
     Normally it displays its output in a temporary buffer, but if you
     give it a prefix arg (with `C-u C-c C-e') it will overwrite the
     original region with the expansion.

     The command does not work in any of the other modes, and the key
     sequence is not bound in these other modes.

     `c-macro-expand' isn't actually part of CC Mode, even though it is
     bound to a CC Mode key sequence.  If you need help setting it up
     or have other problems with it, you can either read its source
     code or ask for help in the standard (X)Emacs forums.

File: ccmode,  Node: Font Locking,  Next: Config Basics,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Top

5 Font Locking

CC Mode provides font locking for its supported languages by supplying
patterns for use with Font Lock mode.  This means that you get distinct
faces on the various syntactic parts such as comments, strings,
keywords and types, which is very helpful in telling them apart at a
glance and discovering syntactic errors.  *Note Font Lock: (emacs)Font
Lock, for ways to enable font locking in CC Mode buffers.

   *Please note:* The font locking in AWK mode is currently not
integrated with the rest of CC Mode.  Only the last section of this
chapter, *note AWK Mode Font Locking::, applies to AWK.  The other
sections apply to the other languages.

* Menu:

* Font Locking Preliminaries::
* Faces::
* Doc Comments::
* AWK Mode Font Locking::

File: ccmode,  Node: Font Locking Preliminaries,  Next: Faces,  Prev: Font Locking,  Up: Font Locking

5.1 Font Locking Preliminaries

The font locking for most of the CC Mode languages were provided
directly by the Font Lock package prior to version 5.30 of CC Mode.  In
the transition to CC Mode the patterns have been reworked completely
and are applied uniformly across all the languages except AWK mode,
just like the indentation rules (although each language still has some
peculiarities of its own, of course).  Since the languages previously
had completely separate font locking patterns, this means that it's a
bit different in most languages now.

   The main goal for the font locking in CC Mode is accuracy, to provide
a dependable aid in recognizing the various constructs.  Some, like
strings and comments, are easy to recognize while others, like
declarations and types, can be very tricky.  CC Mode can go to great
lengths to recognize declarations and casts correctly, especially when
the types aren't recognized by standard patterns.  This is a fairly
demanding analysis which can be slow on older hardware, and it can
therefore be disabled by choosing a lower decoration level with the
variable `font-lock-maximum-decoration' (*note Font Lock: (emacs)Font

   The decoration levels are used as follows:

  1. Minimal font locking: Fontify only comments, strings and
     preprocessor directives (in the languages that use cpp).

  2. Fast font locking: In addition to level 1, fontify keywords, simple
     types and declarations that are easy to recognize.  The variables
     `*-font-lock-extra-types' (where `*' is the name of the language)
     are used to recognize types (see below).  Documentation comments
     like Javadoc are fontified according to `c-doc-comment-style'
     (*note Doc Comments::).

     Use this if you think the font locking is too slow.  It's the
     closest corresponding level to level 3 in the old font lock

  3. Accurate font locking: Like level 2 but uses a different approach
     that can recognize types and declarations much more accurately.
     The `*-font-lock-extra-types' variables are still used, but user
     defined types are recognized correctly anyway in most cases.
     Therefore those variables should be fairly restrictive and not
     contain patterns that are uncertain.

     This level is designed for fairly modern hardware and a font lock
     support mode like Lazy Lock or Just-in-time Lock mode that only
     fontifies the parts that are actually shown.  Fontifying the whole
     buffer at once can easily get bothersomely slow even on
     contemporary hardware. *Note Font Lock: (emacs)Font Lock.

   Since user defined types are hard to recognize you can provide
additional regexps to match those you use:

 -- User Option: c-font-lock-extra-types
 -- User Option: c++-font-lock-extra-types
 -- User Option: objc-font-lock-extra-types
 -- User Option: java-font-lock-extra-types
 -- User Option: idl-font-lock-extra-types
 -- User Option: pike-font-lock-extra-types
     For each language there's a variable `*-font-lock-extra-types',
     where `*' stands for the language in question.  It contains a list
     of regexps that matches identifiers that should be recognized as
     types, e.g. `\\sw+_t' to recognize all identifiers ending with `_t'
     as is customary in C code.  Each regexp should not match more than
     a single identifier.

     The default values contain regexps for many types in standard
     runtime libraries that are otherwise difficult to recognize, and
     patterns for standard type naming conventions like the `_t' suffix
     in C and C++.  Java, Objective-C and Pike have as a convention to
     start class names with capitals, so there are patterns for that in
     those languages.

     Despite the names of these variables, they are not only used for
     fontification but in other places as well where CC Mode needs to
     recognize types.

File: ccmode,  Node: Faces,  Next: Doc Comments,  Prev: Font Locking Preliminaries,  Up: Font Locking

5.2 Faces

CC Mode attempts to use the standard faces for programming languages in
accordance with their intended purposes as far as possible.  No extra
faces are currently provided, with the exception of a replacement face
`c-invalid-face' for emacsen that don't provide

   * Normal comments are fontified in `font-lock-comment-face'.

   * Comments that are recognized as documentation (*note Doc
     Comments::) get `font-lock-doc-face' (Emacs) or
     `font-lock-doc-string-face' (XEmacs) if those faces exist.  If
     they don't then `font-lock-comment-face' is used.

   * String and character literals are fontified in

   * Keywords are fontified with `font-lock-keyword-face'.

   * `font-lock-function-name-face' is used for function names in
     declarations and definitions, and classes in those contexts.  It's
     also used for preprocessor defines with arguments.

   * Variables in declarations and definitions, and other identifiers
     in such variable contexts, get `font-lock-variable-name-face'.
     It's also used for preprocessor defines without arguments.

   * Builtin constants are fontified in `font-lock-constant-face' if it
     exists, `font-lock-reference-face' otherwise.  As opposed to the
     preceding two faces, this is used on the names in expressions, and
     it's not used in declarations, even if there happen to be a
     `const' in them somewhere.

   * `font-lock-type-face' is put on types (both predefined and user
     defined) and classes in type contexts.

   * Label identifiers get `font-lock-constant-face' if it exists,
     `font-lock-reference-face' otherwise.

   * Name qualifiers and identifiers for scope constructs are fontified
     like labels.

   * Special markup inside documentation comments are also fontified
     like labels.

   * Preprocessor directives get `font-lock-preprocessor-face' if it
     exists (i.e. XEmacs).  In Emacs they get `font-lock-builtin-face'
     or `font-lock-reference-face', for lack of a closer equivalent.

   * Some kinds of syntactic errors are fontified with
     `font-lock-warning-face' in Emacs.  In older XEmacs versions
     there's no corresponding standard face, so there a special
     `c-invalid-face' is used, which is defined to stand out sharply by

     Note that it's not used for `#error' or `#warning' directives,
     since those aren't syntactic errors in themselves.

File: ccmode,  Node: Doc Comments,  Next: AWK Mode Font Locking,  Prev: Faces,  Up: Font Locking

5.3 Documentation Comments

There are various tools to supply documentation in the source as
specially structured comments, e.g. the standard Javadoc tool in Java.
CC Mode provides an extensible mechanism to fontify such comments and
the special markup inside them.

 -- User Option: c-doc-comment-style
     This is a style variable that specifies which documentation comment
     style to recognize, e.g. `javadoc' for Javadoc comments.

     The value may also be a list of styles, in which case all of them
     are recognized simultaneously (presumably with markup cues that
     don't conflict).

     The value may also be an association list to specify different
     comment styles for different languages.  The symbol for the major
     mode is then looked up in the alist, and the value of that element
     is interpreted as above if found.  If it isn't found then the
     symbol `other' is looked up and its value is used instead.

     The default value for `c-doc-comment-style' is
     `((java-mode . javadoc) (pike-mode . autodoc) (c-mode . gtkdoc))'.

     Note that CC Mode uses this variable to set other variables that
     handle fontification etc.  That's done at mode initialization or
     when you switch to a style which sets this variable.  Thus, if you
     change it in some other way, e.g. interactively in a CC Mode
     buffer, you will need to do `M-x java-mode' (or whatever mode
     you're currently using) to reinitialize.

     Note also that when CC Mode starts up, the other variables are
     modified before the mode hooks are run.  If you change this
     variable in a mode hook, you'll have to call
     `c-setup-doc-comment-style' afterwards to redo that work.

   CC Mode currently provides handing of the following doc comment

     Javadoc comments, the standard tool in Java.

     For Pike autodoc markup, the standard in Pike.

     For GtkDoc markup, widely used in the Gnome community.

   The above is by no means complete.  If you'd like to see support for
other doc comment styles, please let us know (*note Mailing Lists and
Bug Reports::).

   You can also write your own doc comment fontification support to use
with `c-doc-comment-style': Supply a variable or function
`*-font-lock-keywords' where `*' is the name you want to use in
`c-doc-comment-style'.  If it's a variable, it's prepended to
`font-lock-keywords'.  If it's a function, it's called at mode
initialization and the result is prepended.  For an example, see
`javadoc-font-lock-keywords' in `cc-fonts.el'.

   If you add support for another doc comment style, please consider
contributing it - send a note to <>.

File: ccmode,  Node: AWK Mode Font Locking,  Prev: Doc Comments,  Up: Font Locking

5.4 AWK Mode Font Locking

The general appearance of font-locking in AWK mode is much like in any
other programming mode.  *Note Faces For Font Lock: (elisp)Faces For
Font Lock.

   The following faces are, however, used in a non-standard fashion in
AWK mode:

     This face was intended for variable declarations.  Since variables
     are not declared in AWK, this face is used instead for AWK system
     variables (such as `NF') and "Special File Names" (such as

`font-lock-builtin-face' (Emacs)/`font-lock-preprocessor-face' (XEmacs)
     This face is normally used for preprocessor directives in CC Mode.
     There are no such things in AWK, so this face is used instead for
     standard functions (such as `match').

     As well as being used for strings, including localizable strings,
     (delimited by `"' and `_"'), this face is also used for AWK
     regular expressions (delimited by `/').

`font-lock-warning-face' (Emacs)/`c-invalid-face' (XEmacs)
     This face highlights the following syntactically invalid AWK

        * An unterminated string or regular expression.  Here the
          opening delimiter (`"' or `/' or `_"') is displayed in
          `font-lock-warning-face'.  This is most noticeable when
          typing in a new string/regular expression into a buffer, when
          the warning-face serves as a continual reminder to terminate
          the construct.

          AWK mode fontifies unterminated strings/regular expressions
          differently from other modes: Only the text up to the end of
          the line is fontified as a string (escaped newlines being
          handled correctly), rather than the text up to the next
          string quote.

        * A space between the function name and opening parenthesis
          when calling a user function.  The last character of the
          function name and the opening parenthesis are highlighted.
          This font-locking rule will spuriously highlight a valid
          concatenation expression where an identifier precedes a
          parenthesised expression.  Unfortunately.

        * Whitespace following the `\' in what otherwise looks like an
          escaped newline.  The `\' is highlighted.

File: ccmode,  Node: Config Basics,  Next: Custom Filling and Breaking,  Prev: Font Locking,  Up: Top

6 Configuration Basics

You configure CC Mode by setting Lisp variables and calling (and
perhaps writing) Lisp functions(1), which is usually done by adding
code to an Emacs initialization file.  This file might be
`site-start.el' or `.emacs' or `init.el' or `default.el' or perhaps some
other file.  *Note Init File: (emacs)Init File.  For the sake of
conciseness, we just call this file "your `.emacs'" throughout the rest
of the manual.

   Several of these variables (currently 16), are known collectively as
"style variables".  CC Mode provides a special mechanism, known as
"styles" to make it easier to set these variables as a group, to
"inherit" settings from one style into another, and so on.  Style
variables remain ordinary Lisp variables, whose values can be read and
changed independently of the style system.  *Note Style Variables::.

   There are several ways you can write the code, depending on the
precise effect you want--they are described further down on this page.
If you are new to CC Mode, we suggest you begin with the simplest
method, "Top-level commands or the customization interface".

   If you make conflicting settings in several of these ways, the way
that takes precedence is the one that appears latest in this list:

    Top-level command or "customization interface"
    File Style

   Here is a summary of the different ways of writing your configuration

Top-level commands or the "customization interface"
     Most simply, you can write `setq' and similar commands at the top
     level of your `.emacs' file.  When you load a CC Mode buffer, it
     initializes its configuration from these global values (at least,
     for those settings you have given values to), so it makes sense to
     have these `setq' commands run _before_ CC Mode is first
     initialized--in particular, before any call to `desktop-read'
     (*note Saving Emacs Sessions: (emacs)Saving Emacs Sessions.).  For
     example, you might set c-basic-offset thus:

          (setq c-basic-offset 4)

     You can use the more user friendly Customization interface instead,
     but this manual does not cover in detail how that works.  To do
     this, start by typing `M-x customize-group <RET> c <RET>'.  *Note
     Easy Customization: (emacs)Easy Customization.  Emacs normally
     writes the customizations at the end of your `.emacs' file.  If
     you use `desktop-read', you should edit your `.emacs' to place the
     call to `desktop-read' _after_ the customizations.

     The first initialization of CC Mode puts a snapshot of the
     configuration settings into the special style `user'.  *Note
     Built-in Styles::.

     For basic use of Emacs, either of these ways of configuring is
     adequate.  However, the settings are then the same in all CC Mode
     buffers and it can be clumsy to communicate them between
     programmers.  For more flexibility, you'll want to use one (or
     both) of CC Mode's more sophisticated facilities, hooks and styles.

     An Emacs "hook" is a place to put Lisp functions that you want
     Emacs to execute later in specific circumstances.  *Note Hooks:
     (elisp)Hooks.  CC Mode supplies a main hook and a
     language-specific hook for each language it supports - any
     functions you put onto these hooks get executed as the last part
     of a buffer's initialization.  Typically you put most of your
     customization within the main hook, and use the language-specific
     hooks to vary the customization settings between language modes.
     For example, if you wanted different (non-standard) values of
     `c-basic-offset' in C Mode and Java Mode buffers, you could do it
     like this:

          (defun my-c-mode-hook ()
            (setq c-basic-offset 3))
          (add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'my-c-mode-hook)

          (defun my-java-mode-hook ()
            (setq c-basic-offset 6))
          (add-hook 'java-mode-hook 'my-java-mode-hook)

     See *note CC Hooks:: for more details on the use of CC Mode hooks.

     A CC Mode "style" is a coherent collection of customizations with
     a name.  At any time, exactly one style is active in each CC Mode
     buffer, either the one you have selected or a default.  CC Mode is
     delivered with several existing styles.  Additionally, you can
     create your own styles, possibly based on these existing styles.
     If you worked in a programming team called the "Free Group", which
     had its own coding standards, you might well have this in your
     `.emacs' file:

          (setq c-default-style '((java-mode . "java")
                                  (awk-mode . "awk")
                                  (other . "free-group-style")))

     See *note Styles:: for fuller details on using CC Mode styles and
     how to create them.

File Styles
     A "file style" is a rarely used variant of the "style" mechanism
     described above, which applies to an individual source file.  To
     use it, you set certain Emacs local variables in a special block
     at the end of the source file.  *Note File Styles::.

Hooks with Styles
     For ultimate flexibility, you can use hooks and styles together.
     For example, if your team were developing a product which required
     a Linux driver, you'd probably want to use the "linux" style for
     the driver, and your own team's style for the rest of the code.
     You could achieve this with code like this in your `.emacs':

          (defun my-c-mode-hook ()
             (if (and (buffer-file-name)
                      (string-match "/usr/src/linux" (buffer-file-name)))
          (add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'my-c-mode-hook)

     In a programming team, a hook is a also a good place for each
     member to put his own personal preferences.  For example, you
     might be the only person in your team who likes Auto-newline minor
     mode.  You could have it enabled by default by placing the
     following in your `.emacs':

          (defun my-turn-on-auto-newline ()
            (c-toggle-auto-newline 1))
          (add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-turn-on-auto-newline)

* Menu:

* CC Hooks::
* Style Variables::
* Styles::

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) DON'T PANIC!!!  This isn't difficult.

File: ccmode,  Node: CC Hooks,  Next: Style Variables,  Prev: Config Basics,  Up: Config Basics

6.1 Hooks

CC Mode provides several hooks that you can use to customize the mode
for your coding style.  The main hook is `c-mode-common-hook';
typically, you'll put the bulk of your customizations here.  In
addition, each language mode has its own hook, allowing you to fine
tune your settings individually for the different CC Mode languages,
and there is a package initialization hook.  Finally, there is
`c-special-indent-hook', which enables you to solve anomalous
indentation problems.  It is described in *note Other Indentation::,
not here.  All these hooks adhere to the standard Emacs conventions.

   When you open a buffer, CC Mode first initializes it with the
currently active style (*note Styles::).  Then it calls
`c-mode-common-hook', and finally it calls the language-specific hook.
Thus, any style settings done in these hooks will override those set by

 -- Variable: c-initialization-hook
     Hook run only once per Emacs session, when CC Mode is initialized.
     This is a good place to change key bindings (or add new ones) in
     any of the CC Mode key maps.  *Note Sample .emacs File::.

 -- Variable: c-mode-common-hook
     Common hook across all languages.  It's run immediately before the
     language specific hook.

 -- Variable: c-mode-hook
 -- Variable: c++-mode-hook
 -- Variable: objc-mode-hook
 -- Variable: java-mode-hook
 -- Variable: idl-mode-hook
 -- Variable: pike-mode-hook
 -- Variable: awk-mode-hook
     The language specific mode hooks.  The appropriate one is run as
     the last thing when you enter that language mode.

   Although these hooks are variables defined in CC Mode, you can give
them values before CC Mode's code is loaded--indeed, this is the only
way to use `c-initialization-hook'.  Their values aren't overwritten
when CC Mode gets loaded.

   Here's a simplified example of what you can add to your `.emacs'
file to do things whenever any CC Mode language is edited.  See the
Emacs manuals for more information on customizing Emacs via hooks.
*Note Sample .emacs File::, for a more complete sample `.emacs' file.

     (defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
       ;; my customizations for all of c-mode and related modes
     (add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)

File: ccmode,  Node: Style Variables,  Next: Styles,  Prev: CC Hooks,  Up: Config Basics

6.2 Style Variables

The variables that CC Mode's style system control are called "style
variables".  Note that style variables are ordinary Lisp variables,
which the style system initializes; you can change their values at any
time (e.g. in a hook function).  The style system can also set other
variables, to some extent.  *Note Styles::.

   "Style variables" are handled specially in several ways:

   * Style variables are by default buffer-local variables.  However,
     they can instead be made global by setting
     `c-style-variables-are-local-p' to `nil' before CC Mode is

   * The default global binding of any style variable (with two
     exceptions - see below) is the special symbol `set-from-style'.
     When the style system initializes a buffer-local copy of a style
     variable for a CC Mode buffer, if its global binding is still that
     symbol then it will be set from the current style.  Otherwise it
     will retain its global default(1).  This "otherwise" happens, for
     example, when you've set the variable with `setq' at the top level
     of your `.emacs' (*note Config Basics::).

   * The style variable `c-offsets-alist' (*note c-offsets-alist::) is
     an association list with an element for each syntactic symbol.
     It's handled a little differently from the other style variables.
     It's default global binding is the empty list `nil', rather than
     `set-from-style'.  Before the style system is initialized, you can
     add individual elements to `c-offsets-alist' by calling
     `c-set-offset'(*note c-offsets-alist::) just like you would set
     other style variables with `setq'.  Those elements will then
     prevail when the style system later initializes a buffer-local
     copy of `c-offsets-alist'.

   * The style variable `c-special-indent-hook' is also handled in a
     special way.  Styles can only add functions to this hook, not
     remove them, so any global settings you put on it are always
     preserved(2).  The value you give this variable in a style
     definition can be either a function or a list of functions.

   * The global bindings of the style variables get captured in the
     special `user' style when the style system is first initialized.
     *Note Built-in Styles::, for details.

   The style variables are:
`c-indent-comment-alist', `c-indent-comments-syntactically-p' (*note
Indentation Commands::);
`c-doc-comment-style' (*note Doc Comments::);
`c-block-comment-prefix', `c-comment-prefix-regexp' (*note Custom
Filling and Breaking::);
`c-hanging-braces-alist' (*note Hanging Braces::);
`c-hanging-colons-alist' (*note Hanging Colons::);
`c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria' (*note Hanging Semicolons and Commas::);
`c-cleanup-list' (*note Clean-ups::);
`c-basic-offset' (*note Customizing Indentation::);
`c-offsets-alist' (*note c-offsets-alist::);
`c-comment-only-line-offset' (*note Comment Line-Up::);
`c-special-indent-hook', `c-label-minimum-indentation' (*note Other
`c-backslash-column', `c-backslash-max-column' (*note Custom Macros::).

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This is a big change from versions of CC Mode earlier than 5.26,
where such settings would get overridden by the style system unless
special precautions were taken.  That was changed since it was
counterintuitive and confusing, especially to novice users.  If your
configuration depends on the old overriding behavior, you can set the
variable `c-old-style-variable-behavior' to non-`nil'.

   (2) This did not change in version 5.26.

File: ccmode,  Node: Styles,  Prev: Style Variables,  Up: Config Basics

6.3 Styles

By "style" we mean the layout of the code--things like how many columns
to indent a block of code, whether an opening brace gets indented to
the level of the code it encloses, or of the construct that introduces
it, or "hangs" at the end of a line.

   Most people only need to edit code formatted in just a few
well-defined and consistent styles.  For example, their organization
might impose a "blessed" style that all its programmers must conform
to.  Similarly, people who work on GNU software will have to use the
GNU coding style.  Some shops are more lenient, allowing a variety of
coding styles, and as programmers come and go, there could be a number
of styles in use.  For this reason, CC Mode makes it convenient for you
to set up logical groupings of customizations called "styles",
associate a single name for any particular style, and pretty easily
start editing new or existing code using these styles.

* Menu:

* Built-in Styles::
* Choosing a Style::
* Adding Styles::
* File Styles::

File: ccmode,  Node: Built-in Styles,  Next: Choosing a Style,  Prev: Styles,  Up: Styles

6.3.1 Built-in Styles

If you're lucky, one of CC Mode's built-in styles might be just what
you're looking for.  These are:

     Coding style blessed by the Free Software Foundation for C code in
     GNU programs.

     The classic Kernighan and Ritchie style for C code.

     Also known as "Allman style" after Eric Allman.

     Popularized by the examples that came with Whitesmiths C, an early
     commercial C compiler.

     The classic Stroustrup style for C++ code.

     Popular C++ coding standards as defined by "Programming in C++,
     Rules and Recommendations," Erik Nyquist and Mats Henricson,

     C coding standard for Linux (the kernel).

     C coding standard for Python extension modules(2).

     The style for editing Java code.  Note that the default value for
     `c-default-style' installs this style when you enter `java-mode'.

     The style for editing AWK code.  Note that the default value for
     `c-default-style' installs this style when you enter `awk-mode'.

     This is a special style created by you.  It consists of the factory
     defaults for all the style variables as modified by the
     customizations you do either with the Customization interface or
     by writing `setq's and `c-set-offset's at the top level of your
     `.emacs' file (*note Config Basics::).  The style system creates
     this style as part of its initialization and doesn't modify it

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This document is available at
`' among other places.

   (2) Python is a high level scripting language with a C/C++ foreign
function interface.  For more information, see `'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Choosing a Style,  Next: Adding Styles,  Prev: Built-in Styles,  Up: Styles

6.3.2 Choosing a Style

When you create a new buffer, its style will be set from
`c-default-style'.  The factory default is the style `gnu', except in
Java and AWK modes where it's `java' and `awk'.

   Remember that if you set a style variable with the Customization
interface or at the top level of your `.emacs' file before the style
system is initialized (*note Config Basics::), this setting will
override the one that the style system would have given the variable.

   To set a buffer's style interactively, use the command `C-c .'
(*note Other Commands::).  To set it from a file's local variable list,
*note File Styles::.

 -- User Option: c-default-style
     This variable specifies which style to install by default in new
     buffers.  It takes either a style name string, or an association
     list of major mode symbols to style names:

       1. When `c-default-style' is a string, it must be an existing
          style name.  This style is then used for all modes.

       2. When `c-default-style' is an association list, the mode
          language is looked up to find a style name string.

       3. If `c-default-style' is an association list where the mode
          language mode isn't found then the special symbol `other' is
          looked up.  If it's found then the associated style is used.

       4. If `other' is not found then the `gnu' style is used.

     In all cases, the style described in `c-default-style' is installed
     _before_ the language hooks are run, so you can always override
     this setting by including an explicit call to `c-set-style' in your
     language mode hook, or in `c-mode-common-hook'.

     The standard value of `c-default-style' is
     `((java-mode . "java") (awk-mode . "awk") (other . "gnu"))'.

 -- Variable: c-indentation-style
     This variable always contains the buffer's current style name, as a

File: ccmode,  Node: Adding Styles,  Next: File Styles,  Prev: Choosing a Style,  Up: Styles

6.3.3 Adding and Amending Styles

If none of the built-in styles is appropriate, you'll probably want to
create a new "style definition", possibly based on an existing style.
To do this, put the new style's settings into a list with the following
format - the list can then be passed as an argument to the function
`c-add-style'.  You can see an example of a style definition in *note
Sample .emacs File::.

Structure of a Style Definition List
     ([BASE-STYLE] [(VARIABLE . VALUE) ...])

     Optional BASE-STYLE, if present, must be a string which is the
     name of the "base style" from which this style inherits.  At most
     one BASE-STYLE is allowed in a style definition.  If BASE-STYLE is
     not specified, the style inherits from the table of factory
     default values(1) instead.  All styles eventually inherit from
     this internal table.  Style loops generate errors.  The list of
     pre-existing styles can be seen in *note Built-in Styles::.

     The dotted pairs (VARIABLE . VALUE) each consist of a variable and
     the value it is to be set to when the style is later activated.(2)
     The variable can be either a CC Mode style variable or an
     arbitrary Emacs variable.  In the latter case, it is _not_ made
     buffer-local by the CC Mode style system.

     Two variables are treated specially in the dotted pair list:

          The value is in turn a list of dotted pairs of the form

               (SYNTACTIC-SYMBOL . OFFSET)

          as described in *note c-offsets-alist::.  These are passed to
          `c-set-offset' so there is no need to set every syntactic
          symbol in your style, only those that are different from the
          inherited style.

          The value is added to `c-special-indent-hook' using
          `add-hook', so any functions already on it are kept.  If the
          value is a list, each element of the list is added with

   Styles are kept in the `c-style-alist' variable, but you should
never modify this variable directly.  Instead, CC Mode provides the
function `c-add-style' for this purpose.

 -- Function: c-add-style stylename description &optional set-p
     Add or update a style called STYLENAME, a string.  DESCRIPTION is
     the new style definition in the form described above.  If
     STYLENAME already exists in `c-style-alist' then it is replaced by
     DESCRIPTION.  (Note, this replacement is total.  The old style is
     _not_ merged into the new one.)  Otherwise, a new style is added.

     If the optional SET-P is non-`nil' then the new style is applied
     to the current buffer as well.  The use of this facility is
     deprecated and it might be removed from CC Mode in a future
     release.  You should use `c-set-style' instead.

     The sample `.emacs' file provides a concrete example of how a new
     style can be added and automatically set.  *Note Sample .emacs

 -- Variable: c-style-alist
     This is the variable that holds the definitions for the styles.  It
     should not be changed directly; use `c-add-style' instead.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This table is stored internally in the variable c-fallback-style.

   (2) Note that if the variable has been given a value by the
Customization interface or a `setq' at the top level of your `.emacs',
this value will override the one the style system tries to give it.
*Note Config Basics::.

File: ccmode,  Node: File Styles,  Prev: Adding Styles,  Up: Styles

6.3.4 File Styles

The Emacs manual describes how you can customize certain variables on a
per-file basis by including a "file local variable" block at the end of
the file (*note Local Variables in Files: (emacs)File Variables.).

   So far, you've only seen a functional interface for setting styles in
CC Mode, and this can't be used here.  CC Mode fills the gap by
providing two variables for use in a file's local variable list.  Don't
use them anywhere else!  These allow you to customize the style on a
per-file basis:

 -- Variable: c-file-style
     Set this variable to a style name string in the Local Variables
     list.  From now on, when you visit the file, CC Mode will
     automatically set the file's style to this one using `c-set-style'.

 -- Variable: c-file-offsets
     Set this variable (in the Local Variables list) to an association
     list of the same format as `c-offsets-alist'.  From now on, when
     you visit the file, CC Mode will automatically institute these
     offsets using `c-set-offset'.

   Note that file style settings (i.e. `c-file-style') are applied
before file offset settings (i.e. `c-file-offsets')(1).

   If you set any variables, including style variables, by the file
local variables mechanism, these settings take priority over all other
settings, even those in your mode hooks (*note CC Hooks::).  If you use
`c-file-style' or `c-file-offsets' and also explicitly set a style
variable in a local variable block, the explicit setting will take

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Also, if either of these are set in a file's local variable
section, all the style variable values are made local to that buffer,
even if `c-style-variables-are-local-p' is `nil'.  Since this variable
is virtually always non-`nil' anyhow, you're unlikely to notice this

File: ccmode,  Node: Custom Filling and Breaking,  Next: Custom Auto-newlines,  Prev: Config Basics,  Up: Top

7 Customizing Filling and Line Breaking

Since there's a lot of normal text in comments and string literals, CC
Mode provides features to edit these like in text mode.  It does this
by hooking in on the different line breaking functions and tuning
relevant variables as necessary.

   To make Emacs recognize comments and treat text in them as normal
paragraphs, CC Mode makes several standard variables(1) buffer-local
and modifies them according to the language syntax and the comment line

 -- User Option: c-comment-prefix-regexp
     This style variable contains the regexp used to recognize the
     "comment line prefix", which is the line decoration that starts
     every line in a comment.  The variable is either the comment line
     prefix itself, or (more usually) an association list with different
     values for different languages.  The symbol for the major mode is
     looked up in the alist to get the regexp for the language, and if
     it isn't found then the special symbol `other' is looked up

     When a comment line gets divided by `M-j' or the like, CC Mode
     inserts the comment line prefix from a neighboring line at the
     start of the new line.  The default value of
     c-comment-prefix-regexp is `//+\\|\\**', which matches C++ style
     line comments like

          // blah blah

     with two or more slashes in front of them, and the second and
     subsequent lines of C style block comments like

           * blah blah

     with zero or more stars at the beginning of every line.  If you
     change this variable, please make sure it still matches the
     comment starter (i.e. `//') of line comments _and_ the line prefix
     inside block comments.

     Also note that since CC Mode uses the value of
     `c-comment-prefix-regexp' to set up several other variables at
     mode initialization, there won't be any effect if you just change
     it inside a CC Mode buffer.  You need to call the command
     `c-setup-paragraph-variables' too, to update those other
     variables.  That's also the case if you modify
     `c-comment-prefix-regexp' in a mode hook, since CC Mode will
     already have set up these variables before calling the hook.

   In comments, CC Mode uses `c-comment-prefix-regexp' to adapt the
line prefix from the other lines in the comment.

   CC Mode uses adaptive fill mode (*note Adaptive Fill:
(emacs)Adaptive Fill.) to make Emacs correctly keep the line prefix when
filling paragraphs.  That also makes Emacs preserve the text
indentation _inside_ the comment line prefix.  E.g. in the following
comment, both paragraphs will be filled with the left margins of the
texts kept intact:

     /* Make a balanced b-tree of the nodes in the incoming
      * stream.  But, to quote the famous words of Donald E.
      * Knuth,
      *     Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only
      *     proved it correct, not tried it.

   It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages, notably
Kyle E. Jones' Filladapt package(2), which handles things like bulleted
lists nicely.  There's a convenience function `c-setup-filladapt' that
tunes the relevant variables in Filladapt for use in CC Mode.  Call it
from a mode hook, e.g. with something like this in your `.emacs':

     (defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
       (filladapt-mode 1))
     (add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)

 -- User Option: c-block-comment-prefix
     Normally the comment line prefix inserted for a new line inside a
     comment is deduced from other lines in it.  However there's one
     situation when there's no hint about what the prefix should look
     like, namely when a block comment is broken for the first time.
     This style variable(3) is used then as the comment prefix.  It
     defaults to `* '(4), which makes a comment

          /* Got O(n^2) here, which is a Bad Thing. */

     break into

          /* Got O(n^2) here, which
           * is a Bad Thing. */

     Note that it won't work to adjust the indentation by putting
     leading spaces in `c-block-comment-prefix', since CC Mode still
     uses the normal indentation engine to indent the line.  Thus, the
     right way to fix the indentation is by customizing the `c'
     syntactic symbol.  It defaults to `c-lineup-C-comments', which
     handles the indentation of most common comment styles, see *note
     Line-Up Functions::.

 -- User Option: c-ignore-auto-fill
     When auto fill mode is enabled, CC Mode can selectively ignore it
     depending on the context the line break would occur in, e.g. to
     never break a line automatically inside a string literal.  This
     variable takes a list of symbols for the different contexts where
     auto-filling never should occur:

          Inside a string or character literal.

          Inside a C style block comment.

          Inside a C++ style line comment.

          Inside a preprocessor directive.

          Anywhere else, i.e. in normal code.

     By default, `c-ignore-auto-fill' is set to `(string cpp code)',
     which means that when auto-fill mode is activated, auto-filling
     only occurs in comments.  In literals, it's often desirable to
     have explicit control over newlines.  In preprocessor directives,
     the necessary `\' escape character before the newline is not
     automatically inserted, so an automatic line break would produce
     invalid code.  In normal code, line breaks are normally dictated
     by some logical structure in the code rather than the last
     whitespace character, so automatic line breaks there will produce
     poor results in the current implementation.

   If inside a comment and `comment-multi-line' (*note Auto Fill:
(emacs)Auto Fill. is non-`nil', the indentation and line prefix are
preserved.  If inside a comment and `comment-multi-line' is `nil', a
new comment of the same type is started on the next line and indented
as appropriate for comments.

   Note that CC Mode sets `comment-multi-line' to `t' at startup.  The
reason is that `M-j' could otherwise produce sequences of single line
block comments for texts that should logically be treated as one
comment, and the rest of the paragraph handling code (e.g. `M-q' and
`M-a') can't cope with that, which would lead to inconsistent behavior.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) `comment-start', `comment-end', `comment-start-skip',
`paragraph-start', `paragraph-separate', `paragraph-ignore-fill-prefix',
`adaptive-fill-mode', `adaptive-fill-regexp', and

   (2) It's available from `'.  As of
version 2.12, it does however lack a feature that makes it work
suboptimally when `c-comment-prefix-regexp' matches the empty string
(which it does by default).  A patch for that is available from the CC
Mode web site.

   (3) In versions before 5.26, this variable was called
`c-comment-continuation-stars'.  As a compatibility measure, CC Mode
still uses the value on that variable if it's set.

   (4) Actually, this default setting of `c-block-comment-prefix'
typically gets overridden by the default style `gnu', which sets it to
blank.  You can see the line splitting effect described here by setting
a different style, e.g. `k&r' *Note Choosing a Style::.

File: ccmode,  Node: Custom Auto-newlines,  Next: Clean-ups,  Prev: Custom Filling and Breaking,  Up: Top

8 Customizing Auto-newlines

CC Mode determines whether to insert auto-newlines in two basically
different ways, depending on the character just typed:

Braces and Colons
     CC Mode first determines the syntactic context of the brace or
     colon (*note Syntactic Symbols::), then looks for a corresponding
     element in an alist.  This element specifies where to put newlines
     - this is any combination of before and after the brace or colon.
     If no alist element is found, newlines are inserted both before
     and after a brace, but none are inserted around a colon.  See
     *note Hanging Braces:: and *note Hanging Colons::.

Semicolons and Commas
     The variable `c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria' contains a list of
     functions which determine whether to insert a newline after a newly
     typed semicolon or comma.  *Note Hanging Semicolons and Commas::.

   The names of these configuration variables contain `hanging' because
they let you "hang" the pertinent characters.  A character which
introduces a C construct is said to "hang on the right" when it appears
at the end of a line after other code, being separated by a line break
from the construct it introduces, like the opening brace in:

     while (i < MAX) {
         total += entry[i];
         entry [i++] = 0;

A character "hangs on the left" when it appears at the start of the
line after the construct it closes off, like the above closing brace.

   The next chapter, "Clean-ups", describes how to configure CC Mode to
remove these automatically added newlines in certain specific
circumstances.  *Note Clean-ups::.

* Menu:

* Hanging Braces::
* Hanging Colons::
* Hanging Semicolons and Commas::

File: ccmode,  Node: Hanging Braces,  Next: Hanging Colons,  Prev: Custom Auto-newlines,  Up: Custom Auto-newlines

8.1 Hanging Braces

To specify which kinds of braces you want auto-newlines put around, you
set the style variable `c-hanging-braces-alist'.  Its structure and
semantics are described in this section.  Details of how to set it up,
and its relationship to CC Mode's style system are given in *note Style

   Say you wanted an auto-newline after (but not before) the following

     if (foo < 17) {

First you need to find the "syntactic context" of the brace--type a
<RET> before the brace to get it on a line of its own(1), then type
`C-c C-s'.  That will tell you something like:

     ((substatement-open 1061))

So here you need to put the entry `(substatement-open . (after))' into

   If you don't want any auto-newlines for a particular syntactic
symbol, put this into `c-hanging-braces-alist':


   If some brace syntactic symbol is not in `c-hanging-brace-alist',
its entry is taken by default as `(before after)'--insert a newline
both before and after the brace.  In place of a "before/after" list you
can specify a function in this alist--this is useful when the auto
newlines depend on the code around the brace.

 -- User Option: c-hanging-braces-alist
     This variable is an association list which maps syntactic symbols
     to lists of places to insert a newline.  *Note Association Lists:
     (elisp)Association Lists.  The key of each element is the
     syntactic symbol, the associated value is either `nil', a list, or
     a function.

    The Key - the syntactic symbol
          The syntactic symbols that are useful as keys in this list are
          `brace-list-intro', `statement-cont', `inexpr-class-open',
          `inexpr-class-close', and all the `*-open' and `*-close'
          symbols.  *Note Syntactic Symbols::, for a more detailed
          description of these syntactic symbols, except for
          `inexpr-class-open' and `inexpr-class-close', which aren't
          actual syntactic symbols.  Elements with any other value as a
          key get ignored.

          The braces of anonymous inner classes in Java are given the
          special symbols `inexpr-class-open' and `inexpr-class-close',
          so that they can be distinguished from the braces of normal

          Note that the aggregate constructs in Pike mode, `({', `})',
          `([', `])', and `(<', `>)', do not count as brace lists in
          this regard, even though they do for normal indentation
          purposes.  It's currently not possible to set automatic
          newlines on these constructs.

    The associated value - the "ACTION" list or function
          The value associated with each syntactic symbol in this
          association list is called an ACTION, which can be either a
          list or a function which returns a list.  *Note Custom
          Braces::, for how to use a function as a brace hanging ACTION.

          The list ACTION (or the list returned by ACTION when it's a
          function) contains some combination of the symbols `before'
          and `after', directing CC Mode where to put newlines in
          relationship to the brace being inserted.  Thus, if the list
          contains only the symbol `after', then the brace hangs on the
          right side of the line, as in:

               // here, open braces always `hang'
               void spam( int i ) {
                   if( i == 7 ) {

          When the list contains both `after' and `before', the braces
          will appear on a line by themselves, as shown by the close
          braces in the above example.  The list can also be empty, in
          which case newlines are added neither before nor after the

     If a syntactic symbol is missing entirely from
     `c-hanging-braces-alist', it's treated in the same way as an
     ACTION with a list containing `before' and `after', so that braces
     by default end up on their own line.

     For example, the default value of `c-hanging-braces-alist' is:

           (substatement-open after)
           (block-close . c-snug-do-while)
           (extern-lang-open after)
           (namespace-open after)
           (module-open after)
           (composition-open after)
           (inexpr-class-open after)
           (inexpr-class-close before))

     which says that `brace-list-open', `brace-entry-open' and
     `statement-cont'(3) braces should both hang on the right side and
     allow subsequent text to follow on the same line as the brace.
     Also, `substatement-open', `extern-lang-open', and
     `inexpr-class-open' braces should hang on the right side, but
     subsequent text should follow on the next line.  The opposite
     holds for `inexpr-class-close' braces; they won't hang, but the
     following text continues on the same line.  Here, in the
     `block-close' entry, you also see an example of using a function as
     an ACTION.  In all other cases, braces are put on a line by

* Menu:

* Custom Braces::

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Also insert a `\' at the end of the previous line if you're in
AWK Mode.

   (2) The braces of anonymous classes produce a combination of
`inexpr-class', and `class-open' or `class-close' in normal indentation

   (3) Brace lists inside statements, such as initializers for static
array variables inside functions in C, are recognized as
`statement-cont'.  All normal substatement blocks are recognized with
other symbols.

File: ccmode,  Node: Custom Braces,  Prev: Hanging Braces,  Up: Hanging Braces

8.1.1 Custom Brace Hanging

Syntactic symbols aren't the only place where you can customize CC Mode
with the lisp equivalent of callback functions.  Remember that ACTIONs
are usually a list containing some combination of the symbols `before'
and `after' (*note Hanging Braces::).  For more flexibility, you can
instead specify brace "hanginess" by giving a syntactic symbol an
"action function" in `c-hanging-braces-alist'; this function determines
the "hanginess" of a brace, usually by looking at the code near it.

   An action function is called with two arguments: the syntactic symbol
for the brace (e.g. `substatement-open'), and the buffer position where
the brace has been inserted.  Point is undefined on entry to an action
function, but the function must preserve it (e.g. by using
`save-excursion').  The return value should be a list containing some
combination of `before' and `after', including neither of them (i.e.

 -- Variable: c-syntactic-context
     During the call to the indentation or brace hanging ACTION
     function, this variable is bound to the full syntactic analysis
     list.  This might be, for example, `((block-close 73))'.  Don't
     ever give `c-syntactic-context' a value yourself--this would
     disrupt the proper functioning of CC Mode.

     This variable is also bound in three other circumstances: (i) when
     calling a c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria function (*note Hanging
     Semicolons and Commas::); (ii) when calling a line-up function
     (*note Custom Line-Up::); (iii) when calling a
     c-special-indent-hook function (*note Other Indentation::).

   As an example, CC Mode itself uses this feature to dynamically
determine the hanginess of braces which close "do-while" constructs:

     void do_list( int count, char** atleast_one_string )
         int i=0;
         do {
             handle_string( atleast_one_string[i] );
         } while( i < count );

   CC Mode assigns the `block-close' syntactic symbol to the brace that
closes the `do' construct, and normally we'd like the line that follows
a `block-close' brace to begin on a separate line.  However, with
"do-while" constructs, we want the `while' clause to follow the closing
brace.  To do this, we associate the `block-close' symbol with the
ACTION function `c-snug-do-while':

     (defun c-snug-do-while (syntax pos)
       "Dynamically calculate brace hanginess for do-while statements."
         (let (langelem)
           (if (and (eq syntax 'block-close)
                    (setq langelem (assq 'block-close c-syntactic-context))
                    (progn (goto-char (cdr langelem))
                           (if (= (following-char) ?{)
                               (forward-sexp -1))
                           (looking-at "\\<do\\>[^_]")))
             '(before after)))))

   This function simply looks to see if the brace closes a "do-while"
clause and if so, returns the list `(before)' indicating that a newline
should be inserted before the brace, but not after it.  In all other
cases, it returns the list `(before after)' so that the brace appears
on a line by itself.

File: ccmode,  Node: Hanging Colons,  Next: Hanging Semicolons and Commas,  Prev: Hanging Braces,  Up: Custom Auto-newlines

8.2 Hanging Colons

Using a mechanism similar to brace hanging (*note Hanging Braces::),
colons can also be made to hang using the style variable
`c-hanging-colons-alist' - When a colon is typed, CC Mode determines
its syntactic context, looks this up in the alist
`c-changing-colons-alist' and inserts up to two newlines accordingly.
Here, however, If CC Mode fails to find an entry for a syntactic symbol
in the alist, no newlines are inserted around the newly typed colon.

 -- User Option: c-hanging-colons-alist
    The Key - the syntactic symbol
          The syntactic symbols appropriate as keys in this association
          list are: `case-label', `label', `access-label',
          `member-init-intro', and `inher-intro'.  *Note Syntactic
          Symbols::.  Elements with any other value as a key get

    The associate value - the "ACTION" list
          The ACTION here is simply a list containing a combination of
          the symbols `before' and `after'.  Unlike in
          `c-hanging-braces-alist', functions as ACTIONS are not
          supported - there doesn't seem to be any need for them.

   In C++, double-colons are used as a scope operator but because these
colons always appear right next to each other, newlines before and after
them are controlled by a different mechanism, called "clean-ups" in CC
Mode.  *Note Clean-ups::, for details.

File: ccmode,  Node: Hanging Semicolons and Commas,  Prev: Hanging Colons,  Up: Custom Auto-newlines

8.3 Hanging Semicolons and Commas

 -- User Option: c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria
     This style variable takes a list of functions; these get called
     when you type a semicolon or comma.  The functions are called in
     order without arguments.  When these functions are entered, point
     is just after the newly inserted `;' or `,' and they must preserve
     point (e.g., by using `save-excursion').  During the call, the
     variable `c-syntactic-context' is bound to the syntactic context
     of the current line(1) *note Custom Braces::.  These functions
     don't insert newlines themselves, rather they direct CC Mode
     whether or not to do so.  They should return one of the following

          A newline is to be inserted after the `;' or `,', and no more
          functions from the list are to be called.

          No more functions from the list are to be called, and no
          newline is to be inserted.

          No determination has been made, and the next function in the
          list is to be called.

     Note that auto-newlines are never inserted _before_ a semicolon or
     comma.  If every function in the list is called without a
     determination being made, then no newline is added.

     In AWK mode, this variable is set by default to `nil'.  In the
     other modes, the default value is a list containing a single
     function, `c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist'.  This inserts newlines
     after all semicolons, apart from those separating `for'-clause

 -- Function: c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks
     This is an example of a criteria function, provided by CC Mode.  It
     prevents newlines from being inserted after semicolons when there
     is a non-blank following line.  Otherwise, it makes no
     determination.  To use, add this function to the front of the
     `c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria' list.

          (defun c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks ()
              (if (and (eq last-command-char ?\;)
                       (zerop (forward-line 1))
                       (not (looking-at "^[ \t]*$")))

 -- Function: c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist
 -- Function: c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners
     The function `c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist' is what prevents
     newlines from being inserted inside the parenthesis list of `for'
     statements.  In addition to
     `c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks' described above, CC
     Mode also comes with the criteria function
     `c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners', which suppresses
     newlines after semicolons inside one-line inline method definitions
     (e.g. in C++ or Java).

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This was first introduced in CC Mode 5.31.

File: ccmode,  Node: Clean-ups,  Next: Indentation Engine Basics,  Prev: Custom Auto-newlines,  Up: Top

9 Clean-ups

"Clean-ups" are mechanisms which remove (or exceptionally, add)
whitespace in specific circumstances and are complementary to colon and
brace hanging.  You enable a clean-up by adding its symbol into
`c-cleanup-list', e.g. like this:

     (add-to-list 'c-cleanup-list 'space-before-funcall)

   On the surface, it would seem that clean-ups overlap the
functionality provided by the `c-hanging-*-alist' variables.  Clean-ups,
however, are used to adjust code "after-the-fact", i.e. to adjust the
whitespace in constructs later than when they were typed.

   Most of the clean-ups remove automatically inserted newlines, and are
only active when auto-newline minor mode is turned on.  Others will
work all the time.  Note that clean-ups are only performed when there
is nothing but whitespace appearing between the individual components
of the construct, and (apart from `comment-close-slash') when the
construct does not occur within a literal (*note Auto-newlines::).

 -- User Option: c-cleanup-list
     You configure CC Mode's clean-ups by setting the style variable
     `c-cleanup-list', which is a list of clean-up symbols.  By
     default, CC Mode cleans up only the `scope-operator' construct,
     which is necessary for proper C++ support.

   These are the clean-ups that are only active when electric and
auto-newline minor modes are enabled:

     Clean up `} else {' constructs by placing the entire construct on
     a single line.  Clean up occurs when the open brace after the
     `else' is typed.  So for example, this:

          void spam(int i)
              if( i==7 ) {

     appears like this after the last open brace is typed:

          void spam(int i)
              if( i==7 ) {
              } else {

     Similar to the `brace-else-brace' clean-up, but this cleans up `}
     else if (...) {' constructs.  For example:

          void spam(int i)
              if( i==7 ) {
              else if( i==3 )

     appears like this after the last open parenthesis is typed:

          void spam(int i)
              if( i==7 ) {
              } else if(

     and like this after the last open brace is typed:

          void spam(int i)
              if( i==7 ) {
              } else if( i==3 ) {

     Analogous to `brace-elseif-brace', but cleans up `} catch (...) {'
     in C++ and Java mode.

     Clean up braces following a top-level function or class definition
     that contains no body.  Clean up occurs when the closing brace is
     typed.  Thus the following:

          class Spam

     is transformed into this when the close brace is typed:

          class Spam

     Clean up the terminating semicolon on top-level function or class
     definitions when they follow a close brace.  Clean up occurs when
     the semicolon is typed.  So for example, the following:

          class Spam

     is transformed into this when the semicolon is typed:

          class Spam

     Clean up commas following braces in array and aggregate
     initializers.  Clean up occurs when the comma is typed.  The space
     before the comma is zapped just like the space before the
     semicolon in `defun-close-semi'.

     Clean up double colons which might designate a C++ scope operator
     split across multiple lines(1).  Clean up occurs when the second
     colon is typed.  You will always want `scope-operator' in the
     `c-cleanup-list' when you are editing C++ code.

     Clean up a single line of code enclosed by defun braces by removing
     the whitespace before and after the code.  The clean-up happens
     when the closing brace is typed.  If the variable
     `c-max-one-liner-length' is set, the cleanup is only done if the
     resulting line would be no longer than the value of that variable.

     For example, consider this AWK code:

          BEGIN {
              FS = "\t" # use <TAB> as a field separator

     It gets compacted to the following when the closing brace is typed:

          BEGIN {FS = "\t"} # use <TAB> as a field separator

      -- User Option: c-max-one-liner-length
          The maximum length of the resulting line for which the
          clean-up `one-liner-defun' will be triggered.  This length is
          that of the entire line, including any leading whitespace and
          any trailing comment.  Its default value is 80.  If the value
          is zero or `nil', no limit applies.

   The following clean-ups are always active when they occur on
`c-cleanup-list', regardless of whether Electric minor mode or
Auto-newline minor mode are enabled:

     Insert a space between the function name and the opening
     parenthesis of a function call.  This produces function calls in
     the style mandated by the GNU coding standards, e.g.
     `signal (SIGINT, SIG_IGN)' and `abort ()'.  Clean up occurs when
     the opening parenthesis is typed.  This clean-up should never be
     active in AWK Mode, since such a space is syntactically invalid
     for user defined functions.

     Clean up any space between the function name and the opening
     parenthesis of a function call that has no arguments.  This is
     typically used together with `space-before-funcall' if you prefer
     the GNU function call style for functions with arguments but think
     it looks ugly when it's only an empty parenthesis pair.  I.e. you
     will get `signal (SIGINT, SIG_IGN)', but `abort()'.  Clean up
     occurs when the closing parenthesis is typed.

     When inside a block comment, terminate the comment when you type a
     slash at the beginning of a line (i.e. immediately after the
     comment prefix).  This clean-up removes whitespace preceding the
     slash and if needed, inserts a star to complete the token `*/'.
     Type `C-q /' in this situation if you just want a literal `/'

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Certain C++ constructs introduce ambiguous situations, so
`scope-operator' clean-ups might not always be correct.  This usually
only occurs when scoped identifiers appear in switch label tags.

File: ccmode,  Node: Indentation Engine Basics,  Next: Customizing Indentation,  Prev: Clean-ups,  Up: Top

10 Indentation Engine Basics

This chapter will briefly cover how CC Mode indents lines of code.  It
is helpful to understand the indentation model being used so that you
will know how to customize CC Mode for your personal coding style.  All
the details are in *note Customizing Indentation::.

   CC Mode has an indentation engine that provides a flexible and
general mechanism for customizing indentation.  When CC Mode indents a
line of code, it separates its calculations into two steps:

  1. It analyzes the line to determine its "syntactic symbol(s)" (the
     kind of language construct it's looking at) and its "anchor
     position" (the position earlier in the file that CC Mode will
     indent the line relative to).  The anchor position might be the
     location of an opening brace in the previous line, for example.
     *Note Syntactic Analysis::.

  2. It looks up the syntactic symbol(s) in the configuration to get the
     corresponding "offset(s)".  The symbol `+', which means "indent
     this line one more level" is a typical offset.  CC Mode then
     applies these offset(s) to the anchor position, giving the
     indentation for the line.  The different sorts of offsets are
     described in *note c-offsets-alist::.

   In exceptional circumstances, the syntax directed indentation
described here may be a nuisance rather than a help.  You can disable
it by setting `c-syntactic-indentation' to `nil'.  (To set the variable
interactively, *note Minor Modes::).

 -- User Option: c-syntactic-indentation
     When this is non-`nil' (which it is by default), the indentation
     of code is done according to its syntactic structure.  When it's
     `nil', every line is just indented to the same level as the
     previous one, and `TAB' (`c-indent-command') adjusts the
     indentation in steps of `c-basic-offset'.  The current style
     (*note Config Basics::) then has no effect on indentation, nor do
     any of the variables associated with indentation, not even

* Menu:

* Syntactic Analysis::
* Syntactic Symbols::
* Indentation Calculation::

File: ccmode,  Node: Syntactic Analysis,  Next: Syntactic Symbols,  Prev: Indentation Engine Basics,  Up: Indentation Engine Basics

10.1 Syntactic Analysis

The first thing CC Mode does when indenting a line of code, is to
analyze the line, determining the "syntactic context" of the (first)
construct on that line.  It's a list of "syntactic elements", where
each syntactic element in turn is a list(1)  Here is a brief and
typical example:

     ((defun-block-intro 1959))

The first thing inside each syntactic element is always a "syntactic
symbol".  It describes the kind of construct that was recognized, e.g.
`statement', `substatement', `class-open', `class-close', etc.  *Note
Syntactic Symbols::, for a complete list of currently recognized
syntactic symbols and their semantics.  The remaining entries are
various data associated with the recognized construct - there might be
zero or more.

   Conceptually, a line of code is always indented relative to some
position higher up in the buffer (typically the indentation of the
previous line).  That position is the "anchor position" in the
syntactic element.  If there is an entry after the syntactic symbol in
the syntactic element list then it's either nil or that anchor position.

   Here is an example.  Suppose we had the following code as the only
thing in a C++ buffer (2):

      1: void swap( int& a, int& b )
      2: {
      3:     int tmp = a;
      4:     a = b;
      5:     b = tmp;
      6: }

We can use `C-c C-s' (`c-show-syntactic-information') to report what
the syntactic analysis is for the current line:

`C-c C-s' (`c-show-syntactic-information')
     This command calculates the syntactic analysis of the current line
     and displays it in the minibuffer.  The command also highlights
     the anchor position(s).

   Running this command on line 4 of this example, we'd see in the echo

     ((statement 35))

and the `i' of `int' on line 3 would be highlighted.  This tells us
that the line is a statement and it is indented relative to buffer
position 35, the highlighted position.  If you were to move point to
line 3 and hit `C-c C-s', you would see:

     ((defun-block-intro 29))

This indicates that the `int' line is the first statement in a top
level function block, and is indented relative to buffer position 29,
which is the brace just after the function header.

   Here's another example:

      1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
      2: {
      3:     if( doit )
      4:         {
      5:             return( val + incr );
      6:         }
      7:     return( val );
      8: }

Hitting `C-c C-s' on line 4 gives us:

     ((substatement-open 46))

which tells us that this is a brace that _opens_ a substatement block.

   Syntactic contexts can contain more than one element, and syntactic
elements need not have anchor positions.  The most common example of
this is a "comment-only line":

      1: void draw_list( List<Drawables>& drawables )
      2: {
      3:         // call the virtual draw() method on each element in list
      4:     for( int i=0; i < drawables.count(), ++i )
      5:     {
      6:         drawables[i].draw();
      7:     }
      8: }

Hitting `C-c C-s' on line 3 of this example gives:

     ((comment-intro) (defun-block-intro 46))

and you can see that the syntactic context contains two syntactic
elements.  Notice that the first element, `(comment-intro)', has no
anchor position.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) In CC Mode 5.28 and earlier, a syntactic element was a dotted
pair; the cons was the syntactic symbol and the cdr was the anchor
position.  For compatibility's sake, the parameter passed to a line-up
function still has this dotted pair form (*note Custom Line-Up::).

   (2) The line numbers in this and future examples don't actually
appear in the buffer, of course!

   (3) With a universal argument (i.e. `C-u C-c C-s') the analysis is
inserted into the buffer as a comment on the current line.

   (4) A "substatement" is the line after a conditional statement, such
as `if', `else', `while', `do', `switch', etc.  A "substatement block"
is a brace block following one of these conditional statements.

File: ccmode,  Node: Syntactic Symbols,  Next: Indentation Calculation,  Prev: Syntactic Analysis,  Up: Indentation Engine Basics

10.2 Syntactic Symbols

This section is a complete list of the syntactic symbols which appear
in the `c-offsets-alist' style variable, along with brief descriptions.
The previous section (*note Syntactic Analysis::) states what syntactic
symbols are and how the indentation engine uses them.

   More detailed descriptions of these symbols, together with snippets
of source code to which they apply, appear in the examples in the
subsections below.  Note that, in the interests of brevity, the anchor
position associated with most syntactic symbols is _not_ specified.  In
cases of doubt, type `C-c C-s' on a pertinent line--this highlights the
anchor position.

   The syntactic symbols which indicate brace constructs follow a
general naming convention.  When a line begins with an open or close
brace, its syntactic symbol will contain the suffix `-open' or `-close'
respectively.  The first line within the brace block construct will
contain the suffix `-block-intro'.

   In constructs which can span several lines, a distinction is usually
made between the first line that introduces the construct and the lines
that continue it.  The syntactic symbols that indicate these lines will
contain the suffixes `-intro' or `-cont' respectively.

   The best way to understand how all this works is by looking at some
examples.  Remember that you can see the syntax of any source code line
by using `C-c C-s'.

     Inside a multiline string.  *note Literal Symbols::.

     Inside a multiline C style block comment.  *note Literal Symbols::.

     Brace that opens a top-level function definition.  *note Function

     Brace that closes a top-level function definition.  *note Function

     The first line in a top-level defun.  *note Function Symbols::.

     Brace that opens a class definition.  *note Class Symbols::.

     Brace that closes a class definition.  *note Class Symbols::.

     Brace that opens an in-class inline method.  *note Class Symbols::.

     Brace that closes an in-class inline method.  *note Class

     The region between a function definition's argument list and the
     function opening brace (excluding K&R argument declarations).  In
     C, you cannot put anything but whitespace and comments in this
     region, however in C++ and Java, `throws' declarations and other
     things can appear here.  *note Literal Symbols::.

     First line of a K&R C argument declaration.  *note K&R Symbols::.

     Subsequent lines in a K&R C argument declaration.  *note K&R

     The first line in a "topmost" definition.  *note Function

     Topmost definition continuation lines.  This is only used in the
     parts that aren't covered by other symbols such as
     `func-decl-cont' and `knr-argdecl'.  *note Function Symbols::.

     First line in a member initialization list.  *note Class Symbols::.

     Subsequent member initialization list lines.  *note Class

     First line of a multiple inheritance list.  *note Class Symbols::.

     Subsequent multiple inheritance lines.  *note Class Symbols::.

     Statement block open brace.  *note Literal Symbols::.

     Statement block close brace.  *note Conditional Construct

     Open brace of an enum or static array list.  *note Brace List

     Close brace of an enum or static array list.  *note Brace List

     First line in an enum or static array list.  *note Brace List

     Subsequent lines in an enum or static array list.  *note Brace
     List Symbols::.

     Subsequent lines in an enum or static array list where the line
     begins with an open brace.  *note Brace List Symbols::.

     A statement.  *note Function Symbols::.

     A continuation of a statement.  *note Function Symbols::.

     The first line in a new statement block.  *note Conditional
     Construct Symbols::.

     The first line in a case block.  *note Switch Statement Symbols::.

     The first line in a case block that starts with a brace.  *note
     Switch Statement Symbols::.

     The first line after a conditional or loop construct.  *note
     Conditional Construct Symbols::.

     The brace that opens a substatement block.  *note Conditional
     Construct Symbols::.

     The first line after a conditional or loop construct if it's a
     label.  *note Conditional Construct Symbols::.

     A label in a `switch' block.  *note Switch Statement Symbols::.

     C++ access control label.  *note Class Symbols::.

     Any other label.  *note Literal Symbols::.

     The `while' line that ends a `do'-`while' construct.  *note
     Conditional Construct Symbols::.

     The `else' line of an `if'-`else' construct.  *note Conditional
     Construct Symbols::.

     The `catch' or `finally' (in Java) line of a `try'-`catch'
     construct.  *note Conditional Construct Symbols::.

     A line containing only a comment introduction.  *note Literal

     The first line in an argument list.  *note Paren List Symbols::.

     Subsequent argument list lines when no arguments follow on the same
     line as the arglist opening paren.  *note Paren List Symbols::.

     Subsequent argument list lines when at least one argument follows
     on the same line as the arglist opening paren.  *note Paren List

     The solo close paren of an argument list.  *note Paren List

     Lines continuing a stream operator (C++ only).  *note Literal

     The line is nested inside a class definition.  *note Class

     The start of a preprocessor macro definition.  *note Literal

     The first line inside a multiline preprocessor macro if
     `c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros' is set.  *note Multiline Macro

     All lines inside multiline preprocessor macros if
     `c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros' is `nil'.  *note Multiline
     Macro Symbols::.

     A C++ friend declaration.  *note Class Symbols::.

     The first line of an Objective-C method definition.  *note
     Objective-C Method Symbols::.

     Lines continuing an Objective-C method definition.  *note
     Objective-C Method Symbols::.

     Lines continuing an Objective-C method call.  *note Objective-C
     Method Symbols::.

     Brace that opens an `extern' block (e.g. `extern "C" {...}').
     *note External Scope Symbols::.

     Brace that closes an `extern' block.  *note External Scope

     Analogous to `inclass' syntactic symbol, but used inside `extern'
     blocks.  *note External Scope Symbols::.

     These are analogous to the three `extern-lang' symbols above, but
     are returned for C++ namespace blocks.  *note External Scope

     Analogous to the above, but for CORBA IDL `module' blocks.  *note
     External Scope Symbols::.

     Analogous to the above, but for CORBA CIDL `composition' blocks.
     *note External Scope Symbols::.

     C++ template argument list continuations.  *note Class Symbols::.

     Analogous to `inclass' syntactic symbol, but used inside lambda
     (i.e. anonymous) functions.  Only used in Pike mode.  *note
     Statement Block Symbols::.

     Lines continuing the header of a lambda function, i.e. between the
     `lambda' keyword and the function body.  Only used in Pike mode.
     *note Statement Block Symbols::.

     A statement block inside an expression.  The gcc C and C++
     extension for this is recognized.  It's also used for the special
     functions that take a statement block as an argument in Pike.
     *note Statement Block Symbols::.

     A class definition inside an expression.  This is used for
     anonymous classes in Java.  It's also used for anonymous array
     initializers in Java.  *note Anonymous Class Symbol::.

* Menu:

* Function Symbols::
* Class Symbols::
* Conditional Construct Symbols::
* Switch Statement Symbols::
* Brace List Symbols::
* External Scope Symbols::
* Paren List Symbols::
* Literal Symbols::
* Multiline Macro Symbols::
* Objective-C Method Symbols::
* Anonymous Class Symbol::
* Statement Block Symbols::
* K&R Symbols::

File: ccmode,  Node: Function Symbols,  Next: Class Symbols,  Prev: Syntactic Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.1 Function Symbols

This example shows a typical function declaration.

      1: void
      2: swap( int& a, int& b )
      3: {
      4:     int tmp = a;
      5:     a = b;
      6:     b = tmp;
      7:     int ignored =
      8:         a + b;
      9: }

   Line 1 shows a `topmost-intro' since it is the first line that
introduces a top-level construct.  Line 2 is a continuation of the
top-level construct introduction so it has the syntax
`topmost-intro-cont'.  Line 3 shows a `defun-open' since it is the
brace that opens a top-level function definition.  Line 9 is the
corresponding `defun-close' since it contains the brace that closes the
top-level function definition.  Line 4 is a `defun-block-intro', i.e.
it is the first line of a brace-block, enclosed in a top-level function

   Lines 5, 6, and 7 are all given `statement' syntax since there isn't
much special about them.  Note however that line 8 is given
`statement-cont' syntax since it continues the statement begun on the
previous line.

File: ccmode,  Node: Class Symbols,  Next: Conditional Construct Symbols,  Prev: Function Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.2 Class related Symbols

Here's an example which illustrates some C++ class syntactic symbols:

      1: class Bass
      2:     : public Guitar,
      3:       public Amplifiable
      4: {
      5: public:
      6:     Bass()
      7:         : eString( new BassString( 0.105 )),
      8:           aString( new BassString( 0.085 )),
      9:           dString( new BassString( 0.065 )),
     10:           gString( new BassString( 0.045 ))
     11:     {
     12:         eString.tune( 'E' );
     13:         aString.tune( 'A' );
     14:         dString.tune( 'D' );
     15:         gString.tune( 'G' );
     16:     }
     17:     friend class Luthier;
     18: };

   As in the previous example, line 1 has the `topmost-intro' syntax.
Here however, the brace that opens a C++ class definition on line 4 is
assigned the `class-open' syntax.  Note that in C++, classes, structs,
and unions are essentially equivalent syntactically (and are very
similar semantically), so replacing the `class' keyword in the example
above with `struct' or `union' would still result in a syntax of
`class-open' for line 4 (1).  Similarly, line 18 is assigned
`class-close' syntax.

   Line 2 introduces the inheritance list for the class so it is
assigned the `inher-intro' syntax, and line 3, which continues the
inheritance list is given `inher-cont' syntax.

   Hitting `C-c C-s' on line 5 shows the following analysis:

     ((inclass 58) (access-label 58))

The primary syntactic symbol for this line is `access-label' as this a
label keyword that specifies access protection in C++.  However,
because this line is also a top-level construct inside a class
definition, the analysis actually shows two syntactic symbols.  The
other syntactic symbol assigned to this line is `inclass'.  Similarly,
line 6 is given both `inclass' and `topmost-intro' syntax:

     ((inclass 58) (topmost-intro 60))

   Line 7 introduces a C++ member initialization list and as such is
given `member-init-intro' syntax.  Note that in this case it is _not_
assigned `inclass' since this is not considered a top-level construct.
Lines 8 through 10 are all assigned `member-init-cont' since they
continue the member initialization list started on line 7.

   Line 11's analysis is a bit more complicated:

     ((inclass 58) (inline-open))

   This line is assigned a syntax of both `inline-open' and `inclass'
because it opens an "in-class" C++ inline method definition.  This is
distinct from, but related to, the C++ notion of an inline function in
that its definition occurs inside an enclosing class definition, which
in C++ implies that the function should be inlined.  However, if the
definition of the `Bass' constructor appeared outside the class
definition, the construct would be given the `defun-open' syntax, even
if the keyword `inline' appeared before the method name, as in:

      1: class Bass
      2:     : public Guitar,
      3:       public Amplifiable
      4: {
      5: public:
      6:     Bass();
      7: };
      9: inline
     10: Bass::Bass()
     11:     : eString( new BassString( 0.105 )),
     12:       aString( new BassString( 0.085 )),
     13:       dString( new BassString( 0.065 )),
     14:       gString( new BassString( 0.045 ))
     15: {
     16:     eString.tune( 'E' );
     17:     aString.tune( 'A' );
     18:     dString.tune( 'D' );
     19:     gString.tune( 'G' );
     20: }

   Returning to the previous example, line 16 is given `inline-close'
syntax, while line 12 is given `defun-block-open' syntax, and lines 13
through 15 are all given `statement' syntax.  Line 17 is interesting in
that its syntactic analysis list contains three elements:

     ((inclass 58) (topmost-intro 380) (friend))

   The `friend' and `inline-open' syntactic symbols are modifiers that
do not have anchor positions.

   Template definitions introduce yet another syntactic symbol:

      1: ThingManager <int,
      2:    Framework::Callback *,
      3:    Mutex> framework_callbacks;

   Here, line 1 is analyzed as a `topmost-intro', but lines 2 and 3 are
both analyzed as `template-args-cont' lines.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This is the case even for C and Objective-C.  For consistency,
structs in all supported languages are syntactically equivalent to
classes.  Note however that the keyword `class' is meaningless in C and

File: ccmode,  Node: Conditional Construct Symbols,  Next: Switch Statement Symbols,  Prev: Class Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.3 Conditional Construct Symbols

Here is a (totally contrived) example which illustrates how syntax is
assigned to various conditional constructs:

      1: void spam( int index )
      2: {
      3:     for( int i=0; i<index; i++ )
      4:     {
      5:         if( i == 10 )
      6:             do_something_special();
      7:         else
      8:           silly_label:
      9:             do_something( i );
     10:     }
     11:     do {
     12:         another_thing( i-- );
     13:     }
     14:     while( i > 0 );
     15: }

   Only the lines that illustrate new syntactic symbols will be

   Line 4 has a brace which opens a conditional's substatement block.
It is thus assigned `substatement-open' syntax, and since line 5 is the
first line in the substatement block, it is assigned
`statement-block-intro' syntax.  Line 10 contains the brace that closes
the inner substatement block, and is therefore given the syntax
`block-close'(1).  Line 13 is treated the same way.

   Lines 6 and 9 are also substatements of conditionals, but since they
don't start blocks they are given `substatement' syntax instead of

   Line 8 contains a label, which is normally given `label' syntax.
This one is however a bit special since it's between a conditional and
its substatement.  It's analyzed as `substatement-label' to let you
handle this rather odd case differently from normal labels.

   Line 7 start with an `else' that matches the `if' statement on line
5.  It is therefore given the `else-clause' syntax and is anchored on
the matching `if'.  The `try'-`catch' constructs in C++ and Java are
treated this way too, except that `catch' and (in Java) `finally', are
marked with `catch-clause'.

   The `while' construct on line 14 that closes a `do' conditional is
given the special syntax `do-while-closure' if it appears on a line by
itself.  Note that if the `while' appeared on the same line as the
preceding close brace, that line would still have `block-close' syntax.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) `block-open' is used only for "free-standing" blocks, and is
somewhat rare (*note Literal Symbols:: for an example.)

File: ccmode,  Node: Switch Statement Symbols,  Next: Brace List Symbols,  Prev: Conditional Construct Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.4 Switch Statement Symbols

Switch statements have their own set of syntactic symbols.  Here's an

      1: void spam( enum Ingredient i )
      2: {
      3:     switch( i ) {
      4:     case Ham:
      5:         be_a_pig();
      6:         break;
      7:     case Salt:
      8:         drink_some_water();
      9:         break;
     10:     default:
     11:         {
     12:             what_is_it();
     13:             break;
     14:         }
     15:     }
     14: }

   Here, lines 4, 7, and 10 are all assigned `case-label' syntax, while
lines 5 and 8 are assigned `statement-case-intro'.  Line 11 is treated
slightly differently since it contains a brace that opens a block -- it
is given `statement-case-open' syntax.

File: ccmode,  Node: Brace List Symbols,  Next: External Scope Symbols,  Prev: Switch Statement Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.5 Brace List Symbols

There are a set of syntactic symbols that are used to recognize
constructs inside of brace lists.  A brace list is defined as an `enum'
or aggregate initializer list, such as might statically initialize an
array of structs.  The three special aggregate constructs in Pike, `({
})', `([ ])' and `(< >)', are treated as brace lists too.  An example:

      1: static char* ingredients[] =
      2: {
      3:     "Ham",
      4:     "Salt",
      5:     NULL
      6: };

   Following convention, line 2 in this example is assigned
`brace-list-open' syntax, and line 3 is assigned `brace-list-intro'
syntax.  Likewise, line 6 is assigned `brace-list-close' syntax.  Lines
4 and 5 however, are assigned `brace-list-entry' syntax, as would all
subsequent lines in this initializer list.

   Your static initializer might be initializing nested structures, for

      1: struct intpairs[] =
      2: {
      3:     { 1, 2 },
      4:     {
      5:         3,
      6:         4
      7:     }
      8:     { 1,
      9:       2 },
     10:     { 3, 4 }
     11: };

   Here, you've already seen the analysis of lines 1, 2, 3, and 11.  On
line 4, things get interesting; this line is assigned
`brace-entry-open' syntactic symbol because it's a bracelist entry line
that starts with an open brace.  Lines 5 and 6 (and line 9) are pretty
standard, and line 7 is a `brace-list-close' as you'd expect.  Once
again, line 8 is assigned as `brace-entry-open' as is line 10.

File: ccmode,  Node: External Scope Symbols,  Next: Paren List Symbols,  Prev: Brace List Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.6 External Scope Symbols

External language definition blocks also have their own syntactic
symbols.  In this example:

      1: extern "C"
      2: {
      3:     int thing_one( int );
      4:     int thing_two( double );
      5: }

line 2 is given the `extern-lang-open' syntax, while line 5 is given
the `extern-lang-close' syntax.  The analysis for line 3 yields:

     ((inextern-lang) (topmost-intro 14))

where `inextern-lang' is a modifier similar in purpose to `inclass'.

   There are various other top level blocks like `extern', and they are
all treated in the same way except that the symbols are named after the
keyword that introduces the block.  E.g. C++ namespace blocks get the
three symbols `namespace-open', `namespace-close' and `innamespace'.
The currently recognized top level blocks are:

`extern-lang-open', `extern-lang-close', `inextern-lang'
     `extern' blocks in C and C++.(1)

`namespace-open', `namespace-close', `innamespace'
     `namespace' blocks in C++.

`module-open', `module-close', `inmodule'
     `module' blocks in CORBA IDL.

`composition-open', `composition-close', `incomposition'
     `composition' blocks in CORBA CIDL.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) These should logically be named `extern-open', `extern-close'
and `inextern', but that isn't the case for historical reasons.

File: ccmode,  Node: Paren List Symbols,  Next: Literal Symbols,  Prev: External Scope Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.7 Parenthesis (Argument) List Symbols

A number of syntactic symbols are associated with parenthesis lists,
a.k.a argument lists, as found in function declarations and function
calls.  This example illustrates these:

      1: void a_function( int line1,
      2:                  int line2 );
      4: void a_longer_function(
      5:     int line1,
      6:     int line2
      7:     );
      9: void call_them( int line1, int line2 )
     10: {
     11:     a_function(
     12:         line1,
     13:         line2
     14:         );
     16:     a_longer_function( line1,
     17:                        line2 );
     18: }

   Lines 5 and 12 are assigned `arglist-intro' syntax since they are
the first line following the open parenthesis, and lines 7 and 14 are
assigned `arglist-close' syntax since they contain the parenthesis that
closes the argument list.

   Lines that continue argument lists can be assigned one of two
syntactic symbols.  For example, Lines 2 and 17 are assigned
`arglist-cont-nonempty' syntax.  What this means is that they continue
an argument list, but that the line containing the parenthesis that
opens the list is _not empty_ following the open parenthesis.  Contrast
this against lines 6 and 13 which are assigned `arglist-cont' syntax.
This is because the parenthesis that opens their argument lists is the
last character on that line.

   Syntactic elements with `arglist-intro', `arglist-cont-nonempty',
and `arglist-close' contain two buffer positions: the anchor position
(the beginning of the declaration or statement) and the position of the
open parenthesis.  The latter position can be used in a line-up
function (*note Line-Up Functions::).

   Note that there is no `arglist-open' syntax.  This is because any
parenthesis that opens an argument list, appearing on a separate line,
is assigned the `statement-cont' syntax instead.

File: ccmode,  Node: Literal Symbols,  Next: Multiline Macro Symbols,  Prev: Paren List Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.8 Comment String Label and Macro Symbols

A few miscellaneous syntactic symbols that haven't been previously
covered are illustrated by this C++ example:

      1: void Bass::play( int volume )
      2: const
      3: {
      4:     /* this line starts a multiline
      5:      * comment.  This line should get `c' syntax */
      7:     char* a_multiline_string = "This line starts a multiline \
      8: string.  This line should get `string' syntax.";
     10:   note:
     11:     {
     12: #ifdef LOCK
     13:         Lock acquire();
     14: #endif // LOCK
     15:         slap_pop();
     16:         cout << "I played "
     17:              << "a note\n";
     18:     }
     19: }

   The lines to note in this example include:

   * Line 2 is assigned the `func-decl-cont' syntax.

   * Line 4 is assigned both `defun-block-intro' _and_ `comment-intro'
     syntax.  A syntactic element with `comment-intro' has no anchor
     point -- It is always accompanied by another syntactic element
     which does have one.

   * Line 5 is assigned `c' syntax.

   * Line 6 which, even though it contains nothing but whitespace, is
     assigned `defun-block-intro'.  Note that the appearance of the
     comment on lines 4 and 5 do not cause line 6 to be assigned
     `statement' syntax because comments are considered to be
     "syntactic whitespace", which are ignored when analyzing code.

   * Line 8 is assigned `string' syntax.

   * Line 10 is assigned `label' syntax.

   * Line 11 is assigned `block-open' as well as `statement' syntax.  A
     `block-open' syntactic element doesn't have an anchor position,
     since it always appears with another syntactic element which does
     have one.

   * Lines 12 and 14 are assigned `cpp-macro' syntax in addition to the
     normal syntactic symbols (`statement-block-intro' and `statement',
     respectively).  Normally `cpp-macro' is configured to cancel out
     the normal syntactic context to make all preprocessor directives
     stick to the first column, but that's easily changed if you want
     preprocessor directives to be indented like the rest of the code.
     Like `comment-intro', a syntactic element with `cpp-macro' doesn't
     contain an anchor position.

   * Line 17 is assigned `stream-op' syntax.

File: ccmode,  Node: Multiline Macro Symbols,  Next: Objective-C Method Symbols,  Prev: Literal Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.9 Multiline Macro Symbols

Multiline preprocessor macro definitions are normally handled just like
other code, i.e. the lines inside them are indented according to the
syntactic analysis of the preceding lines inside the macro.  The first
line inside a macro definition (i.e. the line after the starting line of
the cpp directive itself) gets `cpp-define-intro'.  In this example:

      1: #define LIST_LOOP(cons, listp)                         \
      2:   for (cons = listp; !NILP (cons); cons = XCDR (cons)) \
      3:     if (!CONSP (cons))                                 \
      4:       signal_error ("Invalid list format", listp);     \
      5:     else

line 1 is given the syntactic symbol `cpp-macro'.  The first line of a
cpp directive is always given that symbol.  Line 2 is given
`cpp-define-intro', so that you can give the macro body as a whole some
extra indentation.  Lines 3 through 5 are then analyzed as normal code,
i.e. `substatement' on lines 3 and 4, and `else-clause' on line 5.

   The syntactic analysis inside macros can be turned off with
`c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros' (*note Custom Macros::).  In that
case, lines 2 through 5 would all be given `cpp-macro-cont' with an
anchor position pointing to the `#' which starts the cpp directive(1).

   *Note Custom Macros::, for more info about the treatment of macros.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This is how CC Mode 5.28 and earlier analyzed macros.

File: ccmode,  Node: Objective-C Method Symbols,  Next: Anonymous Class Symbol,  Prev: Multiline Macro Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.10 Objective-C Method Symbols

In Objective-C buffers, there are three additional syntactic symbols
assigned to various message calling constructs.  Here's an example
illustrating these:

      1: - (void)setDelegate:anObject
      2:           withStuff:stuff
      3: {
      4:     [delegate masterWillRebind:self
      5:               toDelegate:anObject
      6:               withExtraStuff:stuff];
      7: }

   Here, line 1 is assigned `objc-method-intro' syntax, and line 2 is
assigned `objc-method-args-cont' syntax.  Lines 5 and 6 are both
assigned `objc-method-call-cont' syntax.

File: ccmode,  Node: Anonymous Class Symbol,  Next: Statement Block Symbols,  Prev: Objective-C Method Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.11 Anonymous Class Symbol (Java)

Java has a concept of anonymous classes which can look something like

      1: public void watch(Observable o) {
      2:     o.addObserver(new Observer() {
      3:             public void update(Observable o, Object arg) {
      4:                 history.addElement(arg);
      5:             }
      6:         });
      7: }

   The brace following the `new' operator opens the anonymous class.
Lines 3 and 6 are assigned the `inexpr-class' syntax, besides the
`inclass' symbol used in normal classes.  Thus, the class will be
indented just like a normal class, with the added indentation given to
`inexpr-class'.  An `inexpr-class' syntactic element doesn't have an
anchor position.

File: ccmode,  Node: Statement Block Symbols,  Next: K&R Symbols,  Prev: Anonymous Class Symbol,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.12 Statement Block Symbols

There are a few occasions where a statement block might be used inside
an expression.  One is in C or C++ code using the gcc extension for
this, e.g:

      1: int res = ({
      2:         int y = foo (); int z;
      3:         if (y > 0) z = y; else z = - y;
      4:         z;
      5:     });

   Lines 2 and 5 get the `inexpr-statement' syntax, besides the symbols
they'd get in a normal block.  Therefore, the indentation put on
`inexpr-statement' is added to the normal statement block indentation.
An `inexpr-statement' syntactic element doesn't contain an anchor

   In Pike code, there are a few other situations where blocks occur
inside statements, as illustrated here:

      1: array itgob()
      2: {
      3:     string s = map (backtrace()[-2][3..],
      4:                     lambda
      5:                         (mixed arg)
      6:                     {
      7:                         return sprintf ("%t", arg);
      8:                     }) * ", " + "\n";
      9:     return catch {
     10:             write (s + "\n");
     11:         };
     12: }

   Lines 4 through 8 contain a lambda function, which CC Mode recognizes
by the `lambda' keyword.  If the function argument list is put on a
line of its own, as in line 5, it gets the `lambda-intro-cont' syntax.
The function body is handled as an inline method body, with the
addition of the `inlambda' syntactic symbol.  This means that line 6
gets `inlambda' and `inline-open', and line 8 gets `inline-close'(1).

   On line 9, `catch' is a special function taking a statement block as
its argument.  The block is handled as an in-expression statement with
the `inexpr-statement' syntax, just like the gcc extended C example
above.  The other similar special function, `gauge', is handled like
this too.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) You might wonder why it doesn't get `inlambda' too.  It's
because the closing brace is relative to the opening brace, which
stands on its own line in this example.  If the opening brace was
hanging on the previous line, then the closing brace would get the
`inlambda' syntax too to be indented correctly.

File: ccmode,  Node: K&R Symbols,  Prev: Statement Block Symbols,  Up: Syntactic Symbols

10.2.13 K&R Symbols

Two other syntactic symbols can appear in old style, non-prototyped C
code (1):

      1: int add_three_integers(a, b, c)
      2:      int a;
      3:      int b;
      4:      int c;
      5: {
      6:     return a + b + c;
      7: }

   Here, line 2 is the first line in an argument declaration list and
so is given the `knr-argdecl-intro' syntactic symbol.  Subsequent lines
(i.e. lines 3 and 4 in this example), are given `knr-argdecl' syntax.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) a.k.a. K&R C, or Kernighan & Ritchie C

File: ccmode,  Node: Indentation Calculation,  Prev: Syntactic Symbols,  Up: Indentation Engine Basics

10.3 Indentation Calculation

Indentation for a line is calculated from the syntactic context (*note
Syntactic Analysis::).

   First, a buffer position is found whose column will be the base for
the indentation calculation.  It's the anchor position in the first
syntactic element that provides one that is used.  If no syntactic
element has an anchor position then column zero is used.

   Second, the syntactic symbols in each syntactic element are looked up
in the `c-offsets-alist' style variable (*note c-offsets-alist::),
which is an association list of syntactic symbols and the offsets to
apply for those symbols.  These offsets are added together with the
base column to produce the new indentation column.

   Let's use our two code examples above to see how this works.  Here is
our first example again:

      1: void swap( int& a, int& b )
      2: {
      3:     int tmp = a;
      4:     a = b;
      5:     b = tmp;
      6: }

   Let's say point is on line 3 and we hit the <TAB> key to reindent
the line.  The syntactic context for that line is:

     ((defun-block-intro 29))

Since buffer position 29 is the first and only anchor position in the
list, CC Mode goes there and asks for the current column.  This brace
is in column zero, so CC Mode uses `0' as the base column.

   Next, CC Mode looks up `defun-block-intro' in the `c-offsets-alist'
style variable.  Let's say it finds the value `4'; it adds this to the
base column `0', yielding a running total indentation of 4 spaces.

   Since there is only one syntactic element on the list for this line,
indentation calculation is complete, and the total indentation for the
line is 4 spaces.

   Here's another example:

      1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
      2: {
      3:     if( doit )
      4:         {
      5:             return( val + incr );
      6:         }
      7:     return( val );
      8: }

   If we were to hit `TAB' on line 4 in the above example, the same
basic process is performed, despite the differences in the syntactic
context.  The context for this line is:

     ((substatement-open 46))

   Here, CC Mode goes to buffer position 46, which is the `i' in `if'
on line 3.  This character is in the fourth column on that line so the
base column is `4'.  Then CC Mode looks up the `substatement-open'
symbol in `c-offsets-alist'.  Let's say it finds the value `4'.  It's
added with the base column and yields an indentation for the line of 8

   Simple, huh?

   Actually, it's a bit more complicated than that since the entries on
`c-offsets-alist' can be much more than plain offsets.  *Note
c-offsets-alist::, for the full story.

   Anyway, the mode usually just does The Right Thing without you
having to think about it in this much detail.  But when customizing
indentation, it's helpful to understand the general indentation model
being used.

   As you configure CC Mode, you might want to set the variable
`c-echo-syntactic-information-p' to non-`nil' so that the syntactic
context and calculated offset always is echoed in the minibuffer when
you hit `TAB'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Customizing Indentation,  Next: Custom Macros,  Prev: Indentation Engine Basics,  Up: Top

11 Customizing Indentation

The principal variable for customizing indentation is the style
variable `c-offsets-alist', which gives an "offset" (an indentation
rule) for each syntactic symbol.  Its structure and semantics are
completely described in *note c-offsets-alist::.  The various ways you
can set the variable, including the use of the CC Mode style system,
are described in *note Config Basics:: and its sections, in particular
*note Style Variables::.

   The simplest and most used kind of "offset" setting in
`c-offsets-alist' is in terms of multiples of `c-basic-offset':

 -- User Option: c-basic-offset
     This style variable holds the basic offset between indentation
     levels.  It's factory default is 4, but all the built-in styles
     set it themselves, to some value between 2 (for `gnu' style) and 8
     (for `bsd', `linux', and `python' styles).

   The most flexible "offset" setting you can make in `c-offsets-alist'
is a line-up function (or even a list of them), either one supplied by
CC Mode (*note Line-Up Functions::) or one you write yourself (*note
Custom Line-Up::).

   Finally, in *note Other Indentation:: you'll find the tool of last
resort: a hook which is called after a line has been indented.  You can
install functions here to make ad-hoc adjustments to any line's

* Menu:

* c-offsets-alist::
* Interactive Customization::
* Line-Up Functions::
* Custom Line-Up::
* Other Indentation::

File: ccmode,  Node: c-offsets-alist,  Next: Interactive Customization,  Prev: Customizing Indentation,  Up: Customizing Indentation

11.1 c-offsets-alist

This section explains the structure and semantics of the style variable
`c-offset-alist', the principal variable for configuring indentation.
Details of how to set it up, and its relationship to CC Mode's style
system are given in *note Style Variables::.

 -- User Option: c-offsets-alist
     This is an alist which associates an offset with each syntactic
     symbol.  This "offset" is a rule specifying how to indent a line
     whose syntactic context matches the symbol.  *Note Syntactic

     Note that the buffer-local binding of this alist in a CC Mode
     buffer contains an entry for _every_ syntactic symbol.  Its global
     binding and its settings within style specifications usually
     contain only a few entries.  *Note Style Variables::.

     The offset specification associated with any particular syntactic
     symbol can be an integer, a variable name, a vector, a function or
     lambda expression, a list, or one of the following special symbols:
     `+', `-', `++', `--', `*', or `/'.  The meanings of these values
     are described in detail below.

     Here is an example fragment of a `c-offsets-alist', showing some
     of these kinds of offsets:

          ((statement . 0)
           (substatement . +)
           (cpp-macro . [0])
           (topmost-intro-cont . c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont)
           (statement-block-intro . (add c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block

 -- Command: c-set-offset (`C-c C-o')
     This command changes the entry for a syntactic symbol in the
     current binding of `c-offsets-alist', or it inserts a new entry if
     there isn't already one for that syntactic symbol.

     You can use `c-set-offsets' interactively within a CC Mode buffer
     to make experimental changes to your indentation settings.  `C-c
     C-o' prompts you for the syntactic symbol to change (defaulting to
     that of the current line) and the new offset (defaulting to the
     current offset).

     `c-set-offsets' takes two arguments when used programmatically:
     SYMBOL, the syntactic element symbol to change and OFFSET, the new
     offset for that syntactic element.  You can call the command in
     your `.emacs' to change the global binding of `c-offsets-alist'
     (*note Style Variables::); you can use it in a hook function to
     make changes from the current style.  CC Mode itself uses this
     function when initializing styles.

   The "offset specifications" in `c-offsets-alist' can be any of the

An integer
     The integer specifies a relative offset.  All relative offsets(1)
     will be added together and used to calculate the indentation
     relative to an anchor position earlier in the buffer.  *Note
     Indentation Calculation::, for details.  Most of the time, it's
     probably better to use one of the special symbols like `+' than an
     integer (apart from zero).

One of the symbols `+', `-', `++', `--', `*', or `/'
     These special symbols describe a relative offset in multiples of

     By defining a style's indentation in terms of `c-basic-offset',
     you can change the amount of whitespace given to an indentation
     level while maintaining the same basic shape of your code.  Here
     are the values that the special symbols correspond to:

          `c-basic-offset' times 1

          `c-basic-offset' times -1

          `c-basic-offset' times 2

          `c-basic-offset' times -2

          `c-basic-offset' times 0.5

          `c-basic-offset' times -0.5

A vector
     The first element of the vector, an integer, sets the absolute
     indentation column.  This will override any previously calculated
     indentation, but won't override relative indentation calculated
     from syntactic elements later on in the syntactic context of the
     line being indented.  *Note Indentation Calculation::.  Any
     elements in the vector beyond the first will be ignored.

A function or lambda expression
     The function will be called and its return value will in turn be
     evaluated as an offset specification.  Functions are useful when
     more context than just the syntactic symbol is needed to get the
     desired indentation.  *Note Line-Up Functions::, and *note Custom
     Line-Up::, for details about them.

A symbol with a variable binding
     If the symbol also has a function binding, the function takes
     precedence over the variable.  Otherwise the value of the variable
     is used.  It must be an integer (which is used as relative offset)
     or a vector (an absolute offset).

A list
     The offset can also be a list containing several offset
     specifications; these are evaluated recursively and combined.  A
     list is typically only useful when some of the offsets are line-up
     functions.  A common strategy is calling a sequence of functions in
     turn until one of them recognizes that it is appropriate for the
     source line and returns a non-`nil' value.

     `nil' values are always ignored when the offsets are combined.
     The first element of the list specifies the method of combining the
     non-`nil' offsets from the remaining elements:

          Use the first offset that doesn't evaluate to `nil'.
          Subsequent elements of the list don't get evaluated.

          Use the minimum of all the offsets.  All must be either
          relative or absolute - they can't be mixed.

          Use the maximum of all the offsets.  All must be either
          relative or absolute - they can't be mixed.

          Add all the evaluated offsets together.  Exactly one of them
          may be absolute, in which case the result is absolute.  Any
          relative offsets that preceded the absolute one in the list
          will be ignored in that case.

     As a compatibility measure, if the first element is none of the
     above then it too will be taken as an offset specification and the
     whole list will be combined according to the method `first'.

   If an offset specification evaluates to `nil', then a relative
offset of 0 (zero) is used(2).

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The syntactic context
`((defun-block-intro 2724) (comment-intro))' would likely have two
relative offsets.

   (2) There is however a variable `c-strict-syntax-p' that when set to
non-`nil' will cause an error to be signaled in that case.  It's now
considered obsolete since it doesn't work well with some of the
alignment functions that return `nil' instead of zero.  You should
therefore leave `c-strict-syntax-p' set to `nil'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Interactive Customization,  Next: Line-Up Functions,  Prev: c-offsets-alist,  Up: Customizing Indentation

11.2 Interactive Customization

As an example of how to customize indentation, let's change the style
of this example(1):

      1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
      2: {
      3:   if( doit )
      4:     {
      5:       return( val + incr );
      6:     }
      7:   return( val );
      8: }


      1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
      2: {
      3:   if( doit )
      4:   {
      5:     return( val + incr );
      6:   }
      7:   return( val );
      8: }

   In other words, we want to change the indentation of braces that
open a block following a condition so that the braces line up under the
conditional, instead of being indented.  Notice that the construct we
want to change starts on line 4.  To change the indentation of a line,
we need to see which syntactic symbols affect the offset calculations
for that line.  Hitting `C-c C-s' on line 4 yields:

     ((substatement-open 44))

so we know that to change the offset of the open brace, we need to
change the indentation for the `substatement-open' syntactic symbol.

   To do this interactively, just hit `C-c C-o'.  This prompts you for
the syntactic symbol to change, providing a reasonable default.  In
this case, the default is `substatement-open', which is just the
syntactic symbol we want to change!

   After you hit return, CC Mode will then prompt you for the new
offset value, with the old value as the default.  The default in this
case is `+', but we want no extra indentation so enter `0' and `RET'.
This will associate the offset 0 with the syntactic symbol

   To check your changes quickly, just hit `C-c C-q' (`c-indent-defun')
to reindent the entire function.  The example should now look like:

      1: int add( int val, int incr, int doit )
      2: {
      3:   if( doit )
      4:   {
      5:     return( val + incr );
      6:   }
      7:   return( val );
      8: }

   Notice how just changing the open brace offset on line 4 is all we
needed to do.  Since the other affected lines are indented relative to
line 4, they are automatically indented the way you'd expect.  For more
complicated examples, this might not always work.  The general approach
to take is to always start adjusting offsets for lines higher up in the
file, then reindent and see if any following lines need further

 -- Command: c-set-offset symbol offset
     This is the command bound to `C-c C-o'.  It provides a convenient
     way to set offsets on `c-offsets-alist' both interactively (see
     the example above) and from your mode hook.

     It takes two arguments when used programmatically: SYMBOL is the
     syntactic element symbol to change and OFFSET is the new offset
     for that syntactic element.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) In this and subsequent examples, the original code is formatted
using the `gnu' style unless otherwise indicated.  *Note Styles::.

File: ccmode,  Node: Line-Up Functions,  Next: Custom Line-Up,  Prev: Interactive Customization,  Up: Customizing Indentation

11.3 Line-Up Functions

Often there are cases when a simple offset setting on a syntactic
symbol isn't enough to get the desired indentation--for example, you
might want to line up a closing parenthesis with the matching opening
one rather than indenting relative to its "anchor point".  CC Mode
provides this flexibility with "line-up functions".

   The way you associate a line-up function with a syntactic symbol is
described in *note c-offsets-alist::.  CC Mode comes with many
predefined line-up functions for common situations.  If none of these
does what you want, you can write your own.  *Note Custom Line-Up::.
Sometimes, it is easier to tweak the standard indentation by adding a
function to `c-special-indent-hook' (*note Other Indentation::).

   The line-up functions haven't been adapted for AWK buffers or tested
with them.  Some of them might work serendipitously.  There shouldn't be
any problems writing custom line-up functions for AWK mode.

   The calling convention for line-up functions is described fully in
*note Custom Line-Up::.  Roughly speaking, the return value is either an
offset itself (such as `+' or `[0]') or it's `nil', meaning "this
function is inappropriate in this case - try a different one".  *Note

   The subsections below describe all the standard line-up functions,
categorized by the sort of token the lining-up centers around.  For
each of these functions there is a "works with" list that indicates
which syntactic symbols the function is intended to be used with.

* Menu:

* Brace/Paren Line-Up::
* List Line-Up::
* Operator Line-Up::
* Comment Line-Up::
* Misc Line-Up::

File: ccmode,  Node: Brace/Paren Line-Up,  Next: List Line-Up,  Prev: Line-Up Functions,  Up: Line-Up Functions

11.3.1 Brace and Parenthesis Line-Up Functions

The line-up functions here calculate the indentation for braces,
parentheses and statements within brace blocks.

 -- Function: c-lineup-close-paren
     Line up the closing paren under its corresponding open paren if the
     open paren is followed by code.  If the open paren ends its line,
     no indentation is added.  E.g:

          main (int,
                char **
               )                <- c-lineup-close-paren


          main (
              int, char **
          )                     <- c-lineup-close-paren

     As a special case, if a brace block is opened at the same line as
     the open parenthesis of the argument list, the indentation is
     `c-basic-offset' instead of the open paren column.  See
     `c-lineup-arglist' for further discussion of this "DWIM" measure.

     Works with: All `*-close' symbols.

 -- Function: c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren
     Set your `arglist-close' syntactic symbol to this line-up function
     so that parentheses that close argument lists will line up under
     the parenthesis that opened the argument list.  It can also be
     used with `arglist-cont' and `arglist-cont-nonempty' to line up all
     lines inside a parenthesis under the open paren.

     As a special case, if a brace block is opened at the same line as
     the open parenthesis of the argument list, the indentation is
     `c-basic-offset' only.  See `c-lineup-arglist' for further
     discussion of this "DWIM" measure.

     Works with: Almost all symbols, but are typically most useful on
     `arglist-close', `brace-list-close', `arglist-cont' and

 -- Function: c-indent-one-line-block
     Indent a one line block `c-basic-offset' extra.  E.g:

          if (n > 0)
              {m+=n; n=0;}      <- c-indent-one-line-block
          <--> c-basic-offset


          if (n > 0)
          {                     <- c-indent-one-line-block
              m+=n; n=0;

     The block may be surrounded by any kind of parenthesis characters.
     `nil' is returned if the line doesn't start with a one line block,
     which makes the function usable in list expressions.

     Works with: Almost all syntactic symbols, but most useful on the
     `-open' symbols.

 -- Function: c-indent-multi-line-block
     Indent a multiline block `c-basic-offset' extra.  E.g:

          int *foo[] = {
              {17},             <- c-indent-multi-line-block


          int *foo[] = {
                  {             <- c-indent-multi-line-block
              <--> c-basic-offset

     The block may be surrounded by any kind of parenthesis characters.
     `nil' is returned if the line doesn't start with a multiline
     block, which makes the function usable in list expressions.

     Works with: Almost all syntactic symbols, but most useful on the
     `-open' symbols.

 -- Function: c-lineup-runin-statements
     Line up statements for coding standards which place the first
     statement in a block on the same line as the block opening
     brace(1).  E.g:

          int main()
          { puts ("Hello!");
            return 0;           <- c-lineup-runin-statements

     If there is no statement after the opening brace to align with,
     `nil' is returned.  This makes the function usable in list

     Works with: The `statement' syntactic symbol.

 -- Function: c-lineup-inexpr-block
     This can be used with the in-expression block symbols to indent the
     whole block to the column where the construct is started.  E.g.
     for Java anonymous classes, this lines up the class under the
     `new' keyword, and in Pike it lines up the lambda function body
     under the `lambda' keyword.  Returns `nil' if the block isn't part
     of such a construct.

     Works with: `inlambda', `inexpr-statement', `inexpr-class'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks
     Compensate for Whitesmith style indentation of blocks.  Due to the
     way CC Mode calculates anchor positions for normal lines inside
     blocks, this function is necessary for those lines to get correct
     Whitesmith style indentation.  Consider the following examples:

          int foo()
              x;                 <- c-lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks

          int foo()
              x;                 <- c-lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks

     The fact that the line with `x' is preceded by a Whitesmith style
     indented block in the latter case and not the first should not
     affect its indentation.  But since CC Mode in cases like this uses
     the indentation of the preceding statement as anchor position, the
     `x' would in the second case be indented too much if the offset for
     `statement' was set simply to zero.

     This lineup function corrects for this situation by detecting if
     the anchor position is at an open paren character.  In that case,
     it instead indents relative to the surrounding block just like

     Works with: `brace-list-entry', `brace-entry-open', `statement',

 -- Function: c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block
     Line up lines inside a block in Whitesmith style.  It's done in a
     way that works both when the opening brace hangs and when it
     doesn't.  E.g:

              foo;              <- c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block


          something {
              foo;              <- c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block
          <--> c-basic-offset

     In the first case the indentation is kept unchanged, in the second
     `c-basic-offset' is added.

     Works with: `defun-close', `defun-block-intro', `inline-close',
     `block-close', `brace-list-close', `brace-list-intro',
     `statement-block-intro', `arglist-intro', `arglist-cont-nonempty',
     `arglist-close', and all `in*' symbols, e.g. `inclass' and

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Run-in style doesn't really work too well.  You might need to
write your own custom line-up functions to better support this style.

File: ccmode,  Node: List Line-Up,  Next: Operator Line-Up,  Prev: Brace/Paren Line-Up,  Up: Line-Up Functions

11.3.2 List Line-Up Functions

The line-up functions here calculate the indentation for lines which
form lists of items, usually separated by commas.

   The function *note c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren::, which is
mainly for indenting a close parenthesis, is also useful for the lines
contained within parentheses.

 -- Function: c-lineup-arglist
     Line up the current argument line under the first argument.

     As a special case, if an argument on the same line as the open
     parenthesis starts with a brace block opener, the indentation is
     `c-basic-offset' only.  This is intended as a "DWIM" measure in
     cases like macros that contain statement blocks, e.g:

                  some (code, with + long, lines * in[it]);
          <--> c-basic-offset

     This is motivated partly because it's more in line with how code
     blocks are handled, and partly since it approximates the behavior
     of earlier CC Mode versions, which due to inaccurate analysis
     tended to indent such cases this way.

     Works with: `arglist-cont-nonempty', `arglist-close'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren
     Line up a line to just after the open paren of the surrounding
     paren or brace block.

     Works with: `defun-block-intro', `brace-list-intro',
     `statement-block-intro', `statement-case-intro', `arglist-intro'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-multi-inher
     Line up the classes in C++ multiple inheritance clauses and member
     initializers under each other.  E.g:

          Foo::Foo (int a, int b):
              Cyphr (a),
              Bar (b)           <- c-lineup-multi-inher


          class Foo
              : public Cyphr,
                public Bar      <- c-lineup-multi-inher


          Foo::Foo (int a, int b)
              : Cyphr (a)
              , Bar (b)         <- c-lineup-multi-inher

     Works with: `inher-cont', `member-init-cont'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-java-inher
     Line up Java implements and extends declarations.  If class names
     follow on the same line as the `implements'/`extends' keyword,
     they are lined up under each other.  Otherwise, they are indented
     by adding `c-basic-offset' to the column of the keyword.  E.g:

          class Foo
                  Bar           <- c-lineup-java-inher
              <--> c-basic-offset


          class Foo
              extends Cyphr,
                      Bar       <- c-lineup-java-inher

     Works with: `inher-cont'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-java-throws
     Line up Java throws declarations.  If exception names follow on the
     same line as the throws keyword, they are lined up under each
     other.  Otherwise, they are indented by adding `c-basic-offset' to
     the column of the `throws' keyword.  The `throws' keyword itself
     is also indented by `c-basic-offset' from the function declaration
     start if it doesn't hang.  E.g:

          int foo()
              throws            <- c-lineup-java-throws
                  Bar           <- c-lineup-java-throws
          <--><--> c-basic-offset


          int foo() throws Cyphr,
                           Bar,    <- c-lineup-java-throws
                           Vlod    <- c-lineup-java-throws

     Works with: `func-decl-cont'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-template-args
     Line up the arguments of a template argument list under each
     other, but only in the case where the first argument is on the
     same line as the opening `<'.

     To allow this function to be used in a list expression, `nil' is
     returned if there's no template argument on the first line.

     Works with: `template-args-cont'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-ObjC-method-call
     For Objective-C code, line up selector args as Emacs Lisp mode does
     with function args: go to the position right after the message
     receiver, and if you are at the end of the line, indent the
     current line c-basic-offset columns from the opening bracket;
     otherwise you are looking at the first character of the first
     method call argument, so lineup the current line with it.

     Works with: `objc-method-call-cont'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-ObjC-method-args
     For Objective-C code, line up the colons that separate args.  The
     colon on the current line is aligned with the one on the first

     Works with: `objc-method-args-cont'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-ObjC-method-args-2
     Similar to `c-lineup-ObjC-method-args' but lines up the colon on
     the current line with the colon on the previous line.

     Works with: `objc-method-args-cont'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Operator Line-Up,  Next: Comment Line-Up,  Prev: List Line-Up,  Up: Line-Up Functions

11.3.3 Operator Line-Up Functions

The line-up functions here calculate the indentation for lines which
start with an operator, by lining it up with something on the previous

 -- Function: c-lineup-argcont
     Line up a continued argument.  E.g:

          foo (xyz, aaa + bbb + ccc
                    + ddd + eee + fff);  <- c-lineup-argcont

     Only continuation lines like this are touched, `nil' is returned on
     lines which are the start of an argument.

     Within a gcc `asm' block, `:' is recognized as an argument
     separator, but of course only between operand specifications, not
     in the expressions for the operands.

     Works with: `arglist-cont', `arglist-cont-nonempty'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-arglist-operators
     Line up lines starting with an infix operator under the open paren.
     Return `nil' on lines that don't start with an operator, to leave
     those cases to other line-up functions.  Example:

          if (  x < 10
             || at_limit (x,     <- c-lineup-arglist-operators
                          list)  <- c-lineup-arglist-operators returns nil

     Since this function doesn't do anything for lines without an infix
     operator you typically want to use it together with some other
     lineup settings, e.g. as follows (the `arglist-close' setting is
     just a suggestion to get a consistent style):

          (c-set-offset 'arglist-cont
                        '(c-lineup-arglist-operators 0))
          (c-set-offset 'arglist-cont-nonempty
                        '(c-lineup-arglist-operators c-lineup-arglist))
          (c-set-offset 'arglist-close

     Works with: `arglist-cont', `arglist-cont-nonempty'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-assignments
     Line up the current line after the assignment operator on the
     first line in the statement.  If there isn't any, return nil to
     allow stacking with other line-up functions.  If the current line
     contains an assignment operator too, try to align it with the
     first one.

     Works with: `topmost-intro-cont', `statement-cont',
     `arglist-cont', `arglist-cont-nonempty'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-math
     Like `c-lineup-assignments' but indent with `c-basic-offset' if no
     assignment operator was found on the first line.  I.e. this
     function is the same as specifying a list `(c-lineup-assignments
     +)'.  It's provided for compatibility with old configurations.

     Works with: `topmost-intro-cont', `statement-cont',
     `arglist-cont', `arglist-cont-nonempty'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-cascaded-calls
     Line up "cascaded calls" under each other.  If the line begins with
     `->' or `.' and the preceding line ends with one or more function
     calls preceded by the same token, then the arrow is lined up with
     the first of those tokens.  E.g:

          r = proc->add(17)->add(18)
                  ->add(19) +         <- c-lineup-cascaded-calls
            offset;                   <- c-lineup-cascaded-calls (inactive)

     In any other situation `nil' is returned to allow use in list

     Works with: `topmost-intro-cont', `statement-cont',
     `arglist-cont', `arglist-cont-nonempty'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-streamop
     Line up C++ stream operators (i.e. `<<' and `>>').

     Works with: `stream-op'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-string-cont
     Line up a continued string under the one it continues.  A continued
     string in this sense is where a string literal follows directly
     after another one.  E.g:

          result = prefix + "A message "
                            "string.";    <- c-lineup-string-cont

     `nil' is returned in other situations, to allow stacking with other
     lineup functions.

     Works with: `topmost-intro-cont', `statement-cont',
     `arglist-cont', `arglist-cont-nonempty'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Comment Line-Up,  Next: Misc Line-Up,  Prev: Operator Line-Up,  Up: Line-Up Functions

11.3.4 Comment Line-Up Functions

The lineup functions here calculate the indentation for several types
of comment structure.

 -- Function: c-lineup-C-comments
     Line up C block comment continuation lines.  Various heuristics
     are used to handle most of the common comment styles.  Some

          /*                 /**               /*
           * text             * text             text
           */                 */               */

          /* text            /*                /**
             text            ** text            ** text
          */                 */                 */

           * text

              Free form text comments:
           In comments with a long delimiter line at the
           start, the indentation is kept unchanged for lines
           that start with an empty comment line prefix.  The
           delimiter line is whatever matches the
           `comment-start-skip' regexp.

     The style variable `c-comment-prefix-regexp' is used to recognize
     the comment line prefix, e.g. the `*' that usually starts every
     line inside a comment.

     Works with: The `c' syntactic symbol.

 -- Function: c-lineup-comment
     Line up a comment-only line according to the style variable
     `c-comment-only-line-offset'.  If the comment is lined up with a
     comment starter on the previous line, that alignment is preserved.

      -- User Option: c-comment-only-line-offset
          This style variable specifies the extra offset for the line.
          It can contain an integer or a cons cell of the form


          where NON-ANCHORED-OFFSET is the amount of offset given to
          non-column-zero anchored lines, and ANCHORED-OFFSET is the
          amount of offset to give column-zero anchored lines.  Just an
          integer as value is equivalent to `(VALUE . -1000)'.

     Works with: `comment-intro'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-knr-region-comment
     Line up a comment in the "K&R region" with the declaration.  That
     is the region between the function or class header and the
     beginning of the block.  E.g:

          int main()
          /* Called at startup. */  <- c-lineup-knr-region-comment
            return 0;

     Return `nil' if called in any other situation, to be useful in list

     Works with: `comment-intro'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Misc Line-Up,  Prev: Comment Line-Up,  Up: Line-Up Functions

11.3.5 Miscellaneous Line-Up Functions

The line-up functions here are the odds and ends which didn't fit into
any earlier category.

 -- Function: c-lineup-dont-change
     This lineup function makes the line stay at whatever indentation it
     already has; think of it as an identity function for lineups.

     Works with: Any syntactic symbol.

 -- Function: c-lineup-cpp-define
     Line up macro continuation lines according to the indentation of
     the construct preceding the macro.  E.g:

          const char msg[] =    <- The beginning of the preceding construct.
            \"Some text.\";

          #define X(A, B)  \
          do {             \    <- c-lineup-cpp-define
            printf (A, B); \
          } while (0)


          int dribble() {
            if (!running)       <- The beginning of the preceding construct.
              error(\"Not running!\");

          #define X(A, B)    \
            do {             \  <- c-lineup-cpp-define
              printf (A, B); \
            } while (0)

     If `c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros' is non-`nil', the function
     returns the relative indentation to the macro start line to allow
     accumulation with other offsets.  E.g. in the following cases,
     `cpp-define-intro' is combined with the `statement-block-intro'
     that comes from the `do {' that hangs on the `#define' line:

          const char msg[] =
            \"Some text.\";

          #define X(A, B) do { \
            printf (A, B);     \  <- c-lineup-cpp-define
            this->refs++;      \
          } while (0)             <- c-lineup-cpp-define


          int dribble() {
            if (!running)
              error(\"Not running!\");

          #define X(A, B) do { \
              printf (A, B);   \  <- c-lineup-cpp-define
              this->refs++;    \
            } while (0)           <- c-lineup-cpp-define

     The relative indentation returned by `c-lineup-cpp-define' is zero
     and two, respectively, on the two lines in each of these examples.
     They are then added to the two column indentation that
     `statement-block-intro' gives in both cases here.

     If the relative indentation is zero, then `nil' is returned
     instead.  That is useful in a list expression to specify the
     default indentation on the top level.

     If `c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros' is `nil' then this function
     keeps the current indentation, except for empty lines (ignoring
     the ending backslash) where it takes the indentation from the
     closest preceding nonempty line in the macro.  If there's no such
     line in the macro then the indentation is taken from the construct
     preceding it, as described above.

     Works with: `cpp-define-intro'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-gcc-asm-reg
     Line up a gcc asm register under one on a previous line.

              asm ("foo %1, %0\n"
                   "bar %0, %1"
                   : "=r" (w),
                     "=r" (x)
                   :  "0" (y),
                      "1" (z));

     The `x' line is aligned to the text after the `:' on the `w' line,
     and similarly `z' under `y'.

     This is done only in an `asm' or `__asm__' block, and only to
     those lines mentioned.  Anywhere else `nil' is returned.  The usual
     arrangement is to have this routine as an extra feature at the
     start of arglist lineups, e.g.

          (c-lineup-gcc-asm-reg c-lineup-arglist)

     Works with: `arglist-cont', `arglist-cont-nonempty'.

 -- Function: c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont
     Line up declaration continuation lines zero or one indentation
     step(1).  For lines preceding a definition, zero is used.  For
     other lines, `c-basic-offset' is added to the indentation.  E.g:

          neg (int i)           <- c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont
              return -i;


          larch                 <- c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont
              double height;
              the_larch,        <- c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont
              another_larch;    <- c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont
          <--> c-basic-offset


          struct larch
          the_larch,            <- c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont
              another_larch;    <- c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont

     Works with: `topmost-intro-cont'.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) This function is mainly provided to mimic the behavior of CC
Mode 5.28 and earlier where this case wasn't handled consistently so
that those lines could be analyzed as either topmost-intro-cont or
statement-cont.  It's used for `topmost-intro-cont' by default, but you
might consider using `+' instead.

File: ccmode,  Node: Custom Line-Up,  Next: Other Indentation,  Prev: Line-Up Functions,  Up: Customizing Indentation

11.4 Custom Line-Up Functions

The most flexible way to customize indentation is by writing custom
line-up functions, and associating them with specific syntactic symbols
(*note c-offsets-alist::).  Depending on the effect you want, it might
be better to write a `c-special-indent-hook' function rather than a
line-up function (*note Other Indentation::).

   CC Mode comes with an extensive set of predefined line-up functions,
not all of which are used by the default styles.  So there's a good
chance the function you want already exists.  *Note Line-Up
Functions::, for a list of them.  If you write your own line-up
function, it's probably a good idea to start working from one of these
predefined functions, which can be found in the file `cc-align.el'.  If
you have written a line-up function that you think is generally useful,
you're very welcome to contribute it; please contact

   Line-up functions are passed a single argument, the syntactic
element (see below).  The return value is a `c-offsets-alist' offset
specification: for example, an integer, a symbol such as `+', a vector,
`nil'(1), or even another line-up function.  Full details of these are
in *note c-offsets-alist::.

   Line-up functions must not move point or change the content of the
buffer (except temporarily).  They are however allowed to do "hidden
buffer changes", i.e. setting text properties for caching purposes etc.
Buffer undo recording is disabled while they run.

   The syntactic element passed as the parameter to a line-up function
is a cons cell of the form


where SYNTACTIC-SYMBOL is the symbol that the function was called for,
and ANCHOR-POSITION is the anchor position (if any) for the construct
that triggered the syntactic symbol (*note Syntactic Analysis::).  This
cons cell is how the syntactic element of a line used to be represented
in CC Mode 5.28 and earlier.  Line-up functions are still passed this
cons cell, so as to preserve compatibility with older configurations.
In the future, we may decide to convert to using the full list
format--you can prepare your setup for this by using the access
functions (`c-langelem-sym', etc.)  described below.

   Some syntactic symbols, e.g. `arglist-cont-nonempty', have more info
in the syntactic element - typically other positions that can be
interesting besides the anchor position.  That info can't be accessed
through the passed argument, which is a cons cell.  Instead, you can
get this information from the variable `c-syntactic-element', which is
dynamically bound to the complete syntactic element.  The variable
`c-syntactic-context' might also be useful - it gets dynamically bound
to the complete syntactic context.  *Note Custom Braces::.

   CC Mode provides a few functions to access parts of syntactic
elements in a more abstract way.  Besides making the code easier to
read, they also hide the difference between the old cons cell form used
in the line-up function argument and the new list form used in
`c-syntactic-element' and everywhere else.  The functions are:

 -- Function: c-langelem-sym langelem
     Return the syntactic symbol in LANGELEM.

 -- Function: c-langelem-pos langelem
     Return the anchor position in LANGELEM, or nil if there is none.

 -- Function: c-langelem-col langelem &optional preserve-point
     Return the column of the anchor position in LANGELEM.  Also move
     the point to that position unless PRESERVE-POINT is non-`nil'.

 -- Function: c-langelem-2nd-pos langelem
     Return the secondary position in LANGELEM, or `nil' if there is

     Note that the return value of this function is always `nil' if
     LANGELEM is in the old cons cell form.  Thus this function is only
     meaningful when used on syntactic elements taken from
     `c-syntactic-element' or `c-syntactic-context'.

   Custom line-up functions can be as simple or as complex as you like,
and any syntactic symbol that appears in `c-offsets-alist' can have a
custom line-up function associated with it.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Returning `nil' is useful when the offset specification for a
syntactic element is a list containing the line-up function (*note

File: ccmode,  Node: Other Indentation,  Prev: Custom Line-Up,  Up: Customizing Indentation

11.5 Other Special Indentations

Here are the remaining odds and ends regarding indentation:

 -- User Option: c-label-minimum-indentation
     In `gnu' style (*note Built-in Styles::), a minimum indentation is
     imposed on lines inside code blocks.  This minimum indentation is
     controlled by this style variable.  The default value is 1.

     It's the function `c-gnu-impose-minimum' that enforces this minimum
     indentation.  It must be present on `c-special-indent-hook' to

 -- User Option: c-special-indent-hook
     This style variable is a standard hook variable that is called
     after every line is indented by CC Mode.  It is called only if
     `c-syntactic-indentation' is non-`nil' (which it is by default
     (*note Indentation Engine Basics::)).  You can put a function on
     this hook to do any special indentation or ad hoc line adjustments
     your style dictates, such as adding extra indentation to
     constructors or destructor declarations in a class definition,
     etc.  Sometimes it is better to write a custom Line-up Function
     instead (*note Custom Line-Up::).

     When the indentation engine calls this hook, the variable
     `c-syntactic-context' is bound to the current syntactic context
     (i.e. what you would get by typing `C-c C-s' on the source line.
     *Note Custom Braces::.).  Note that you should not change point or
     mark inside a `c-special-indent-hook' function, i.e. you'll
     probably want to wrap your function in a `save-excursion'(1).

     Setting `c-special-indent-hook' in style definitions is handled
     slightly differently from other variables--A style can only add
     functions to this hook, not remove them.  *Note Style Variables::.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The numerical value returned by `point' will change if you
change the indentation of the line within a `save-excursion' form, but
point itself will still be over the same piece of text.

File: ccmode,  Node: Custom Macros,  Next: Odds and Ends,  Prev: Customizing Indentation,  Up: Top

12 Customizing Macros

Normally, the lines in a multi-line macro are indented relative to each
other as though they were code.  You can suppress this behavior by
setting the following user option:

 -- User Option: c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros
     Enable syntactic analysis inside macros, which is the default.  If
     this is `nil', all lines inside macro definitions are analyzed as

   CC Mode provides some tools to help keep the line continuation
backslashes in macros neat and tidy.  Their precise action is
customized with these variables:

 -- User Option: c-backslash-column
 -- User Option: c-backslash-max-column
     These variables control the alignment columns for line continuation
     backslashes in multiline macros.  They are used by the functions
     that automatically insert or align such backslashes, e.g.
     `c-backslash-region' and `c-context-line-break'.

     `c-backslash-column' specifies the minimum column for the
     backslashes.  If any line in the macro goes past this column, then
     the next tab stop (i.e. next multiple of `tab-width') in that line
     is used as the alignment column for all the backslashes, so that
     they remain in a single column.  However, if any lines go past
     `c-backslash-max-column' then the backslashes in the rest of the
     macro will be kept at that column, so that the lines which are too
     long "stick out" instead.

     Don't ever set these variables to `nil'.  If you want to disable
     the automatic alignment of backslashes, use

 -- User Option: c-auto-align-backslashes
     Align automatically inserted line continuation backslashes if
     non-`nil'.  When line continuation backslashes are inserted
     automatically for line breaks in multiline macros, e.g. by
     `c-context-line-break', they are aligned with the other
     backslashes in the same macro if this flag is set.

     If `c-auto-align-backslashes' is `nil', automatically inserted
     backslashes are preceded by a single space, and backslashes get
     aligned only when you explicitly invoke the command
     `c-backslash-region' (`C-c C-\').

File: ccmode,  Node: Odds and Ends,  Next: Sample .emacs File,  Prev: Custom Macros,  Up: Top

13 Odds and Ends

The stuff that didn't fit in anywhere else is documented here.

 -- User Option: c-require-final-newline
     Controls whether a final newline is enforced when the file is
     saved.  The value is an association list that for each language
     mode specifies the value to give to `require-final-newline' (*note
     Saving Buffers: (elisp)Saving Buffers.) at mode initialization.
     If a language isn't present on the association list, CC Mode won't
     touch `require-final-newline' in buffers for that language.

     The default is to set `require-final-newline' to `t' in the
     languages that mandate that source files should end with newlines.
     These are C, C++ and Objective-C.

 -- User Option: c-echo-syntactic-information-p
     If non-`nil', the syntactic analysis for the current line is shown
     in the echo area when it's indented (unless
     `c-syntactic-indentation' is `nil').  That's useful when finding
     out which syntactic symbols to modify to get the indentation you

 -- User Option: c-report-syntactic-errors
     If non-`nil', certain syntactic errors are reported with a ding and
     a message, for example when an `else' is indented for which there
     is no corresponding `if'.

     Note however that CC Mode doesn't make any special effort to check
     for syntactic errors; that's the job of the compiler.  The reason
     it can report cases like the one above is that it can't find the
     correct anchoring position to indent the line in that case.

File: ccmode,  Node: Sample .emacs File,  Next: Performance Issues,  Prev: Odds and Ends,  Up: Top

Appendix A Sample .emacs File

Here's a sample .emacs file fragment that might help you along the way.
Just copy this region and paste it into your .emacs file.  You might
want to change some of the actual values.

;; Make a non-standard key binding.  We can put this in
;; c-mode-base-map because c-mode-map, c++-mode-map, and so on,
;; inherit from it.
(defun my-c-initialization-hook ()
  (define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'c-context-line-break))
(add-hook 'c-initialization-hook 'my-c-initialization-hook)

;; offset customizations not in my-c-style
;; This will take precedence over any setting of the syntactic symbol
;; made by a style.
(setq c-offsets-alist '((member-init-intro . ++)))

;; Create my personal style.
(defconst my-c-style
  '((c-tab-always-indent        . t)
    (c-comment-only-line-offset . 4)
    (c-hanging-braces-alist     . ((substatement-open after)
    (c-hanging-colons-alist     . ((member-init-intro before)
                                   (case-label after)
                                   (label after)
                                   (access-label after)))
    (c-cleanup-list             . (scope-operator
    (c-offsets-alist            . ((arglist-close . c-lineup-arglist)
                                   (substatement-open . 0)
                                   (case-label        . 4)
                                   (block-open        . 0)
                                   (knr-argdecl-intro . -)))
    (c-echo-syntactic-information-p . t))
  "My C Programming Style")
(c-add-style "PERSONAL" my-c-style)

;; Customizations for all modes in CC Mode.
(defun my-c-mode-common-hook ()
  ;; set my personal style for the current buffer
  (c-set-style "PERSONAL")
  ;; other customizations
  (setq tab-width 8
        ;; this will make sure spaces are used instead of tabs
        indent-tabs-mode nil)
  ;; we like auto-newline, but not hungry-delete
  (c-toggle-auto-newline 1))
(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook 'my-c-mode-common-hook)

File: ccmode,  Node: Performance Issues,  Next: Limitations and Known Bugs,  Prev: Sample .emacs File,  Up: Top

2 Performance Issues

C and its derivative languages are highly complex creatures.  Often,
ambiguous code situations arise that require CC Mode to scan large
portions of the buffer to determine syntactic context.  Such
pathological code can cause CC Mode to perform fairly badly.  This
section gives some insight in how CC Mode operates, how that interacts
with some coding styles, and what you can use to improve performance.

   The overall goal is that CC Mode shouldn't be overly slow (i.e. take
more than a fraction of a second) in any interactive operation.  I.e.
it's tuned to limit the maximum response time in single operations,
which is sometimes at the expense of batch-like operations like
reindenting whole blocks.  If you find that CC Mode gradually gets
slower and slower in certain situations, perhaps as the file grows in
size or as the macro or comment you're editing gets bigger, then chances
are that something isn't working right.  You should consider reporting
it, unless it's something that's mentioned in this section.

   Because CC Mode has to scan the buffer backwards from the current
insertion point, and because C's syntax is fairly difficult to parse in
the backwards direction, CC Mode often tries to find the nearest
position higher up in the buffer from which to begin a forward scan
(it's typically an opening or closing parenthesis of some kind).  The
farther this position is from the current insertion point, the slower it

   In earlier versions of CC Mode, we used to recommend putting the
opening brace of a top-level construct(1) into the leftmost column.
Earlier still, this used to be a rigid Emacs constraint, as embodied in
the `beginning-of-defun' function.  CC Mode now caches syntactic
information much better, so that the delay caused by searching for such
a brace when it's not in column 0 is minimal, except perhaps when
you've just moved a long way inside the file.

   A special note about `defun-prompt-regexp' in Java mode: The common
style is to hang the opening braces of functions and classes on the
right side of the line, and that doesn't work well with the Emacs
approach.  CC Mode comes with a constant `c-Java-defun-prompt-regexp'
which tries to define a regular expression usable for this style, but
there are problems with it.  In some cases it can cause
`beginning-of-defun' to hang(2).  For this reason, it is not used by
default, but if you feel adventurous, you can set `defun-prompt-regexp'
to it in your mode hook.  In any event, setting and relying on
`defun-prompt-regexp' will definitely slow things down because (X)Emacs
will be doing regular expression searches a lot, so you'll probably be
taking a hit either way!

   CC Mode maintains a cache of the opening parentheses of the blocks
surrounding the point, and it adapts that cache as the point is moved
around.  That means that in bad cases it can take noticeable time to
indent a line in a new surrounding, but after that it gets fast as long
as the point isn't moved far off.  The farther the point is moved, the
less useful is the cache.  Since editing typically is done in "chunks"
rather than on single lines far apart from each other, the cache
typically gives good performance even when the code doesn't fit the
Emacs approach to finding the defun starts.

   XEmacs users can set the variable
`c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p' to non-`nil'.  This tells CC
Mode to use XEmacs-specific built-in functions which, in some
circumstances, can locate the top-most opening brace much more quickly
than `beginning-of-defun'.  Preliminary testing has shown that for
styles where these braces are hung (e.g. most JDK-derived Java styles),
this hack can improve performance of the core syntax parsing routines
from 3 to 60 times.  However, for styles which _do_ conform to Emacs'
recommended style of putting top-level braces in column zero, this hack
can degrade performance by about as much.  Thus this variable is set to
`nil' by default, since the Emacs-friendly styles should be more common
(and encouraged!).  Note that this variable has no effect in Emacs
since the necessary built-in functions don't exist (in Emacs 22.1 as of
this writing in February 2007).

   Text properties are used to speed up skipping over syntactic
whitespace, i.e. comments and preprocessor directives.  Indenting a
line after a huge macro definition can be slow the first time, but
after that the text properties are in place and it should be fast (even
after you've edited other parts of the file and then moved back).

   Font locking can be a CPU hog, especially the font locking done on
decoration level 3 which tries to be very accurate.  Note that that
level is designed to be used with a font lock support mode that only
fontifies the text that's actually shown, i.e. Lazy Lock or Just-in-time
Lock mode, so make sure you use one of them.  Fontification of a whole
buffer with some thousand lines can often take over a minute.  That is
a known weakness; the idea is that it never should happen.

   The most effective way to speed up font locking is to reduce the
decoration level to 2 by setting `font-lock-maximum-decoration'
appropriately.  That level is designed to be as pretty as possible
without sacrificing performance.  *Note Font Locking Preliminaries::,
for more info.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) E.g. a function in C, or outermost class definition in C++ or

   (2) This has been observed in Emacs 19.34 and XEmacs 19.15.

File: ccmode,  Node: Limitations and Known Bugs,  Next: FAQ,  Prev: Performance Issues,  Up: Top

3 Limitations and Known Bugs

   * CC Mode doesn't support trigraphs.  (These are character sequences
     such as `??(', which represents `['.  They date from a time when
     some character sets didn't have all the characters that C needs,
     and are now utterly obsolete.)

   * There is no way to apply auto newline settings (*note
     Auto-newlines::) on already typed lines.  That's only a feature to
     ease interactive editing.

     To generalize this issue a bit: CC Mode is not intended to be used
     as a reformatter for old code in some more or less batch-like way.
     With the exception of some functions like `c-indent-region', it's
     only geared to be used interactively to edit new code.  There's
     currently no intention to change this goal.

     If you want to reformat old code, you're probably better off using
     some other tool instead, e.g. *note GNU indent: (indent)Top, which
     has more powerful reformatting capabilities than CC Mode.

   * The support for C++ templates (in angle brackets) is not yet
     complete.  When a non-nested template is used in a declaration, CC
     Mode indents it and font-locks it OK.  Templates used in
     expressions, and nested templates do not fare so well.  Sometimes
     a workaround is to refontify the expression after typing the
     closing `>'.

   * In a "k&r region" (the part of an old-fashioned C function
     declaration which specifies the types of its parameters, coming
     between the parameter list and the opening brace), there should be
     at most 20 top-level parenthesis and bracket pairs.  This limit
     has been imposed for performance reasons.  If it is violated, the
     source file might be incorrectly indented or fontified.

   * On loading CC Mode, sometimes this error message appears:

          File mode specification error: (void-variable c-font-lock-keywords-3)

     This is due to a bug in the function `eval-after-load' in some
     versions of (X)Emacs.  It can manifest itself when there is a
     symbolic link in the path of the directory which contains
     (X)Emacs.  As a workaround, put the following into your `.emacs'
     file, fairly early on:

          (defun my-load-cc-fonts ()
            (require "cc-fonts"))
          (add-hook 'c-initialization-hook 'my-load-cc-fonts)

File: ccmode,  Node: FAQ,  Next: Updating CC Mode,  Prev: Limitations and Known Bugs,  Up: Top

Appendix A Frequently Asked Questions

   * _How can I change the indent level from 4 spaces to 2 spaces?_

     Set the variable `c-basic-offset'.  *Note Getting Started::.

   * _Why doesn't the `RET' key indent the new line?_

     Emacs' convention is that `RET' just adds a newline, and that
     `C-j' adds a newline and indents it.  You can make `RET' do this
     too by adding this to your `c-initialization-hook':

          (define-key c-mode-base-map "\C-m" 'c-context-line-break)

     *Note Getting Started::.  This is a very common question.  If you
     want this to be the default behavior, don't lobby us, lobby RMS!

   * _How do I stop my code jumping all over the place when I type?_

     Deactivate "electric minor mode" with `C-c C-l'.  *Note Getting

   * _How do I reindent the whole file?_

     Visit the file and hit `C-x h' to mark the whole buffer. Then hit
     `C-M-\'.  *Note Indentation Commands::.

   * _How do I reindent the current block?_

     First move to the brace which opens the block with `C-M-u', then
     reindent that expression with `C-M-q'.  *Note Indentation

   * _I put `(c-set-offset 'substatement-open 0)' in my `.emacs' file
     but I get an error saying that `c-set-offset''s function
     definition is void.  What's wrong?_

     This means that CC Mode hasn't yet been loaded into your Emacs
     session by the time the `c-set-offset' call is reached, most
     likely because CC Mode is being autoloaded.  Instead of putting the
     `c-set-offset' line in your top-level `.emacs' file, put it in
     your `c-initialization-hook' (*note CC Hooks::), or simply modify
     `c-offsets-alist' directly:

          (setq c-offsets-alist '((substatement-open . 0)))

   * _I have an open paren character at column zero inside a comment or
     multiline string literal, and it causes the fontification and/or
     indentation to go haywire.  What gives?_

     It's due to the ad-hoc rule in (X)Emacs that such open parens
     always start defuns (which translates to functions, classes,
     namespaces or any other top-level block constructs in the CC Mode
     languages).  *Note Left Margin Paren: (emacs)Left Margin Paren,
     for details (*Note Defuns: (emacs)Defuns, in the Emacs 20 manual).

     This heuristic is built into the core syntax analysis routines in
     (X)Emacs, so it's not really a CC Mode issue.  However, in Emacs
     21.1 it became possible to turn it off(1) and CC Mode does so
     there since it's got its own system to keep track of blocks.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Using the variable `open-paren-in-column-0-is-defun-start'.

File: ccmode,  Node: Updating CC Mode,  Next: Mailing Lists and Bug Reports,  Prev: FAQ,  Up: Top

Appendix B Getting the Latest CC Mode Release

CC Mode has been standard with all versions of Emacs since 19.34 and of
XEmacs since 19.16.

   Due to release schedule skew, it is likely that all of these Emacsen
have old versions of CC Mode and so should be upgraded.  Access to the
CC Mode source code, as well as more detailed information on Emacsen
compatibility, etc. are all available on the web site:


File: ccmode,  Node: Mailing Lists and Bug Reports,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Updating CC Mode,  Up: Top

Appendix C Mailing Lists and Submitting Bug Reports

To report bugs, use the `C-c C-b' (bound to `c-submit-bug-report')
command.  This provides vital information we need to reproduce your
problem.  Make sure you include a concise, but complete code example.
Please try to boil your example down to just the essential code needed
to reproduce the problem, and include an exact recipe of steps needed
to expose the bug.  Be especially sure to include any code that appears
_before_ your bug example, if you think it might affect our ability to
reproduce it.

   Please try to produce the problem in an Emacs instance without any
customizations loaded (i.e. start it with the `-q --no-site-file'
arguments).  If it works correctly there, the problem might be caused
by faulty customizations in either your own or your site configuration.
In that case, we'd appreciate it if you isolate the Emacs Lisp code
that triggers the bug and include it in your report.

   Bug reports should be sent to <>.  You can also
send other questions and suggestions (kudos? ;-) to that address.  It's
a mailing list which you can join or browse an archive of; see the web
site at `' for further details.

   If you want to get announcements of new CC Mode releases, send the
word _subscribe_ in the body of a message to
<>.  It's possible to
subscribe from the web site too.  Announcements will also be posted to
the Usenet newsgroups `gnu.emacs.sources', `comp.emacs',
`comp.emacs.xemacs', `comp.lang.c', `comp.lang.c++',
`comp.lang.objective-c', `',
`comp.lang.idl', and `comp.lang.awk'.

File: ccmode,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Command and Function Index,  Prev: Mailing Lists and Bug Reports,  Up: Top

Appendix D GNU Free Documentation License

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


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     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
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File: ccmode,  Node: Command and Function Index,  Next: Variable Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Command and Function Index

Since most CC Mode commands are prepended with the string `c-', each
appears under its `c-THING' name and its `THING (c-)' name.

* Menu:

* abbrev-mode:                           Electric Keys.       (line 126)
* add-style (c-):                        Adding Styles.       (line  53)
* auto-fill-mode:                        Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  19)
* awk-beginning-of-defun (c-):           Movement Commands.   (line  30)
* awk-end-of-defun (c-):                 Movement Commands.   (line  30)
* awk-mode:                              Introduction.        (line  28)
* backslash-region (c-):                 Other Commands.      (line  31)
* backward-conditional (c-):             Movement Commands.   (line  89)
* backward-delete-char-untabify:         Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  40)
* backward-into-nomenclature (c-):       Movement Commands.   (line  98)
* backward-kill-subword (c-):            Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* backward-subword (c-):                 Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* beginning-of-defun:                    Performance Issues.  (line  31)
* beginning-of-statement (c-):           Movement Commands.   (line  42)
* c++-mode:                              Introduction.        (line  28)
* c-add-style:                           Adding Styles.       (line  53)
* c-awk-beginning-of-defun:              Movement Commands.   (line  30)
* c-awk-end-of-defun:                    Movement Commands.   (line  30)
* c-backslash-region:                    Other Commands.      (line  31)
* c-backward-conditional:                Movement Commands.   (line  89)
* c-backward-into-nomenclature:          Movement Commands.   (line  98)
* c-backward-kill-subword:               Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-backward-subword:                    Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-beginning-of-defun:                  Movement Commands.   (line  10)
* c-beginning-of-statement:              Movement Commands.   (line  42)
* c-capitalize-subword:                  Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-context-line-break:                  Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  49)
* c-context-open-line:                   Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  65)
* c-down-conditional:                    Movement Commands.   (line  75)
* c-down-conditional-with-else:          Movement Commands.   (line  84)
* c-downcase-subword:                    Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-electric-backspace:                  Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  30)
* c-electric-brace:                      Electric Keys.       (line  77)
* c-electric-colon:                      Electric Keys.       (line  85)
* c-electric-continued-statement:        Electric Keys.       (line 107)
* c-electric-delete:                     Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  84)
* c-electric-delete-forward:             Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  48)
* c-electric-lt-gt:                      Electric Keys.       (line  55)
* c-electric-paren:                      Electric Keys.       (line  64)
* c-electric-pound:                      Electric Keys.       (line  24)
* c-electric-semi&comma:                 Electric Keys.       (line  98)
* c-electric-slash:                      Electric Keys.       (line  38)
* c-electric-star:                       Electric Keys.       (line  38)
* c-end-of-defun:                        Movement Commands.   (line  10)
* c-end-of-statement:                    Movement Commands.   (line  42)
* c-fill-paragraph:                      Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  26)
* c-forward-conditional:                 Movement Commands.   (line  89)
* c-forward-into-nomenclature:           Movement Commands.   (line  98)
* c-forward-subword:                     Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-gnu-impose-minimum:                  Other Indentation.   (line  13)
* c-hungry-delete:                       Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  84)
* c-hungry-delete-backwards:             Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  67)
* c-hungry-delete-forward:               Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  74)
* c-indent-command:                      Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  38)
* c-indent-defun:                        Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 107)
* c-indent-exp:                          Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 102)
* c-indent-multi-line-block:             Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  69)
* c-indent-new-comment-line:             Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  42)
* c-indent-one-line-block:               Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  48)
* c-kill-subword:                        Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-langelem-2nd-pos:                    Custom Line-Up.      (line  74)
* c-langelem-col:                        Custom Line-Up.      (line  70)
* c-langelem-pos:                        Custom Line-Up.      (line  67)
* c-langelem-sym:                        Custom Line-Up.      (line  64)
* c-lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks:      Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line 118)
* c-lineup-argcont:                      Operator Line-Up.    (line  11)
* c-lineup-arglist:                      List Line-Up.        (line  14)
* c-lineup-arglist-close-under-paren:    Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  32)
* c-lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren:    List Line-Up.        (line  34)
* c-lineup-arglist-operators:            Operator Line-Up.    (line  26)
* c-lineup-assignments:                  Operator Line-Up.    (line  50)
* c-lineup-C-comments:                   Comment Line-Up.     (line  10)
* c-lineup-cascaded-calls:               Operator Line-Up.    (line  70)
* c-lineup-close-paren:                  Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  10)
* c-lineup-comment:                      Comment Line-Up.     (line  42)
* c-lineup-cpp-define:                   Misc Line-Up.        (line  16)
* c-lineup-dont-change:                  Misc Line-Up.        (line  10)
* c-lineup-gcc-asm-reg:                  Misc Line-Up.        (line  82)
* c-lineup-inexpr-block:                 Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line 108)
* c-lineup-java-inher:                   List Line-Up.        (line  63)
* c-lineup-java-throws:                  List Line-Up.        (line  82)
* c-lineup-knr-region-comment:           Comment Line-Up.     (line  60)
* c-lineup-math:                         Operator Line-Up.    (line  61)
* c-lineup-multi-inher:                  List Line-Up.        (line  41)
* c-lineup-ObjC-method-args:             List Line-Up.        (line 123)
* c-lineup-ObjC-method-args-2:           List Line-Up.        (line 130)
* c-lineup-ObjC-method-call:             List Line-Up.        (line 113)
* c-lineup-runin-statements:             Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  92)
* c-lineup-streamop:                     Operator Line-Up.    (line  86)
* c-lineup-string-cont:                  Operator Line-Up.    (line  91)
* c-lineup-template-args:                List Line-Up.        (line 103)
* c-lineup-topmost-intro-cont:           Misc Line-Up.        (line 104)
* c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block:          Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line 151)
* c-macro-expand:                        Other Commands.      (line  57)
* c-mark-function:                       Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 121)
* c-mark-subword:                        Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-mode:                                Introduction.        (line  28)
* c-scope-operator:                      Other Commands.      (line  26)
* c-semi&comma-inside-parenlist:         Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line  56)
* c-semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks: Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line  41)
* c-semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners: Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line  57)
* c-set-offset <1>:                      Interactive Customization.
                                                              (line  73)
* c-set-offset:                          c-offsets-alist.     (line  41)
* c-set-style:                           Other Commands.      (line   9)
* c-setup-doc-comment-style:             Doc Comments.        (line  35)
* c-setup-filladapt:                     Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  73)
* c-setup-paragraph-variables:           Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  46)
* c-show-syntactic-information:          Syntactic Analysis.  (line  42)
* c-snug-do-while:                       Custom Braces.       (line  67)
* c-submit-bug-report:                   Mailing Lists and Bug Reports.
                                                              (line   6)
* c-subword-mode:                        Minor Modes.         (line  72)
* c-toggle-auto-hungry-state:            Minor Modes.         (line  69)
* c-toggle-auto-newline:                 Minor Modes.         (line  62)
* c-toggle-electric-state:               Minor Modes.         (line  58)
* c-toggle-hungry-state:                 Minor Modes.         (line  66)
* c-toggle-syntactic-indentation:        Minor Modes.         (line  75)
* c-transpose-subwords:                  Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-up-conditional:                      Movement Commands.   (line  59)
* c-up-conditional-with-else:            Movement Commands.   (line  71)
* c-upcase-subword:                      Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* c-version:                             Getting Started.     (line  84)
* capitalize-subword (c-):               Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* comment-dwim:                          Comment Commands.    (line  15)
* comment-region:                        Comment Commands.    (line   7)
* context-line-break (c-):               Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  49)
* context-open-line (c-):                Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  65)
* defun-prompt-regexp:                   Performance Issues.  (line  39)
* delete-char:                           Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  56)
* down-conditional (c-):                 Movement Commands.   (line  75)
* down-conditional-with-else (c-):       Movement Commands.   (line  84)
* downcase-subword (c-):                 Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* electric-backspace (c-):               Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  30)
* electric-brace (c-):                   Electric Keys.       (line  77)
* electric-colon (c-):                   Electric Keys.       (line  85)
* electric-continued-statement (c-):     Electric Keys.       (line 107)
* electric-delete (c-):                  Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  84)
* electric-delete-forward (c-):          Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  48)
* electric-lt-gt (c-):                   Electric Keys.       (line  55)
* electric-paren (c-):                   Electric Keys.       (line  64)
* electric-pound (c-):                   Electric Keys.       (line  24)
* electric-semi&comma (c-):              Electric Keys.       (line  98)
* electric-slash (c-):                   Electric Keys.       (line  38)
* electric-star (c-):                    Electric Keys.       (line  38)
* end-of-statement (c-):                 Movement Commands.   (line  42)
* fill-paragraph (c-):                   Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  26)
* filladapt-mode:                        Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  73)
* forward-conditional (c-):              Movement Commands.   (line  89)
* forward-into-nomenclature (c-):        Movement Commands.   (line  98)
* forward-subword (c-):                  Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* gnu-impose-minimum (c-):               Other Indentation.   (line  13)
* hungry-delete (c-):                    Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  84)
* hungry-delete-backwards (c-):          Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  67)
* hungry-delete-forward (c-):            Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  74)
* idl-mode:                              Introduction.        (line  28)
* indent-command (c-):                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  38)
* indent-defun (c-):                     Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 107)
* indent-exp (c-):                       Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 102)
* indent-for-comment:                    Comment Commands.    (line  15)
* indent-multi-line-block (c-):          Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  69)
* indent-new-comment-line (c-):          Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  42)
* indent-one-line-block (c-):            Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  48)
* indent-region:                         Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 115)
* java-mode:                             Introduction.        (line  28)
* kill-subword (c-):                     Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* langelem-2nd-pos (c-):                 Custom Line-Up.      (line  74)
* langelem-col (c-):                     Custom Line-Up.      (line  70)
* langelem-pos (c-):                     Custom Line-Up.      (line  67)
* langelem-sym (c-):                     Custom Line-Up.      (line  64)
* lineup-after-whitesmith-blocks (c-):   Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line 118)
* lineup-argcont (c-):                   Operator Line-Up.    (line  11)
* lineup-arglist (c-):                   List Line-Up.        (line  14)
* lineup-arglist-close-under-paren (c-): Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  32)
* lineup-arglist-intro-after-paren (c-): List Line-Up.        (line  34)
* lineup-arglist-operators (c-):         Operator Line-Up.    (line  26)
* lineup-assignments (c-):               Operator Line-Up.    (line  50)
* lineup-C-comments (c-):                Comment Line-Up.     (line  10)
* lineup-cascaded-calls (c-):            Operator Line-Up.    (line  70)
* lineup-close-paren (c-):               Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  10)
* lineup-comment (c-):                   Comment Line-Up.     (line  42)
* lineup-cpp-define (c-):                Misc Line-Up.        (line  16)
* lineup-dont-change (c-):               Misc Line-Up.        (line  10)
* lineup-gcc-asm-reg (c-):               Misc Line-Up.        (line  82)
* lineup-inexpr-block (c-):              Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line 108)
* lineup-java-inher (c-):                List Line-Up.        (line  63)
* lineup-java-throws (c-):               List Line-Up.        (line  82)
* lineup-knr-region-comment (c-):        Comment Line-Up.     (line  60)
* lineup-math (c-):                      Operator Line-Up.    (line  61)
* lineup-multi-inher (c-):               List Line-Up.        (line  41)
* lineup-ObjC-method-args (c-):          List Line-Up.        (line 123)
* lineup-ObjC-method-args-2 (c-):        List Line-Up.        (line 130)
* lineup-ObjC-method-call (c-):          List Line-Up.        (line 113)
* lineup-runin-statements (c-):          Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line  92)
* lineup-streamop (c-):                  Operator Line-Up.    (line  86)
* lineup-string-cont (c-):               Operator Line-Up.    (line  91)
* lineup-template-args (c-):             List Line-Up.        (line 103)
* lineup-topmost-intro-cont (c-):        Misc Line-Up.        (line 104)
* lineup-whitesmith-in-block (c-):       Brace/Paren Line-Up. (line 151)
* macro-expand (c-):                     Other Commands.      (line  57)
* mark-function (c-):                    Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 121)
* mark-subword (c-):                     Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* newline-and-indent:                    Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  98)
* normal-erase-is-backspace-mode:        Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  94)
* objc-mode:                             Introduction.        (line  28)
* pike-mode:                             Introduction.        (line  28)
* scope-operator (c-):                   Other Commands.      (line  26)
* semi&comma-inside-parenlist (c-):      Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line  56)
* semi&comma-no-newlines-before-nonblanks (c-): Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line  41)
* semi&comma-no-newlines-for-oneline-inliners (c-): Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line  57)
* set-offset (c-) <1>:                   Interactive Customization.
                                                              (line  73)
* set-offset (c-):                       c-offsets-alist.     (line  41)
* set-style (c-):                        Other Commands.      (line   9)
* setup-doc-comment-style (c-):          Doc Comments.        (line  35)
* setup-filladapt (c-):                  Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  73)
* setup-paragraph-variables (c-):        Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  46)
* show-syntactic-information (c-):       Syntactic Analysis.  (line  42)
* snug-do-while (c-):                    Custom Braces.       (line  67)
* submit-bug-report (c-):                Mailing Lists and Bug Reports.
                                                              (line   6)
* subword-mode (c-):                     Minor Modes.         (line  72)
* tab-to-tab-stop:                       Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  78)
* toggle-auto-hungry-state (c-):         Minor Modes.         (line  69)
* toggle-auto-newline (c-):              Minor Modes.         (line  62)
* toggle-electric-state (c-):            Minor Modes.         (line  58)
* toggle-hungry-state (c-):              Minor Modes.         (line  66)
* toggle-syntactic-indentation (c-):     Minor Modes.         (line  75)
* transpose-subwords (c-):               Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* up-conditional (c-):                   Movement Commands.   (line  59)
* up-conditional-with-else (c-):         Movement Commands.   (line  71)
* upcase-subword (c-):                   Subword Movement.    (line  23)
* version (c-):                          Getting Started.     (line  84)

File: ccmode,  Node: Variable Index,  Next: Concept and Key Index,  Prev: Command and Function Index,  Up: Top

Variable Index

Since most CC Mode variables are prepended with the string `c-', each
appears under its `c-THING' name and its `THING (c-)' name.

* Menu:

* abbrev-mode:                           Electric Keys.       (line 126)
* adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp:       Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* adaptive-fill-mode:                    Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* adaptive-fill-regexp:                  Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* auto-align-backslashes (c-):           Custom Macros.       (line  40)
* awk-mode-hook:                         CC Hooks.            (line  38)
* backslash-column (c-):                 Custom Macros.       (line  20)
* backslash-max-column (c-):             Custom Macros.       (line  21)
* backspace-function (c-):               Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  40)
* basic-offset (c-):                     Customizing Indentation.
                                                              (line  18)
* block-comment-prefix (c-):             Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  85)
* c++-font-lock-extra-types:             Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  60)
* c++-mode-hook:                         CC Hooks.            (line  33)
* c-auto-align-backslashes:              Custom Macros.       (line  40)
* c-backslash-column:                    Custom Macros.       (line  20)
* c-backslash-max-column:                Custom Macros.       (line  21)
* c-backspace-function:                  Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  40)
* c-basic-offset:                        Customizing Indentation.
                                                              (line  18)
* c-block-comment-prefix:                Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  85)
* c-cleanup-list:                        Clean-ups.           (line  26)
* c-comment-continuation-stars:          Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  85)
* c-comment-only-line-offset:            Comment Line-Up.     (line  47)
* c-comment-prefix-regexp:               Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* c-default-style:                       Choosing a Style.    (line  20)
* c-delete-function:                     Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  56)
* c-doc-comment-style:                   Doc Comments.        (line  12)
* c-echo-syntactic-information-p:        Odds and Ends.       (line  21)
* c-electric-pound-behavior:             Electric Keys.       (line  24)
* c-enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p:  Performance Issues.  (line  62)
* c-file-offsets:                        File Styles.         (line  22)
* c-file-style:                          File Styles.         (line  17)
* c-font-lock-extra-types:               Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  59)
* c-hanging-braces-alist <1>:            Custom Braces.       (line   6)
* c-hanging-braces-alist:                Hanging Braces.      (line  38)
* c-hanging-colons-alist:                Hanging Colons.      (line   6)
* c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria:         Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line   7)
* c-ignore-auto-fill:                    Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line 108)
* c-indent-comment-alist:                Comment Commands.    (line  24)
* c-indent-comments-syntactically-p:     Comment Commands.    (line  37)
* c-indentation-style:                   Choosing a Style.    (line  45)
* c-initialization-hook:                 CC Hooks.            (line  23)
* c-insert-tab-function:                 Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  78)
* c-invalid-face:                        Faces.               (line  54)
* c-Java-defun-prompt-regexp:            Performance Issues.  (line  39)
* c-label-minimum-indentation:           Other Indentation.   (line   9)
* c-max-one-liner-length:                Clean-ups.           (line 149)
* c-mode-common-hook:                    CC Hooks.            (line  28)
* c-mode-hook:                           CC Hooks.            (line  32)
* c-offsets-alist <1>:                   c-offsets-alist.     (line  12)
* c-offsets-alist:                       Syntactic Symbols.   (line   6)
* c-old-style-variable-behavior:         Style Variables.     (line  19)
* c-progress-interval:                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 134)
* c-report-syntactic-errors:             Odds and Ends.       (line  28)
* c-require-final-newline:               Odds and Ends.       (line   9)
* c-special-indent-hook:                 Other Indentation.   (line  18)
* c-strict-syntax-p:                     c-offsets-alist.     (line 152)
* c-style-alist:                         Adding Styles.       (line  69)
* c-syntactic-context <1>:               Custom Line-Up.      (line  48)
* c-syntactic-context:                   Custom Braces.       (line  23)
* c-syntactic-element:                   Custom Line-Up.      (line  48)
* c-syntactic-indentation:               Indentation Engine Basics.
                                                              (line  35)
* c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros:     Custom Macros.       (line  11)
* c-tab-always-indent:                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  63)
* cleanup-list (c-):                     Clean-ups.           (line  26)
* comment-column:                        Comment Commands.    (line  24)
* comment-continuation-stars (c-):       Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  85)
* comment-end:                           Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* comment-multi-line:                    Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line 140)
* comment-only-line-offset (c-):         Comment Line-Up.     (line  47)
* comment-prefix-regexp (c-):            Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* comment-start:                         Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* comment-start-skip <1>:                Comment Line-Up.     (line  26)
* comment-start-skip:                    Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* default-style (c-):                    Choosing a Style.    (line  20)
* delete-function (c-):                  Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  56)
* delete-key-deletes-forward:            Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  84)
* doc-comment-style (c-):                Doc Comments.        (line  12)
* echo-syntactic-information-p (c-):     Odds and Ends.       (line  21)
* electric-pound-behavior (c-):          Electric Keys.       (line  24)
* enable-xemacs-performance-kludge-p (c-): Performance Issues.
                                                              (line  62)
* file-offsets (c-):                     File Styles.         (line  22)
* file-style (c-):                       File Styles.         (line  17)
* filladapt-mode:                        Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  73)
* font-lock-builtin-face:                Faces.               (line  50)
* font-lock-comment-face:                Faces.               (line  12)
* font-lock-constant-face:               Faces.               (line  32)
* font-lock-doc-face:                    Faces.               (line  14)
* font-lock-doc-string-face:             Faces.               (line  14)
* font-lock-function-name-face:          Faces.               (line  24)
* font-lock-keyword-face:                Faces.               (line  22)
* font-lock-maximum-decoration:          Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  26)
* font-lock-preprocessor-face:           Faces.               (line  50)
* font-lock-reference-face:              Faces.               (line  32)
* font-lock-string-face:                 Faces.               (line  19)
* font-lock-type-face:                   Faces.               (line  38)
* font-lock-variable-name-face:          Faces.               (line  28)
* font-lock-warning-face:                Faces.               (line  54)
* hanging-braces-alist (c-) <1>:         Custom Braces.       (line   6)
* hanging-braces-alist (c-):             Hanging Braces.      (line  38)
* hanging-colons-alist (c-):             Hanging Colons.      (line   6)
* hanging-semi&comma-criteria (c-):      Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line   7)
* idl-font-lock-extra-types:             Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  63)
* idl-mode-hook:                         CC Hooks.            (line  36)
* ignore-auto-fill (c-):                 Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line 108)
* indent-comment-alist (c-):             Comment Commands.    (line  24)
* indent-comments-syntactically-p (c-):  Comment Commands.    (line  37)
* indent-tabs-mode:                      Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 129)
* indentation-style (c-):                Choosing a Style.    (line  45)
* initialization-hook (c-):              CC Hooks.            (line  23)
* insert-tab-function (c-):              Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  78)
* invalid-face (c-):                     Faces.               (line  54)
* Java-defun-prompt-regexp (c-):         Performance Issues.  (line  39)
* java-font-lock-extra-types:            Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  62)
* java-mode-hook:                        CC Hooks.            (line  35)
* label-minimum-indentation (c-):        Other Indentation.   (line   9)
* max-one-liner-length (c-):             Clean-ups.           (line 149)
* mode-common-hook (c-):                 CC Hooks.            (line  28)
* objc-font-lock-extra-types:            Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  61)
* objc-mode-hook:                        CC Hooks.            (line  34)
* offsets-alist (c-) <1>:                c-offsets-alist.     (line  12)
* offsets-alist (c-):                    Syntactic Symbols.   (line   6)
* old-style-variable-behavior (c-):      Style Variables.     (line  19)
* paragraph-ignore-fill-prefix:          Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* paragraph-separate:                    Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* paragraph-start:                       Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* pike-font-lock-extra-types:            Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  64)
* pike-mode-hook:                        CC Hooks.            (line  37)
* progress-interval (c-):                Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 134)
* report-syntactic-errors (c-):          Odds and Ends.       (line  28)
* require-final-newline (c-):            Odds and Ends.       (line   9)
* special-indent-hook (c-):              Other Indentation.   (line  18)
* strict-syntax-p (c-):                  c-offsets-alist.     (line 152)
* style-alist (c-):                      Adding Styles.       (line  69)
* syntactic-context (c-) <1>:            Custom Line-Up.      (line  48)
* syntactic-context (c-):                Custom Braces.       (line  23)
* syntactic-element (c-):                Custom Line-Up.      (line  48)
* syntactic-indentation (c-):            Indentation Engine Basics.
                                                              (line  35)
* syntactic-indentation-in-macros (c-):  Custom Macros.       (line  11)
* tab-always-indent (c-):                Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  63)

File: ccmode,  Node: Concept and Key Index,  Prev: Variable Index,  Up: Top

Concept and Key Index

* Menu:

* #:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  24)
* (:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  63)
* ):                                     Electric Keys.       (line  64)
* *:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  37)
* ,:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  98)
* -block-intro symbols:                  Syntactic Symbols.   (line  18)
* -close symbols:                        Syntactic Symbols.   (line  18)
* -cont symbols:                         Syntactic Symbols.   (line  24)
* -intro symbols:                        Syntactic Symbols.   (line  24)
* -open symbols:                         Syntactic Symbols.   (line  18)
* /:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  38)
* ::                                     Electric Keys.       (line  85)
* ;:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  97)
* <:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  54)
* <backspace>:                           Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  79)
* <delete>:                              Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  79)
* >:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  55)
* Abbrev mode:                           Electric Keys.       (line 126)
* access-label:                          Class Symbols.       (line  40)
* action functions:                      Custom Braces.       (line   6)
* Adaptive Fill mode:                    Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  58)
* anchor position <1>:                   Syntactic Analysis.  (line  22)
* anchor position:                       Indentation Engine Basics.
                                                              (line  15)
* announcement mailing list:             Mailing Lists and Bug Reports.
                                                              (line  27)
* arglist-close:                         Paren List Symbols.  (line  29)
* arglist-cont:                          Paren List Symbols.  (line  34)
* arglist-cont-nonempty:                 Paren List Symbols.  (line  34)
* arglist-intro:                         Paren List Symbols.  (line  29)
* Auto Fill mode:                        Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  19)
* auto-newline:                          Auto-newlines.       (line   6)
* AWK style:                             Built-in Styles.     (line  42)
* awk-mode.el:                           Introduction.        (line   6)
* block-close:                           Conditional Construct Symbols.
                                                              (line  28)
* block-open:                            Literal Symbols.     (line  50)
* BOCM:                                  Introduction.        (line   6)
* brace lists:                           Brace List Symbols.  (line   6)
* brace-entry-open:                      Brace List Symbols.  (line  25)
* brace-list-close:                      Brace List Symbols.  (line  19)
* brace-list-entry:                      Brace List Symbols.  (line  19)
* brace-list-intro:                      Brace List Symbols.  (line  19)
* brace-list-open:                       Brace List Symbols.  (line  19)
* BSD style:                             Built-in Styles.     (line  17)
* bug report mailing list:               Mailing Lists and Bug Reports.
                                                              (line  22)
* bugs:                                  Limitations and Known Bugs.
                                                              (line   6)
* c:                                     Literal Symbols.     (line  38)
* c++-mode.el:                           Introduction.        (line   6)
* C-c .:                                 Other Commands.      (line   9)
* C-c ::                                 Other Commands.      (line  26)
* C-c <backspace>:                       Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  67)
* C-c <DELETE>:                          Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  74)
* C-c C-<backspace>:                     Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  67)
* C-c C-<DELETE>:                        Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  74)
* C-c C-\:                               Other Commands.      (line  31)
* C-c C-a:                               Minor Modes.         (line  62)
* C-c C-b:                               Mailing Lists and Bug Reports.
                                                              (line   6)
* C-c C-c:                               Comment Commands.    (line   7)
* C-c C-d:                               Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  74)
* C-c C-DEL:                             Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  67)
* C-c C-e:                               Other Commands.      (line  57)
* C-c C-l:                               Minor Modes.         (line  58)
* C-c C-n:                               Movement Commands.   (line  89)
* C-c C-o <1>:                           Interactive Customization.
                                                              (line  73)
* C-c C-o:                               c-offsets-alist.     (line  41)
* C-c C-p:                               Movement Commands.   (line  89)
* C-c C-q:                               Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 107)
* C-c C-s:                               Syntactic Analysis.  (line  42)
* C-c C-u:                               Movement Commands.   (line  59)
* C-c C-w:                               Minor Modes.         (line  72)
* C-c DEL:                               Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  67)
* C-d:                                   Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  48)
* C-j <1>:                               FAQ.                 (line  10)
* C-j:                                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  98)
* C-M-\ <1>:                             FAQ.                 (line  27)
* C-M-\:                                 Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 115)
* C-M-a (AWK Mode):                      Movement Commands.   (line  30)
* C-M-e (AWK Mode):                      Movement Commands.   (line  30)
* C-M-h:                                 Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 121)
* C-M-q <1>:                             FAQ.                 (line  32)
* C-M-q:                                 Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line 102)
* C-M-u:                                 FAQ.                 (line  32)
* c-mode.el:                             Introduction.        (line   6)
* C-x h:                                 FAQ.                 (line  27)
* case-label:                            Switch Statement Symbols.
                                                              (line  26)
* catch-clause:                          Conditional Construct Symbols.
                                                              (line  44)
* class-close:                           Class Symbols.       (line  27)
* class-open:                            Class Symbols.       (line  27)
* clean-ups:                             Clean-ups.           (line   6)
* comment handling:                      Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line   6)
* comment line prefix:                   Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  11)
* comment-intro:                         Literal Symbols.     (line  33)
* comment-only line:                     Syntactic Analysis.  (line  80)
* comments (insertion of):               Comment Commands.    (line   6)
* composition-close:                     External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  38)
* composition-open:                      External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  38)
* Configuration:                         Config Basics.       (line   6)
* cpp-define-intro:                      Multiline Macro Symbols.
                                                              (line   6)
* cpp-macro:                             Literal Symbols.     (line  55)
* cpp-macro-cont:                        Multiline Macro Symbols.
                                                              (line   6)
* customization, brace hanging:          Custom Braces.       (line  14)
* customization, colon hanging:          Hanging Colons.      (line   6)
* customization, comma newlines:         Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line   6)
* customization, indentation:            Customizing Indentation.
                                                              (line   6)
* customization, indentation functions:  Custom Line-Up.      (line   6)
* customization, interactive:            Interactive Customization.
                                                              (line   6)
* customization, semicolon newlines:     Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line   6)
* defun-block-intro:                     Function Symbols.    (line  18)
* defun-close:                           Function Symbols.    (line  18)
* defun-open:                            Function Symbols.    (line  18)
* DEL:                                   Hungry WS Deletion.  (line  30)
* do-while-closure:                      Conditional Construct Symbols.
                                                              (line  50)
* documentation comments:                Doc Comments.        (line   6)
* electric characters:                   Electric Keys.       (line   6)
* Ellemtel style:                        Built-in Styles.     (line  27)
* else-clause:                           Conditional Construct Symbols.
                                                              (line  44)
* Emacs Initialization File:             Config Basics.       (line   6)
* extern-lang-close:                     External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  15)
* extern-lang-open:                      External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  15)
* faces:                                 Faces.               (line   6)
* file local variables:                  File Styles.         (line   6)
* Filladapt mode:                        Custom Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  73)
* Font Lock mode:                        Font Locking.        (line   6)
* font locking:                          Font Locking.        (line   6)
* friend:                                Class Symbols.       (line  93)
* func-decl-cont:                        Literal Symbols.     (line  31)
* GNU indent program:                    Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  12)
* GNU style:                             Built-in Styles.     (line  10)
* GtkDoc markup:                         Doc Comments.        (line  50)
* hanging braces:                        Hanging Braces.      (line   6)
* hanging colons:                        Hanging Colons.      (line   6)
* hanging commas:                        Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line   6)
* hanging semicolons:                    Hanging Semicolons and Commas.
                                                              (line   6)
* history:                               Introduction.        (line   6)
* hungry-deletion:                       Hungry WS Deletion.  (line   6)
* in-class inline methods:               Class Symbols.       (line  59)
* inclass <1>:                           External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  15)
* inclass:                               Class Symbols.       (line  40)
* incomposition:                         External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  38)
* indentation <1>:                       Customizing Indentation.
                                                              (line   6)
* indentation <2>:                       Indentation Calculation.
                                                              (line   6)
* indentation:                           Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line   6)
* indentation function:                  Line-Up Functions.   (line   6)
* indentation offset specifications:     Indentation Engine Basics.
                                                              (line  22)
* inexpr-class:                          Anonymous Class Symbol.
                                                              (line  17)
* inexpr-statement:                      Statement Block Symbols.
                                                              (line  16)
* inextern-lang:                         External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  15)
* inher-cont:                            Class Symbols.       (line  36)
* inher-intro:                           Class Symbols.       (line  36)
* inlambda:                              Statement Block Symbols.
                                                              (line  38)
* inline-close:                          Class Symbols.       (line  59)
* inline-open:                           Class Symbols.       (line  59)
* inmodule:                              External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  35)
* innamespace:                           External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  32)
* interactive customization:             Interactive Customization.
                                                              (line   6)
* Java style:                            Built-in Styles.     (line  38)
* Javadoc markup <1>:                    Doc Comments.        (line  44)
* Javadoc markup:                        Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  26)
* Just-in-time Lock mode:                Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  49)
* K&R style:                             Built-in Styles.     (line  14)
* knr-argdecl:                           K&R Symbols.         (line   6)
* knr-argdecl-intro:                     K&R Symbols.         (line   6)
* label:                                 Literal Symbols.     (line  48)
* lambda-intro-cont:                     Statement Block Symbols.
                                                              (line  38)
* Lazy Lock mode:                        Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  49)
* limitations:                           Limitations and Known Bugs.
                                                              (line   6)
* line breaking:                         Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line   6)
* line-up function:                      Line-Up Functions.   (line   6)
* Linux style:                           Built-in Styles.     (line  32)
* literal <1>:                           Clean-ups.           (line  26)
* literal <2>:                           Auto-newlines.       (line  23)
* literal:                               Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  63)
* M-;:                                   Comment Commands.    (line  15)
* M-a:                                   Movement Commands.   (line  42)
* M-e:                                   Movement Commands.   (line  42)
* M-j:                                   Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  42)
* M-q:                                   Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  26)
* macros:                                Custom Macros.       (line   6)
* member-init-cont:                      Class Symbols.       (line  53)
* member-init-intro:                     Class Symbols.       (line  53)
* Minor Modes:                           Minor Modes.         (line   6)
* mode hooks:                            CC Hooks.            (line   6)
* module-close:                          External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  35)
* module-open:                           External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  35)
* movement:                              Movement Commands.   (line   6)
* multiline macros:                      Multiline Macro Symbols.
                                                              (line   6)
* namespace-close:                       External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  32)
* namespace-open:                        External Scope Symbols.
                                                              (line  32)
* nomenclature:                          Subword Movement.    (line   6)
* objc-method-args-cont:                 Objective-C Method Symbols.
                                                              (line  18)
* objc-method-call-cont:                 Objective-C Method Symbols.
                                                              (line  18)
* objc-method-intro:                     Objective-C Method Symbols.
                                                              (line  18)
* offset specification:                  c-offsets-alist.     (line  59)
* offsets:                               Indentation Engine Basics.
                                                              (line  22)
* open paren in column zero:             FAQ.                 (line  51)
* paragraph filling:                     Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  19)
* performance:                           Performance Issues.  (line   6)
* Pike autodoc markup <1>:               Doc Comments.        (line  47)
* Pike autodoc markup:                   Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line  26)
* preprocessor directives:               Custom Macros.       (line   6)
* Python style:                          Built-in Styles.     (line  35)
* RET:                                   FAQ.                 (line  10)
* statement:                             Function Symbols.    (line  28)
* statement-block-intro:                 Conditional Construct Symbols.
                                                              (line  28)
* statement-case-intro:                  Switch Statement Symbols.
                                                              (line  26)
* statement-case-open:                   Switch Statement Symbols.
                                                              (line  26)
* statement-cont:                        Function Symbols.    (line  28)
* stream-op:                             Literal Symbols.     (line  64)
* string:                                Literal Symbols.     (line  46)
* Stroustrup style:                      Built-in Styles.     (line  24)
* style definition:                      Adding Styles.       (line  13)
* style variables:                       Style Variables.     (line   6)
* styles <1>:                            Styles.              (line   6)
* styles:                                Style Variables.     (line   6)
* styles, built-in:                      Built-in Styles.     (line   6)
* styles, file local:                    File Styles.         (line   6)
* substatement <1>:                      Conditional Construct Symbols.
                                                              (line  35)
* substatement:                          Syntactic Analysis.  (line  77)
* substatement block:                    Syntactic Analysis.  (line  77)
* substatement-label:                    Conditional Construct Symbols.
                                                              (line  39)
* substatement-open:                     Conditional Construct Symbols.
                                                              (line  28)
* subword:                               Subword Movement.    (line   6)
* syntactic analysis:                    Syntactic Analysis.  (line   6)
* syntactic context:                     Syntactic Analysis.  (line   6)
* syntactic element:                     Syntactic Analysis.  (line   6)
* syntactic symbol <1>:                  Syntactic Analysis.  (line  14)
* syntactic symbol:                      Indentation Engine Basics.
                                                              (line  15)
* syntactic symbols, brief list:         Syntactic Symbols.   (line   6)
* syntactic whitespace <1>:              Multiline Macro Symbols.
                                                              (line   6)
* syntactic whitespace <2>:              Literal Symbols.     (line  40)
* syntactic whitespace:                  Auto-newlines.       (line  23)
* TAB:                                   Indentation Commands.
                                                              (line  38)
* template-args-cont:                    Class Symbols.       (line 103)
* text filling:                          Filling and Breaking.
                                                              (line   6)
* topmost-intro:                         Function Symbols.    (line  18)
* topmost-intro-cont:                    Function Symbols.    (line  18)
* types, user defined:                   Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  55)
* user defined types:                    Font Locking Preliminaries.
                                                              (line  55)
* User style:                            Built-in Styles.     (line  46)
* web site:                              Updating CC Mode.    (line   9)
* Whitesmith style:                      Built-in Styles.     (line  20)
* {:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  76)
* }:                                     Electric Keys.       (line  77)